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1

A compromise phase position for permanent night shift workers: circadian phase after two night shifts with scheduled sleep and light/dark exposure.  

PubMed

Night shift work is associated with a myriad of health and safety risks. Phase-shifting the circadian clock such that it is more aligned with night work and day sleep is one way to attenuate these risks. However, workers will not be satisfied with complete adaptation to night work if it leaves them misaligned during days off. Therefore, the goal of this set of studies is to produce a compromise phase position in which individuals working night shifts delay their circadian clocks to a position that is more compatible with nighttime work and daytime sleep yet is not incompatible with late nighttime sleep on days off. This is the first in the set of studies describing the magnitude of circadian phase delays that occurs on progressively later days within a series of night shifts interspersed with days off. The series will be ended on various days in order to take a "snapshot" of circadian phase. In this set of studies, subjects sleep from 23:00 to 7:00 h for three weeks. Following this baseline period, there is a series of night shifts (23:00 to 07:00 h) and days off. Experimental subjects receive five 15 min intermittent bright light pulses (approximately 3500 lux; approximately 1100 microW/cm2) once per hour during the night shifts, wear sunglasses that attenuate all visible wavelengths--especially short wavelengths ("blue-blockers")--while traveling home after the shifts, and sleep in the dark (08:30-15:30 h) after each night shift. Control subjects remain in typical dim room light (<50 lux) throughout the night shift, wear sunglasses that do not attenuate as much light, and sleep whenever they want after the night shifts. Circadian phase is determined from the circadian rhythm of melatonin collected during a dim light phase assessment at the beginning and end of each study. The sleepiest time of day, approximated by the body temperature minimum (Tmin), is estimated by adding 7 h to the dim light melatonin onset. In this first study, circadian phase was measured after two night shifts and day sleep periods. The Tmin of the experimental subjects (n=11) was 04:24+/-0.8 h (mean+/-SD) at baseline and 7:36+/-1.4 h after the night shifts. Thus, after two night shifts, the Tmin had not yet delayed into the daytime sleep period, which began at 08:30 h. The Tmin of the control subjects (n=12) was 04:00+/-1.2 h at baseline and drifted to 4:36+/-1.4 h after the night shifts. Thus, two night shifts with a practical pattern of intermittent bright light, the wearing of sunglasses on the way home from night shifts, and a regular sleep period early in the daytime, phase delayed the circadian clock toward the desired compromise phase position for permanent night shift workers. Additional night shifts with bright light pulses and daytime sleep in the dark are expected to displace the sleepiest time of day into the daytime sleep period, improving both nighttime alertness and daytime sleep but not precluding adequate sleep on days off. PMID:16887753

Lee, Clara; Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

2006-01-01

2

Obesity and high blood pressure of 12-hour night shift female clean-room workers.  

PubMed

The 12 h shift schedule is widely used in clean rooms for electronic semiconductor production in Taiwan. This study investigated the associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory in North Taiwan. Workers were divided into four groups according to their work schedules and duties (i.e., office workers, day workers, fixed 12 h day shift, and fixed 12 h night shiftworkers). The subjects comprised 1838 women who voluntarily attended a health examination between August 2006 and November 2006. Their mean (+/-SD) age was 33.6 (+/-7.1) yrs and their mean duration of work was 7.4 (+/-5.2) yrs. Each subject's health-related behaviors, body mass index, and MetS components were measured and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Obesity and MetS were defined according to World Health Organization criteria for Asian populations and the National Cholesterol Educational Program and Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines, respectively. The results showed that women working in the clean room on fixed 12 h night shifts had significantly elevated odds ratios for obesity (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5), central obesity (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), and high blood pressure (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4) compared to female office workers; these results persisted after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, education, and duration of work. We did not find any significant differences in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among women working different schedules. We conclude that working fixed 12 h night shifts was associated with an increased odds ratio for obesity, central obesity, and high blood pressure among clean-room women workers. Weight reduction and blood pressure control programs should be implemented in the workplace for women working fixed 12 h night shifts. PMID:20370473

Chen, Jong-Dar; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsiao, Shu-Tin

2010-01-01

3

Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns. PMID:19021859

Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

2008-12-01

4

Night shift paralysis in air traffic control officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Folkard et al. 1984) we reported on the incidence of a temporary but incapacitating paralysis known as ‘night shift paralysis’. This appeared to be a special form of sleep paralysis that occurs when night workers manage to maintain a state of wakefulness despite considerable pressures to sleep. The incidence of this paralysis might thus be assumed

SIMON FOLKARD; RUTH CONDON

1987-01-01

5

Effects of working permanent night shifts and two shifts on cognitive and psychomotor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The study aimed to clarify whether cognitive and psychomotor performance, which are important for occupational and traffic safety, are impaired by working permanent night shifts (NSs) compared with early–late two shifts (TSs) and whether age and chronobiological type influences the relationship between shift and performance. Methods: The study included 44 male automobile workers, 20 working TSs and 24 working

Raluca Petru; Marc Wittmann; Dennis Nowak; Bodo Birkholz; Peter Angerer

2005-01-01

6

EFFECTS OF NIGHT SHIFT WORK TOWARDS HEALTH AND SAFETY OF PRODUCTION WORKERS KESAN BEKERJA SHIF MALAM TERHADAP KESIHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN DI KALANGAN PEKERJA PENGELUARAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction : Shift work is practised in manufacturing industry to increase production capacity up to three times compared to the normal daily eight hours working system and able to optimize the utilization of machine and equipment. However, shift work has negatif effects on human social interaction, health and safety. Methodology : The study was conducted to evaluate production workers' perception

BM Deros; NK Khamis; A Ludin

2009-01-01

7

Working Night Shift Slows Metabolism, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Working Night Shift Slows Metabolism, Study Suggests Finding means fewer calories burned, and ... sleeping by day may slow down the body's metabolism, a small study suggests. Researchers found that when ...

8

Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker  

PubMed Central

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim

2009-01-01

9

Night Shift Work and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin has several oncostatic properties, including possi- ble anti-estrogenic and anti-aromatase activity, and seems to be linked with fat metabolism. Night workers have lower levels of melatonin, which may predispose them to develop cancer. Endometrial cancer risk is influenced significantly by hor- monal and metabolic factors; therefore, we hypothesize that night workers may have an increased risk of endometrial cancer.

Akila N. Viswanathan; Susan E. Hankinson; Eva S. Schernhammer

10

Novice Nurses' Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

Faseleh Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Sharif, Farkhondeh

2013-01-01

11

Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?  

PubMed

The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter? PMID:24087803

Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

2013-01-01

12

Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bj?rn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Stale

2013-01-01

13

Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

2014-01-01

14

Does Current Scientific Evidence Support a Link Between Light at Night and Breast Cancer Among Female Night-Shift Nurses?  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is increasingly prevalent in industrialized regions of the world, and exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a potential risk factor. Epidemiological observations have documented an increased breast cancer risk among female night-shift workers, and strong experimental evidence for this relationship has also been found in rodent models. Indirect support for the LAN hypothesis comes from studies involving blind women, sleep duration, bedroom light levels, and community nighttime light levels. This article reviews the literature, discusses possible mechanisms of action, and provides recommendations for occupational health nursing research, practice, and education. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between exposure to LAN and breast cancer risk and elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship before interventions can be designed for prevention and mitigation of breast cancer. PMID:22658734

Dickerman, Barbra; Liu, Jianghong

2014-01-01

15

Rotating Night-Shift Work and Lung Cancer Risk Among Female Nurses in the United States  

PubMed Central

The risk of lung cancer among night-shift workers is unknown. Over 20 years of follow-up (1988–2008), we documented 1,455 incident lung cancers among 78,612 women in the Nurses' Health Study. To examine the relationship between rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for detailed smoking characteristics and other risk factors. We observed a 28% increased risk of lung cancer among women with 15 or more years spent working rotating night shifts (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.03) compared with women who did not work any night shifts. This association was strongest for small-cell lung carcinomas (multivariate RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47; Ptrend = 0.03) and was not observed for adenocarcinomas of the lung (multivariate RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.24; Ptrend = 0.40). Further, the increased risk associated with 15 or more years of rotating night-shift work was limited to current smokers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13; Ptrend < 0.001), with no association seen in nonsmokers (Pinteraction = 0.03). These results suggest that there are modestly increased risks of lung cancer associated with extended periods of night-shift work among smokers but not among nonsmokers. Though it is possible that this observation was residually confounded by smoking, our findings could also provide evidence of circadian disruption as a “second hit” in the etiology of smoking-related lung tumors. PMID:24049158

Schernhammer, Eva S.; Feskanich, Diane; Liang, Geyu; Han, Jiali

2013-01-01

16

Rotating night shift work and physical activity of nurses and midwives in the cross-sectional study in ?ód?, Poland.  

PubMed

Shift work have been thought to restrict participation in leisure time activities, but the knowledge about physical activity in rotating night shift nurses has been limited so far. We investigated the associations between the rotating night shift work and physical activity using data from a cross-sectional study among nurses and midwives. This study included 354 nurses and midwives (aged 40-60) currently working rotating night shifts and 371 ones working days only. The information on the work characteristics and potential covariates was collected via a personal interview. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated. Physical activity was assessed according to the international questionnaire on physical activity - IPAQ, and four domains: leisure time, occupational, transport related and household were analyzed. Women who reported none leisure time activity were defined as recreationally "inactive". The associations were examined with multiple linear or logistic regression models adjusted for age, season of the year, number of full term births, marital status and BMI. Total and occupational physical activity was significantly higher among nurses working rotating night shifts. However, leisure time activity was significantly affected among rotating night shift nurses and midwives, compared to women working during the days only, with increased odds ratio for recreational "inactivity" (OR?=?1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.20). Rotating night shift work among nurses and midwives is associated with higher occupational physical activity but lower leisure time activity. Initiatives supporting exercising among night shift workers are recommended. PMID:25216072

Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

2014-12-01

17

Elevated blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability and incomplete blood pressure recovery after a 12-hour night shift work.  

PubMed

Shift work has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of 12-hour (12-h) shifts, and changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) during 36 h rest time following 12-h shifts. Fifteen male shift workers with a mean age of 32.9 yr were recruited from a semiconductor factory. Ambulatory BP (AmBP) monitoring was performed for a total of 48 h for each participant. Six workers were monitored for 48 h by Holter electrocardiogram on both the day and night shifts. Paired self-comparison was used to estimate the difference between two hourly measurements of 12-h BP, HR, and HRV using the same timetable intra-individually. We also applied mixed models to estimate the effects of 12-h shifts on the delayed recovery of BP and heart rate (HR) in six workers who completed 96-h AmBP monitoring, including a 48-h night shift-rest period and another day shift period. Results showed that 12-h night shift work gave a persistently elevated systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) and HR, and decreased HRV compared to 12-h day shift work with the corresponding resting time. In addition, there was delayed SBP and DBP recovery on the first 12-h rest time in night shift workers, which was further demonstrated on the second 12-h rest time after adjustment for possible confounders through mixed models. In conclusion, 12-h night shift work may elevate BP and HR and decrease HRV. It is also associated with delayed BP recovery. PMID:18654044

Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Lian-Yu; Baker, Dean; Schnall, Peter L; Chen, Ming-Fong; Hwang, Wen-Chang; Chen, Chen-Fang; Wang, Jung-Der

2008-01-01

18

Shift type and season affect adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in offshore oil rig workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800–0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200–0000 h), 1 week night (0000–1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2–3

R. G Barnes; M. J Forbes; J Arendt

1998-01-01

19

Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns. PMID:14564879

Manuaba, A

2001-12-01

20

Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.  

PubMed

To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p?=?0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p?=?0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p?=?0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval. These observations demonstrate that persistent day-and-night RSW pose a vigorous obstacle to the normalization of e-ALT among workers with preexisting abnormal liver function. We suggest that workers and managers approach with caution the consideration of assigning or accepting long-term day-and-night RSW when an employee health screening shows evidence of abnormal liver function. PMID:24354767

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

2014-05-01

21

The effect of sleep on item recognition and source memory recollection among shift-workers and permanent day-workers.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of sleep versus wakefulness on item recognition and source memory recollection in a sample of shift-workers and permanent day-workers. Recognition of words that were previously viewed arrayed in quadrants of a page, and recollection of the original source location of the words on the page were assessed after a 12-h retention interval that was filled with wakefulness incorporating the subjects' work-shift, or an equal period that included sleep. Both shift-workers and permanent day-workers had poorer item recognition and source memory recollection when the retention interval was spent awake rather than including sleep. Shift-workers expressed larger deficits in performance than day-workers after wakefulness. This effect was not mediated by whether the shift-workers were on a day- or night-shift at the time of the study. These results indicate that sleep is an important contributor to successful item recognition and source recollection, and that mnemonic processing in shift-workers may be especially sensitive across their work-shift. PMID:24673876

Mawdsley, Matthew; Grasby, Katrina; Talk, Andrew

2014-10-01

22

CIRCADIAN GENES AND BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ROTATING SHIFT WORKERS  

PubMed Central

Rotating night shift work is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, likely via circadian disruption. We hypothesized that circadian pathway genes influence breast cancer risk, particularly in rotating night shift workers. We selected 178 common variants across 15 genes pertinent to the circadian system. Using a mixed candidate- and tag-single nucleotide polymorphism approach, we tested for associations between these variants and breast cancer risk in 1,825 women within the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort and investigated potential interactions between genotype and rotating shift-work in a subset of 1,318 women. Multiple-testing-adjusted p-values were obtained by permutation (n=10,000). None of the selected variants was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, when accounting for potential effect modification, rs23051560 (Ala394Thr) in the largest circadian gene, Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) was most strongly associated with breast cancer risk (nominal test for interaction p-value=0.0005; 10,000-permutation-based main-effects p-value among women with <24 months of shift-work=0.003). The observed multiplicative association with breast cancer risk per minor allele (A) was 0.65 (95%CI=0.51–0.82) among women with <24 months of shift-work, and 1.19 (95%CI=0.93–1.54) with ?24 months of shift-work. Women homozygous for the minor allele (AA) with ?24 months of shift-work had a 2.83-times higher breast cancer risk compared to homozygous AA women with <24 months of shift-work (95%CI=1.47–5.56). In smmary, common variation in circadian genes plays at most a small role in breast cancer risk among women of European ancestry. The impact of NPAS2 Ala394Thr in the presence of rotating shift-work requires further investigation. PMID:22473669

Monsees, Genevieve M.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Schernhammer, Eva S.

2012-01-01

23

Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts  

PubMed Central

Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons’ HRV. Methods Surgeons were monitored prospectively with an ambulatory electrocardiography device for 48 consecutive hours, beginning on a precall day and continuing through an on-call (17-h shift) day. We measured HRV by frequency domain parameters. Results We included 29 surgeons in our analysis. The median pulse rate was decreased precall (median 64, interquartile range [IQR] 56–70 beats per minute [bpm]) compared with on call (median 81, IQR 70–91 bpm, p < 0.001). Increased high-frequency (HF) activity was found precall (median 199, IQR 75–365 ms2) compared with on call (median 99, IQR 48–177 ms2, p < 0.001). The low-frequency:high-frequency (LF:HF) ratio was lower precall (median 2.7, IQR 1.9–3.9) than on call (median 4.9, IQR 3.7–6.5, p < 0.001). We found no correlation between the LF:HF ratio and performance in laparoscopic simulation. Conclusion Surgeons working night shifts had a significant decrease in HRV and a significant increase in pulse rate, representing sympathetic dominance in the autonomic nervous system. Trial registration NCT01623674 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25265102

Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

2014-01-01

24

Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.  

PubMed

This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems. PMID:23606613

Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-04-01

25

Night-Shift Work and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to light at night suppresses the physiologic production of melato- nin, a hormone that has antiprolifer- ative effects on intestinal cancers. Al- though observational studies have associated night-shift work with an increased risk of breast cancer, the effect of night-shift work on the risk of other cancers is not known. We prospectively examined the relation- ship between working rotating

Eva S. Schernhammer; Francine Laden; Frank E. Speizer; Walter C. Willett; David J. Hunter; Ichiro Kawachi; Charles S. Fuchs; Graham A. Colditz

2003-01-01

26

Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?  

PubMed

Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

2014-12-01

27

NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training - a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction  

PubMed Central

Background NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model. A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. Results In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction. In addition to this main result – the NightShift framework itself – we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. Conclusion By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators. The framework can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/akdehof/nightshift. It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via https://ballaxy.bioinf.uni-sb.de/. PMID:23496927

2013-01-01

28

Shaping the light/dark pattern for circadian adaptation to night shift work.  

PubMed

This is the second in a series of simulated night shift studies designed to achieve and subsequently maintain a compromise circadian phase position between complete entrainment to the daytime sleep period and no phase shift at all. We predict that this compromise will yield improved night shift alertness and daytime sleep, while still permitting adequate late night sleep and daytime wakefulness on days off. Our goal is to delay the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) from its baseline phase of approximately 21:00 to our target of approximately 3:00. Healthy young subjects (n=31) underwent three night shifts followed by two days off. Two experimental groups received intermittent bright light pulses during night shifts (total durations of 75 and 120 min per night shift), wore dark sunglasses when outside, slept in dark bedrooms at scheduled times after night shifts and on days off, and received outdoor light exposure upon awakening from sleep. A control group remained in dim room light during night shifts, wore lighter sunglasses, and had unrestricted sleep and outdoor light exposure. After the days off, the DLMO of the experimental groups was approximately 00:00-1:00, not quite at the target of 3:00, but in a good position to reach the target after subsequent night shifts with bright light. The DLMO of the control group changed little from baseline. Experimental subjects performed better than control subjects during night shifts on a reaction time task. Subsequent studies will reveal whether the target phase is achieved and maintained through more alternations of night shifts and days off. PMID:18675836

Smith, Mark R; Cullnan, Erin E; Eastman, Charmane I

2008-10-20

29

Safety during night shifts: a cross-sectional survey of junior doctors' preparation and practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives We aimed to determine whether junior doctors and trusts in the region make use of published evidence relating to best practice during night shift work that can safeguard alertness, reduce fatigue and limit mistakes. We surveyed junior doctors’ preparation for and practice during night shifts, and the working and living conditions offered by hospitals for junior doctors carrying out night duties. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to junior doctors training within Health Education North West from 13 December 2012 to 14 February 2013. Participants 32% (16/42) of trusts within Health Education North West sent the survey to 2139 junior doctor email addresses; 24.5% (524/2139) entered data into the survey. Results 91.6% of surveyed junior doctors worked night shifts. Prior to starting night shifts, 65% do not have a ‘prophylactic’ afternoon nap. At work, half (49%) can access a room with a reclining chair while 24% have a room with a bed. 37% ‘never’ achieve a ‘natural break’ on night shift; 53% ‘never’ achieve the recommended 20–45?min nap. 91% of respondents were unaware of the duration of sleep inertia that can affect alertness upon waking. When converting between day/night shifts, 2% use light lamps and 6% use non-benzodiazepine sedatives. Principal themes from free text analysis were feeling lethargic or unwell during night shifts, concern for patient and personal safety and inability to rest or take breaks. Conclusions The trainees surveyed find night shifts difficult, yet do not/are unable to implement evidence-based recommendations to limit fatigue. Results suggest those surveyed experience a lack of rest facilities within their place of work and a demanding workload. The results may indicate the need to increase awareness of the potential benefits associated with different interventions that can help mitigate the fatigue associated with rotating shift work. PMID:24056488

Jackson, Emma J; Moreton, Adam

2013-01-01

30

Hospital Workers Wash Hands Less At End of Shift  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Workers Wash Hands Less at End of Shift, Study Finds New ... HealthDay News) -- Health workers in hospitals wash their hands less often as they near the end of ...

31

Working the night shift: preparation, survival and recovery--a guide for junior doctors.  

PubMed

Following the implementation of the European Working Time Directive Regulations, almost all junior doctors in the UK now work full night-shifts. An RCP 50-member working group was established to develop a practical guide to help junior doctors prepare, survive and recover from working night shifts. The guide, set out in this paper, examines the evidence concerning the hazards of shiftwork, and techniques that can be used to reduce risk. The main advice is to minimise sleep debt by taking additional two-hour sleeps in the afternoon before a shift, and 20- to 45-minute naps during the night shift. It is hoped that the advice will make the challenge of night shift work not only easier to tolerate, but also safer for both hospital patients and their doctors. PMID:16521358

Horrocks, Nicholas; Pounder, Roy

2006-01-01

32

Serum lipoproteins in day and shift workers: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to assess changes in diet and serum lipoproteins in shift workers. Twelve shift workers and 13 day workers were examined before employment and after six months at work. Total cholesterol and serum triglycerides did not change significantly. In both groups a decrease in systolic blood pressure was observed. The ratio between apoB and apoA-1 lipoproteins increased by 18% in shift workers compared with 5% in day workers. The change in the ratio between apoB and apoA-1 lipoproteins showed a significant inverse correlation with the change in intake of dietary fibres. PMID:2310717

Knutson, A; Andersson, H; Berglund, U

1990-01-01

33

Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

Lau, Chui Shan

2011-01-01

34

Zolpidem-Related Effects on Performance and Mood During Simulated Night-Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, on psychomotor task performance, subjective effects, and food intake were examined during simulated shift work. Seven participants completed this 23-day, within-participant design, residential laboratory study. They received a single oral zolpidem dose (0, 5, or 10 mg) 1 hr before bedtime for 3 consecutive days under 2 shift conditions: day shift and night

Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Margaret Haney; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

35

Effects of Changing Shift Schedules from a Full-day to a Half-day Shift before a Night Shift on Physical Activities and Sleep Patterns of Single Nurses and Married Nurses with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after

Misuzu WATANABE; Yasuhiro AKAMATSU; Hikari FURUI; Teruyuki TOMITA; Takemasa WATANABE; Fumio KOBAYASHI

2004-01-01

36

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: ;working the night shift'.  

PubMed

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a 'daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO(2) for photosynthesis. Thus, CAM photosynthesis extends over a 24-hour day using several daily interlocking cycles. To understand CAM photosynthesis, several landmark discoveries were made at the following times: daily reciprocal acid and carbohydrate cycles were found during 1870 to 1887; their precise identification, as malic acid and starch, and accurate quantification occurred from 1940 to 1954; diffusive gas resistance methods were introduced in the early 1960s that led to understanding the powerful stomatal control of daily gas exchanges; C(4) photosynthesis in two different types of cells was discovered from 1965 to approximately 1974 and the resultant information was used to elucidate the day and night portions of CAM photosynthesis in one cell; and exceptionally high internal green tissue CO(2) levels, 0.2 to 2.5%, upon the daytime decarboxylation of malic acid, were discovered in 1979. These discoveries then were combined with related information from C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis, carbon biochemistry, cellular anatomy, and ecological physiology. Therefore by approximately 1980, CAM photosynthesis finally was rigorously outlined. In a nutshell, 24-hour CAM occurs by phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) carboxylase fixing CO(2)(HCO(3) (-)) over the night to form malic acid that is stored in plant cell vacuoles. While stomata are tightly closed the following day, malic acid is decarboxylated releasing CO(2) for C(3) photosynthesis via ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco). The CO(2) acceptor, PEP, is formed via glycolysis at night from starch or other stored carbohydrates and after decarboxylation the three carbons are restored each day. In mid to late afternoon the stomata can open and mostly C(3) photosynthesis occurs until darkness. CAM photo-synthesis can be both inducible and constitutive and is known in 33 families with an estimated 15 to 20 000 species. CAM plants express the most plastic and tenacious photosynthesis known in that they can switch photosynthesis pathways and they can live and conduct photosynthesis for years even in the virtual absence of external H(2)O and CO(2), i.e., CAM tenaciously protects its photosynthesis from both H(2)O and CO(2) stresses. PMID:16228591

Black, Clanton C; Osmond, C Barry

2003-01-01

37

Putting baseload to work on the night shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

1980-04-01

38

Minor psychiatric disorders among nursing workers--is there an association with current or former night work?  

