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1

Sleep quality in nurses: a randomized clinical trial of day and night shift workers.  

PubMed

The study investigated the number of days off nurses working night shifts need to recover their sleep quality to the level of daytime workers during their days off. This study included 30 day-shift nurses and 32 night-shift nurses. It was conducted as a randomized clinical trial in the medical and surgical wards of a medical center in northern Taiwan in May and June 2010 using sleep diaries and sleep parameters collected by actigraphy on different workdays and days off. On workdays, the night-shift group had significantly less total sleep time (TST) on Day 5 and significantly lower sleep efficiency (SE) on Day 3 than the day-shift group. TSTs of the two groups on days off were higher than those on workdays. On the 4th consecutive day off, higher TST, a decrease in WASO, and an increase in SE suggests that the night-shift group had recovered their sleep quality to the level of the day-shift group on their days off. The SE of the night-shift group exceeded that of the day-shift group after the 4th consecutive day off, though the difference was not statistically significant in the present study. Based on these data, it is recommended that night-shift workers arrange a period of at least 4 days off after 5 consecutive night shifts and at least 5 days off if the staff who have previously worked night shifts are being assigned a set of different shifts. PMID:22472904

Niu, Shu-Fen; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Shiun; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2012-04-03

2

[Comparison of shift work and night shifts: impacts on health and wellbeing among sanitary workers].  

PubMed

The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the quality of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health and wellbeing, during the wellbeing, during the shift. Three groups of sanitary workers, one working in the morning, one working two shifts, and the other working three, took part. All completed a version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. The three groups differed on many outcome measures, although the differences that did exist didn't suggested advantages for one shift system over the others. PMID:23393869

Della Betta, F; Martinellit, R; Del Re, C; Tarquini, M; Fantasia, D; Paoletti, A

3

Circadian phase, sleepiness, and light exposure assessment in night workers with and without shift work disorder.  

PubMed

Most night workers are unable to adjust their circadian rhythms to the atypical hours of sleep and wake. Between 10% and 30% of shiftworkers report symptoms of excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia consistent with a diagnosis of shift work disorder (SWD). Difficulties in attaining appropriate shifts in circadian phase, in response to night work, may explain why some individuals develop SWD. In the present study, it was hypothesized that disturbances of sleep and wakefulness in shiftworkers are related to the degree of mismatch between their endogenous circadian rhythms and the night-work schedule of sleep during the day and wake activities at night. Five asymptomatic night workers (ANWs) (3 females; [mean ± SD] age: 39.2 ± 12.5 yrs; mean yrs on shift = 9.3) and five night workers meeting diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Sleep Disorders [ICSD]-2) for SWD (3 females; age: 35.6 ± 8.6 yrs; mean years on shift = 8.4) participated. All participants were admitted to the sleep center at 16:00 h, where they stayed in a dim light (<10 lux) private room for the study period of 25 consecutive hours. Saliva samples for melatonin assessment were collected at 30-min intervals. Circadian phase was determined from circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin onset (dim light melatonin onset, DLMO) calculated for each individual melatonin profile. Objective sleepiness was assessed using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT; 13 trials, 2-h intervals starting at 17:00 h). A Mann-Whitney U test was used for evaluation of differences between groups. The DLMO in ANW group was 04:42 ± 3.25 h, whereas in the SWD group it was 20:42 ± 2.21 h (z = 2.4; p night work time (01:00-09:00 h) was significantly shorter (3.6 ± .90 min: [M ± SEM]) in the SWD group compared with that in ANW group (6.8 ± .93 min). DLMO was significantly correlated with insomnia severity (r = -.68; p < .03), indicating that the workers with more severe insomnia symptoms had an earlier timing of DLMO. Finally, SWD subjects were exposed to more morning light (between 05:00 and 11:00 h) as than ANW ones (798 vs. 180 lux [M ± SD], respectively z =?-1.7; p night-shift workers. In contrast, individuals with SWD maintain a circadian phase position similar to day workers, leading to a mismatch/conflict between their endogenous rhythms and their sleep-wake schedule. PMID:22823876

Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

2012-08-01

4

Cardiovascular and autonomic response to environmental noise during sleep in night shift workers.  