PubMed

We aimed at analyzing whether Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD) is associated to night work either currently or in the past. A cross-sectional study was conducted at three public hospitals in Brazil, with female nursing workers. Data collection (N=1,134) was based on a comprehensive questionnaire that included the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) for screening of MPD. Former night workers were subdivided into three groups according to their reasons for leaving night work: (i) directly related to work, (ii) related to better reconcile with studies or another job, and (iii) related to health, sleep, fatigue or stress. Binomial logistic regression was performed, with adjustment for potential confounders. A dose response gradient was observed between current night work and MPD (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2 and OR=2.1; 95%CI: 1.5-3.1 for those who worked up to five nights and six or more nights per 2-week span, respectively). Potential detrimental effects of night work were confirmed. The association between working at night and MPD was not restricted to current night workers as workers who left night work for health/fatigue/sleep/strain also showed higher chances of reporting MPD (OR=1.8;95%CI:1.14-2.90). Results contribute to the scientific debate on the impact of night work on health and wellbeing. PMID:22317157

Diniz, Thiago Bernardes; Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

2012-01-01

39

Restless Legs Syndrome in shift workers: A cross sectional study on male assembly workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder characterized by symptoms that follow a circadian pattern. Night and rotating shift work schedules exert adverse effects on functions of the human body by disturbing circadian rhythms, and they are known to cause sleep disturbances and insomnia. In this paper, we investigate the possible association between shift work and

Akbar Sharifian; Marjan Firoozeh; Gholamreza Pouryaghoub; Mehran Shahryari; Mohsen Rahimi; Mohammad Hesamian; Ali Fardi

2009-01-01

40

For Immediate Release --November 29, 2012 Links between night shift work and cancer: researchers at  

E-print Network

at the University of Lethbridge, is studying how something as simple as sleep disruption work and cancer: researchers at University of Lethbridge look for genetic (a sleep-wake cycle) due to shift work or exposure to light at night has

Morris, Joy

41

Work capacity of heat and electric power plant operations working 12 hour day and night shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various parameters of the CNS and cardiovascular system were analyzed in relation to work performance of 20 individuals employed 12 h day and night shifts at a heat and electric power plant. The subjects under study consisted of engineers and supervisors responsible for control and managing functions requiring a high rate of information processing. The results indicate that both daytime

A. O. Navakatikyan; V. V. Kalnish; V. B. Lastovchenko

1985-01-01

42

9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715  

E-print Network

/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715 RSS Feeds » Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech Tigers take the night shift to coexist and natural systems," said Jianguo "Jack" Liu, who with PhD student Neil Carter and three Nepalese scholars

43

Human rights of migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs : A case of North Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To discuss the gender dimension of migration and human rights, and to provide an assessment of how to improve human rights protections for migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs across registered and unregistered migrant women workers in North Cyprus. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey is done to establish the employment conditions of migrant women workers in

Fatma Güven-Lisaniler; Sevin U?ural; Leopoldo Rodríguez

2008-01-01

44

Personality factors related to shift work tolerance in two- and three-shift workers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate whether different personality variables were associated with shift work tolerance, and whether these potential associations were moderated by various types of shift work. The sample comprised 1505 nurses who worked either two or three rotating shifts. Personality traits were measured in terms of morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness. Morningness reflects the tendency to be alert relatively early in the morning and sleepy relatively early in the evening. Flexibility denotes the ability to both work and sleep at odd times of the day, while languidity concerns the tendency to become tired/sleepy when cutting down on sleep. Hardiness relates to resilience to stressful life events. The dependent variables in this study comprised of measures of insomnia, sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses, which controlled for demographic variables and work load, revealed that Morningness was significantly and negatively related to insomnia. The Morningness by Shift type interaction was overall significant for depressive symptoms. Morningness was near significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in three-shift workers, but unrelated to depressive symptoms in two-shift workers. Flexibility was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Flexibility by Shift type interaction was significant for insomnia, indicating that flexibility was negatively associated with insomnia for three-shift workers and unrelated with insomnia for two-shift workers. Languidity was associated with higher levels of sleepiness, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Hardiness was associated with lower levels of all four dependent variables. PMID:21172694

Natvik, Sylvia; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Magerøy, Nils; Sivertsen, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle

2011-07-01

45

Home-based behavioral sleep training for shift workers: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This pilot study evaluated a home-based cognitive-behavioral intervention-the Sleep Enhancement Training System for Shift Workers (SETS-SW)-in a sample of 21 nurses working night shifts. Participants (20 women and 1 man) received 2 home-based cognitive-behavioral interventions: a 4-week active control intervention, followed by the 4-week SETS-SW intervention. Sleep and circadian rhythms were assessed at baseline and after each intervention using questionnaires and 1 week of wrist actigraphy. After the SETS-SW intervention, participants reported better sleep quality, although no change in actigraphy outcomes was observed. Over the course of the study, participants also reported improved wellbeing and less appetite disturbance. A home-based cognitive-behavioral intervention may be useful for managing effects of shift work, but needs further evaluation in larger samples. PMID:24229383

Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl L; Alsten, Christopher R

2014-11-01

46

Configuring retroreflective markings to enhance the night-time conspicuity of road workers.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the night-time conspicuity of road workers can be enhanced by positioning retroreflective strips on the moveable joints in patterns that convey varying degrees of biological motion. Participants were 24 visually normal adults (12 young M=26.8 years; 12 older M=72.9 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were recorded for each participant. Experimenters acting as road workers walked in place on a closed road circuit within simulated road work sites, facing either the oncoming driver or the roadway (presenting sideways to the driver) and wearing one of four clothing conditions: (i) standard road worker vest; (ii) standard vest plus thigh-mounted retroreflective strips; (iii) standard vest plus retroreflective strips on ankles and knees; (iv) standard vest plus retroreflective strips positioned on the extremities in a configuration that conveyed biological motion ("biomotion"). As they drove along the closed road participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first recognized that a road worker was present. The results demonstrated that regardless of the direction of walking, road workers wearing biomotion clothing were recognized at significantly (p<0.05) longer distances (3×), relative to the standard vest alone. Response distances were significantly shorter for the older drivers. Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of the ability to recognize road workers than was visual acuity or glare sensitivity. We conclude that adding retroreflective strips in the biomotion configuration can significantly improve road worker conspicuity regardless of the road worker's orientation and the age of the driver. PMID:24816151

Wood, Joanne M; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Tyrrell, Richard A

2014-09-01

47

Effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters during night duty.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters a 17-day field study at a fire station was carried out. Eleven firefighters, who were engaged in firefighting emergency services, participated in this study. At the fire station, night duty (22:00-07:00) was divided into 5 periods (P1: 22:00-00:00; P2: 23:45-01:45; P3: 01:30-03:30; P4: 03:15-05:15; P5: 05:00-07:00). The participants were assigned to one of these 5 periods and awakened to answer calls from the city's central information centre. They took naps in individual rooms during night duty, except when on night shift or when called out on an emergency. Subjective complaints of fatigue, critical flicker fusion frequencies, 3-choice reaction times, and oral temperature were measured before and after work and following breaks during their 24 working hours. Heart rate variability was also recorded to evaluate autonomic nerve activity. The results show that during P3 and P4, participants who had to wake up at midnight took shorter naps. The rates of subjective complaints regarding P3 and P4 tended to be higher than those for P1, P2, and P5. The ratios of the low frequency component of heart rate variability to the high frequency component during P4 were significantly lower than those during P5. It is assumed that such an irregular sleeping pattern causes many complaints of subjective fatigue, and adversely affects physiological functions. A night-duty shift schedule ensuring undisturbed naps should be considered. PMID:15764302

Takeyama, H; Itani, T; Tachi, N; Sakamura, O; Murata, K; Inoue, T; Takanishi, T; Suzumura, H; Niwa, S

2005-01-01

48

Combinations of Bright Light, Scheduled Dark, Sunglasses, and Melatonin to Facilitate Circadian Entrainment to Night Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various combinations of interventions were used to phase-delay circadian rhythms to correct their misalignment with night work and day sleep. Young participants (median age = 22, n= 67) participated in 5 consecutive simulated night shifts (2300 to 0700) and then slept at home (0830 to 1530) in darkened bedrooms. Participants wore sunglasses with normal or dark lenses (transmission 15% or

Stephanie J. Crowley; Clara Lee; Christine Y. Tseng; Louis F. Fogg; Charmane I. Eastman

2003-01-01

49

The distribution of sleepiness, sleep and work hours during a long distance morning trip: a comparison between night- and non-night workers.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ?10) and sleep restriction (?5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ?5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (?4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety. PMID:23357032

Di Milia, Lee; Kecklund, Göran

2013-04-01

50

Perceived mastery of work among shift workers in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between individual and work-related factors and perceived mastery of work among offshore shift workers. 2,406 employees of a Norwegian petroleum company were invited to participate. A web-based survey was used and 1336 completed questionnaires were returned (56%). Mastery of work was assessed using QPS Nordic Mastery Scale and the results were compared with a sample from the QPS Nordic study. Individual factors adjusted for were age, gender, marital status and personality. The following work-related factors were included: demands, control, support, night work and shift work home interference. Female offshore shift workers reported higher levels of perceived mastery of work compared with women in the comparison sample. The following variables were independently associated with perceived mastery of work: female gender (?=0.10, p=0.008), decisional demands (?=0.13, p<0.001), control (?=0.05, p=0.009), social support (?=0.07, p<0.001), shift-work locus of control (?=0.04, p=0.005) and neuroticism (?=-0.29, p<0.001). Post hoc analyses showed no sex differences in perceived mastery in two separate work positions on the platforms. Work-related variables and personality explained 55% and 45% respectively of the total variance (R(2)=0.22) explained by the final model. Female petroleum offshore workers reported somewhat higher levels of mastery of work than their male colleagues, however, this may be due to different work positions. Work-related factors accounted for about half of the explained variance and decisional demands, control and support remained statistically significant after controlling for personality. PMID:23095327

Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

2013-01-01

51

Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

NICOLETTI, Corinne; MULLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LAUBLI, Thomas

2014-01-01

52

Elevated Blood Pressure, Decreased Heart Rate Variability and Incomplete Blood Pressure Recovery after a 12-hour Night Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Elevated Blood Pressure, Decreased Heart Rate Variability and ,Incomplete Blood Pressure Recovery after a 12-hour Night Shift Work: Ta-Chen SU, et al. Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan—Shift work has been ,associated ,with increased ,risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the hemodynamic,effects of 12-hour (12-h) shifts, and changes in blood pressure (BP)

Ta-Chen Su; Lian-Yu Lin; Dean Baker; Peter L. Schnall; Ming-Fong Chen; Wen-Chang Hwang; Chen-Fang Chen; Jung-Der Wang

2008-01-01

53

9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us...  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us... Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans who

54

Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Depressive Rotational Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Shift work is associated with sleep deprivation, occupational stress, and increased risk of depression. Depressed patients show increased oxidative stress. During excessive oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) increases and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreases in body. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the serum level of TAC and MDA among depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondooyan Tehran Oil Refinery. 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression level. The level of TAC and MDA was measured by 8 mL fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the ABTS. Results of this study showed that TAC mean and standard deviation concentration was 2.451 (±0.536)?mg/dL and MDA was 3.725 (±1.098)?mic·mol/L, and mean and standard deviation of depression score and BMI were 14.07 (±3.84) and 24.92 (±3.65)?kg/m2, respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r = 0.218 and r = 0.212), respectively, (P < 0.05). PMID:23690799

Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hashemi, Hassan

2013-01-01

55

Bone resorption is affected by follicular phase length in female rotating shift workers.  

PubMed Central

Stressors as subtle as night work or shift work can lead to irregular menstrual cycles, and changes in reproductive hormone profiles can adversely affect bone health. This study was conducted to determine if stresses associated with the disruption of regular work schedule can induce alterations in ovarian function which, in turn, are associated with transient bone resorption. Urine samples from 12 rotating shift workers from a textile mill in Anqing, China, were collected in 1996-1998 during pairs of sequential menstrual cycles, of which one was longer than the other (28.4 vs. 37.4 days). Longer cycles were characterized by a prolonged follicular phase. Work schedules during the luteal-follicular phase transition (LFPT) preceding each of the two cycles were evaluated. All but one of the shorter cycles were associated with regular, forward phase work shift progression during the preceding LFPT. In contrast, five longer cycles were preceded by a work shift interrupted either by an irregular shift or a number of "off days." Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone levels were reduced in the LFPT preceding longer cycles compared with those in the LFPT preceding shorter cycles. There was greater bone resorption in the follicular phase of longer cycles than in that of shorter cycles, as measured by urinary deoxypyridinoline. These data confirm reports that changes in work shift can lead to irregularity in menstrual cycle length. In addition, these data indicate that there may be an association between accelerated bone resorption in menstrual cycles and changes of regularity in work schedule during the preceding LFPT. PMID:12676625

Lohstroh, Pete N; Chen, Jiangang; Ba, Jianming; Ryan, Louise M; Xu, Xiping; Overstreet, James W; Lasley, Bill L

2003-01-01

56

Circadian Adaptation to Night Shift Work Influences Sleep, Performance, Mood and the Autonomic Modulation of the Heart  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF?HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules. PMID:23923024

Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

2013-01-01

57

A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to sum up evidence of the associations between different aspects of night shift work and female breast cancer using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We systematicly searched all cohort and case-control studies published in English on MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCInfo, APC Journal Club and Global Health, from January 1971 to May 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; odd ratio, OR; or hazard ratio, HR) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. A log-linear dose-response regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between various indicators of exposure to night shift work and breast cancer risk. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and breast cancer was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35]. Further meta-analyses on dose-response relationship showed that every 5-year increase of exposure to night shift work would correspondingly enhance the risk of breast cancer of the female by 3% (pooled RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05; Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Our meta-analysis also suggested that an increase in 500-night shifts would result in a 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21; Pheterogeneity = 0.06) increase in breast cancer risk. This systematic review updated the evidence that a positive dose-response relationship is likely to present for breast cancer with increasing years of employment and cumulative shifts involved in the work. PMID:23975662

Wang, F; Yeung, K L; Chan, W C; Kwok, C C H; Leung, S L; Wu, C; Chan, E Y Y; Yu, I T S; Yang, X R; Tse, L A

2013-11-01

58

Effect of LED light stimulation on sleep latency in night shift people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep problems are getting worse and worse in modern world. They have a severe impact on psychological and physical health, as well as social performances. From our previous study, the brainwave ? rhythm, ? wave and ? wave were affected by radiating the palm of the subjects with low-level laser array. In addition, from other study, the LED array stimulator (LEDAS) also has the similar effects. In the present study, LED light was used to radiate the left palm of the subjects too, and the effects were assessed with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis. The results revealed that it doesn't have significant meaning between these two groups. However, the tendency of the sleep latency (SL) in the LED group was shorter than that in the control group. In addition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) analysis showed that the sympathetic nervous system was getting larger in the LED group than that in the control group, and total ANS activity were mainly getting larger in the LED group. We infer that this LED stimulation could reduce SL and balance ANS activity of the night-shift people. In the future, the further study will be conducted on normal subjects.

Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Yang-Chyuan; Chiu, Hui-Ling; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chen, Ming-Jie; Chang, Yu-Ting

2014-05-01

59

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/ Tuesday, Sep > General News Email this Facebook Twitter 0 Print this Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist

60

Prevalence of Sleep Disorders and Their Impacts on Occupational Performance: A Comparison between Shift Workers and Nonshift Workers  

PubMed Central

The consequences of sleep deprivation and sleepiness have been noted as the most important health problem in our modern society among shift workers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and their possible effects on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and nonshift workers. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected by PSQI, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and RLS Questionnaire. Occupational impact of different sleep disorders was detected by Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire. These questionnaires were filled in by 210 shift workers and 204 nonshift workers. There was no significant difference in the age, BMI, marital status, and years of employment in the two groups. Shift workers scored significantly higher in the OISD. The prevalence of insomnia, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers. Correlations between OISD scores and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were significant. We concluded that sleep disorders should receive more attention as a robust indicator of work limitation. PMID:24977041

Yazdi, Zohreh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Elmizadeh, Khadijeh; Abbasi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

61

Sleep Complaints and Polysomnographic Findings: A Study of Nuclear Power Plant Shift Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature widely recognizes that shift workers have more health complaints than the general population. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of sleep complaints and verify the polysomnographic (PSG) variables of shift workers in two Brazilian nuclear power plants. We carried out a subjective evaluation with a sleep questionnaire. Based on these results, the interviewees that

Samantha L. Paim; Maria Laura N. Pires; Lia Rita A. Bittencourt; Rogério S. Silva; Ruth F. Santos; Andrea M. Esteves; Amaury T. Barreto; Sergio Tufik; Marco Túlio de Mello

2008-01-01

62

The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for Shift-Workers (MCTQShift).  

PubMed

Sleep is systematically modulated by chronotype in day-workers. Therefore, investigations into how shift-work affects sleep, health, and cognition may provide more reliable insights if they consider individual circadian time (chronotype). The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) is a useful tool for determining chronotype. It assesses chronotype based on sleep behavior, specifically on the local time of mid-sleep on free days corrected for sleep debt accumulated over the workweek (MSFsc). Because the original MCTQ addresses people working standard hours, we developed an extended version that accommodates shift-work (MCTQ(Shift)). We first present the validation of this new version with daily sleep logs (n = 52) and actimetry (n = 27). Next, we evaluated 371 MCTQ(Shift) entries of shift-workers (rotating through 8-h shifts starting at 0600 h, 1400 h, and 2200 h). Our results support experimental findings showing that sleep is difficult to initiate and to maintain under the constraints of shift-work. Sleep times are remarkably stable on free days (on average between midnight and 0900 h), so that chronotype of shift-workers can be assessed by means of MSF-similar to that of day-workers. Sleep times on free-days are, however, slightly influenced by the preceding shift (displacements <1 h), which are smallest after evening shifts. We therefore chose this shift-specific mid-sleep time (MSF(E)) to assess chronotype in shift-workers. The distribution of MSF(E) in our sample is identical to that of MSF in day-workers. We propose conversion algorithms for chronotyping shift-workers whose schedules do not include free days after evening shifts. PMID:23606612

Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-04-01

63

The Effectiveness of Light/Dark Exposure to Treat Insomnia in Female Nurses Undertaking Shift Work during the Evening/Night Shift  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized control study. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used to evaluate insomnia and anxiety/depression severity, respectively. Female hospital nurses on rotating shifts during the evening or night shift with an ISI score > 14 were enrolled. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 46) were exposed to bright light at 7,000-10,000 lux for ? 30 minutes. Exposure was continued for at least 10 days during 2 weeks, and the subjects avoided daytime outdoor sun exposure after work by wearing dark sunglasses. Subjects in the control group (n = 46) were not exposed to bright light, but also wore sunglasses after work. Statistical analyses were performed to examine group differences and differences across treatments. Results: After treatment, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the ISI score and the HADS total and subscale scores as compared with pre-treatment. The ISI, HADS, and subscales of the HADS scores were significantly improved across treatments in the treatment group as compared with the control group. Conclusions: The design of this study is easy to put into practice in the real world. This is the first study to document that a higher intensity and briefer duration of bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift with a daytime darkness procedure performed in rotating shift work female nurses suffering from clinical insomnia could improve their insomnia, anxiety, and depression severity. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 647. Citation: Huang LB; Tsai MC; Chen CY; Hsu SC. The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):641-646. PMID:23853555

Huang, Li-Bi; Tsai, Mei-Chu; Chen, Ching-Yen; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

2013-01-01

64

Diurnal 24-hour rhythm in ambulatory heart rate variability during the day shift in rotating shift workers.  

PubMed

Circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and behavior during the day shifts of shift workers has not hitherto been clarified. This study examined diurnal 24-h variation in heart rate variability (HRV), sleep-wake cycle, physical activity, and food intake during the day shift in rotating shift workers. The subjects were female nurses and caregivers working at a health care facility (14 day workers and 13 rotating shift workers). Each subject was asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV (600 beats) to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz), integrated power in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges, the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu), and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF). Double cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h and 12-h period variations in variables of HRV and physical activity. While no difference was found in the acrophases of either period for step counts or in the 12-h period of HRV variables between the groups, the acrophases of the 24-h period for HRV variables were delayed by 1.3 to 5.5 h in rotating shift workers, and their differences in HF power, HF nu, and LF/HF reached a significant level (p < 0.05). On the days of the experiment, retiring time, waking up time, total time in bed, sleep efficiency, and mealtimes and energy intake for each diet did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that there is a possibility of an abnormal phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle during the day shift in shift workers. PMID:23735502

Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Kawano, Yukari; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Midorikawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Kohe; Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

2013-06-01

65

Burning the EMS candle. EMS shifts and worker fatigue.  

PubMed

Has coffee become your best friend? Do you sleep only in your dreams? Is your bed merely an illusion? If so, you are not alone; sleep deprivation is a fact of life for many EMS personnel. Though widely accepted, isn't it time that we question the effects of those long days and nights? PMID:10116022

McCallion, R; Fazackerley, J

1991-10-01

66

Health and safety consequences of shift work in the food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both a questionnaire survey and an evaluation of health and safety records were used to characterize the health and safety consequences of day versus afternoon, night and rotating shifts for approximately 1000 food processing workers. Relative to the day workers, the results indicated that those on shift work, particularly rotating and night shifts, showed greater adverse effects. These included poorer

MICHAEL J. SMITH; MICHAEL J. COLLIGAN; DONALD L. TASTO

1982-01-01

67

Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.  

PubMed

The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic branches increased. In the early 1960s the employment of foreign workers was concentrated in 3 branches -- the construction sector (32% of all foreign workers), metal industries (16%), and textile industries (10%). In 1982 only 1/3 of all foreign workers were still employed in these branches as an infiltration by foreign labor had taken place in all sectors. The services sector showed the greatest increase in foreign employment since 1975. There has never been as strong a concentration of 1 nationality in a particular economic branch as in Switzerland, Germany, or France. Case studies in Austria reveal that it was an explicit policy for firms (and also unions and entrepreneur representatives) not to depend on only 1 nationality of foreign workers. According to the case studies, about 1/3 of all foreign workers today occupy jobs which are in direct competition with indigenous labor. Another 1/3 fill jobs which are complementary to indigenous labor. For the remainder it is difficult to say to what extent they belong to one or the other segment of the labor market, because there is no information available on the occupational job structure. PMID:12159579

Biffl, G

1985-03-01

68

Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV. PMID:17637921

Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

2007-01-01

69

[Psychophysiologic criteria determining perfomance in shift team workers].  

PubMed

Individual strategies of adaptation to work process appeared to manifest in changed functioning of central nervous system, mental performance and to be associated with typologic features of operators. The authors revealed psychophysiologic criteria that enable operators to succeed in work operations during 12-hour working shift over 14 days of duty. PMID:23120912

2012-01-01

70

Effects of 12-hour rotating shifts on menstrual cycles of photoelectronic workers in Taiwan.  

PubMed

12 h rotating shifts are common in high-tech industries in Taiwan. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the effect of the disruption of circadian rhythms by the shift schedule on menstrual cycle length (MCL) and regularity of female workers at an optoelectronic company in Taiwan. We recruited females who worked rotating shifts in a clean room environment as the shift-work group and female office workers who worked normal business hours as the comparison group. Every participant recorded their MCL for each menstruation cycle up to eight consecutive months prospectively and provided demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and menstrual characteristics. We collected data on 1,135 and 117 menstruation cycles in the shift-work (n = 280) and comparison groups (n = 49). Whereas the two groups had similar group means for MCL and number of menstrual bleeding days, the prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity (cycles <25 or >35 days) was higher in the shift-work group ( p = 0.04). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that rotating shift work was an independent predictor of menstrual cycle irregularity (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.88) after adjusting for shift-work history, employment duration, coffee consumption,and pre-employment menstrual cycle irregularity. Although further study is required to confirm our findings plus to explore prevention and control measures, our data indicate rotating shift work can increase the risk of MCL irregularity. PMID:18533326

Su, Shih-Bin; Lu, Chih-Wei; Kao, Yao-Ya; Guo, How-Ran

2008-04-01

71

The Effects of Shift Work on Sleeping Quality, Hypertension and Diabetes in Retired Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ?20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers. PMID:23976988

Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

2013-01-01

72

Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting  

SciTech Connect

A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

Baker, T.L. [Institute for Circadian Physiology, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-04-01

73

Shift Work Related to Job Attitudes, Social Participation and Withdrawal Behavior: A Study of Nurses and Industrial Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between shift schedules and mental health, job satisfaction, social participation, organizational commitment, anticipated turnover, absenteeism and tardiness among nurses (N=440). Results indicated that workers on fixed work schedules would be better off than workers on rotating work schedules. (Author)

Jamal, Muhammad

1981-01-01

74

Possible evidence for shift work schedules in the media workers of the ant species Camponotus compressus.  

PubMed

The locomotor activity rhythm of the media workers of the ant species Camponotus compressus was monitored under constant conditions of the laboratory to understand the role of circadian clocks in social organization. The locomotor activity rhythm of most ants entrained to a 24h light/dark (12:12h; LD) cycle and free-ran under constant darkness (DD) with circadian periodicities. Under entrained conditions about 75% of media workers displayed nocturnal activity patterns, and the rest showed diurnal activity patterns. In free-running conditions these ants displayed three types of activity patterns (turn-around). The free-running period (tau) of the locomotor activity rhythm of some ants (10 out of 21) showed period lengthening, and those of a few (6 out of 21) showed period shortening, whereas the locomotor activity rhythm of the rest of the ants (5 out of 21) underwent large phase shifts. Interestingly, the pre-turn-around tau of those ants that showed nocturnal activity patterns during earlier LD entrainment was shorter than 24 h, which became greater than 24 h after 6-9 days of free-run in DD. On the other hand, the pre-turn-around tau of those ants, which exhibited diurnal patterns during earlier LD entrainment, was greater than 24 h, which became shorter than 24 h after 6-9 days of free-run in DD. The patterns of activity under LD cycles and the turn-around of activity patterns in DD regime suggest that these ants are shift workers in their respective colonies, and they probably use their circadian clocks for this purpose. Circadian plasticity thus appears to be a general strategy of the media workers of the ant species C. compressus to cope with the challenges arising due to their roles in the colony constantly exposed to a fluctuating environment. PMID:15332348

Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Mathew, Deepa; Goel, Anubhuthi; Chandrashekaran, M K

2004-03-01

75

Rotating Shift-Work as an Independent Risk Factor for Overweight Italian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N?=?229), rotating shift workers (N?=?110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels. PMID:23675472

Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

2013-01-01

76

EffEctS of NapS at Work oN thE SlEEpINESS of 12-hour NIght ShIft NurSINg pErSoNNEl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a nap at work on the sleepiness of 12-hour, night-shift (registered and assistant) nursing personnel. Methods: Twelve nurses filled out daily logs, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KS), and wore wrist actigraphs for two periods of four continuous days. results: Mean nap duration during the night

Frida Marina Fischer

77

The effect of night-time naps on recovery from fatigue following night work.  

PubMed

A questionnaire was performed in order to investigate the effect of naps during duty on recovery from fatigue. Studies were performed on 12 male computer operators in each of two chemical plants working a four-team three-shift system. In one of the plants, the shift workers were able to take a 2 h nap during the night shift (nap group). In the other plant, no nap was taken (no-nap group). Before and after the two consecutive night shifts, both the nap and no-nap groups greatly extended their night sleeps, but the daytime sleep taken by the no-nap group during this period was significantly longer than that of the nap group on both the first and second days. No significant difference was found when comparing the length of the day sleep of the no-nap group with the total sleeping time (night-time nap plus subsequent day sleep) of the nap group. Therefore a night-time nap enables part of the essential sleep to be taken in advance of the day sleep following night work. During night work, both the nap and no-nap groups exhibited an increase in the sleepiness scores and also in the subjective feelings of fatigue concerning the complaints related to drowsiness, dullness and difficulty in concentration. However, it was found that for the no-nap group these effects continued for a large part of the recovery period following night work. It can therefore be surmised that naps taken during night-time work can be to a certain extent aid recovery from the fatigue caused by that work. PMID:8206058

Matsumoto, K; Harada, M

1994-05-01

78

Cross-shift Airway Responses and Long-Term Decline in FEV1 in Cotton Textile Workers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Acute airway response, measured as cross-shift change in FEV1, to cotton dust may lead to subsequent chronic loss of lung function in exposed workers. Objectives: To explore the association between the magnitude and frequency of cross-shift change and chronic loss of FEV1. Methods: Four hundred eight cotton workers and 417 silk workers from Shanghai textile mills were observed prospectively for 20 years, with cross-shift measurements at baseline and follow-up surveys at approximate 5-year intervals. To account for repeated measures of 5-year change, generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relationship between the magnitude of cross-shift change in FEV1 (?FEV1) and subsequent 5-year annualized change. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between the number of drops in cross-shift FEV1 (?FEV1 < 0) and annualized change over the entire study period. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to cotton dust was associated with a 10 ml/year decrement in 5-year annualized FEV1 decline. In addition, every 10 ml in ?FEV1 drop was associated with an additional 1.5 ml/year loss in annualized FEV1 decline. The association between the frequency of drops and annualized decline was stronger for cotton workers than for silk workers over the entire study period. Conclusions: Cotton workers had larger and more frequent drops, as well as excessive chronic declines in FEV1, than did silk workers. The magnitude and frequency of cross-shift drops were associated with chronic loss in FEV1 over the entire 20-year period examined. PMID:17975204

Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Hong-Xi; Sun, Bi-Xiong; Dai, He-Lian; Hang, Jin-Qing; Eisen, Ellen; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.

2008-01-01

79

Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts' Start Time  

PubMed Central

Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

2013-01-01

80

Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo simulate a 12 hour shift rotation and measure the difference in performance if any, between older and younger subjects. Significant reductions in neurobehavioural performance during shift work and particularly night work have long been recognised. There are conflicting reports of the effects of 12 hour shifts on performance, alertness, and safety. Furthermore, research suggests that older shift workers have

K Reid; D Dawson

2001-01-01

81

Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure and Work Intensity of Care-Workers on Shift Work in a Special Nursing Home for the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure and Work Intensity of Care-Workers on Shift Work in a Special Nursing Home for the Elderly: Tadaaki WAKUI, et al. Department of Wellness and Welfare, Ube College—To evaluate the workload of care- workers on shift work in special nursing homes for the elderly (SNHs), physical activity, energy expenditure and work intensity were measured. Nine healthy female

Tadaaki WAKUI; Setsuko SHIRONO; Seiichiro TAKAHASHI; Takae FUJIMURA; Noriaki HARADA

2002-01-01

82

Rescheduling a three shift system at a steel rolling mill: effects of a one hour delay of shift starting times on sleep and alertness in younger and older workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new work schedule at a Finnish steel mill with special attention to effects on older workers. The schedule was designed to improve sleep before the morning shift, and alertness during the morning shift, by delaying shift start and end times. METHODS: Evaluation was by a shiftwork health and safety questionnaire, recordings of work-rest-sleep cycles with activity

R R Rosa; M Härmä; K Pulli; M Mulder; O Näsman

1996-01-01

83

Field Studies of Shift Work at an Austrian Oil Refinery I: Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Workers who Drop Out of Shiftwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the problems that arise in shift workers prove to be social or family-bound rather than strictly medical, though health may in fact be affected seriously by these problems. The present study was concerned with the question whether, and in what way, men giving up shift work (‘ drop-outs ’) differ from those who stay on shift work, and

M. KOLLER; M. KUNDI; R. CERVINKA

1978-01-01

84

Night terror  

MedlinePLUS

Night terrors (sleep terrors) are a sleep disorder in which a person quickly wakes from sleep in a ... The cause is unknown, but night terrors may be triggered by: Fever Lack of sleep Periods of emotional tension , stress , or conflict Night terrors are most common in ...

85

Night Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create night lights using a plastic cup, programmable PICO Cricket, tri-color LED, and sensor. Learners can decorate the outside of the night light using a permanent marker or with paper cut-outs to resemble a skyline at night, for instance. Use this activity to help learners explore PICO Crickets, sensors, and LEDs.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-04

86

Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: a study.  

PubMed

Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data were presented as mean value (SD). Over 90% of workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, is the most feasible method for the protection of industrial workers from prevailing noise in workplace environments in the developing countries. PMID:22718110

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore

2012-01-01

87

Disappointing Weight Loss among Shift Workers after Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background  Shift work is an increasingly common employment structure in the United States and has been associated with increased rates\\u000a of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Shift work can necessitate altered patterns of sleep, eating, and activity over traditional\\u000a work schedules. We investigated the effects of shift work on postoperative weight loss in bariatric surgery patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective chart review of

Eric S. Ketchum; John M. Morton

2007-01-01

88

What Aspects of Shiftwork Influence Off-Shift Well-being of Healthcare Workers?  

PubMed Central

Characteristics of shiftwork schedules have implications for off-shift well-being. We examined the extent to which several shift characteristics (e.g., shift length, working Sundays) are associated with three aspects of off-shift well-being: work-to-family conflict, physical well-being, and mental well-being. We also investigated whether these relationships differed in four nations. The Survey of Work and Time was completed by 906 healthcare professionals located in Australia, Brazil, Croatia, and the USA. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis that shiftwork characteristics account for significant unique variance in all three measures of well-being beyond that accounted for by work and family demands, and personal characteristics. The patterns of regression weights indicated that particular shiftwork characteristics have differential relevance to indices of work-to-family conflict, physical well-being, and mental well-being. Our findings suggest that healthcare organizations should carefully consider the implications of shiftwork characteristics for off-shift well-being. Furthermore, although our findings did not indicate national differences in the nature of relationships between shift characteristics and well-being, shiftwork characteristics and demographics for healthcare professionals differ in systematic ways among nations; as such, effective solutions may be context-specific. PMID:18423559

Barnes-Farrell, Janet; Davies-Schrils, Kimberly; McGonagle, Alyssa; Walsh, Benjamin; Di Milia, Lee; Fischer, Frida Marina; Hobbs, Barbara B.; Kaliterna, Ljiljana; Tepas, Donald

2008-01-01

89

THE ROLE OF PARTICIPATION IN SAFEGUARDING WORKERS' HEALTH WHEN CHANGING SHIFT SCHEDULES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, increasing numbers of workplaces in Australia have introduced 12- hour shifts. This increase is due, in part, to government policies aimed at encouraging employers and employees to abandon the traditional award system and decide on their terms and conditions of work at the workplace level through negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to examine

90

Fragile nights :  

E-print Network

The night -- particularly its constitutive darkness -poses a formidable challenge to the human mind, which operates primarily on visual evidence. Indeed, the active channels connecting the cognitive and visual systems are ...

Courchesne, Luc, 1952-

1984-01-01

91

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

92

Observations of age-related differences in neurobehavioral performance in a 12-hour shift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that individuals may become less tolerant to shiftwork as they age. This study observed the effect of age on neurobehavioral performance in shift workers working a 12-h shift schedule. Performance data was collected for a 14-day period, from 20 subjects. Analyses were performed to identify significant differences relating to age. Older subjects' performance declined faster during night

Katie J KANDELAARS; Stuart D BAULK; Adam FLETCHER; Guy EITZEN; Gregory D ROACH; Drew DAWSON

2006-01-01

93

Evidence of circadian and extended shift effects on reactor transient frequency  

SciTech Connect

An extensive body of knowledge exists documenting the significant swings in error rates, perception, judgment, and overall alertness levels in the course of a day. The literature also demonstrates pronounced differences in performance levels whereby night workers routinely underperform day workers in any set of tasks. The performance split widens with task complexity. Rotating shift workers, such as nuclear power plant operators, have been shown to experience performance problems comparable to straight night workers. Finally, sleep research also documents that extended hours, such as the so-called 4-day work week, can undermine alertness levels, particularly in the last 2 to 3 h of a daily shift. These issues suggest that cyclical performance by shift workers may be evident in nuclear plant operators. This paper seeks evidence of such cyclical performance by examining operating transients at nuclear power plants involving human error.

Maloney, S. (Devonrue, Ltd., Boston, MA (United States))

1992-01-01

94

Experience and limited lighting may affect sleepiness of tunnel workers  

PubMed Central

Background Working on shifts, especially on a night shift, influences the endogenous sleep regulation system leading to diminished sleep time and increased somnolence. We attempted to evaluate the impact of shifts on sleepiness and correlate the sleepiness score to the experience in a shift schedule. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study consists of 42 male and 2 female workers involved in a tunnel construction. They underwent spirometry, pulse oximetry and were asked to complete the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed that workers of lower Epworth had a mean age of 43.6 years, compared to the mean age of 36.4 years of workers with higher Epworth. Furthermore, workers of lower Epworth were characterized by a mean number of shift years equal to 14.8, while those of higher Epworth possessed a mean number of shift years equal to 8. The shift schedule did not reveal any statistically significant correlation. Conclusions Workers employed for a longer time had diminished sleepiness. However, there is no relationship between night shifts and sleepiness, possibly because of exposure to artificial lighting in the construction site. PMID:24993796

2014-01-01

95

Task-shifting and prioritization: a situational analysis examining the role and experiences of community health workers in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background As low- and middle-income countries face continued shortages of human resources for health and the double burden of infectious and chronic diseases, there is renewed international interest in the potential for community health workers to assume a growing role in strengthening health systems. A growing list of tasks, some of them complex, is being shifted to community health workers’ job descriptions. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) - as the community health worker cadre in Malawi is known - play a vital role in providing essential health services and connecting the community with the formal health care sector. The objective of this study was to understand the performed versus documented roles of the HSAs, to examine how tasks were prioritized, and to understand HSAs’ perspectives on their roles and responsibilities. Methods A situational analysis of the HSA cadre and its contribution to the delivery of health services in Zomba district, Malawi was conducted. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 70 HSAs. Observations of three HSAs performing duties and work diaries from five HSAs were collected. Lastly, six policy-maker and seven HSA supervisor interviews and a document review were used to further understand the cadre’s role and to triangulate collected data. Results HSAs performed a variety of tasks in addition to those outlined in the job description resulting in issues of overloading, specialization and competing demands existing in the context of task-shifting and prioritization. Not all HSAs were resistant to the expansion of their role despite role confusion and HSAs feeling they lacked adequate training, remuneration and supervision. HSAs also said that increasing workload was making completing their primary duties challenging. Considerations for policy-makers include the division of roles of HSAs in prevention versus curative care; community versus centre-based activities; and the potential specialization of HSAs. Conclusion This study provides insights into HSAs’ perceptions of their work, their expanding role and their willingness to change the scope of their practice. There are clear decision points for policy-makers regarding future direction in policy and planning in order to maximize the cadre’s effectiveness in addressing the country’s health priorities. PMID:24885454

2014-01-01

96

Night Terrors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Night Terrors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Sleep Disorders > Night Terrors ... Night Terrors? Coping With Night Terrors What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...

97

Night terrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night terrors and nightmare had for years been equated terms. Early writers tended to ignore the differences. Even today with a clearer definition and understanding of these sleep disturbances, practitioners have been at a loss on how to ameliorate the very upsetting set of occurrences (to the patient as well as to the family). This paper briefly reviews some of

Alan Taylor

1993-01-01

98

Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues. PMID:23459725

Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

2013-03-01

99

Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes

1995-01-01

100

Night Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students view a satellite image of Earth at night, and consider the environmental considerations and consequences associated with the pattern of light they see. The resource includes a map for student use. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

101

Night Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts have long touted the importance of good outdoor lighting as a deterrent to crime -- hence, parking lots that are lit as bright as day and glaring store marquees that are on all night. But lights that are too bright only waste electricity without increasing safety. And in this Science Update, you'll hear why bright nighttime lights could also be bad for women's health.

Science Update;

2003-05-05

102

Pulmonary function among cotton textile workers. A study of variability in symptom reporting, across-shift drop in FEV1, and longitudinal change.  

PubMed

Longitudinal variability in respiratory responses, including symptom reporting and across-shift change in ventilatory function, were examined in relation to long-term loss of ventilatory function in a group of 447 cotton textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study used a standardized respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometric testing before and after a work shift on the first day of the workweek. Prediction equations for FEV1 were generated from a group of silk textile workers from the same city. Environmental samples included both vertical elutriated cotton dust and endotoxin levels. There was considerable variability in symptom reporting between the baseline and 5-year follow-up survey for all symptoms. However, subjects who consistently reported symptoms had a significantly accelerated 5-year loss in FEV1 compared with those who never reported symptoms. Subjects with symptoms of chest tightness or dyspnea at one survey lost FEV1 at a rate intermediate between the never or both groups. Moreover, subjects with an across-shift change in FEV1 of more than 5 percent at both surveys had the greatest loss in FEV1 over 5 years (-267 ml) when compared with one-time responders (-224 ml), and nonresponders (-180 ml), though the differences were not significant. Workers with chest tightness and chronic bronchitis in both surveys were overrepresented in the high dust and endotoxin areas. Our results indicate that even with substantial survey-to-survey variability in responses, there is important information contained in both questionnaires and across-shift spirometry. Among cotton workers, consistent responders to either symptom questionnaire or across-shift FEV1 decrements of > or = 5 percent appear to be at increased risk for lung function impairment. PMID:8205865

Christiani, D C; Ye, T T; Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Dai, H L; Lu, P L

1994-06-01

103

Shift work, sleep, and sleepiness - differences between shift schedules and systems.  

PubMed

In this narrative review, we examined what level of research evidence is available that shift workers' sleep-wake disturbances can be minimized through ergonomic shift scheduling. We classified the pertinent studies conducted on real shift workers in field conditions by the type of shift system and study design (ie, whether the shift systems were modified or not - "treatment" versus "no treatment"). The results of the observational studies in which no changes to the shift system were made (ie, no treatment) showed that, irrespective of the shift system, night and early-morning shifts and quick returns are associated with short sleep and increases in sleepiness. The same is true for very long shifts (>16 hours) and extremely long weekly working hours (>55 hours). For all categories of shift systems, there was a lack of controlled intervention studies, limiting the possibility to provide solution-focused recommendations for shift scheduling. Most of the controlled intervention studies had been conducted on workers under regular 3-shift systems. These studies suggested that a change from slowly backward-rotating shifts to rapidly forward-rotating shifts is advantageous for alertness and, to some degree, sleep. We also found that a change from an 8- to 12-hour shift system does not necessarily result in impairments in the sleep-wake pattern. The level of research evidence was affected by many of the studies' frequent methodological limitations in measuring sleep and sleepiness. In all, to have reliable and solution-focused recommendations for shift scheduling, methodologically sound controlled intervention studies are required in different categories of shift systems. PMID:20119631

Sallinen, Mikael; Kecklund, Göran

2010-03-01

104

Persistent Rotating Shift Work Exposure Is a Tough Second Hit Contributing to Abnormal Liver Function Among On-Site Workers Having Sonographic Fatty Liver.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between elevated serum alanine-transaminase (e-ALT) and persistent rotating shift work (p-RSW) among employees with sonographic fatty liver (SFL), the authors performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of electronics manufacturing workers. The records of 758 workers (507 men, 251 women) with initially normal ALT and a mean age of 32.9 years were analyzed. A total of 109 workers (14.4%) developed e-ALT after 5 years. Compared with those having neither initial SFL nor p-RSW exposure, multivariate analysis indicated that employees who had initial SFL but without p-RSW finally had a higher risk (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-5.1) for developing e-ALT; workers with baseline SFL plus p-RSW had a 3.7-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.8-7.5). SFL poses a conspicuous risk for the development of e-ALT, and persistent p-RSW exposure significantly aggravates the development of e-ALT among on-site workers with preexisting SFL. PMID:23239752

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung

2012-12-13

105

Occupational injuries for consecutive and cumulative shifts among hospital registered nurses and patient care associates: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies. PMID:22998692

Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian

2012-10-01

106

Sleep, ageing and night work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects

M. L. N. Pires; C. W. Teixeira; A. M. Esteves; L. R. A. Bittencourt; R. S. Silva; R. F. Santos; S. Tufik; M. T. Mello

2009-01-01

107

Interaction of age with shift-related sleep-wakefulness, sleepiness, performance, and social life.  

PubMed

It is not clear how the age-related changes in sleep are related to performance and subjective sleepiness at different time of the day. The aim of the present study was to study work shift related interactions of age with sleep-wakefulness, performance, and social life. A representative sample of aircraft maintenance workers in a continuous three-shift system was studied by a questionnaire (n = 275) and an on-site field (n = 49) study. In the field study, sleep length and quality and different ratings of social and other activities were studied with an actigraphy and a Pocket PC diary during 15 consecutive days. Subjective sleepiness (KSS) and vigilance performance (PVT) were registered at work. Although the shift type influenced the sleep, subjective sleepiness, performance, and social life, age was distinctly related only to shift-related changes in the amount of sleep, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance. Night shifts were related with shorter sleep, decreased performance, and increased sleepiness. Although subjective sleepiness was greatest among the youngest (25-34 years) age group during the morning and the night shifts, the increase of performance lapses was higher among the middle-aged (35-49 years) and senior (50-58 years) groups during the night shifts compared to the youngest age group. According to the questionnaire, older shiftworkers also tended to perceive more frequently that subjective sleepiness decreases their work performance during the morning and night shifts. The results indicate of no direct link between age-related differences in subjective sleepiness and performance at night work. The shorter day sleep after the night shifts and higher deterioration of subjective and objective performance according to age urge on development of shift schedules aiming at lower fatigue levels during the night shifts. PMID:16531360

Bonnefond, A; Härmä, M; Hakola, T; Sallinen, M; Kandolin, I; Virkkala, J

2006-01-01

108

[Restrictions on night work: analysis of case studies in a large Lombardy Hospital].  

PubMed

A high percentage of the division's doctors and employees work at night to guarantee urgent assistance and diagnostic services to patients. Night work is not recommended for persons with rather serious case histories due to the disruption of circadian rhythms or the increased workload required of certain operators during nighttime hours. All of the evaluations of health operators with a limited capacity to work on the night shift in our hospital were analysed, except for female workers restricted from night work during pregnancy or puerperium, as provisioned by the regulation that protects working mothers. Forty-two cases were considered (six physicians and 36 operators in the division) out of a total of 2676 employees assigned to night work and the conditions that led to the formulation of the decision are divided as follows: 16 Mental disturbances currently subject to treatment (depression, post-traumatic anxiety disorder, primary insomnia...), 8 Tumours (breast, colon, Ewing Sarcoma), 7 Neurological disorders (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia), 6 Cardiovascular disease (previous IMA; arrhythmias, arterial hypertension not controlled by theraphy) and 5 others patologies (total 45). The cases will be analysed in detail with an analysis of the characteristics of the exempt group of workers and with reference to the temporary or indefinite nature of the exemption. PMID:23405636

Bacis, M; Cologni, L; Belotti, L; Mosconi, G

2012-01-01

109

Evaluation of the impact of shiftwork and chronotype on the workers of the imprint and cutting/welding sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer.  

PubMed

This article presents a study on the impact of shiftwork and chronotype on the perception of the work conditions, workload and adjustment to shiftwork by the workers of two sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer, which operates in three fixed shifts. The workers are allocated in one of the shifts (morning, evening and night shifts) without evaluation of their chronotype and/or social needs. The workers' evaluation of the shift system and their work show that they prefer a fixed shift and to work in a shift compatible with their chronotype. The workers with chonotype uncompatible with the shift time tend to be less satisfied with the work conditions and content and feel more discomfort/pain. PMID:22316957

de M Guimarães, L B; Pessa, S L R; Biguelini, C

2012-01-01

110

[Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].  

PubMed

Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15?% of the population), age (>?50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep. PMID:25213642

Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

2014-11-01

111

Sentinel alert sounds the alarm on worker fatigue; hospitals urged to mitigate risks.  

PubMed

Noting that there is a documented link between worker fatigue and adverse events, the Joint Commission has issued a Sentinel Alert, urging health care organizations to focus on the issue and make sure that policies and procedures are in place to mitigate risks. Experts advise hospital leaders to monitor worker shifts and make sure that people are able to leave work as scheduled when their shifts have concluded. Limit health care workers to no more than three consecutive days of 12-hour shifts, especially if these shifts are at night. Scrutinize handoff procedures so that worker fatigue does not lead to errors during this potentially hazardous time. Make sure that distractions are at a minimum during these transitions, and that patient information is conveyed in both verbal and in written form. PMID:23687738

2012-03-01

112

Meal composition and shift work performance.  

PubMed

Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance. PMID:15780155

Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

2005-01-01

113

Shifting Meanings in a Blue-Collar Worker Philanthropy Program: Emergent Tension in Traditional and Feminist Organizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an innovative philanthropic program instituted by a Midwestern United States manufacturing company during organizational downtimes. Examines the tensions that emerged when a traditionally structured company instituted a program indicative of incremental shifts toward feminist organizing principles. Explores the pragmatic and far-reaching…

Gibson, Melissa K.; Schullery, Nancy M.

2000-01-01

114

Physical training intervention in female shift workers: I. The effects of intervention on fitness, fatigue, sleep, and psychosomatic symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical training intervention was carried out on 75 nurses and nursing aides working irregular shifts to determine the effects of such an intervention on health, sleep-wakefulness and adaptation to shiftwork. The study design and changes in physical fitness, fatigue, sleep and psychosomatic symptoms are examined. Training (T) and control (C) groups were built randomly from matched sets of subjects.

M. I. HÄRMÄ; J. ILMARINEN; P. KNAUTH; J. RUTENFRANZ; O. HÄNNINEN

1988-01-01

115

Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Wright, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

116

Darkness at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this probe is to elicit students' ideas about the day/night cycle. The probe is designed to find out if students recognize that the Earth's rotation is responsible for the day/night cycle.

Eberle, Francis; Tugel, Joyce; Keeley, Page

2007-01-01

117

Night Spectra Quest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)

Jacobs, Stephen

1995-01-01

118

Adnyamathanha Night Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.