PubMed

Polysomnograph, beat-by-beat heart rate and blood pressure were monitored in night shift workers exposed to environmental and laboratory noise events during day sleep. The study was carried out in a sleep laboratory. Subjects were nine young, healthy female night shift workers. Recorded noises from trucks, civilian aircraft, low altitude military aircraft and tones were presented at 55, 65, and 75 L(Amax). Sleep stage, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and immediately after onset of noise events were compared. Spectral analyses of heart rate and blood pressure variabilities were used to compare sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous tone in 10-min. intervals containing noise and quiet. Heart rate was responsive to noise level but not noise type. Blood pressure increased primarily to sounds of sudden onset. Noise-induced awakening and alpha EEG responses were related to BP increase. Increase in HR was greatest when subjects were awakened by noise or already awake. Spectral analysis of BP variabilities indicated increased sympathetic vascular tone due to noise. Similar analyses of HR data indicated no noise effect. No habituation to noise was apparent over three consecutive sleep sessions. It was concluded that over the range of noise levels used, heart rate responds to noise level during sleep; blood pressure to sounds of sudden onset. Spectral analysis of blood pressure variabilities is a sensitive measure of autonomic nervous response to environmental noise and should also be studied in subjects sleeping at home. PMID:12071548

Carter, Norman; Henderson, Robyn; Lal, Saroj; Hart, Michael; Booth, Sharon; Hunyor, Stephen

2002-06-15

5

Effects of Napping on Sleepiness and Sleep-Related Performance Deficits in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation. PMID:23411360

Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S

2013-02-13

6

The suitability of a caffeinated energy drink for night-shift workers.  

PubMed

Past research has indicated that caffeinated 'functional energy drinks' (FEDs) are effective in counteracting sleepiness. It is not known however, what impact FEDs have on sleep itself. FEDs contain several active ingredients, including caffeine. They may therefore impact negatively on sleep and hence subsequent performance, deeming their use counterproductive. In a randomised cross-over design, 15 young adults participated in a simulated first night-shift protocol with 2 conditions, Functional Energy Drink (FED) and Non Functional Energy Drink (NonFED). Both involved a period of extended wakefulness (0700-0730 h-24.5 h) followed by an 8-h daytime 'recovery' sleep (0730-1530 h). During the FED condition, a commercially available FED was administered twice during the night. Sleepiness was assessed during the period of extended wakefulness and for a further 6h after waking. Sleep periods were recorded using a standard 5 channel polysomnogram. Comparison of the sleep periods showed that sleep onset latency remained unchanged as did stage 2 and slow wave sleep. Total sleep time however, was 29.1 min shorter (p<.05) in the FED condition. Sleep efficiency was also significantly reduced from 91.8+/-.9% to 84.7+/-2.7% (p<.05). It is evident that the residual effects of the FED's active ingredients impact on some aspects of daytime sleep following a simulated night-shift. Subsequent performance however was unaffected. The results deem FEDs to be effective for a single night-shift and warrant investigation into their use over successive night-shifts. PMID:16574171

Jay, Sarah M; Petrilli, Renée M; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

2006-03-29

7

Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers.  