Curnow, Paul

2009-06-01

119

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

120

Shift Work Disorder in a Random Population Sample - Prevalence and Comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated the presence of shift work disorder (SWD) in the general community. We addressed many of the limitations in this literature and present new findings. SWD has been treated as an ‘all or none’ construct but we propose the need to consider the ‘severity’ of the disorder. Using random digit dialling, we randomly recruited 1163 participants. Participants completed an extensive battery of scales and questions concerning work, health and individual differences. Three questions based on the criteria from the International Classification for Sleep Disorders were used to categorise participants with SWD (n?=?176). In addition, we asked participants whether SWD interfered with aspects of their life and high ratings were used to define severe shift work disorder (SSWD). The prevalence of SWD was 32.1% among night workers and 10.1% in day workers (p<.001). SSWD was present in 9.1% of night workers and 1.3% of day workers (p<.001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant associations between SWD and night work (OR ?=?3.35, CI 2.19-5.12), weekly work hours (OR ?=?1.02, CI 1.00–1.04), short sleep (?6 h; OR ?=?2.93, CI 1.94–4.41), languidity (OR ?=?1.11, CI 1.06–1.16) and resilience (OR ?=?0.56, CI 0.43–0.81). Night work, short sleep, languidity, and hypertension were significantly associated with SSWD. Overall, participants with SSWD slept 0.80 h less than other participants (p<.001). Night work, short sleep and languidity were associated with both SWD and SSWD. Day workers with SWD symptoms reported significantly shorter sleep duration, higher levels of languidity and worked longer working hours compared to day workers without SWD. PMID:23372847

Di Milia, Lee; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn

2013-01-01

121

Shift work in a security environment  

SciTech Connect

Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

Longhouser, G.A. Jr. [Florida Power Corp., Crystal River, FL (United States)

1993-12-31

122

Nutritional status and eating habits of bus drivers during the day and night.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5?±?10.7?cm in day workers versus 103.2?±?9.7?cm in night workers; p?=?0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI???25?kg/m(2)) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p?=?0.004) and increased WC (>94?cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p?=?0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings ±0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings ±0.7 day workers, p?=?0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings ±0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers ±0.5; p?=?0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p?=?0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p?=?0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR?=?2.94, 95% IC: 1.14-7.66, p?=?0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR?=?2.82, 95% IC: 1.20-6.69, p?=?0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers. Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these workers. PMID:25231504

Balieiro, Laura Cristina Tibiletti; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Waterhouse, Jim; Paim, Samantha Lemos; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

2014-12-01

123

The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

Merkus, Suzanne L; van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

2012-10-01

124

Effects of night work on the cognitive function in young and elderly subjects with specific reference to the auditory P300.  

PubMed

To estimate the effects of night work on the human cognitive function, P300 event related potentials (ERPs) evoked with an auditory "oddball" paradigm were recorded for 17 nurses (mean age 27.4 +/- 6.1 years; range 21-41 years) for 3 epochs; after a night of work, after a day of work and on a holiday, and for 12 elderly security guards (mean age 62.8 +/- 2.2 years; range 60-67 years) for 2 epochs; after a night of work and on a holiday. The Stress Arousal Check List (SACL) was used for all the subjects just prior to the P300 ERP recording to determine the extent of stress and the arousal grades. Fourteen of the nurses were in their twenties (mean age 24.9 +/- 2.6 years; range 21-29 years), and 3 (39.0 +/- 2.6) were older (36, 40 and 41 years). The 14 nurses were classed as the young group. All the security guards were classed as the elderly group. In the young group, the stress grade scores increased significantly (P < 0.05) and the arousal grades decreased significantly (P < 0.01) after night work as compared to the holiday values. Although statistically not significant, the amplitude of the P300 component tended to decrease after night work, whereas the latency was very stable for these 2 epochs. The P300 latencies of the 3 older nurses were as stable as those of the young group, but their amplitudes were significantly reduced after night work as compared with the holiday amplitudes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the 12 elderly security guards showed no statistically significant changes in the scores for the stress and arousal grades between the 2 epochs, after night work and holiday. Latency prolongation however, was statistically significant (P < 0.01) after night work. The P300 amplitudes for many of the elderly security guards also tended to decrease after night work, but were not statistically significant. The P300 amplitude is considered to reflect the amount of attentional resources and the latency to reflect the time needed for the cognitive process, indicating that the elderly security guards experiences slowing of the cognitive process in night work. Our results suggest that the effect of night work on the cognitive function is greater for elderly than for young workers. We conclude that P300 can be used to evaluate changes in the human cognitive function produced by night or rotating shift work and that the results provide useful information with which to plan shift schedules on the basis of worker age. PMID:8552882

Yasukouchi, H; Wada, S; Urasaki, E; Yokota, A

1995-12-01

125

Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.  

PubMed

Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24?h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6?±?4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00?h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00?h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50?lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2?h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8?h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00?h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00?h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24?h. This decrease was larger in women using oral contraceptives. There was no difference between the three groups, and the magnitude of the decrease in melatonin production for nighttime and for the 24?h was not associated with the magnitude of the absolute circadian phase shift. As light intensity was relatively low and because the decrease in melatonin production was progressive, direct suppression by nighttime light exposure was probably not a significant factor. However, according to previous experimental observations, the decrease in melatonin production most likely reflects the circadian disruption associated with the process of re-entrainment. It remains to be determined whether reduced melatonin production can be harmful by itself, but long-term and repeated circadian disruption most probably is. PMID:25222345

Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

2014-12-01

126

Analysis of the workload imposed on the workers of the imprint and cutting/welding sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer.  

PubMed

This article presents a study on the evaluation of the workload imposed to workers of two sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer that operates in three shifts. The workers are allocated in one of the shifts (morning, evening and night shifts) without evaluation of their chronotype and/or social needs. The Imprint sector has a more dynamic work, which is done only by man due to the effort demanded by handling loads. The work in the Cutting/Welding sector is static, done mainly by women. The results showed that the overall workload was the same in the Imprint and Cutting/Welding sectors, because physical effort for load handling is higher in the former but the latter involves high static load. The levels of urinary catecholamines and salivary cortisol were consistent with the workers biological clock showing that none of the workers changed his/her biological cycle to accommodate to the time of the shift schedule. PMID:22316951

de M Guimarães, L B; Pessa, S L R; Biguelini, C

2012-01-01

127

City Night Lights Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows a global view of Earth at night, compiled from over 400 satellite images collected during the nighttime phase of the orbit. Much of Earth is illuminated at night by city lights. The poster includes elementary-secondary activities on the backside from Mission Geography (http://missiongeography.org/).

2002-01-01

128

Beyond Night Commuting  

Microsoft Academic Search

From early 2004 to the end of 2006 Médecins sans Frontières provided a protective shelter for night commuting children in Northern Uganda. Originally the child shelter contained up to 4000 children and the children commuted every night from their villages to the shelter in fear of being abducted by the rebels for use as soldiers, sex slaves and porters. Because

Tine Meyer Thomsen; Rasmus Bjerngaard

2008-01-01

129

Tender for the night: After-dark cultural complexities in the night-time economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the night-time economy emerged in Britain in the early 1990s in the context of strategies to counter de-industrialization and inner-urban decline. Despite registering a shift towards more fluid, fragmented and diversified structures and rhythms of work, leisure and urban space, a framework that acknowledges cultural complexity has not, in practice, characterized night-time economy policy. After-dark cultural complexity

David Rowe; Nathaniel Bavinton

2011-01-01

130

Urinating more at night  

MedlinePLUS

... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

131

Mothers' Night Work and Children's Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9–5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. The present paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3–5) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children’s behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers’ night shift work. We employ three analytic strategies that take various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provide an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children’s behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious/depressed behavior in children compared to mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. PMID:23294148

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle; Su, Jessica Houston

2013-01-01

132

Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.  

PubMed

Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. PMID:23294148

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

2013-10-01

133

Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude rats.  

PubMed

The increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers has been postulated to result from the suppression of pineal melatonin production by exposure to light at night. Exposure of rats bearing rat hepatomas or human breast cancer xenografts to increasing intensities of white fluorescent light during each 12-hour dark phase (0-345 microW/cm2) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of nocturnal melatonin blood levels and a stimulation of tumor growth and linoleic acid uptake/metabolism to the mitogenic molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Venous blood samples were collected from healthy, premenopausal female volunteers during either the daytime, nighttime, or nighttime following 90 minutes of ocular bright, white fluorescent light exposure at 580 microW/cm2 (i.e., 2,800 lx). Compared with tumors perfused with daytime-collected melatonin-deficient blood, human breast cancer xenografts and rat hepatomas perfused in situ, with nocturnal, physiologically melatonin-rich blood collected during the night, exhibited markedly suppressed proliferative activity and linoleic acid uptake/metabolism. Tumors perfused with melatonin-deficient blood collected following ocular exposure to light at night exhibited the daytime pattern of high tumor proliferative activity. These results are the first to show that the tumor growth response to exposure to light during darkness is intensity dependent and that the human nocturnal, circadian melatonin signal not only inhibits human breast cancer growth but that this effect is extinguished by short-term ocular exposure to bright, white light at night. These mechanistic studies are the first to provide a rational biological explanation for the increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers. PMID:16322268

Blask, David E; Brainard, George C; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Davidson, Leslie K; Krause, Jean A; Sauer, Leonard A; Rivera-Bermudez, Moises A; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Jasser, Samar A; Lynch, Darin T; Rollag, Mark D; Zalatan, Frederick

2005-12-01

134

Google Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates the new "Sky" feature of Google Earth 4.2 just released on August 22, 2007 . It lets you look up at the night sky and zoom in on photographs taken by powerful telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope. It also provides placemarks to cool things you can see in the universe.

135

Earth at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence humans have had on their planet can be seen from space. Viewing Earth at night, we see the lights of countless villages, towns, and cities. Fires from slash-and-burn farming and the burn-off of natural gas in oil fields appear in red and yellow. This perspective unveils the breadth of human activity on Earth. It spans the globe.

Kekesi, Alex; Elvidge, Christopher; Baugh, Kimberly; Imhoff, Marc

1999-01-21

136

Night Train's Dark Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that Martin Amis' contemporary novel, Night Train, is a remarkably effective tool for introducing postmodernist notions in general literature classrooms. Presents a definition for postmodernism and brings the reader through a detailed analysis of the language and structure of the novel. Concludes with students' reaction to the analytical…

Johnson, Robert.

2003-01-01

137

Working at night and work ability among nursing personnel: when precarious employment makes the difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the association between night work and work ability, and verify whether the type of contractual employment has any\\u000a influence over this association.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Permanent workers (N = 642) and workers with precarious jobs (temporary contract or outsourced; N = 552) were interviewed and filled out questionnaires concerning work hours and work ability index. They were classified\\u000a into: never worked at night, ex-night workers,

Lucia Rotenberg; Rosane Harter Griep; Frida Marina Fischer; Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca; Paul Landsbergis

2009-01-01

138

Emergency/Night Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

1980-01-01

139

Emergency/Night Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from 8,000 a year to 300 per year.

1980-01-01

140

Travelers In The Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

Grauer, Albert D.

2014-11-01

141

Jupiter Night and Day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

2001-01-01

142

Prevalence of depression and its relationship with work characteristics in a sample of public workers  

PubMed Central

Occupation is a fundamental right, enabling social interaction and financial support for the individual. However, it is an undeniable source of stress, with consequences for physical and mental health. The prevalence of depression and somatic complaints were assessed in 1,013 public workers using the Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire investigating for the presence of somatic problems designed by the research team. The results were related to demographic characteristics, history of previous depressive episodes, work schedule (day work, night and day rotating shift work, day rotating shift work), and duration of current work schedule. There were more cases of moderate depression in the day rotating shift workers (84%) than in those working at night (83%). More women had mild or moderate depression than men (22% and 4% versus 10% and 3%, respectively). Severe depression was found only in men. Nearly 10% of depressed individuals reported previous depressive episodes. A link between depression and somatic complaints was also found. In particular, 59% of depressed subjects reported gastrointestinal complaints and 41% did not (P<0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of depressive symptoms could be facilitated by occupation. A history of depressive symptoms should not be neglected, given the risk of recurrence. Somatic complaints could represent a “wake-up call” regarding depression. Global assessment and effective support are fundamental for promotion of a better quality of life in the at-risk category of workers. PMID:24707177

Luca, Maria; Bellia, Salvatore; Bellia, Marcello; Luca, Antonina; Calandra, Carmela

2014-01-01

143

The impact of a week of simulated night work on sleep, circadian phase, and performance  

PubMed Central

Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects participated in an adaptation and baseline night sleep, directly followed by seven simulated eight-hour night shifts (2300 to 0700 hours). At the end of each shift they were taken outside and exposed to natural light for 20 minutes. They then slept from approximately 0800 hours until they naturally awoke. Results: There was a significant increase in mean performance on a visual psychomotor vigilance task across the week. Daytime sleep quality and quantity were not negatively affected. Total sleep time (TST) for each of the daytime sleeps was reduced, resulting in an average cumulative sleep debt of 3.53 hours prior to the final night shift. TST for each of the daytime sleep periods did not significantly differ from the baseline night, nor did TST significantly vary across the week. There was a significant decrease in wake time after sleep onset and sleep onset latency across the week; sleep efficiency showed a trend towards greater efficiency across the consecutive daytime sleeps. Hours of wakefulness prior to each simulated night shift significantly varied across the week. The melatonin profile significantly shifted across the week. Conclusions: Results suggest that under optimal conditions, the sleep debt that accumulates during consecutive night shifts is relatively small and does not exacerbate decrements in night-time performance resulting from other factors. When sleep loss is minimised, adaptation of performance during consecutive night shifts can occur in conjunction with circadian adaptation. PMID:14573724

Lamond, N; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; McCulloch, K; Holmes, A; Burgess, H; Fletcher, A; Dawson, D

2003-01-01

144

Night Vision Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

1996-01-01

145

Mushroom plant workers experience a shift towards a T helper type 2 dominant state: contribution of innate immunity to spore antigen  

PubMed Central

Contemporary mushroom factories are places where there is a substantial risk of the occurrence of respiratory allergy. The aims of this investigation were to estimate its causative agents and to evaluate the contribution of innate immune response in mushroom workers who cultivate Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji). Cross-sectional and follow-up studies were performed in the factory. We investigated CD1b, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD45RO, CD62L and CD161 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, and serum levels of interleukin (IL-2), IL-4, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-? by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Co-culture experiments of PBMC with spore extracts were also performed. Percentages of CD1b+ monocytes, natural killer (NK), NK T and CD4+ T cells were increased in the workers compared with controls. Increases in Th2 type cells, Th2/Th1 ratio and serum IL-13 and decreased IFN-? were detected, indicating a Th2-biased status of the workers. The follow-up study showed that monocytes and NK cells increased soon after employment while CD4+ T, Th2 and NK T cells increased gradually as employment time lengthened. Serum precipitating antibody to the mushroom antigen could be detected at a later stage. Co-cultivation of PBMC with the spore extracts induced much higher CD1b expression, and suppressed secretion of Th1 cytokine in culture supernatants. These results indicate that the mushroom antigen contains highly immunogenic substances which stimulate PBMC into a Th2-biased in vivo status, and innate immune cells might also play a critical role in developing respiratory allergy in mushroom workers. PMID:14678272

SAIKAI, T; TANAKA, H; SATO, N; ABE, S; MATSUURA, A

2004-01-01

146

Earth at Night 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is what the Earth looks like at night. Can you find your favorite country or city? Surprisingly, city lights make this task quite possible. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The above image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) currently operates four satellites carrying the Operational Linescan System (OLS) in low-altitude polar orbits. Three of these satellites record nighttime data. The DMSP-OLS has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible-near infrared (VNIR) radiance at night. With the OLS VIS band data it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning-illuminated clouds. The Nighttime Lights of the World data set is compiled from the October 1994 - March 1995 DMSP nighttime data collected when moonlight was low. Using the OLS thermal infrared band, areas containing clouds were removed and the remaining area used in the time series. This animation is derived from an image created by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon from data provided by Christopher Elvidge of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Simmon, Robert; Mayhew, Craig; Imhoff, Marc; Elvidge, Christopher

2001-10-19

147

Night Side Jovian Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

1997-01-01

148

Review of night vision technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.

Chrzanowski, K.

2013-06-01

149

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

150

Night Walk II Gabriele Peters  

E-print Network

Night Walk II Gabriele Peters FernUniversit¨at in Hagen Fakult¨at f¨ur Mathematik und Informatik.peters@fernuni-hagen.de 1 Topic of the Artwork This photograph shows a figure walking at night along a street in an acient of the original pho- tograph by stylistic devices such as coarse grain, artificial colorization, and motion blur

Peters, Gabriele

151

Night nursing – staff's working experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. METHODS: The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and

Kerstin Nilsson; Ann-Mari Campbell; Ewa Pilhammar Andersson

2008-01-01

152

Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marked sleepiness occurs during typical night shift work hours and this reduced alertness is associated with marked performance deficits. The effect of caffeine (versus placebo) upon sleepiness at night was studied using objective measures of physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness. Both measures show caffeine to reduce sleepiness at a single dose roughly the equivalent of two to

James K. Walsh; Mark J. Muehlbach; Tina M. Humm; Q. Stokes Dickins; Jeffrey L. Sugerman; Paula K. Schweitzer

1990-01-01

153

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: 'working the night shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a 'daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO2 for photosynthesis. Thus,

Clanton C. Black; C. Barry Osmond

2003-01-01

154

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: `working the night shift'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common\\u000a house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a `daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent\\u000a work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO2 for photosynthesis. Thus,

Clanton C. Black; C. Barry Osmond

2003-01-01

155

A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S BOLLYWOOD DREAM  

E-print Network

"A Midsummer's Night Bollywood Dream" An Indian Theatrical interpretation Of A Western Classic Author: Madison Elizabeth Spencer The Indian film industry makes as many if not more films than any other country in the world. However, films produced...

Spencer, Madison Elizabeth

2009-12-30

156

Chromaticity and luminance requirements for colored symbology in night vision goggles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in display technology have made it possible to superimpose color-coded symbology on the images produced by night vision goggles (NVGs). The resulting color mixture shifts the symbology\\

Paul R. Havig; Gary L. Martinsen; David L. Post; George A. Reis; Eric L. Heft

2003-01-01

157

TWAN: The World at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

Tafreshi, Babak A.

2011-06-01

158

Family Nights, Fairs, and Competitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. We think that math nights, fairs, and competitions can motivate students by answering not only cognitive needs but also social needs of the middle school student. This resource guide offers math content for family nights as well as investigations and activities for math fairs, including project ideas. For those students interested in testing their skills, we have included national math competitions created for middle school students.

Herrera, Terese A.

2010-01-01

159

Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.  

PubMed

As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms. PMID:22926058

Rössler, Wulf

2012-11-01

160

The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.  

PubMed

A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751

Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

2010-04-01

161

Color of the Night Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) The author presents the results of all-night monitoring of the sky brightness in BVRI filters. The measuring equipment used was Unihendron SQM's and knightware software. Results from four observatories are presented, along with implications of twilight flats.

Walker, G.

2013-12-01

162

Shedding Light on Night Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how darkness and night provide a potentially excellent arena for experiential learning opportunities. Recommends learning must be gradual, beginning with appreciation and allaying fear of the dark. Suggests sensory activities, hikes, games, aquatic activities, ecological simulations, historical presentations, and writing or reciting poetry.…

Horwood, Bert

1986-01-01

163

Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle-aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational follow-up study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetS-components, liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to day-night rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middle-aged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT. PMID:19960561

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung

2009-01-01

164

``Crack!'' in the polar night  

Microsoft Academic Search

It happened during the long dark, polar night just over a year ago. It wasn't noticed until months later. Its climatic significance isn't clear yet, but it provides new insight into the process by which the Antarctic ice sheet periodically launches massive icebergs from around its perimeter and heightens concern that this area of Earth's largest frozen continent is changing.``It''

Robert Bindschadler; Eric Rignot

2001-01-01

165

Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in

A H Crisp; B M Matthews; M Oakey; M Crutchfield

1990-01-01

166

Associations Between Night Work and Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, Sleepiness and Fatigue in a Sample of Norwegian Nurses  

PubMed Central

Background Night work has been reported to be associated with various mental disorders and complaints. We investigated relationships between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue among Norwegian nurses. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, based on validated self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 5400 nurses were invited to participate in a health survey through the Norwegian Nurses' Organization, whereof 2059 agreed to participate (response rate 38.1%). Nurses completed a questionnaire containing items on demographic variables (gender, age, years of experience as a nurse, marital status and children living at home), work schedule, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire). They were also asked to report number of night shifts in the last 12 months (NNL). First, the parameters were compared between nurses i) never working nights, ii) currently working nights, and iii) previously working nights, using binary logistic regression analyses. Subsequently, a cumulative approach was used investigating associations between NNL with the continuous scores on the same dependent variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results Nurses with current night work were more often categorized with insomnia (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.99) and chronic fatigue (OR?=?1.78, 95% CI?=?1.02–3.11) than nurses with no night work experience. Previous night work experience was also associated with insomnia (OR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.04–2.02). NNL was not associated with any parameters in the regression analyses. Conclusion Nurses with current or previous night work reported more insomnia than nurses without any night work experience, and current night work was also associated with chronic fatigue. Anxiety, depression and sleepiness were not associated with night work, and no cumulative effect of night shifts during the last 12 months was found on any parameters. PMID:23950914

?yane, Nicolas M. F.; Pallesen, Stale; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn

2013-01-01

167

Night vision enhancement using Wigner Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night vision has been a subject of interest of various sectors. Border patrol, automotive industry, defense are just a few examples. Accidents at night could potentially prove fatal. Thus, lately there is a significant interest form automotive industry in conducting research in night vision. In this paper, we propose a new method for enhancing images taken with poor light conditions

Vinay G. Vaidya; Chandrashekhar N. Padole

2008-01-01

168

E?terror: Computer viruses, class and transnationalism in Transmission and One Night @ the Call Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses upon the use of the language of terror in Hari Kunzru’s Transmission and Chetan Bhagat’s One Night @ the Call Center. It identifies how both these novels apply the language of terror to the actions of exploited Indian workers and considers how this use of the term terror works as a critique of the patterns of contemporary

Liam Connell

2010-01-01

169

[Burn out syndrome among critical care workers].  

PubMed

Burnout syndrome (BOS) is a psychological state resulting from prolonged exposure to job stressors. Because intensive care units (ICUs) are characterized by a high level of work-related stress, we reviewed the available literature on BOS among ICU-healthcare workers. Recent studies suggest that severe BOS (measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory) is present in about half of all critical care physicians and one-third of critical care nurses. Interestingly, the determinants of BOS difer between the two groups of caregivers. Intensivists with severe BOS tend to be those with a large number of working hours (number of night shifts, and time since last vacation), whereas severe BOS among ICU nurses is mainly related to ICU organization and end-of-life care policy. ICU conflicts were independent predictors of severe BOS in both groups. Recent studies also identify potential preventive measures, such as ICU working groups, better communication during end-of-life care, and prevention and management of ICU conflicts. PMID:22096877

Le Gall, Jean Roger; Azoulay, Elie; Embriaco, Nathalie; Poncet, Marie Cécile; Pochard, Frédéric

2011-02-01

170

Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801

Simuni?, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

2012-06-01

171

A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended. PMID:24754917

2014-01-01

172

Immunological findings in hemp workers.  

PubMed

Immunological status and its relation to respiratory findings were studied in 42 female textile workers occupationally exposed to hemp dust and in 49 female control workers. Skin prick tests with hemp or flax dust extracts from different parts of the mill in hemp workers demonstrated the following frequencies of positive tests to antigens: a mixture of hemp and flax extracts (64%), followed by flax extracts (48%), hemp from combing machines (41%), hemp from carding machines (38%), hemp from spinning and weaving machines (33%), and hemp from softening machines (20%). The prevalence of positive skin tests to hemp or flax allergens in control workers was consistently lower, ranging from 21 to 5%. Increased total serum IgE was recorded in 35.7% of hemp workers compared to only 5.0% of control workers (P < 0.05). Hemp workers with positive skin tests had significantly higher prevalences of chronic respiratory symptoms than those with negative skin tests. There were, however, no differences for acute symptoms between workers with positive and negative skin tests. Across-shift changes and baseline lung function were not different when compared by immunologic status. We showed additionally that a water-soluble extract of hemp dust causes a dose-related contraction of nonsensitized guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle when studied in vitro. Our results suggest that frequent immunologic abnormalities can be documented in hemp workers but, with the exception of chronic respiratory symptoms, in general, these do not correlate with respiratory findings. PMID:1464288

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Maayani, S; Goswami, S; Marom, Z; Rienzi, N

1992-12-01

173

Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night  

PubMed Central

Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

2014-01-01

174

Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night.  

PubMed

Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T; Streva, Vincent A; Hill, Steven M; Hanifin, John P; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Belancio, Victoria P

2014-01-01

175

Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects.  

PubMed

The present review has the objective of summarising chronobiological aspects of shift work and obesity. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: shift work; obesity; biological clock. Shift work is extremely frequent in several services and industries, in order to systematise the needs for flexibility of the workforce, necessary to optimise productivity and business competitiveness. In developing countries, this population represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies showed that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, the literature shows that shift workers seem to gain weight more often than those workers submitted to a usual work day. In conclusion, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes and CVD, perhaps as a result of physiological maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. The impact of shift work on metabolism supports a possible pathway to the development of obesity and its co-morbities. The present review demonstrated the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs chronically with shift workers. PMID:20122305

Antunes, L C; Levandovski, R; Dantas, G; Caumo, W; Hidalgo, M P

2010-06-01

176

Night vision device technology development  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

1998-12-31

177

Unemployment and compensating wages: an analysis of shift work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensating wages have been documented for a number of job attributes including working non-standard hours. Using data that\\u000a aggregates across occupations, our analysis confirms a wage premium for working night shifts. However, the compensating wage\\u000a is greater in areas where unemployment is low, suggesting that employers are less pressured to compensate for night shifts\\u000a when employment opportunities are relatively scarce.

Ronald DeBeaumont; Christian Nsiah

2010-01-01

178

Melas Chasma, Day and Night.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

2002-01-01

179

Simplified Night Sky Display System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

Castellano, Timothy P.

2010-01-01

180

The National Drug Research Institute invites you to `Make a night, break a night'  

E-print Network

-funded `Drinking in the Suburbs' project. Subsequently renamed `Make a night or break a night' by the young Institute, Curtin University. An anthropologist, she taught the anthropology of gender and sexuality

181

Stick shift  

E-print Network

Stick Shift is a novel that has undergone several rounds of significant revision. Scott, the book's main character, is a sarcastic American who travels to England to move in with an ex-girlfriend. He experiences all of the ...

Parness, Aaron J. (Aaron Joseph), 1981-

2004-01-01

182

Climatic Research Unit Percentage of cold nights (Tn10p) and warm nights (Tn90p)  

E-print Network

Climatic Research Unit Percentage of cold nights (Tn10p) and warm nights (Tn90p) & percentage of cold days (Tx10p) and warm days (Tx90p) 1950-2004 Trends in warm nights (Tn90p) 1950-2004 Climate and Atmospheric Climate Change. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I. 4th IPCC

Feigon, Brooke

183

STS-44 night Earth Observation of Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-44 night Earth Observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of Florida. City lights outline the entire state of Florida in this night scene taken from a point near Bermuda looking west. In the darkness OV-104's vertical tail points to the Earth's surface below.

1991-01-01

184

COLOR NIGHT VISION FOR NAVIGATION AND SURVEILLANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of registered images of night scenery that are obtained from cameras tuned to different bandwidths will be a significant component of future night-vision devices. A new algorithm for such multispectral image fusion is described. The algorithm performs gray-scale image fusion using a method based on principal components. The monochrome fused image is then colored by means of a suitable

Sanjoy Das; Yunlong Zhang

2000-01-01

185

Horror Nights Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

for Universal Studios' Halloween Horror Nights! Join us for roller coasters and rides at Islands of Adventure Horror Nights Have a scary time at Universal Studios! This weekend, we will be headed to Orlando will go to Islands of Adventure from 4pm- 7pm (see shows and ride roller coasters). After dinner we

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

186

The Natural History of Night Terrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night terrors are a sleep disorder, resulting from a partial arousal during slow-wave sleep. They usually occur within 2 hours of sleep onset and are characterized by agitation and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Nineteen children (ten males, nine females) with onset of night terrors before age 7.5 years were studied by means of a questionnaire. Mean observation time (time from

Francis J. DiMario; E. Stanley Emery

1987-01-01

187

Night Terrors: A Clinical and Empirical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night terrors are intense and striking clinical phenonema. Because of the dramatic nature of this disorder and its widespread confusion with nightmares, a comprehensive overview of the empirical literature reflecting the characteristics, etiology, and treatment of night terrors is presented. Data gathered from recent sleep laboratory investigations and clinical findings are integrated to highlight the unique clinical presentation and course

Charles R. Carlson; David K. White; Ira Daniel Turkat

1982-01-01

188

Transfer color to night vision images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

2005-08-01

189

Progress in color night vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2012-01-01

190

The Sociology of Work: Where Have the Workers Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that, in the period from 1930 to the present, industrial sociology has shifted focus away from workers and work, transforming its view of the worker from a social to an economic one. Suggests that interdisciplinary influences, a macrostructural methodological orientation, and shifting interests of schools of management are responsible.…

Simpson, Ida Harper

1989-01-01

191

Decreasing Adverse Events through Night Talks: An Interdisciplinary, Hospital-Based Quality Improvement Project  

PubMed Central

Background: The majority of medical adverse events are secondary to errors in communication. The Joint Commission (known until 2007 as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) reports that 70% of sentinel events are the result of communication failures. Review of nonperioperative adverse events at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in 2007 found similar statistics: 57% were related to failure to recognize abnormal vital signs and to communicate or address parents’ or nurses’ concerns. Objective: To increase by 80% the number of days between near misses in pediatric neurosurgical patients because of failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns during the night shift. Materials and Methods: Baseline data on near misses from the previous night were collected with the use of a written questionnaire completed the next morning by the interns, patient-care facilitators or charge nurse, and attending physicians. Laminated cards with three standardized questions were created to guide a late-evening review of patients’ status by residents, attending physicians, and nurses: the Night Talks discussion. After initiation of Night Talks, data were collected for issues addressed by Night Talks as well as for preventable adverse events. Main Outcome Measure: Number of days between near misses. Results: During a two-month period before the introduction of Night Talks, there was an average of 3.8 days between near misses on neurosurgery patients. After the initiation of Night Talks, days between near misses due to the failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns increased to 201 days, a 5360% change. Conclusion: Instituting standardized Night Talks substantially reduced near misses in neurosurgical patients at our institution at night. PMID:20740098

White, Christine; del Rey, Javier Gonzalez

2009-01-01

192

Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

193

Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

194

Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.  

PubMed

Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health issues. Sophia lives with her parents and infant brother. There is a maternal family history of insomnia and sleep walking and a paternal history of sleep walking. Her mother adheres to a strict daily schedule. Sleep deprivation, different parental child-rearing practices, social isolation, and lack of quality parent time were all identified by the mother as significant marital stressors. During the office visit, Sophia required 30 minutes to warm up and smile, and over 60 minutes before she spoke her first word. Physical examination was normal (including growth measurements) and the developmental examination was age-appropriate. Upon completion of the assessment, she was engaging, playful, and cooperative with the pediatrician. PMID:18698194

Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

2008-08-01

195

Striking the balance: night care versus the facilitation of good sleep.  

PubMed

This article presents the key findings from an extensive research project aiming to identify the determinants of poor sleep in care homes. A mixed methods study was conducted in 10 care homes in South East England. This included 2-week daily diaries completed by 145 older residents and interviews with 50 care-home staff. This research demonstrated that the regular surveillance by qualified nurses and care assistants at night seriously impedes the quality of sleep experienced by older people living in care homes. However, nurses and social care workers have a duty of care, which would not be fulfilled if regular checks were not undertaken at night. There is a need for care-home staff to strike a balance between enabling older people living in care homes to have a good night's sleep and adhering to their own professional duty of care. PMID:22399003

Eyers, Ingrid; Young, Emma; Luff, Rebekah; Arber, Sara

196

Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

2012-01-01

197

Metabolic impact of shift work.  

PubMed

In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions. PMID:22317392

Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2012-01-01

198

Portable real-time color night vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized multiband night-time images closely resemble the colors in the daytime color reference image. Also,

Alexander Toet; Maarten A. Hogervorst

2008-01-01

199

Experimental Studies of Shift-Work II: Stabilized 8-hour Shift Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one subjects were employed in an experiment to determine whether the relationship between efficiency at mental tasks and the circadian rhythm of body temperature observed in an earlier study was affected by an increase in the length of the duty-spell from 4 to 8 hours. Subjects wore assigned either to a control ‘ day ’ shift (O800–1600), a ‘ night

W. P. COLQUHOUN; M. J. F. BLAKE; B.. S. EDWARDS

1968-01-01

200

Association between shift working and musculoskeletal symptoms among nursing personnel  

PubMed Central

Background: Some health problems are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as one of the most common health-related problems that can cause disability among health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between shift working and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSs) among nursing personnel. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 454 health care workers including nurses and nurses’ aides in a general hospital in Iran. A Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of MSs. Logistic regression analysis with adjusting for confounding factors was performed to evaluate the associations between shift working and the prevalence of MSs. Results: Lower back, knees, and upper back symptoms with the prevalence of 57.4%, 48.4%, and 47%, respectively, were the most common MSs. The prevalence of MSs in eight regions of the body (lower back, neck, knees, upper back, shoulder, wrist, buttock, and ankle) was higher among shift workers than day workers. The differences were statistically significant only in the lower back and ankle regions (P < 0.05). Odds Ratio for lower back symptoms in shift workers was 1.94 compared to day workers (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that shift working could be associated with increased prevalence of lower back disorders among nursing personnel. This study emphasizes on the importance of proper work planning and regulating working hours for nursing personnel. PMID:24949072

Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid

2014-01-01

201

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

2014-01-01

202

Changing the Waveform of Circadian Rhythms: Considerations for Shift-Work  

PubMed Central

Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24?h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified. PMID:22557994

Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Michael R.

2012-01-01

203

Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.  

PubMed

This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. PMID:25151314

Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

2015-01-01

204

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) and Reemployment Trade Adjustment Assistance (RTAA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) provides assistance to qualifying workers who lose their jobs directly due to increased imports or shifts in production out of the United States. Certified workers whose unemployment compensation has ended and who are in approved training may receive income support payments (Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA)) for a maximum of 156 weeks. Some workers

John J Topoleski

2009-01-01

205

True-color night vision cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes True-Color Night Vision cameras that are sensitive to the visible to near-infrared (V-NIR) portion of the spectrum allowing for the "true-color" of scenes and objects to be displayed and recorded under low-light-level conditions. As compared to traditional monochrome (gray or green) night vision imagery, color imagery has increased information content and has proven to enable better situational awareness, faster response time, and more accurate target identification. Urban combat environments, where rapid situational awareness is vital, and marine operations, where there is inherent information in the color of markings and lights, are example applications that can benefit from True-Color Night Vision technology. Two different prototype cameras, employing two different true-color night vision technological approaches, are described and compared in this paper. One camera uses a fast-switching liquid crystal filter in front of a custom Gen-III image intensified camera, and the second camera is based around an EMCCD sensor with a mosaic filter applied directly to the sensor. In addition to visible light, both cameras utilize NIR to (1) increase the signal and (2) enable the viewing of laser aiming devices. The performance of the true-color cameras, along with the performance of standard (monochrome) night vision cameras, are reported and compared under various operating conditions in the lab and the field. In addition to subjective criterion, figures of merit designed specifically for the objective assessment of such cameras are used in this analysis.

Kriesel, Jason; Gat, Nahum

2007-04-01

206

Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night  

SciTech Connect

Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1998-12-01

207

NightSkyLive.net: Bringing the Night Sky into Your Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.

Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live

2004-12-01

208

Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents

Yi Zhang; Lian-Fa Bai; Chuang Zhang; Qian Chen; Guo-Hua Gu

2009-01-01

209

Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird  

PubMed Central

Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

2010-01-01

210

Perceptual evaluation of color night vision image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color night vision techniques play a very important role in the night vision field. How to evaluate the perceptual quality of the color night vision image is a great need to assess the performance of algorithms in this technology. Currently, people usually judge the performance of color night vision techniques using subjective evaluation measures, which is time consuming and bothersome.

Shaoyuan Sun; Haitao Zhao

2007-01-01

211

Solar power for the lunar night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1989-01-01

212

Morning melatonin has limited benefit as a soporific for daytime sleep after night work.  

PubMed

Exogenous melatonin administration in humans is known to exert both chronobiotic (phase shifting) and soporific effects. In a previous study in our lab, young, healthy, subjects worked five consecutive simulated night shifts (23:00 to 07:00 h) and slept during the day (08:30 to 15:30 h). Large phase delays of various magnitudes were produced by the study interventions, which included bright light exposure during the night shifts, as assessed by the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before (baseline) and after (final) the five night shifts. Subjects also ingested either 1.8 mg sustained-release melatonin or placebo before daytime sleep. Although melatonin at this time should delay the circadian clock, this previous study found that it did not increase the magnitude of phase delays. To determine whether melatonin had a soporific effect, we controlled the various magnitudes of phase delay produced by the other study interventions. Melatonin (n=18) and placebo (n=18) groups were formed by matching a melatonin participant with a placebo participant that had a similar baseline and final DLMO (+/-1 h). Sleep log measurements of total sleep time (TST) and actigraphic measurements of sleep latency, TST, and three movement indices for the two groups were examined. Although melatonin was associated with small improvements in sleep quality and quantity, the differences were not statistically significant by analysis of variance. However, binomial analysis indicated that melatonin participants were more likely to sleep better than their placebo counterparts on some days with some measures. It was concluded that, the soporific effect of melatonin is small when administered prior to 7 h daytime sleep periods following night shift work. PMID:16298773

Smith, Mark R; Lee, Clara; Crowley, Stephanie J; Fogg, Louis F; Eastman, Charmane I

2005-01-01

213

A New Nightly Build System for LHCb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

2014-06-01

214

Byssinosis among jute mill workers.  

PubMed

Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers. PMID:12916758

Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

2003-07-01

215

9/7/12 To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift 1/3www.voanews.com/content/to-avoid-humans-tigers-take-night-shift/1503593.html  

E-print Network

MicrobicideEmbedded Cervical Ring Could Protect Women From HIV Rising Risk UN Program Warns of Hazards From Chemicals South Africa Men Face Higher Death Risk, But Why? Polio on Rise in Nigeria, Insecurity to Blame More Articles BLOGS Science World Science Images of the Week 1 days ago Women and Men Literally See

216

Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

2009-07-01

217

77 FR 62147 - Night Definition; Technical Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR 1.1 the definition of night refers to twilight times as published in the ``American Air...the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac,...

2012-10-12

218

Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

2011-01-01

219

What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to

Frank L. Kooi; Alexander Toet

2005-01-01

220

Cellular Phone Use While Driving at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has

Jonathon M. Vivoda; David W. Eby; Renée M. St. Louis; Lidia P. Kostyniuk

2008-01-01

221

Public Outreach with the Night Sky Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Night Sky Network (NSN) is a nationwide coalition of amateur astronomy clubs bringing the science and inspiration of NASA's missions to the public. The NSN is a partnership between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and NASA's Origins and Universe Education Forums, the Navigator Program, and the Kepler mission. This program provides outreach materials for amateur astronomy clubs and

M. Bobrowsky

2005-01-01

222

Things That Go "Peent" in the Night.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early spring night field trips by two naturalists and ten adults, armed with cameras and flashlights, in search of Spotted Salamanders performing ritual mating dances. Although dancing salamanders proved elusive, their habits and those of other pond life were examined and Spring American Woodcock nuptial flights were observed. (NEC)

Neidich, Carole Louise

1981-01-01

223

Night terrors associated with thalamic lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe a case with night terrors (NT) symptomatic of a thalamic lesion.Methods: Videopolysomnography and brain MRI were used to study a 48 year old woman with a recent onset of brief episodes, occurring exclusively during nocturnal sleep, where she suddenly sat up in bed, screamed and appeared to be very frightened.Results: Videopolysomnography recorded an episode suggestive of NT.

Giancarlo Di Gennaro; Alain Autret; Addolorata Mascia; Paolo Onorati; Fabio Sebastiano; Pier Paolo Quarato

2004-01-01

224

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-01-01

225

HH-60D night hawk helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

Richardson, C. S.

1984-01-01

226

Family Fun Night: Where Stories Come Alive!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Academy of Education, Commission on Reading, emphasized that the best way to make children successful readers is to read aloud to them. This can be difficult for teachers and parents of deaf children. This article describes a program called Family Fun Night created by the Capital Area Intermediate Unit (CAIU) in Summerdale,…

Waldner, Heather M.

2004-01-01

227

Family Math Night: Math Standards in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why should your school have a Family Math Night?: (1) Help students learn essential math concepts; (2) Give parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence; and (3) Promote math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry…

Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

2005-01-01

228

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

Undrus, A.

2012-12-01

229

The impact of shift starting time on sleep duration, sleep quality, and alertness prior to injury in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

Early shift start time and night shifts are associated with reduced sleep duration and poor sleep quality that often lead to increased fatigue levels, performance decrements and adverse safety and health outcomes. This study investigates the impact of shift starting time on sleep patterns, including the duration and quality of sleep and alertness/sleepiness at the time of injury, in a large epidemiological field study of hospitalized adults with severe work-related hand injury in the People's Republic of China (PRC) from multiple industries with severe work-related traumatic hand injury were recruited from 11 hospitals in three industrially-developed cities in the PRC: Ningbo, Liuzhou and Wuxi. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare sleep duration, sleep quality and alertness/sleepiness across 3?h increments of shift start time, while adjusting for age, gender, work hours, shift duration, day of injury and several transient work-related factors. Effect modification by gender was also evaluated. Seven-hundred and three hospitalized adults (96.4%) completed a face-to-face interview within 4 days of injury; 527 (75.0%) were male, with a mean (±SEM) age of 31.8?±?0.4 years. Overall, these adults worked relatively long weekly (55.7?±?0.6?h) and daily hours (8.6?±?0.07?h). Average sleep duration prior to injury was 8.5?h (±0.07), and showed significant variations (p value <0.05) across shift starting time increments. Overall mean prior sleep duration was shortest for individuals starting shifts from "21:00-23:59" (5.6±0.8?h) followed by midnight "00:00-02:59" (6.1?±?0.6?h). However, a statistically significant interaction (p?shift starting time on mean sleep duration. For males the shortest sleep duration was 5.6?h ("21:00-23:59") and for females the shortest was 4.3?h ("24:00-02:59" and "15:00-17:59"). Sleep quality (generally quite well) and alertness/sleepiness based on the KSS (generally alert) did not vary significantly across shift starting time. Results suggest that sleep duration is shortest among injured PRC adults starting shifts late night and early morning. However, with more than 8.5?h of sleep on average work days, Chinese slept much longer than typical US day workers (Sleep in America Poll, 2012, 6:44 on workdays, 7:35 on free days), and this may help to explain higher than expected alertness/sleepiness scores at the time of injury. PMID:25216207

Lombardi, David A; Jin, Kezhi; Vetter, Céline; Courtney, Theodore K; Folkard, Simon; Arlinghaus, Anna; Liang, Youxin; Perry, Melissa J

2014-12-01

230

The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

Note: this THEMIS infrared image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in colla

2003-01-01

231

Cormorants dive through the Polar night  

PubMed Central

Most seabirds are visual hunters and are thus strongly affected by light levels. Dependence on vision should be problematic for species wintering at high latitudes, as they face very low light levels for extended periods during the Polar night. We examined the foraging rhythms of male great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) wintering north of the Polar circle in West Greenland, conducting the first year-round recordings of the diving activity in a seabird wintering at high latitudes. Dive depth data revealed that birds dived every day during the Arctic winter and did not adjust their foraging rhythms to varying day length. Therefore, a significant proportion of the dive bouts were conducted in the dark (less than 1?lux) during the Polar night. Our study underlines the stunning adaptability of great cormorants and raises questions about the capacity of diving birds to use non-visual cues to target fish. PMID:17148235

Grémillet, David; Kuntz, Grégoire; Gilbert, Caroline; Woakes, Antony J; Butler, Patrick J; le Maho, Yvon

2005-01-01

232

Multi-channel automotive night vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source?the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

2013-09-01

233

Public Outreach with the Night Sky Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Night Sky Network (NSN) is a nationwide coalition of amateur astronomy clubs bringing the science and inspiration of NASA's missions to the public. The NSN is a partnership between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and NASA's Origins and Universe Education Forums, the Navigator Program, and the Kepler mission. This program provides outreach materials for amateur astronomy clubs and a forum for those involved in community outreach to exchange ideas and learn from each other. NSN Outreach ToolKits of materials are provided free to member astronomy clubs to convey a variety of astronomy and space-related topics. In addition, NSN members have opportunities to talk to real NASA scientists and engineers about their latest research in a series of monthly presentations. Come and find out how you can connect with a Night Sky Network club in your area!

Bobrowsky, M.

2005-12-01

234

Day and Night on Hot Jupiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent observations of the secondary eclipse of the `Hot Jupiter' planet HD209458b suggest that the planet may reradiate most and perhaps all of the irradiation it receives from its host star on the side facing the star i.e. that there is little redistribution of energy around the surface of the planet. An immediate implication of this day\\/night temperature difference is

Bradley Hansen; James Cho; Drake Deming; Joe Harrington; Kristen Menou; Jeremy Richardson; Sara Seager

2005-01-01

235

The Mythology of the Night Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

Falkner, David E.

236

Practicing Sovereignty in Greg Sarris's Watermelon Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, when Watermelon Nights was published, the Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok people were concluding a decade-long struggle to regain federal recognition. In his fictional account, tribal chairman Greg Sarris depicts both the necessity and the challenge of confronting the tribe’s colonial past in order to address present conflicts. As an intervention into the current discussion on sovereignty, Sarris’s

Reginald Dyck

2011-01-01

237

Practicing Sovereignty in Greg Sarris's Watermelon Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In 1998, when Watermelon Nights was published, the Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok people were concluding a decade-long struggle to regain federal recognition. In his fictional account, tribal chairman Greg Sarris depicts both the necessity and the challenge of confronting the tribe’s colonial past in order to address present conflicts. As an intervention into the current discussion on sovereignty, Sarris’s

Reginald Dyck

2011-01-01

238

Habituation of orienting reaction in night terrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polygraphic study on resistance to habituation of the somatic (EMG), autonomic (finger vasoconstriction, galvanic skin reaction,\\u000a respiration, pulse) and EEG (acoustic-evoked potential, EEG-blocking reaction) components of the orienting reaction elicited\\u000a by a repetitive auditory stimulus was performed in 36 patients with night terrors and in 72 matched subjects in two control\\u000a groups. The study evidenced a significantly higher resistance

R. Rogozea; V. Florea-Ciocoiu

1985-01-01

239

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-print Network

A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01

240

Agomelatine Efficacy in the Night Eating Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (?5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

2013-01-01

241

2010 National Observe the Moon Night!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

2010-05-01

242

"Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

Bueter, Chuck

2008-05-01

243

Reproductive health services for populations at high risk of HIV: Performance of a night clinic in Tete province, Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different models exist to provide HIV\\/STI services for most-at-risk populations (MARP). Along the Tete traffic corridor in Mozambique, linking Malawi and Zimbabwe, a night clinic opening between 4 and 10 PM was established targeting female sex workers (FSW) and long-distance truck drivers (LDD). The clinic offers free individual education and counselling, condoms, STI care, HIV testing, contraceptive services and

Yves Lafort; Diederike Geelhoed; Luisa Cumba; Carla das Dores Mosse Lázaro; Wim Delva; Marleen Temmerman

2010-01-01

244

Mysticism and psychedelics: The case of the dark night  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a model of consciousness derived from LSD-assisted psychotherapy to illumine an enigmatic set of painful experiences that occur on the mystic's path known in Western circles as the “dark night.” It argues that the dark night experiences described in John of the Cross's classic workDark Night of the Soul can be conceptualized in terms of Stanislav Grofs

Christopher M. Bache

1991-01-01

245

Experimental tests of image fusion for night vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion techniques have begun to play a very important role in night vision systems. In recent years, various image fusion algorithms have been developed to perform the task. However, very few comprehensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of fusion methods for night vision applications. In this paper we focus on fusion algorithms especially for the night

Yin Chen; Rick S. Blum

2005-01-01

246

Assessing Night Vision Goggle Performance in Security Applications  

E-print Network

Assessing Night Vision Goggle Performance in Security Applications Robert S. Allisona , Pearl Police and border security operations are an important and growing application of night vision devices (NVDs). NVDs improve visibility at night but suffer from a variety of perceptual artifacts and human

Allison, Robert

247

Night Terrors as a Defense Against Feelings of Homosexual Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychotherapeutic treatment of a 27 yearold male who, presented with reurring night terrors (pavornoctrnus), is discussed. The relationship of the clients night terrors to his love\\/hate relationship with his mother and the possibility that he might be gay, but defending against those feelings were central issues in treatment. His night terrors were perceived to be an unconscious defense against

David A. Baptiste Jr

1990-01-01

248

Transition to 12-hour shifts - The process and the product  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YAEC's) transition to a 12-h shift schedule for the operations department staff. It presents the approach to implementation, reactions of both shift workers and management to the new schedule (including perceived benefits and shortcomings), and provides recommendations to others considering this change. Experience demonstrates the ease of any transition when the desire for

Suter

1992-01-01

249

Dispelling Late-Night MythsNews Consumption among Late-Night Comedy Viewers and the Predictors of Exposure to Various Late-Night Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores two largely untested assumptions that dominate popular and scholarly examinations of the “late-night comedy audience.” The first assumption is that young people are tuning in to late-night comedy programs instead of the news. The second assumption is that there is one monolithic “late-night audience.” Using data from both the 2004 Pew Research Center Political Communications Study and

Dannagal G. Young; Russell M. Tisinger

2006-01-01

250

Objective Sleep Measures and Subjective Sleep Satisfaction: How Do Older Adults With Insomnia Define a Good Night’s Sleep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between objective sleep measures and subjective sleep satisfaction was explored in a sample of 47 older adults (59 years and older; 35 women, 12 men) with primary insomnia. Participants submitted to all-night sleep evaluations (polysomnography) for 2 nights. After each night, participants provided subjective sleep-satisfaction ratings. Depth of sleep (decreased Stage 1 sleep and increased Stages 3 and

Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

1998-01-01

251

The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

1975-01-01

252

Does the Incidence of Group Health Insurance Fall on Individual Workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic models predict that the cost of health insurance is borne by workers. In this paper we ask two questions. First, is cost shifting individual-specific: does a worker with higher expected medical expenses bear this cost? Second, how do explicit employee contributions affect cost shifting? We estimate wage change regressions that include as explanatory variables changes in health insurance coverage,

Helen Levy; Roger Feldman

2001-01-01

253

Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

2002-01-01

254

Diagnostic Accuracy of Split-Night Polysomnograms  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) practice parameters indicate that split-night polysomnograms (SN-PSG) may be performed when the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) is ? 20 to 40, depending on clinical factors. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of SN-PSG, including at the lower range of AHIs. Methods: We reviewed 114 consecutive full-night PSGs (FN-PSG) performed at our center between August 2006 and November 2008 on subjects enrolled in studies in which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was the sleep disorder of interest. We compared the AHI from the first 2 hours (2hr-AHI) and 3 hours (3hr-AHI) of sleep with the “gold standard” AHI from FN-PSG (FN-AHI), considering OSA present if FN-AHI ? 5. Results: The 2hr-AHI and 3hr-AHI correlated strongly with the FN-AHI (concordance correlation coefficient [CCC] = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). After adjusting for percentage of sleep in stage REM sleep and in supine position, the correlation of 2 hr- and 3 hr-AHI with FN-AHI remained strong (0.92 and 0.96, respectively). The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) for 2hr-AHI and 3hr-AHI using FN-AHI ? 5 were 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Conclusions: The AHI derived from the first 2 or 3 hours of sleep is of sufficient diagnostic accuracy to rule-in OSA at an AHI threshold of 5 in patients suspected of having OSA. This study suggests that the current recommended threshold for split-night studies (AHI ? 20 to 40) may be revised to a lower number, allowing for more efficient use of resources. Citation: Khawaja IS; Olson EJ; van der Walt C; Bukartyk J; Somers V; Dierkhising R; Morgenthaler TI. Diagnostic accuracy of split-night polysomnograms. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):357-362. PMID:20726284

Khawaja, Imran S.; Olson, Eric J.; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Somers, Virend; Dierkhising, Ross; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

2010-01-01

255

Discouraged Workers and Unemployment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older workers appear more sensitive to labor market conditions in discouragement trms as well as on regular measures of labor force participation. Thus, the age-mismatch group is especially important in the interpretation of discouraged worker patterns. (Author)

Rosenblum, Marc

1974-01-01

256

[Influence of work intensity on development of arterial hypertension in metal-mining workers].  