PubMed

Night and shift work might be risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders due to interference with diet, circadian metabolic rhythms, and lifestyle. The relationship between permanent night work and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors was explored in a retrospective longitudinal study of workers employed in a large municipal enterprise in charge of street cleaning and domestic waste collection. All subjects who had worked night shifts between 1976 and 2007 as hand sweepers, motor sweepers, and delivery tricar drivers were compared with subjects who always worked the same jobs but on day shifts. From the periodical medical surveillance files, we identified 488 male workers who had been examined on average five times (minimum 2, maximum 14) during the study period, for a total of 2,328 medical examinations; 157 always had worked day shifts, 12 always the night shift, and 319 both (initially day and subsequently night shifts). Their age ranged from 22 to 62 yrs, and work experience varied from 1 to 28 yrs. Lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption), body mass index, serum glucose, total cholesterol, tryglicerides, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure, resting electrocardiogram, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and related drugs were taken into consideration for the analysis. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models (exchangeable correlation matrix) to analyze the relationship between night work and health effects while accounting for within-subject correlations and adjusting for study period, job, age, and lifestyle variables. As a whole, night workers smoked more and had significantly higher BMI, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides than day workers. Both the inter-individual comparison between day and night workers and the intra-individual comparison among the workers, who were day workers at the beginning of their employment and later became night workers, showed a significant increase in BMI, total cholesterol, and tryglicerides associated with night work. No consistent effect was seen on fasting glucose, hepatic enzymes, and blood pressure, whereas a higher incidence of coronary heart disease was recorded in night workers. PMID:18484373

Biggi, Nicoletta; Consonni, Dario; Galluzzo, Valeria; Sogliani, Marco; Costa, Giovanni

2008-04-01

8

Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns. PMID:19021859

Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

2008-10-08

9

How fast should the night shift rotate? A rejoinder.  

PubMed

The argument for greater use of permanent night shift does not match the three times greater use of rotating three-shift systems in Britain. Studies of industrial production show very slight differences between output on different shifts, unlike laboratory studies, suggesting that it is almost impossible to reproduce the practice, motivation, and real consequences of work in laboratory settings. People who prefer permanent night shift often prefer to avoid management, and few managements welcome this; or have important tasks to perform at home in the day-time. Some studies of adaptation have defined inversion of temperature curves poorly, and most night-workers never completely adapt. Social flexibility, which has been the main attraction of rapidly rotating shifts, can be reproduced on permanent night shifts, but then loses the possibility of adaptation. PMID:1490438

Wedderburn, A A

1992-12-01

10

5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is temporarily assigned to a day shift or to a night shift having a lower night...schedule involving work on both day and night shifts shall be paid a night...not regularly assigned to a day shift or a night shift but whose shift is...

2009-01-01

11

5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is temporarily assigned to a day shift or to a night shift having a lower night...schedule involving work on both day and night shifts shall be paid a night...not regularly assigned to a day shift or a night shift but whose shift is...

2010-01-01

12

Effects of working permanent night shifts and two shifts on cognitive and psychomotor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The study aimed to clarify whether cognitive and psychomotor performance, which are important for occupational and traffic safety, are impaired by working permanent night shifts (NSs) compared with early–late two shifts (TSs) and whether age and chronobiological type influences the relationship between shift and performance. Methods: The study included 44 male automobile workers, 20 working TSs and 24 working

Raluca Petru; Marc Wittmann; Dennis Nowak; Bodo Birkholz; Peter Angerer

2005-01-01

13

EFFECTS OF NIGHT SHIFT WORK TOWARDS HEALTH AND SAFETY OF PRODUCTION WORKERS KESAN BEKERJA SHIF MALAM TERHADAP KESIHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN DI KALANGAN PEKERJA PENGELUARAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction : Shift work is practised in manufacturing industry to increase production capacity up to three times compared to the normal daily eight hours working system and able to optimize the utilization of machine and equipment. However, shift work has negatif effects on human social interaction, health and safety. Methodology : The study was conducted to evaluate production workers' perception

BM Deros; NK Khamis; A Ludin

2009-01-01

14

Shift Workers: A Descriptive Analysis of Worker Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Experience (NLS) data were used to describe those people who work outside the traditional 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. work day. Depending on the approximate time of day they worked, respondents were classified into four categories of workers: day, evening, night, and split shift (working hours interrupted…

Medley, Carol

15

[Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].  

PubMed

Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies. PMID:23829069

Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pep?o?ska, Beata

2013-01-01

16

Implementing a night-shift clinical nurse specialist.  