PubMed

The article covers data on influence of working shifts duration and shift work intensity on cardiovascular system functioning in operators of mining excavators. Findings are that 8 hours shift with regular shift schedule (40 working hours per week) gives significant load on cardiovascular system of workers engaged into underground activities. 50% of mining excavator operators following this working schedule develop transitory arterial hypertension within 10 years. Longer work shift over 8 hours and more intensive shifting schedule over 40 hours per week causes stable arterial hypertension within 3 months in 60% of workers, in 10% of cases associated with lower functioning of sinus node. PMID:24640088

Ustinova, O Iu; Alekseev, V B; Rumiantseva, A N; Orehova, Ia V

2013-01-01

257

Chapter XLIII Worker Performance  

E-print Network

workers within these simulation models as simple resources, often using deterministic performance values1 Chapter XLIII Worker Performance Modeling in Manufacturing Systems Simulation Peer-Olaf Siebers derived from time studies. This form of representing the factory worker ignores the potentially large

Aickelin, Uwe

258

1 rhodopsin mutations in congenital night blindness.  

PubMed

While there are over 100 distinct mutations in the rhodopsin gene that are found in patients with the degenerative disease autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), there are only four known mutations in the rhodopsin gene found in patients with the dysfunction congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). CSNB patients have a much less severe phenotype than those with ADRP; the patients only lose rod function which affects their vision under dim light conditions, whereas their cone function remains relatively unchanged. The known rhodopsin CSNB mutations are found clustered around the site of retinal attachment. Two of the mutations encode replacements of neutral amino acids with negatively charged ones (A292E and G90D), and the remaining two are neutral amino acid replacements (T94I and A295V). All four of these mutations have been shown to constitutively activate the apoprotein in vitro. The mechanisms by which these mutations lead to night blindness are still not known with certainty, and remain the subject of some controversy. The dominant nature of these genetic defects, as well as the relative normalcy of vision in individuals with half the complement of wild type rhodopsin, suggest that it is an active property of the mutant opsin proteins that leads to defective rod vision rather than a loss of some needed function. Herein, we review the known biochemical and electrophysiological data for the four known rhodopsin mutations found in patients with CSNB. PMID:20238025

McAlear, Suzanne D; Kraft, Timothy W; Gross, Alecia K

2010-01-01

259

Sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and performance of 12-hour-shift nurses.  

PubMed

Nurses working 12-h shifts complain of fatigue and insufficient/poor-quality sleep. Objectively measured sleep times have not been often reported. This study describes sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance over three consecutive 12-h (day and night) shifts for hospital registered nurses. Sleep (actigraphy), sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]), and vigilance (Performance Vigilance Task [PVT]), were measured serially in 80 registered nurses (RNs). Occupational fatigue (Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Scale [OFER]) was assessed at baseline. Sleep was short (mean 5.5?h) between shifts, with little difference between day shift (5.7?h) and night shift (5.4?h). Sleepiness scores were low overall (3 on a 1-9 scale, with higher score indicating greater sleepiness), with 45% of nurses having high level of sleepiness (score ?>?7) on at least one shift. Nurses were progressively sleepier each shift, and night nurses were sleepier toward the end of the shift compared to the beginning. There was extensive caffeine use, presumably to preserve or improve alertness. Fatigue was high in one-third of nurses, with intershift fatigue (not feeling recovered from previous shift at the start of the next shift) being most prominent. There were no statistically significant differences in mean reaction time between day/night shift, consecutive work shift, and time into shift. Lapsing was traitlike, with rare (39% of sample), moderate (53%), and frequent (8%) lapsers. Nurses accrue a considerable sleep debt while working successive 12-h shifts with accompanying fatigue and sleepiness. Certain nurses appear more vulnerable to sleep loss than others, as measured by attention lapses. PMID:22324559

Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Rogers, Valerie E; Trinkoff, Alison M; Kane, Robert L; Bausell, R Barker; Scharf, Steven M

2012-03-01

260

Eight and twelve-hour shifts in Austrian rail traffic controllers: a psychophysiological comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared a 12-hour and an 8-hour shift system in 18 Austrian rail traffic control- lers. To gain objective indicators for arousal and fatigue induced by the whole work-rest sequence, we recorded heart rate during the last night shift, in addition to subjective measures that included physical symptoms. A higher increase of monotony, fatigue and saturation emerged during

K. WOLFGANG KALLUS; WOLFRAM BOUCSEIN; NATHALIE SPANNER

2009-01-01

261

Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in swine confinement workers.  

PubMed Central

A group of 59 workers (41 men and 18 women) employed in swine confinement areas was studied to assess the presence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of abnormalities in ventilatory function. A control group of 46 (31 men and 15 women) unexposed workers was studied for the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. For both male and female swine confinement workers complaints of chronic cough, dyspnoea, and chest tightness were significantly more frequent than among control workers. Male workers also complained more of chronic phlegm. Male swine confinement workers who were smokers had significantly higher prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, and chronic bronchitis than male non-smoking swine confinement workers. The frequency of acute symptoms associated with the workshift was high among the swine confinement workers with more than half of the workers complaining of cough and dyspnoea associated with work. Significant acute across shift reductions in lung function occurred in swine confinement workers, being largest for FEF25. All Monday preshift ventilatory capacity measurements in male confinement workers were significantly lower than predicted values; FVC and FEV1 were found to be lower than predicted values for women. The data indicate that exposure in swine confinement buildings is associated with the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and impairment of lung function. Smoking appears to aggravate these changes. PMID:1606030

Zuskin, E; Zagar, Z; Schachter, E N; Mustajbegovic, J; Kern, J

1992-01-01

262

Respiratory function and immunological reactions in sisal workers.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of respiratory function was performed in 50 sisal textile workers in 1972. Twenty of the 50 sisal workers still employed in the sisal mill were reexamined 19 years later. At the time of the initial study there were higher prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms in sisal compared with control workers. By the time of the follow-up study a significant increase had occurred in almost all chronic respiratory symptoms among the 20 sisal workers. At the time of the initial study there were similar and statistically significant across-shift reductions of forced vital capacity (FVC) and the 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1) on Monday and the following Thursday of the work week. Across-shift reductions in FVC and FEV1 in the 20 sisal workers at the follow-up study were larger than at the first measurement. Two sisal workers out of 20 (10.0%) had a positive skin test reaction to an extract sisal; both related symptoms of occupational asthma. In two sisal workers (10.0%) increased IgE was measured; one of these had symptoms of occupational asthma. Our data suggest that exposure to sisal dust in the textile industry may, in some workers, cause the development of respiratory difficulties. Immunological testing may be of value in identifying such workers at risk for occupational asthma. PMID:7927841

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J

1994-01-01

263

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in hemp workers.  

PubMed

Respiratory symptoms and abnormalities of lung function were studied in 84 female and 27 male hemp workers employed in two textile mills (A and B) processing soft hemp (C sativa). In mill A 46 women and 27 men were investigated and 38 female workers were studied in mill B. Forty nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in female hemp workers when compared to control workers. Among the men these differences were significant for nasal catarrh and sinusitis. A high prevalence of byssinosis was found among female hemp workers in both mills (group A, 47.8%; group B, 57.9%) as well as in the male workers (66.7%). Statistically significant across shift reductions in lung function were found for all ventilatory capacity measurements in female and male hemp workers varying from 7.1% for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to 15.1% for flow rates at 50% vital capacity (FEF50). Measured Monday baseline values before the work shift were significantly lower than expected for hemp workers, being particularly reduced for FEF25 and FEF50. The data suggest that occupational exposure to hemp dust is a significant risk factor for the development of acute and chronic lung disease in workers employed in this textile industry. PMID:2207034

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Pokrajac, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J

1990-09-01

264

Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

2013-01-01

265

Assessment of Night Vision Problems in Patients with Congenital Stationary Night Blindness  

PubMed Central

Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the “Light Lab”. In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the “2D Light Lab” showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling. PMID:23658786

Bijveld, Mieke M. C.; van Genderen, Maria M.; Hoeben, Frank P.; Katzin, Amir A.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Riemslag, Frans C. C.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2013-01-01

266

Assessment of night vision problems in patients with congenital stationary night blindness.  

PubMed

Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the "Light Lab". In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the "2D Light Lab" showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling. PMID:23658786

Bijveld, Mieke M C; van Genderen, Maria M; Hoeben, Frank P; Katzin, Amir A; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Riemslag, Frans C C; Kappers, Astrid M L

2013-01-01

267

Night Shift: Ideas and Strategies for Homework. Pathfinder 20. A CILT Series for Language Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of ideas and strategies for homework assignments that can be stimulating and useful to second language learners are presented. Underlying principles are that homework can: give control; develop confidence; promote creativity; support differentiation by task and outcome; encourage pupil independence; support parent-school communication;…

Buckland, David; Short, Mike

268

Tips for Employee Productivity Night Shift: Napping Your Way to Productivity  

E-print Network

before work count. Plan Ahead: Avoid greasy meals and caffeine at dinner and don't smoke after your meal with a slightly agitated nervous system. This will interfere with a nap. For the same reason, don't use alcohol

Kim, Duck O.

269

THE EXPERIENCE OF NIGHT SHIFT REGISTERED NURSES IN AN ACUTE CARE SETTING: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY  

E-print Network

; Christina, Brooke, Dillon, and Hunter for all of your patience and understanding; and Mom and Dad for all, 2010 #12;iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is dedicated to: Doug for your unwavering love and support

Lawrence, Rick L.

270

Protein Adaptive Plasticity and Night Vision  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized network criticality (SONC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently exponentially unlikely phenomena. Adaptive plasticity is a term which has become much more specific as a result of recent physiological and genetic studies. Here we show that the molecular properties of rhodopsin, the transmembrane protein associated with night vision, can be quantified species by species using the Moret-Zebende hydropathicity scale based on SONC. The results show that long-range adaptive plasticity optimizes proximate species molecular functionality far more effectively than one would infer using only standard amino acid sequence (local similarity) tools such as BLAST for multiple alignments. These results should be universal, and they suggest new paths for analyzing and predicting protein functionality from amino acid sequences alone.

J. C. Phillips

2011-01-14

271

[Optimizing visual work of pilot wearing night vision glasses].  

PubMed

The article deals with results of experimental studies on optimizing visual work conditions of pilot in night vision glasses. Prevention of visual fatigue during work in night vision glasses was proved to be contributed mostly by the image brightness (in range of 0.7-1.8 candle/m2) adjustable by the pilot, precise individual settings of optic system in night vision glasses (by viewer's eye base) and regulation of the work duration. PMID:21770334

Davydov, V V; Golosov, S Iu; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Riabinin, V A

2011-01-01

272

Wide-band imaging for enhanced day and night vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible-band cameras using silicon imagers provide excellent video under daylight conditions, but become blind at night. The night sky provides illumination from 1-2 mum which cannot be detected with a silicon sensor. Adding short-wave infrared detectors to a CMOS imager would enable a camera which can be used day or night. A germanium-enhanced CMOS imager (TriWave®) has been developed with

Conor Rafferty; Clifford King; Bryan Ackland; Jason Sproul; Ingvar Aberg; Jay O'Neill; T. S. Sriram; Corbin Godek; Analisa Lattes; Seth Pappas; Arnie Buck; Vasilije Jovanovic

2010-01-01

273

The plasma concentration of copper and prevalence of depression were positively correlated in shift nurses.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported the prevalence of depression in shift nurses to be 15%, and in some cases it may even be as high as 23%. Depression is a major cause of poor sleep quality and can impede efforts to overcome the chronic fatigue that commonly affects shift nurses. Adverse mental health issues have been confirmed in shift nurses, but few studies have investigated the underlying cause of poor mental health in different shift-nurse populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum trace element levels to mental health and the tendency toward depression in shift nurses. We collected blood samples from 90 shift nurses (day, evening, and night shift) who worked in intensive care units and asked them to complete a general data questionnaire as well as the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition. The night-shift nurses showed mild-to-moderate depression levels, which were significantly higher than those of the control group and other shift nurses. Night-shift nurses also had higher levels of plasma copper, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-6, and alanine aminotransferase (p < .05) than the control group and other nurses. Elevated concentrations of ferritin and IL-6 are considered important markers for the onset of depression. The results of this study suggest that plasma copper concentrations in nurses should be monitored. PMID:23460604

Chang, Mei-Yu; Tseng, Chin-Ho; Chiou, Ya-Ling

2014-04-01

274

Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds.  

PubMed

Twice each year, millions of night-migratory songbirds migrate thousands of kilometers. To find their way, they must process and integrate spatiotemporal information from a variety of cues including the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we discovered that night-migratory songbirds possess a tight cluster of brain regions highly active only during night vision. This cluster, here named "cluster N," is located at the dorsal surface of the brain and is adjacent to a known visual pathway. In contrast, neuronal activation of cluster N was not increased in nonmigratory birds during the night, and it disappeared in migrants when both eyes were covered. We suggest that in night-migratory songbirds cluster N is involved in enhanced night vision, and that it could be integrating vision-mediated magnetic and/or star compass information for night-time navigation. Our findings thus represent an anatomical and functional demonstration of a specific night-vision brain area. PMID:15928090

Mouritsen, Henrik; Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D

2005-06-01

275

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

276

Health of workers exposed to electric fields.  

PubMed Central

The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

1985-01-01

277

Stress and sleep in nurses employed in "3?×?8" and "2?×?12" fast rotating shift schedules.  

PubMed

We compared two "3?×?8" shift rotas with backward rotation and quick return (morning and night shift in the same day) in a 5- or 6-day shift cycle, and a "2?×?12" shift rota with forward rotation in a 5-d shift cycle. A total of 294 nurses (72.6% women, mean age 33.8) were examined in a survey on work-related stress, including the Standard Shiftwork Index. Ten nurses per each shift roster recorded their activity and rest periods by actigraphy, rated sleepiness and sleep quality, and collected salivary cortisol throughout the whole shift cycle. Nurses engaged in the "2?×?12" rota showed lower levels of sleep disturbances and, according to actigraphy, sleep duration was more balanced and less fragmented than in the "3?×?8" rosters. The counter-clockwise shift rotation and quick return of "3?×?8" schedules reduce possibility of sleep and recovery. The insertion of a morning shift before the day with quick return increases night sleep by about 1?h. Nurses who take a nap during the night shift require 40% less sleep in the morning after. The "2?×?12" clockwise roster, in spite of 50% increased length of shift, allows a better recovery and more satisfying leisure times, thanks to longer intervals between work periods. Sleepiness increased more during the night than day shifts in all rosters, but without significant difference between 8-h and 12-h rosters. However, the significantly higher level at the start of the night shift in the "3?×?8" rotas points out that the fast backward rotation with quick return puts the subjects in less efficient operational conditions. Some personal characteristics, such as morningness, lability to overcome drowsiness, flexibility of sleeping habits and age were significantly associated to sleep disturbances in nurses engaged in the "3?×?8" rotas, but not in the "2?×?12" schedule. PMID:25216205

Costa, Giovanni; Anelli, Matteo M; Castellini, Giovanna; Fustinoni, Silvia; Neri, Luca

2014-12-01

278

HMD digital night vision system for fixed wing fighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.

Foote, Bobby D.

2013-05-01

279

Display considerations for night and low-illumination viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inadequately designed display viewed in the dark can easily cause dazzling glare and affect our night vision. In this paper we test a display design in which the spectral light emission is selected to reduce the impact of the display on night vision performance while at the same time ensuring good display legibility. We use long-wavelength light (red) that

Rafal Mantiuk; Allan G. Rempel; Wolfgang Heidrich

2009-01-01

280

New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory

Scott Theleman; Jennifer Hegarty; Richard Vollmerhausen; Courtney Scott; John Schroeder; Frank P. Colby; S. Napier

2006-01-01

281

Night-time transpiration can decrease hydraulic redistribution.  

PubMed

C(3) plants dominate many landscapes and are critically important for ecosystem water cycling. At night, plant water losses can include transpiration (E(night)) from the canopy and hydraulic redistribution (HR) from roots. We tested whether E(night) limits the magnitude of HR in a greenhouse study using Artemisia tridentata, Helianthus anomalus and Quercus laevis. Plants were grown with their roots split between two compartments. HR was initiated by briefly withholding all water, followed by watering only one rooting compartment. Under study conditions, all species showed substantial E(night) and HR (highest minus lowest soil water potential [Psi(s)] during a specified diel period). Suppressing E(night) by canopy bagging increased HR during the nightly bagging period (HR(N)) for A. tridentata and H. anomalus by 73 and 33% respectively, but did not affect HR(N) by Q. laevis. Total daily HR (HR(T)) was positively correlated with the Psi(s) gradient between the rooting compartments, which was correlated with light and/or atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPDa) the prior day. For A. tridentata, HR(T) was negatively correlated with night-time VPDa. Ecological implications of the impact of E(night) on HR may include decreased plant productivity during dry seasons, altered ecosystem water flux patterns and reduced nutrient cycling in drying soils. PMID:19422615

Howard, Ava R; van Iersel, Marc W; Richards, James H; Donovan, Lisa A

2009-08-01

282

Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

283

Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

2009-01-01

284

Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear  

E-print Network

Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear June 2012 By Max Cacas, SIGNAL Magazine E for warfighters. Graphene is widely considered by scientists around the world to be a wonder material with a long with graphene. Page 1 of 4Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear | SIGNAL Magazine 12/16/2013http

Sridhar, Srinivas

285

Impact of climate warming on passive night cooling potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-time ventilation is often seen as a promising passive cooling concept. However, as it requires a sufficiently high temperature difference between ambient air and the building structure, this technique is highly sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. In order to quantify the impact of climate warming on the night-time ventilative cooling potential in Europe, eight representative locations across a latitudinal

N. Artmann; D. Gyalistras; H. Manz; P. Heiselberg

2008-01-01

286

Study on real-time registration in dual spectrum low level light night vision technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In low level light (LLL) color night vision technology, dual spectrum images with respective special information were acquired, and target identification probability would be effectively improved through dual spectrum image fusion. Image registration is one of the key technologies during this process. Current dual spectrum image registration methods mainly include dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme and image characteristic pixel searching scheme. In dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme, additional prismatic optical components should be used, and large amount of radiative energy was wasted. In image characteristic pixel searching scheme, complicated arithmetic made it difficult for its real time realization. In this paper, dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision system structure feature and dual spectrum image characteristics was studied, dual spectrum image gray scale symbiotic matrix 2-dimensional histogram was analysed, and a real time image registration method including electronic digital shifting, pixel extension and extraction was put forward. By the analysis of spatial gray-scale relativity of fusion image, registration precision is quantitatively expressed. Emulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic is fast and exact for our dual channel dual spectrum image registration. This method was realized on dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

2009-07-01

287

The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences.  

PubMed

Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result. PMID:17803517

Navara, Kristen J; Nelson, Randy J

2007-10-01

288

Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents.  

PubMed

External zeitgebers synchronize the human circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Humans adapt their chronotype to the day-night cycle, the strongest external zeitgeber. The human circadian rhythm shifts to evening-type orientation when daylight is prolonged into the evening and night hours by artificial light sources. Data from a survey of 1507 German adolescents covering questions about chronotype and electronic screen media use combined with nocturnal satellite image data suggest a relationship between chronotype and artificial nocturnal light. Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. This result persisted when controlling for time use of electronic screen media, intake of stimulants, type of school, age, puberty status, time of sunrise, sex, and population density. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise. Adequate urban development design and parents limiting adolescents' electronic screen media use in the evening could help to adjust adolescents' zeitgeber to early school schedules when they provide appropriate lighting conditions for daytime and for nighttime. PMID:22214237

Vollmer, Christian; Michel, Ulrich; Randler, Christoph

2012-05-01

289

What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

2005-05-01

290

VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 ?m. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

2013-12-01

291

Advanced worker protection system  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

292

Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work  

PubMed Central

A total of 13 to 14% of European and North American workers are involved in shift work. The present aim is to explore the relationships between coping strategies adopted by shift workers and their leisure-time energy expenditure. Twenty-four female and 71 male shift workers (mean ± SD age: 37 ± 9 years) completed an adapted version of the Standard Shift-work Index (SSI), together with a leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Predictors of age, time spent in shift work, gender, marital status and the various shift-work coping indices were explored with step-wise multiple regression. Leisure-time energy expenditure over a 14-d period was entered as the outcome variable. Gender (? = 7168.9 kJ/week, p = 0.023) and time spent in shift work (? = 26.36 kJ/week, p = 0.051) were found to be predictors of energy expenditure, with the most experienced, male shift workers expending the most energy during leisure-time. Overall ‘disengagement’ coping scores from the SSI were positively related to leisure-time energy expenditure (? = 956.27 kJ/week, p = 0.054). In males disengagement of sleep problems (? = ?1078.1 kJ/week, p = 0.086) was found to be negatively correlated to energy expenditure, whereas disengagement of domestic-related problems was found to be positively related to energy expenditure (? = 1961.92 kJ/week, p = 0.001). These relations were not found in female shift workers (p = 0.762). These data suggest that experienced male shift workers participate in the most leisure-time physical activity. These people ‘disengage’ more from their domestic-related problems, but less from their sleep-related problems. It is recommended that physical activity interventions for shift workers should be designed with careful consideration of individual domestic responsibilities and perceived disruption to sleep. PMID:19401896

Fullick, S.; Grindey, C.; Edwards, B.; Morris, C.; Reilly, T.; Richardson, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Atkinson, G.

2009-01-01

293

Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

294

Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simo, Maria Jose; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-01-01

295

Channel at Night in Thermal Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This nighttime thermal infrared image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows differences in temperature that are due to differences in the abundance of rocks, sand and dust on the surface. Rocks remain warm at night, as seen in the warm (bright) rim of the five kilometer (three mile) diameter crater located on the right of this image.

The sinuous channel floor is cold, suggesting that it is covered by material that is more finely grained than the surrounding plains. The interior of the crater shows a great deal of thermal structure, indicating that the distribution of rocks, sand and dust varies across the floor.

The presence of rocks on the rim and inner wall indicates that this crater maintains some of its original character, despite erosion and deposition by Martian winds. Nighttime infrared images such as this one will greatly aid in mapping the physical properties of Mars' surface.

This image is centered at 2 degrees north, 0.4 degrees west, and was acquired at about 3:15 a.m. local Martian time. North is to the right of the image.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

296

STS-84 Night Launch (left view)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Atlantis turns night into day for a few moments as it lifts off on May 15 at 4:07:48 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the STS-84 mission. The fourth Shuttle mission of 1997 will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. The commander is Charles J. Precourt. The pilot is Eileen Marie Collins. The five mission specialists are C. Michael Foale, Carlos I. Noriega, Edward Tsang Lu, Jean-Francois Clervoy of the European Space Agency and Elena V. Kondakova of the Russian Space Agency. The planned nine-day mission will include the exchange of Foale for U.S. astronaut and Mir 23 crew member Jerry M. Linenger, who has been on Mir since Jan. 15. Linenger transferred to Mir during the last docking mission, STS-81; he will return to Earth on Atlantis. Foale is slated to remain on Mir for about four months until he is replaced in September by STS-86 Mission Specialist Wendy B. Lawrence. During the five days Atlantis is scheduled to be docked with the Mir, the STS-84 crew and the Mir 23 crew, including two Russian cosmonauts, Commander Vasily Tsibliev and Flight Engineer Alexander Lazutkin, will participate in joint experiments. The STS-84 mission also will involve the transfer of more than 7,300 pounds of water, logistics and science equipment to and from the Mir. Atlantis is carrying a nearly 300-pound oxygen generator to replace one of two Mir units which have experienced malfunctions. The oxygen it generates is used for breathing by the Mir crew.

1997-01-01

297

Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.  

PubMed

12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building. PMID:22317378

Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

2012-01-01

298

Shift work, confounding and death from ischaemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the relation between shift work and death from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and evidence for confounding by social class and healthy shift worker effects.Methods:A case-referent study nested within an industrial cohort was used. Cases (n = 635) were cohort members who died of ischaemic heart disease (ICD 410–414) during 1950–98 aged 75 or under. Referents were matched on

G Yadegarfar; R McNamee

2008-01-01

299

Occupational Disease and Workers' Compensation: Coverage, Costs, and Consequences  

PubMed Central

Most of the costs of occupational disease are not covered by workers’ compensation. First, the authors estimated the deaths and costs for all occupational disease in 1999, using epidemiological studies. Among the greatest contributors were job-related cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and circulatory disease. Second, the authors estimated the number of workers’ compensation cases, costs, and deaths for 1999, using data from up to 16 states representing all regions of the country. Unlike the epidemiological studies that emphasized fatal diseases, the workers’ compensation estimates emphasized nonfatal diseases and conditions like tendonitis and hernia. Comparisons of the epidemiological and workers’ compensation estimates suggest that in 1999, workers’ compensation missed roughly 46,000 to 93,000 deaths and $8 billion to $23 billion in medical costs. These deaths and costs represented substantial cost shifting from workers’ compensation systems to individual workers, their families, private medical insurance, and taxpayers (through Medicare and Medicaid). Designing policies to reduce the cost shifting and its associated inefficiency will be challenging. PMID:15595947

Leigh, J Paul; Robbins, John A

2004-01-01

300

All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring  

E-print Network

The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

2014-01-01

301

Effects on Sleep-Related Problems and Self-Reported Health After a Change of Shift Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study prospectively examined the effects of a change of shift schedule from a fast forward-rotating schedule to a slowly backward-rotating one. The initial schedule had a forward rotation from mornings to afternoons to nights over 6 consecutive days, with 2 days on each shift followed by 4 days off before the next iteration of the cycle, whereas the new

Björn Karlson; Frida Eek; Palle Ørbæk; Kai Österberg

2009-01-01

302

Chemical shifts in biomolecules  

PubMed Central

Summary NMR chemical shifts are sensitive probes of stucture and dynamics in proteins. Empirical models, based on a large database of measured shifts, take an input structure and provide increasingly accurate estimates of the corresponding shifts. Quantum chemical calculations can provide the same information, with greater generality but (currently) with less accuracy. These methods are now providing new ways to approach NMR structure determination, and new insights into the conformational dynamics of proteins. PMID:23422068

Case, David A.

2013-01-01

303

Loss Reduction Through Worker Satisfaction: The Case of Workers’ Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA prospective study of occupational low back pain (LBP) indicates loss reduction efforts in workers’ compensation that improve workers satisfaction with the treatment of their claim significantly improves levels of recovery (reduces losses) and lowers workers’ compensation insurance costs. The improved outcomes associated with greater worker satisfaction with the firm's treatment of their injury claim, as well as with the

Richard J. Butler; William G. Johnson

2011-01-01

304

Safe and sound? Night-time checking in care homes.  

PubMed

Current research into sleep in care homes indicates that care-giving processes at night disturb vital sleep-a key element in the everyday wellbeing of older people. This article considers the use of technology to support the provision of relationship-centred care at night. Within the context of a large study on sleep in later life, research was carried out to gain an understanding of care staff's acceptance of technology. The findings indicate a hesitancy to rely on technology. To fulfil a professional duty of care at night, the personal assessment of a resident's wellbeing is perceived as best when performed by care-home staff. However, in night-time care, a relationship-centred approach supported by technology has the potential to improve the sleep of older people living in care homes, which in turn could improve their active participation in everyday life. PMID:24260993

Eyers, Ingrid; Carey-Smith, Bruce; Evans, Nina; Orpwood, Roger

305

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, unravels the riddle of the dark night sky, known as Olbers' Paradox. It walks students through the history of various proposed solutions from 1610 to the present.

306

Effects of street traffic noise in the night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.

Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.

1980-01-01

307

A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

1993-01-01

308

Fusion of visible and infrared imagery for night color vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined approach for fusing night-time infrared with visible imagery is presented in this paper. Night color vision is thus accomplished and the final scene has a natural day-time color appearance. Fusion is based either on non-negative matrix factorization or on a transformation that takes into consideration perceptual attributes. The final obtained color images possess a natural day-time color appearance

V. Tsagaris; V. Anastassopoulos

2005-01-01

309

INVIS: integrated night vision surveillance and observation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite consists of three cameras, respectively sensitive in the visual (400-700 nm), the near-infrared (700-1000 nm) and the

Alexander Toet; Maarten A. Hogervorst; Judith Dijk; Rob van Son

2010-01-01

310

Information obtaining and fusion of color night vision system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color night vision technology is a new kind of night vision means. In this paper, on the base of the study on two-color false color low light level(CLLL) TV technology, the principle and experiment study on single-channel false CLLL TV system are carried out. Deeply, the disadvantages of dual-channel false CLLL TV system are pointed out, LLL image geometric segment

Lianfa Bai; Guohua Gu; Qian Chen; Baomin Zhang

2001-01-01

311

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the American Museum of Natural History provides a description of Olbersâ Paradox which poses the question of why the sky is dark at night. The site presents an explanation for why a bright night sky would be expected but is not present and also describes the development of the paradox. Implications about the age of the Universe and its expansion are included.

Soter, Steven; Tyson, Neil D.

2008-06-03

312

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-print Network

NIGHTCOOL: AN INNOVATIVE RESIDENTIAL NOCTURNAL RADIATION COOLING CONCEPT Danny S. Parker John Sherwin Principal Research Scientist Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Using a... building’s roof to take advantage of long-wave radiation to the night sky has been long identified as a potentially productive means to reduce building space cooling. A typical roof at 75?F will radiate at about 55-60 W/m 2 to clear night sky...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01

313

Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

Nilles, Jack M.

1982-01-01

314

Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.  

PubMed

We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; p<0.01) and longer naps (62 vs. 35 min; p=0.01) before the first night shift than high-strain group. Difficulties initiating sleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (p<0.01). High-strain group had more often at least one lapse in PVT during the night shift (p=0.02). Average sleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain. PMID:23698323

Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

2013-01-01

315

Style Shift in Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…

Al-Qinai, Jamal

2009-01-01

316

Immunological findings and respiratory function in cotton textile workers.  

PubMed

Immunological parameters were studied in a group of 24 cotton textile workers. These were volunteers from a cohort of 106 (83 women and 23 men) previously studied textile workers. A group of 30 employees from a bottle packing plant served as a control for the immunologic studies. The subgroup of volunteers undergoing immunologic testing did not differ from the original cohort of textile workers in age, sex, smoking history, or prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms, nor were there any significant differences in baseline lung function or across-shift changes. The 24 cotton worker volunteers underwent skin testing with extracts of cotton dust and cotton seed. Eight of these 24 (33.3%) had positive tests, and 5 of the 8 had elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Only one of the 8 skin-test-positive workers had symptoms of byssinosis. Only 1 of 30 control workers' skin tested with cotton extract reacted, and none had an increased serum IgE level (P less than 0.01). Both baseline lung function and across-shift changes did not differ between workers with positive and negative skin test reactions or between workers with normal and elevated IgE levels. Additionally, we studied the response in vitro of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea to cotton bract extract and demonstrated a dose-dependent contractile response. These data suggest that while immunological findings are frequent in textile workers, they correlate poorly with respiratory symptoms and function and may not be the basis for the airway obstruction seen in this disease. PMID:1399012

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Mustajbegovic, J; Maayani, S; Buck, M G; Rienzi, N

1992-01-01

317

English as a Second Language for the Workplace. Worker Education Program. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide outlines the curriculum designed for a workplace literacy program for about 500 members of a clothing and textile workers union in the Chicago (Illinois) area. The program is intended to prepare workers for the challenges of work in an environment of constantly changing demographics, new technology, and shifting global economy. An…

Garcia, Paula; Keresztes-Nagy, Susan

318

[Ventilatory capacity and respiratory symptoms in hemp-processing workers].  

PubMed

The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and changes in ventilatory capacity were studied in 84 female (mills A and B) and 27 male hemp workers employed in textile mills. Forty-nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in exposed female workers compared to controls. For men the differences were significant for nasal catarrh and sinusitis. A high prevalence of byssinosis was found among female workers in both mills (A = 47.8%); B = 57.9%) as well as in male workers (66.7%). Statistically significant acute across work shift reductions in ventilatory capacity were found for all measurements in female and male hemp workers (P greater than 0.01) varying from 7.1% for FEV1 to 15.1% for FEF50. Measured Monday baseline values before the work shift were significantly lower than expected for hemp workers being particularly reduced for FEF25 and FEF50. The data suggest that exposure to hemp dust is a major risk factor for the development of occupational lung disease. PMID:2281964

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Kopjar, B; Godni?-Cvar, J; Tonkovi?-Lojovi?, M

1990-09-01

319

Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

Brickner, Michael S.

1989-01-01

320

An ENSO shift revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An influential 1996 paper presented a statistical analysis showing that the prolonged ENSO warm event of the early 1990's was inconsistent with the historical pattern of ENSO variability and therefore concluded that there had been a shift in ENSO behavior possibly connected to global warming. A fundamental problem with this earlier analysis is that the data used to test for a shift in ENSO behavior were not independent of the data used to identify the hypothetical shift. A new analysis is presented that avoids this problem by using more recent data. The results raise a question about the earlier finding.

Solow, Andrew R.

2006-11-01

321

Our World: Fluid Shift  

NASA Video Gallery

Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

322

New device for monitoring the colors of the night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

Spoelstra, Henk

2014-05-01

323

Dark or Short Nights: Differential Latitudinal Constraints in Nestling Provisioning Patterns of a Nocturnally Hunting Bird Species  

PubMed Central

In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50°N; Finland 63°N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1±0.1; FIN: 6.6±0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5±0.3; FIN: 3.9±0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of ?11° to ?15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from ?17° in April to ?14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from ?11° in April to ?1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations. PMID:22615850

Zarybnicka, Marketa; Korpimaki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael

2012-01-01

324

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

325

Decree No. 9 promulgating Regulations Governing Labor Protection for Women Staff Members and Workers, 21 July 1988.  

PubMed

This document contains major provisions of a Chinese degree, issued July 21, 1988, which promulgates regulations governing the protection of all women staff members and workers in China. The regulations include a statement that the employment of women must be possible if the employer can be served by women. The employment status and wages of women are protected during pregnancy, delivery, and breast feeding. Women may not engage in underground mining or other designated labor intensive work. During menstruation and pregnancy, women must not perform tasks which are deemed to place their health at jeopardy. Maternity leave will extend for 90 days, with a possible addition in certain circumstances. Mothers at work will be allowed to breast feed infants less than a year old. The working hours of breast-feeding mothers shall not be extended, and they should not be assigned to night shifts. Employers with a large number of female employees are to take specified measures to meet their health and child care needs. Employed women with grievances can undergo an appeals process. People responsible for infringing the rights of women will be subject to administrative punishment. These regulations do not apply to individuals who violate state regulations on family planning. PMID:12289737

1988-01-01

326

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

2010-01-01

327

Work and Nonwork Experiences of Employees on Fixed and Rotating Shifts: An Empirical Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between shift time and use of leisure time, nonwork satisfaction, and mental and physical health among rank-and-file workers and nurses. Found employees working on fixed shift had higher job performance, motivation, and patients' care skill, and probably enjoyed better physical and emotional health. (Author/JAC)

Jamal, Muhammad; Jamal, Saleha M.

1982-01-01

328

Industrial Relations Decentralisation and the Growth of 12Hour Shifts in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, increasing numbers of workplaces in Australia have introduced 12-hour shifts. This increase is due, in part, to government policies aimed at promoting labour flexibility. The purpose of this paper is to examine the cover afforded by the Workplace Relations Act 1996 and other industrial relations legislation in terms of shift-workers’ health and safety. Particular reference

Rebecca Loudoun; Bill Harley

2001-01-01

329

Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers` clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers` hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 {micro}g/ft{sup 2} on workers` hands and up to 714 {micro}g/fg{sup 2} inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers` vehicles were found on the drivers` floor (GM = 19 {micro}g/ft{sup 2}, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

Sanderson, W.T. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies; Henneberger, P.K. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies; Martyny, J. [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States)] [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States); Ellis, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health] [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); Newman, L.S. [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

1999-04-01

330

The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above. Results: A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97–1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01–1.47) with a statistically significant dose–response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant. Conclusion: We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose–response relationships. PMID:24022188

Fritschi, L; Erren, T C; Glass, D C; Girschik, J; Thomson, A K; Saunders, C; Boyle, T; El-Zaemey, S; Rogers, P; Peters, S; Slevin, T; D'Orsogna, A; de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Heyworth, J S

2013-01-01

331

The Electronic Literature Foundation presents The Arabian Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A jug of wine, a loaf of bread-and thou" reads one of the enduring lines of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayya, as translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Translations of the entire Rubaiyat and the Arabian Nights can be found online here, courtesy of the Electronic Literature Foundation. The Rubaiyat is attributed to Omar Khayyam, the Persian philosopher and mathematician who lived in the 11th century. The site includes four versions translated by Fitzgerald, and a more substantial translation by E.H. Winfield. Users can also read Fitzgerald's notes on his own translations, along with searching through all of the verses by keywords. Several translations of the Arabian Nights are also available, including those by Andrew Lang and the explorer Sir Richard Burton. Additionally, there is an interpretive essay on the translation of the Arabian Nights available here, composed by Professor Daniel Beaumont of the University of Rochester.

1999-01-01

332

Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study aimed to determine whether human mental processing actually slows down during the night hours, separately from the previously documented microsleeps, lapses in attention, and general slowing of motor responses. Eighteen healthy young adults were studied during 36 hours of constant wakeful bedrest. Every 2 hours, they performed a logical reasoning task. Items phrased in the negative voice took reliably longer to respond to than items phrased in the positive voice, indicating the need for more mental processing in those items. By subtracting "negative" from "positive" reaction times at each time of day, we were able to plot a circadian rhythm in the time taken for this extra mental processing to be done separately from microsleeps, psychomotor slowing, and inattention. The extra mental processing took longer at night and on the day following sleep loss than it did during the day before the sleep loss, suggesting that human mental processing slows down during the night under sleep deprivation.

Monk, T. H.; Carrier, J.

1997-01-01

333

Spatial contrast sensitivity through aviator's night vision imaging system.  

PubMed

Visual acuity is often used to assess vision through image intensifying devices such as night vision goggles (NVG's). Fewer attempts have been made to measure contrast sensitivity through NVG's. Such information would be useful to better understand contrast processing through NVG's under various stimulus conditions. In this study, computer-generated letter charts were used to measure contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's for a range of letter sizes. The red phosphor of a standard color monitor proved to be an effective stimulus for third generation devices. Different night sky conditions were simulated over a 3 log unit range. The results illustrate the profile of contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's over a range of night sky conditions. Comparison of measurements through NVG's to measurements obtained without the device but at the same luminance and color distinguish between effects of luminance and noise on contrast sensitivity. PMID:8368983

Rabin, J

1993-08-01

334

Using Technology to Analyze and Illustrate Symbolism in Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.

Thomason, Catherine

2012-07-26

335

Benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME) with night blindness.  

PubMed

This is the first report of benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME) with night blindness. Our cases of BAFME (mother, son, and daughter) demonstrated night blindness with a reduced b-wave response on electroretinography (ERG) suggesting an alteration in calcium-mediated neurotransmitter release from photoreceptors in response to light. Several familial epilepsies have been shown to be due to a channelopathy. On the other hand, the mutation of a calcium-channel gene in Xp11.23 was recently reported in incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). Although the gene locus of BAFME was recently assigned to 8q23.3-q24.1, the causative gene has yet to be identified. The present familial case suggests that BAFME may also be a disease of the calcium channel that is present in the retina and the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:12027575

Manabe, Yasuhiro; Narai, Hisashi; Warita, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Shiro, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Kenichi; Kashihara, Kenichi; Shoji, Mikio; Abe, Koji

2002-06-01

336

Night vision and electro-optics technology transfer, 1972 - 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this special report, 'Night Vision and Electro-Optics Technology Transfer 1972-1981,' is threefold: To illustrate, through actual case histories, the potential for exploiting a highly developed and available military technology for solving non-military problems. To provide, in a layman's language, the principles behind night vision and electro-optical devices in order that an awareness may be developed relative to the potential for adopting this technology for non-military applications. To obtain maximum dollar return from research and development investments by applying this technology to secondary applications. This includes, but is not limited to, applications by other Government agencies, state and local governments, colleges and universities, and medical organizations. It is desired that this summary of Technology Transfer activities within Night Vision and Electro-Optics Laboratory (NV/EOL) will benefit those who desire to explore one of the vast technological resources available within the Defense Department and the Federal Government.

Fulton, R. W.; Mason, G. F.

1981-09-01

337

Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia. PMID:1998605

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-02-01

338

Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.?METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.?RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.???Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

2000-01-01

339

Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

2012-01-01

340

Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets. PMID:19380369

Stevens, Richard G

2009-01-01

341

Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612

Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

2012-01-01

342

Protein Chemical Shift Prediction  

E-print Network

The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

Larsen, Anders S

2014-01-01

343

Talent Report: What Workers  

E-print Network

by those in the Millennial generation. The survey was designed to address the following questions: How their work? How do Millennials differ from the generational groups -- Generation X and Baby Boomers Millennial Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time; (3) 230

344

Silicosis in jade workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent finding of cases of silicosis among jade workers in Hong Kong points to this disease being an occupational hazard. The source was found to be the silica flour that was added in a polishing process. Five cases are described together with the results of environmental investigation in a workplace. In three cases the disease was of early onset,

T P Ng; W G Allan; T W Tsin; F J OKelly

1985-01-01

345

Business and Older Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

346

Training Alaska Pipeline Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Government, unions, and employers in Alaska are walking a thin line between training enough pipeline workers to meet current demands, and training too many for jobs that may not exist four or five years from now. The article surveys training programs which stress job opportunities for the State's natives. (Author/AJ)

Grace, Michael

1975-01-01

347

Leukemia in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.

Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith

1981-01-01

348

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

349

Worker-Directed Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

Wagner, Stacey

2001-01-01

350

Scientific Workers in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY British scientific workers have acquaintances and friends among Russian men of science, and as Christmas is approaching they may wish to send a Christmas greeting which will support their colleagues during the hardest time that Russian science has ever had to endure. The American Relief Administration (67 Eaton Square, London, S.W.1) receives contributions in money, and from its famine

V. Korenchevsky

1921-01-01

351

Exposure scenarios for workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the

Hans Marquart; Christine Northage; Chris Money

2007-01-01

352

Food Service Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

Barker, Ellen; And Others

353

Thermochromic Shifts in Supercritical Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermochromic shifts of organic solute molecules in supercritical Co2 under conditions of both constant pressure and density are compared to previous studies of solvatochromic shifts at isothermal conditions. Similar solvatochromic and thermochromic shift...

C. R. Yonker, R. D. Smith

1989-01-01

354

Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments  

PubMed Central

1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts. PMID:23335816

Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

2012-01-01

355

Facts about Hospital Worker Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the licensed rating and statistical organization. 16 Figure 17. Average Indemnity Costs for Hospital Workers’ Compensation Claims, ... for claims that take several years to resolve. 17 Hospitals that purchase workers’ compensation insurance externally are ...

356

Young Workers You Have Rights  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation "I have rights" poster for workers age 16-24. [2 MB PDF ] Assistant Secretary Remarks on Young Worker Rights You have rights on the job, and your ...

357

Shifts that divide populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If fitness landscape is non-concave, And the shift is wide, Then there is a good chance That population would divide. How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem respond to shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our understanding of the ecosystem and thus ability to manage it toward more desirable outcomes. We have developed a model of adaptation, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple but insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

Muneepeerakul, R.; Qubbaj, M. R.; Aggarwal, R.; Anderies, J. M.; Janssen, M. A.

2013-12-01

358

Office Workers Stress Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

359

The Costs of Worker Dislocation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the earnings losses suffered by a group of experienced workers who separated from their firms in the early and mid-1980s. The quarterly earnings histories of a large number of Pennsylvania workers covering the period 1974 through 1986 merged with employment information about their firms served as the data set. Workers' earnings…

Jacobson, Louis; And Others

360

Portland Night High School: Pressing on the Accelerator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 25 years, Portland Night High School (Oregon) has offered students with a job or family a way to complete high school. School features include individualized progression, nongraded credit-accrual based on task completion and demonstrated competency, relevant projects and activities, small class size, a model school-to-work program, and student…

Boss, Suzie

1998-01-01

361

"Smoky Night" and "Crack": Controversial Subjects in Current Children's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two children's picture books: "Smoky Night" and "The House that Crack Built." Notes that the books deal with the Los Angeles riots and the use and distribution of crack cocaine. Concludes that each book treats important issues with sensitivity and honesty and is engaging, even when dealing with controversial topics in a didactic…

Koehnecke, Dianne

2001-01-01

362

Remote Sensing of Urban Heat Islands by Day and Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

A night-time thermal image from the ASTER satellite sensor, of the western New territories of Hong Kong is compared with a daytime Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM? ) thermal image obtained nineteen days earlier. Densely built high rise areas which appear cool on daytime images are conversely, relatively warm on nighttime images, though the temperature differences are not well

Janet Nichol

2005-01-01

363

Washington Post (Book World) Long Day's Journey into Night  

E-print Network

Washington Post (Book World) Long Day's Journey into Night How our restlessness is affecting other of The World's Great Animal Migrations By David S. Wilcove Island Press. 245 pp. $24.95 The world is doomed blocked by dams, and wildebeests whose wild African territory has become no more than an oversized zoo

Bou-Zeid, Elie

364

Design of a Day\\/Night Lunar Rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pair of lunar rovers discussed in this report will return video and state data to various ventures, including theme park and marketing concerns, science agencies, and educational institutions. The greatest challenge accepted by the design team was to enable operations throughout the extremely cold and dark lunar night, an unprecedented goal in planetary exploration. This is achieved through the

Peter Berkelman; Jesse Easudes; Martin C. Martin; Eric Rollins; Jack Silberman; Mei Chen; John Hancock; Andrew B. Mor; Alex Sharf; Tom Warren; Deepak Bapna

1995-01-01

365

Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

Chiras, Andreas

2008-01-01

366

Colorizing single-band thermal night vision images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of assigning single-band thermal night vision image with natural day-time color appearance automatically. We present an approach in which supervised learning is first used to estimate colors of monochromic images. Modeling color distribution of thermal imagery is a challenging problem, since there are insufficient local features for estimating the chromatic value at a point. Our model

Xiaojing Gu; Henry Leung; Shaoyuan Sun; Jiana?n Fang; Haitao Zhao

2010-01-01

367

Leisure motives of eating out in night markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating out is a common occurrence in the lives of most people. In Taiwan, local people enjoy patronizing both street vendors and various dining outlets. However, very little research has mentioned the psychosocial needs and leisure motives addressed by eating out in night markets. A convenience sampling method is used; 350 questionnaires are distributed and yielded 272 valid responses. The

Janet Chang; An-Tien Hsieh

2006-01-01

368

Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut,

Constance E. Walker; S. M. Pompea; D. Isbell

2009-01-01

369

The Eisdell pedigree. Congenital stationary night-blindness with myopia.  