PubMed

Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was created in a midsized, community teaching hospital. The goal was to provide an advanced practice presence to improve patient outcomes, communication, education, and cost-effectiveness. The night-shift CNS participated in nursing education and skill certifications, communicated new procedures and information, and created a communication committee specifically for night-shift nurses. Through regular rounding and on-call notification, the CNS was available to every area of the hospital for consultation and clinical assistance and assisted with rapid responses, codes, and traumas. Providing education during night shift reduced overtime costs and increased morale, positively affecting turnover rates. The night-shift CNS position has improved morale and equalized support for night-shift nurses. More research, most notably in specific night-shift metrics, is necessary, and with the implementation of the role in additional facilities, more can be understood about improving patient care and nursing staff satisfaction during night shift. PMID:23222025

Becker, Dawn Marie

17

How a small enterprise improved the conditions of night and shift work using local resources.  

PubMed

A small oxygen factory in Cantho Province located in the Mekong Delta Area in the southern part of Vietnam was studied to provide practical support measures to improve night and shift work. A direct observation study and a fatigue symptom survey during the work were conducted. The factory applied discontinuous two-shift systems in two teams. Depending on customers' demands, they frequently prolonged oxygen production until midnight. The study results showed work-related risks such as carrying heavy oxygen cylinders, workers' sleepiness during the night work, and increased fatigue feelings among production operators. Based on the study results, better strategies for night and shift work schedules such as regular work hours minimizing overtime and night work were discussed with the managers and workers. A follow-up visit three months later confirmed many improvements undertaken in the factory. Better work arrangements for night and shift workers were made including local lighting, resting corners, filling the height gaps on the work floors, and clear work instructions. Prolonged mid-night shift was stopped. It was concluded that local small enterprises in Vietnam have much potential to improve their conditions of shift and night work once practical support measures based on their local practice is given. PMID:14564878

Khai, T T; Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

2001-12-01

18

Do permanent night workers show circadian adjustment? A review based on the endogenous melatonin rhythm.  

PubMed

"Permanent" or "fixed" night shifts have been argued to offer a potential benefit over rotating shift systems in that they may serve to maximize circadian adjustment and hence minimize the various health and safety problems associated with night work. For this reason, some authors have argued in favor of permanent shift systems, but their arguments assume at least a substantial, if not complete, adjustment of the circadian clock. They have emphasized the finding that the day sleeps taken between successive night shifts by permanent night workers are rather longer than those of either slowly or rapidly rotating shift workers, but this could simply reflect increased pressure for sleep. The present paper reviews the literature on the adjustment to permanent night work of the circadian rhythm in the secretion of melatonin, which is generally considered to be the best known indicator of the state of the endogenous circadian body clock. Studies of workers in "abnormal" environments, such as oil rigs and remote mining operations, were excluded, as the nature of these unique settings might serve to assist adjustment. The results of the six studies included indicate that only a very small minority (<3%) of permanent night workers evidence "complete"adjustment of their endogenous melatonin rhythm to night work, less than one in four permanent night workers evidence sufficiently "substantial" adjustment to derive any benefit from it, there is no difference between studies conducted in normal or dim lighting, and there is no evidence of gender difference in the adjustment to permanent night work. It is concluded that in normal environments, permanent night-shift systems are unlikely to result in sufficient circadian adjustment in most individuals to benefit health and safety. PMID:18533325

Folkard, Simon

2008-04-01

19

[Work with night shift as a factor dysregulation of autonomic nervous system of locomotive drivers].  

PubMed

Work with night shift is an obligate necessity of modem industrial urban society. In developed countries in the work on the night shift use up to 20%. These categories of workers are definitely the locomotive drivers. The consequence of a regular work with night shifts is a violation of human circadian rhythms, which, through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, is reflected in a greater risk of disease and transport accidents. The need to find ways and criteria of preventive monitoring dysregulatory changes in the human body is an urgent and challenging issue in terms of the health of the working population, disease prevention, and transportation security. PMID:23805720

Merkulov, Y A; Pyatkov, A A; Merkulova, D M

20

Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker  

PubMed Central

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research.