PubMed

A pedigree of X-linked congenital stationary night-blindness, originally published by Nettleship, is presented with abstracts from his private correspondence. An affected descendant has supplied letters and the original working pedigree which led to the publication of the extended pedigree in 1912. PMID:6364465

Jay, M

1983-01-01

370

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment  

E-print Network

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment Chris Johnson, Dept that this equipment poses significant risks to military personnel. For instance, the US Army's Black Hawk helicopter of the US Army Safety Center's review of rotary winged aircraft incidents. As can be seen in Table 1

Johnson, Chris

371

Roosting of passerines over open water at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night observations on the roosting of various species of birds on emergent vegetation over open water is presented. The following species were recorded: Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), Tree Swallow (Iridoproene bicolor), Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia), Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis), Purple Martin (Progne subis), red-winged black bird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Yellow-headed Black Bird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). (ACR)

1978-01-01

372

Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the

S. Henderson; K. Meymaris; D. Ward; C. Walker; R. Russell; S. Pompea; D. Salisbury

2006-01-01

373

Japanese tourists’ perceptions of shopping at Taiwan Night Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

From theoretical viewpoints, analyses of consumer motivation have been applied to the shopping and the tourism industry for decades. The objectives of this study are to understand tourists' motivations and their preferred leisure activities when they shop in tourist night markets. The unit of analysis is the Japanese tourist. According to the research results, novelty-seeking, experiencing local culture and customs

C. C. Tu; D. Y. Liou

2008-01-01

374

Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

Weltsek, Gustave

2005-01-01

375

Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

Connell, Shelley S.

2013-01-01

376

A Night Handline Fishery for Tunas in Hawaii  

E-print Network

fishing in other areas. This report includes a brief history of the fishery in Hawaii, a description in this report. History In 1976 night handline operations for tuna in Hawaii were made exclu- sively from Hilo in the then burgeoning sugar industry (United Japanese Society of Hawaii, 1971). It took another 7 or 8 years, however

377

The Colour of the Moon by Day and by Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAN any of your readers give me a full explanation of the reason why the moon looks white by day and yellow by night? The light that proceeds from it is of course the same at both periods; whence does the change in appearance arise? Two reasons occur at first thought, but they do not completely satisfy the many requirements

F. G

1870-01-01

378

The sleepwalking\\/night terrors syndrome in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are

A. H. Crisp

1996-01-01

379

Psychophysiological Aspects of Nightmares, Night Terrors, and Sleepwalking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring sleep through electroencephalography and electroculography has identified the different sleep stages in which nightmares, night terrors, and sleepwalking occur. Questionnaire surveys have supplemented the findings of case studies of these sleep disorders. Neurotransmitters operative during these sleep disorders have enlarged the knowledge of the psychophysiological dimensions especially of nightmares.

John B. Murray

1991-01-01

380

Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has

D Hartman; A H Crisp; P Sedgwick; S Borrow

2001-01-01

381

OVERNIGHTS: The Difference Between Night and Day By  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of us experience qualitative differences in our feeling and activity states during the daylight as compared with nighttime hours. Aloneness during the dark feels more stressful then it does in the morning or afternoon. Sounds, shadows, movements, or smells are easily ignored in the familiar comfort of daylight, while at night these may evoke fears, worries, and even terror.

Isabelle Fox

382

Hosting a Family Literacy Night at Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea for a family literacy event resulted because teachers wanted more time to share reading strategies with parents, and parents wanted more information on how they could support and encourage their children with reading at home. With great success, Holy Cross School, Kemptville, Ontario, hosted a Family Literacy Night that coincided with the…

McGahey, Michelle

2005-01-01

383

TheCuriousIncidentoftheDog intheNight-time  

E-print Network

,507." One night Christopher discovers that the neighbor's dog has been murdered with a garden fork. Sherlock the least. The book and movie A Beautiful Mind [6], for example, left many mathematicians with mixed that there is a fundamental difference between The Curious Incident and A Beautiful Mind. Paranoid schizophrenia is an ex

Aslaksen, Helmer

384

Family Math Night: Middle School Math Standards in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…

Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine

2006-01-01

385

John Woolman's Light in the Night: An Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an analysis of a religious experience in the night recorded in the journal of John Woolman, a colonial Quaker. As a basis for analysis, I try to clarify the data of Woolman's experience without presuppositions about causes, states of consciousness, three-dimensional space, or meaning. I then study the phenomena in the light of what we know about perception,

George Gillespie

2000-01-01

386

Conference Adopts Conventions on Night Work and Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the International Labor Conference held in Geneva in June 1990, the following topics were discussed: the Director-General's report on the environment and the world of work; night work; safety in the use of chemicals; working conditions in hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments; and the promotion of self-employment. (JOW)

Labour Education, 1990

1990-01-01

387

Bedside shift-to-shift nursing report: implementation and outcomes.  

PubMed

One unit's staff developed and evaluated an intervention to relocate shift-to-shift nursing report to the patient's bedside. Despite challenges related to privacy, distractions, and integration of nursing technicians to the change, bedside shift report reduced shift report times and improved nursing satisfaction. PMID:23243785

Evans, Deby; Grunawalt, Julie; McClish, Donna; Wood, Winnie; Friese, Christopher R

2012-01-01

388

Proton Chemical Shifts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Hans Reich, professor of organic chemistry at the Uiversity of Wisconsin-Madison, this site contains a compilation of proton chemical shifts and coupling constants. This is an excellent resource for providing students familiarity with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Data.

Reich, Hans J.

2007-11-16

389

Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

2011-09-01

390

GNAT1 Associated with Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Congenital stationary night blindness is a nonprogressive retinal disorder manifesting as impaired night vision and is generally associated with other ocular symptoms, such as nystagmus, myopia, and strabismus. This study was conducted to further investigate the genetic basis of CSNB in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Methods. A consanguineous family with multiple individuals manifesting cardinal symptoms of congenital stationary night blindness was ascertained. All family members underwent detailed ophthalmic examination, including fundus photographic examination and electroretinography. Blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Exclusion and genome-wide linkage analyses were completed and two-point LOD scores were calculated. Bidirectional sequencing of GNAT1 was completed, and quantitative expression of Gnat1 transcript levels were investigated in ocular tissues at different postnatal intervals. Results. The results of ophthalmic examinations were suggestive of early-onset stationary night blindness with no extraocular anomalies. The genome-wide scan localized the critical interval to chromosome 3, region p22.1-p14.3, with maximum two-point LOD scores of 3.09 at ? = 0, flanked by markers D3S3522 and D3S1289. Subsequently, a missense mutation in GNAT1, p.D129G, was identified, which segregated within the family, consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, and was not present in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Expression analysis suggested that Gnat1 is expressed at approximately postnatal day (P)7 and is predominantly expressed in the retina. Conclusions. These data suggest that a homozygous missense mutation in GNAT1 is associated with autosomal recessive stationary night blindness. PMID:22190596

Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Chavali, Venkata R. M.; Ali, Shahbaz; Iqbal, Muhammad; Riazuddin, Saima; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Sieving, Paul A.; Ayyagari, Radha; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

2012-01-01

391

Comparison of PCB congener profiles in the embryos and principal prey of a breeding colony of black-crowned night-herons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener profiles of embryos of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting in an urban-industrialized area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, with those of regurgitated food boluses from nestlings and their primary prey. Consistent with previous studies of piscivorous birds, the PCB burden of embryos was shifted towards more heavily chlorinated congeners (those with 6, 7, and 8

Jeffrey M. Levengood; David J. Schaeffer

2010-01-01

392

Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a ?20% increase in number of lights and a ?270% increase in lighted area - although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites - as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (

Small, Christopher; Elvidge, Christopher D.

2013-06-01

393

CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light  

E-print Network

the globe is almost entirely due to some form of human activity be it settlements, shipping fleets, gas flaring or fires associated with swidden agriculture. This extensively illustrated guide introduces users and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to help

Columbia University

394

Merry Wanderers of the Night: Fairies and Folklore in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest abound with supernatural beings of various kinds, which contribute differently to each play's unique, but constant ambivalence towards the potency of art and romantic love. The Introduction to this thesis defines the major characteristics of such supernatural beings, especially fairies, profiles the evolution of fairy belief in the sixteenth century, and finally

Brian Douglas Macdonald

1989-01-01

395

Sleepless in Town - Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds  

PubMed Central

Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

2013-01-01

396

Work-Related Pain and Injury and Barriers to Workers' Compensation Among Las Vegas Hotel Room Cleaners  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. Methods. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. Results. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers’ compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included “It would be too much trouble” (43%), “I was afraid” (26%), and “I didn’t know how” (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. Conclusions. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed. PMID:15727981

Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

2005-01-01

397

Effects of shift work on noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Evidence has accumulated concerning the adverse effects of noise on hearing acuity, but it is not clear whether working shifts may decelerate the effects of hearing loss. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of shift work on hearing loss in a noisy work environment. A sample of 218 male workers recruited at a semiconductor factory with no known occupational hazards that affected hearing acuity other than noise was chosen. The subjects worked either in an eight-hour or 12-hour shift. A standardized audiometric procedure was performed by a qualified audiologist to measure pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, 4 kHz, 6 kHz and 8 kHz in both ears. Using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking habits, and work duration, the results showed that the severity of hearing loss in both ears was significantly lower in subjects who worked a 12-hour shift. In conclusion, working a 12-hour shift followed by a day off is best for workers and hearing protection should be provided in high noise areas. PMID:19805926

Chou, Yu-Fung; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

2009-01-01

398

Physical fitness: An operator's approach to coping with shift work  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong correlation between a shift worker's ability to remain alert and the physical fitness of the individual. Alertness is a key element of a nuclear plant operator's ability to effectively monitor and control plant status. The constant changes in one's metabolism caused by the rotation of work (and sleep) hours can be devastating to his or her health. Many workers with longevity in the field, however, have found it beneficial to maintain some sort of workout or sport activity, feeling that this activity offsets the physical burden of backshift. The author's experience working shifts for 10 years and his reported increase in alertness through exercise and diet manipulation are described in this paper.

Hanks, D.H.

1989-01-01

399

Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work  

SciTech Connect

A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

400

Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment  

PubMed Central

There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

2012-01-01

401

Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment.  

PubMed

There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

2012-01-01

402

Making Space Cool - Successful Outreach at Yuri's Night Stuttgart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yuri’s Night - also known as the “World Space Party” - is the annual celebration commemorating Gagarin’s historic flight on April 12, 1961, and the maiden voyage of the American space shuttle on April 12, 1981. It was created by young space enthusiasts in 2000 at the annual Space Generation Congress and was first celebrated in 2001, registering more than 60 events around the world from the start. Since then the interest in celebrating human spaceflight grew constantly to over 350 events across all seven continents in 2013. The honoring of Yuri Gagarin’s first spaceflight in Stuttgart started in 2007 and resulted in one of the largest events outside the US, with five parties following in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. The Stuttgart event was originally organized as space party for an audience at the age of 20 and beyond including informative aspects at the afternoon and a following party far into the night. Since 2010 the focus of the Yuri’s Night Stuttgart is to bring awareness of space exploration to people of all ages, including particularly many participatory hands-on space activities for kids and families that attract hundreds of visitors every year. As much as Yuri’s Night is a worldwide party, the events in Stuttgart successfully concentrate on educational aspects that help to inspire new generations of space enthusiasts who will ultimately shape the future of space exploration. It is therefore not only a look back to one of the greatest achievements of the 20th Century, but it is also a look into the future: from multinational cooperation on the International Space Station to benefit of space flight to the introduction of the next generation of space technology. This paper will introduce the celebrations of Yuri’s Night in Stuttgart of the past four years and compare them to the early events. It provides a summary of the development of the Yuri’s Night including educational aspects, public relations and media attraction and gives recommendations to similar future events worldwide.

Hill, Christine; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Grossmann, Agnes

403

Shifts that divide population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

2014-05-01

404

Ambiguous Red Shifts  

E-print Network

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

Carl E. Wulfman

2010-10-11

405

Shifted reference holographic interferometry.  

PubMed

Conventional holographic interferometry of vibrating objects yields reconstructed images in which the radiance of each point is proportional to the square of the zero-order Bessel function of an argument proportional to the vibration amplitude. Therefore, the vibration pattern appears as a dark outline on the bright background of the nonvibrating points. By appropriately shifting the frequency of the reference radiation used in the recording of the hologram, the radiance of each image point can be made proportional to the square of the first-order Bessel function of the above argument. Nonvibrating points are therefore black and vibrating points appear bright on a black background. A quantitative analysis of the technique is reviewed and extended and shows the shifted-reference method to be almost one order of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional method. Experimental verification of the theory is presented and some possible future applications are indicated. PMID:20125577

Zambuto, M H; Fischer, W K

1973-07-01

406

The shifting beverage landscape.  

PubMed

STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. PMID:20188750

Storey, Maureen

2010-04-26

407

The effect of work shift and sleep duration on various aspects of police officers' health.  

PubMed

Police officers are prone to cardiovascular disease, overweight, and obesity. Because night-shift work affects sleep, a modifiable risk factor linked to chronic disease, the researchers explored the relationship among shift work, sleep, and wellness for police officers. Sleep, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, stress, fatigue, and body mass index were used to compare officers who worked primarily day shifts to those who worked primarily evening or night shifts, and officers who slept less than 6 hours per day to those who slept at least 6 hours per day. A cross-sectional study of 85 male officers, 20 to 63 years old, was completed at three Midwestern police departments. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep. A questionnaire was used to collect officer demographics and work hours. Other measurements included serum CRP, height, weight, perceived stress, and vital exhaustion. The relative risk of sleeping less than 6 hours per day for officers who primarily worked non-day shifts, compared to those who worked day shifts, was 14.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-102.95, p < .001), and the relative risk of overall poor sleep quality for officers who slept less than 6 hours per day, compared to those who slept more hours, was 2.44 (95% CI, 1.15-5.20, p = .027). CRP was not associated with shift or sleep duration, even when adjusted for officers' ages. PMID:22515415

Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Budde, Laura; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Clark, M Kathleen

2012-05-01

408

Effects of Marital Status and Shift Work on Family Function among Registered Nurses  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the interactive effect of marital status and shift work on family function. A population-based sample of 1,438 nurses between the ages of 20–45?yr was recruited from Taiwan during the period from July 2005 to April 2006 using a mailed questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire contained information about demographic data, work status, shift work schedule, and the Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) Scale, to evaluate family function. Compared to day shift nurses, non-night and rotation shift nurses had 1.53- and 1.38-fold (95% CI=1.09–2.14 and 1.01–1.88) risk to have poor family function after adjusting for other covariates. Married nurses, by contrast, had a 0.44-fold (95% CI=0.29–0.66) risk to have poor family function compared to single nurses. In addition, married nurses who worked non-night or rotation shifts had a significantly higher percent of poor family function than those married nurses working day shifts; however, similar results were not replicated in single nurses. We concluded that shift work and marital status could influence family function. PMID:24909112

TAI, Shu-Yu; LIN, Pei-Chen; CHEN, Yao-Mei; HUNG, Hsin-Chia; PAN, Chih-Hong; PAN, Shung-Mei; LEE, Chung-Yin; HUANG, Chia-Tsuan; WU, Ming-Tsang

2014-01-01

409

Preventing victimization among young women: The SafeNights intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the effect of a brief intervention, titled SafeNights, to reduce victimization among young college-aged females. Participants A total of 1,048 women participated; 496 participants in the control and 552 in the experimental condition. Method Young Americans crossing the U.S. border to patronize Tijuana bars were randomly assigned to an intervention as they traveled into Tijuana. Upon returning to the United States, participants provided a breath sample and were interviewed. Results SafeNights was significantly associated with reductions in reported victimization independent of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The intervention will be refined for a broader spectrum of collegiate settings at high risk for heavy drinking and potential victimization. PMID:24634576

Kelley-Baker, Tara; Johnson, Mark B.; Romano, Eduardo; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2012-01-01

410

Family Science Night, Changing Perceptions one Family at a Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

Colina-Trujillo, M. S.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.

2007-05-01

411

Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

2007-05-01

412

Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Earth's magnetotail, Japanese Moon orbiter Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The encounters were characterized by the low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids. Different from the previous observations made in the magnetotail by the GEOTAIL spacecraft, the ions were affected by the existence of the Moon. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data for the first time.

Saito, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Yokota, S.; Tsunakawa, H.; Matsushima, M.; Takahashi, F.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.

2014-11-01

413

Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured

R. Sommariva; M. J. Pilling; W. J. Bloss; D. E. Heard; J. D. Lee; Z. L. Fleming; P. S. Monks; J. M. C. Plane; A. Saiz-Lopez; S. M. Ball; M. Bitter; R. L. Jones; N. Brough; S. A. Penkett; J. R. Hopkins; A. C. Lewis; K. A. Read

2007-01-01

414

Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured

R. Sommariva; M. J. Pilling; W. J. Bloss; D. E. Heard; J. D. Lee; Z. L. Fleming; P. S. Monks; J. M. C. Plane; A. Saiz-Lopez; S. M. Ball; M. Bitter; R. L. Jones; N. Brough; S. A. Penkett; J. R. Hopkins; A. C. Lewis; K. A. Read

2006-01-01

415

Flower scent composition in night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral scent of 13 night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) was collected by headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Benzenoids together with isoprenoids dominated the scent in all species. Among the benzenoids, benzaldehyde (Silene subconica 35.5%, Silene succulenta 23.1%, Silene sericea 15.6%, Silene vulgaris 12.2%, and Silene nutans 9.9%), methylbenzoate (Silene saxifraga 96.1%, S. succulenta 15.2%), benzyl acetate

A. Jürgens; T. Witt; G. Gottsberger

2002-01-01

416

GAS FLARING MONITORING USING ATSR NIGHT-TIME MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas flaring flames are characterised by high temperatures and ATSR instruments are equipped with the appropriate spectral bands to detect them. In order to monitor gas flaring on global scale a new active flame detection scheme from satellite night-time Short Wave Infra Red (SWIR) measurements (1.6 ?m), called ALGO3, has been developed and tested using the Along Track Scanning Radiometer

Stefano Casadio; Olivier Arino; Danilo Serpe

417

School of Education celebrates its inaugural awards night  

Microsoft Academic Search

The School of Education recently recognised outstanding achievement amongst its student body at the inaugural awards night at The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Sydney Campus.The evening was attended by over 100 of the School’s students along with family and friends. A number of prizes were awarded including those that recognised academic excellence, achievement in Religious Education and professional experience.

Moira Saunders

2011-01-01

418

Uncertainty by choice: anesthesia and the children of night.  

PubMed

Anesthesiologists sometimes have difficulty discussing uncertainties with patients. The widespread and deeply visceral uncertainty about sleep, dreams, and death--the daily terrain of the anesthesiologist--has its roots in the classical representations of these states as siblings, the children of the goddess Night. The symbolism of mythology can guide the practitioner by recognizing, through allegory, the range of our own and our patients' fears. PMID:11880023

Holzman, Robert S

2002-02-01

419

Night-time surveillance system for forensic 3D mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a research in the development of a night-time surveillance imaging system for forensic mapping, and the exploitation of the system for crime suspect identification. The motivation of this research was to develop a precision stereo-imaging system using an off-the-shelf imaging sensor for 3D mapping of crime suspects. The prototype surveillance imaging system consisted of a high definition

Albert K. Chong; M. F. M. Ariff; Z. Majid; H. Setan

2010-01-01

420

Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured\\u000a and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning\\u000a in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all

Chun Shing Jason Pun; Chu Wing So

421

Molecular Band Imaging of the Venus Night Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary modeling results of Venus night side imaging data in the near-infrared. The images were taken on 16 and 17 December 1997 using the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope in Sunspot, NM. We used a Goddard-built acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) camera, which operates from 1.6--3.2 mu m and has a spectral resolution lambda \\/Delta lambda = 422

N. J. Chanover; J. J. Hillman; D. A. Glenar

1998-01-01

422

Acute Dissociation After 1 Night of Sleep Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that dissociative symptoms are related to self-reports of deviant sleep experiences. The present study is the 1st to explore whether sleep loss can fuel dissociative symptoms. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were deprived of sleep for 1 night. Sleepiness and dissociative symptoms were assessed every 6 hr. The authors measured both spontaneous dissociative symptoms and dissociative symptoms induced

Timo Giesbrecht; Tom Smeets; Jimmie Leppink; Marko Jelicic; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

423

78 FR 31872 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...

2013-05-28

424

78 FR 77587 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...

2013-12-24

425

INVIS: integrated night vision surveillance and observation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite consists of three cameras, respectively sensitive in the visual (400-700 nm), the near-infrared (700-1000 nm) and the longwave infrared (8-14 ?m) bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The optical axes of the three cameras are aligned. Image quality of the fused sensor signals can be enhanced in real-time through Dynamic Noise Reduction, Superresolution, and Local Adaptive Contrast Enhancement. The quality of the longwave infrared image can be enhanced through Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction (SBNUC), intelligent clustering and thresholding. The visual and near-infrared signals are used to represent the resulting multiband nightvision image in realistic daytime colors, using the Color-the-Night color remapping principle. Color remapping can also be deployed to enhance the visibility of thermal targets that are camouflaged in the visual and near-infrared range of the spectrum. The dynamic false-color nighttime images can be augmented with corresponding synthetic 3D scene views, generated in real-time using a geometric 3D scene model in combination with position and orientation information supplied by the GPS and inertial sensors of the INVIS system.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Dijk, Judith; van Son, Rob

2010-04-01

426

Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Museum of Modern Art's online exhibition "Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night" is the first exhibit to organize his paintings around the theme of night and twilight paintings. Since Van Gogh could not work solely from memory or imagination, he created these paintings in the dark or near dark. Some of his paintings, however, were of indoor light at night, so he didn't always face the obstacle of complete darkness. This exhibit is very straightforward and well organized, and includes audio clips, drawings, pages from his journal, and extremely high quality images that let you see those thick swathes of paint he so successfully employed. The exhibit also clues you in as to his relationship with his brother and sister, to whom he sometimes sent drawings of his work, or descriptions of the colors he was planning on using in a piece. Visitors shouldn't leave without contrasting his traditional and somber "Early Landscapes" of the Netherlands, where he was born, to his later landscapes of France, that have strong uses of vibrant color. The "Sowers and Wheatfields" section has some good examples of this use of color.

427

The first world atlas of the artificial night sky brightness  

E-print Network

We present the first World Atlas of the zenith artificial night sky brightness at sea level. Based on radiance calibrated high resolution DMSP satellite data and on accurate modelling of light propagation in the atmosphere, it provides a nearly global picture of how mankind is proceeding to envelope itself in a luminous fog. Comparing the Atlas with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) population density database we determined the fraction of population who are living under a sky of given brightness. About two thirds of the World population and 99% of the population in US (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) and EU live in areas where the night sky is above the threshold set for polluted status. Assuming average eye functionality, about one fifth of the World population, more than two thirds of the US population and more than one half of the EU population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. Finally, about one tenth of the World population, more than 40% of the US population and one sixth of the EU population no longer view the heavens with the eye adapted to night vision because the sky brightness.

P. Cinzano; F. Falchi; C. D. Elvidge

2001-08-03

428

Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.  

PubMed

The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings. PMID:11109178

Sass, R

2000-01-01

429

Radiological worker training  

SciTech Connect

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

NONE

1998-10-01

430

An ethnographic study of night blindness “ ratauni” among women in the Terai of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night blindness is the most common ocular condition representing moderate-to-severe vitamin A deficiency in children. Very little, however, is known about maternal night blindness, which has recently been reported to occur frequently during pregnancy in parts of south-east Asia. In Nepal, the prevalence of night blindness is reported to be 16%. We carried out an ethnographic study of night blindness

Parul Christian; Margaret E. Bentley; Rajendra Pradhan; Keith P. West

1998-01-01

431

An optimized region-based color transfer method for night vision application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern night-vision systems like image intensifiers and thermal cameras enable operations at night and in adverse weather conditions. Modern night vision camera provides false-colored fused image as an output which is unnatural in appearance and it is therefore hard to interpret. In this paper, a region-based natural color mapping method for night vision imagery is presented. The proposed method colorizes

Tanish Zaveri; Mukesh Zaveri; Ishit Makwana; Harshit Mehta

2010-01-01