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim

2009-01-01

21

Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.  

PubMed

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomized controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions have been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

2008-01-01

22

Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Disturbed sleep and on-the-job sleepiness are widespread problems among night shift workers. The pineal hormone melatonin may prove to be a useful treatment because it has both sleep-promoting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study was designed to isolate melatonin’s sleep-promoting effects, and to determine whether melatonin could improve daytime sleep and thus improve night time alertness and performance during the night shift. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Subjects (n = 21, mean age = 27.0 ± 5.0 years) participated in two 6-day laboratory sessions. Each session included one adaptation night, two baseline nights, two consecutive 8-h night shifts followed by 8-h daytime sleep episodes and one recovery night. Subjects took 1.8 mg sustained-release melatonin 0.5 h before the two daytime sleep episodes during one session, and placebo before the daytime sleep episodes during the other session. Sleep was recorded using polysomnography. Sleepiness, performance, and mood during the night shifts were evaluated using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and a computerized neurobehavioral testing battery. Melatonin prevented the decrease in sleep time during daytime sleep relative to baseline, but only on the first day of melatonin administration. Melatonin increased sleep time more in subjects who demonstrated difficulty in sleeping during the day. Melatonin had no effect on alertness on the MSLT, or performance and mood during the night shift. There were no hangover effects from melatonin administration. These findings suggest that although melatonin can help night workers obtain more sleep during the day, they are still likely to face difficulties working at night because of circadian rhythm misalignment. The possibility of tolerance to the sleep-promoting effects of melatonin across more than 1 day needs further investigation.

SHARKEY, KATHERINE M.; FOGG, LOUIS F.; EASTMAN, CHARMANE I.

2013-01-01

23

Does Exogenous Melatonin Improve Day Sleep or Night Alertness in Emergency Physicians Working Night Shifts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To determine whether exogenous melatonin improves day sleep or night alertness in emergency physicians working night shifts. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, emergency physicians were given 10 mg sublingual melatonin or placebo each morning during one string of nights and the other substance during another string of nights of equal duration. During day-sleep periods, subjective sleep

K. Michael Jorgensen; Michael D Witting

1998-01-01

24

[Effect of night shift work on health status].  

PubMed

Presented in the paper are opinions on night work. The authors submit not only their own views but also those of other researchers. The material points to considerable hazards of the night work, including specific negative health effects. However, it could hardly be defined who is more harmed by the night shift--women or men, except for its probable contribution to reproduction disturbances in women. Genetic effects are not clear--they call for further studies. Apart from the negative effects of the night shift upon health, family and social life, the paper deals with the issues of minimising those adverse effects, including some examples of preventive measures. PMID:2687619

Indulski, J A; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Starzy?ski, Z

1989-01-01

25

Daytime cardiac autonomic activity during one week of continuous night shift.  

PubMed

Shift workers encounter an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to their day working counterparts. To explore this phenomenon, the effects of one week of simulated night shift on cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) activity were assessed. Ten (5m; 5f) healthy subjects aged 18-29 years attended an adaptation and baseline night before commencing one week of night shift (2300-0700 h). Sleep was recorded using a standard polysomnogram and circadian phase was tracked using salivary melatonin data. During sleep, heart rate (HR), cardiac PNS activity (RMSSD) and cardiac SNS activity (pre-ejection period) were recorded. Night shift did not influence seep quality, but reduced sleep duration by a mean of 52 +/- 29 min. One week of night shift evoked a small chronic sleep debt of 5 h 14 +/- 56 min and a cumulative circadian phase delay of 5 h +/- 14 min. Night shift had no significant effect on mean HR, but mean cardiac SNS activity during sleep was consistently higher and mean cardiac PNS activity during sleep declined gradually across the week. These results suggest that shiftwork has direct and unfavourable effects on cardiac autonomic activity and that this might be one mechanism via which shiftwork increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is postulated that sleep loss could be one mediator of the association between shiftwork and cardiovascular health. PMID:14564886

Holmes, A L; Burgess, H J; McCulloch, K; Lamond, N; Fletcher, A; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; Dawson, D

2001-12-01

26

Relationship between napping during night shift work and household obligations of female nursing personnel  

PubMed Central

Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep–wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework.

Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lucia

2013-01-01

27

Relationship between napping during night shift work and household obligations of female nursing personnel.  

PubMed

Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep-wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework. PMID:23596355

Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

2013-04-11

28

Rotating night shift work and risk of ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Night shift work has been associated with higher risks of breast and endometrial cancer, but few studies have evaluated associations with other reproductive cancers. Methods We examined the association between rotating night shift work and risk of ovarian cancer during 20 years of follow-up in 181,548 women participating in two large cohort studies, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Number of years of rotating night shift work was queried in 1988 for NHS and in 1989, 1991, 1993, 2001, and 2005 for NHSII. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ovarian cancer for each shift work category (1-2 years, 3-5 years, 6-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and 20+ years). Results We confirmed 718 incident cases of ovarian cancer over 2,974,672 person-years of follow-up. Rotating shift work was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in either cohort individually. Combining both cohorts, compared to women without any night work, the HR for 15-19 years of rotating night shift work was 1.28 (95% CI: 0.84-1.94), and for 20+ years 0.80 (95% CI: 0.51-1.23). Conclusions In this large prospective study, there was no association between duration of rotating night shift work and risk of ovarian cancer. Impact Although associated with other cancers, night shift work does not appear to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. However, further exploration of the association between melatonin and risk of ovarian cancer is warranted.

Poole, Elizabeth M.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

2011-01-01

29

Effects of Napping on Night Shift Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study represents a collaborative effort between the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aeromedical Institute and the US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory to investigate the effects of napping on the midnight shift as a potential countermeasur...

P. S. Della Rocco C. Comperatore L. Caldwell C. Cruz

2000-01-01

30

Estimates of injury risks for healthcare personnel working night shifts and long hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Evidence suggests that working long hours or unconventional shifts (night, evening and rotating shifts) can induce fatigue and stress in healthcare employees that might jeopardise quality of care and patient safety.Methods:This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 13 years of occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, covering nearly 11 000 American workers. During the study

A E Dembe; R Delbos; J B Erickson

2009-01-01

31

Worker safety issues in night-time highway construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The research presented in this paper aims to investigate highway construction\\/maintenance professionals' perceptions of the effects of night-time construction conditions on worker visibility and of issues associated with safety vests in night-time activities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was conducted by administering a questionnaire survey to Illinois Department of Transportation operations personnel, resident engineers, contractors, and construction\\/maintenance professionals involved

David Arditi; Mehmet Ayrancioglu; Jonathan Jingsheng Shi

2005-01-01

32

Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?  

PubMed

The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter? PMID:24087803

Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

2013-09-01

33

Restless Legs Syndrome in shift workers: A cross sectional study on male assembly workers  

PubMed Central

Background Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder characterized by symptoms that follow a circadian pattern. Night and rotating shift work schedules exert adverse effects on functions of the human body by disturbing circadian rhythms, and they are known to cause sleep disturbances and insomnia. In this paper, we investigate the possible association between shift work and RLS. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing factory in Tehran, Iran. A total of 780 male assembly workers were recruited in three groups, each with 260 workers: workers on a permanent morning shift (A) and two different rotating shift schedules (B and C) with morning, afternoon and night shifts. We used the international RLS study group criteria for diagnosis of RLS, and the severity scale for severity assessment in subjects with RLS. Self administered questionnaires were used to gather information on age, smoking, work history, medical condition, and existence and severity of RLS symptoms. Results The prevalence of RLS was significantly higher in rotational shift workers (15%) than workers with permanent morning work schedule (8.5%). In workers suffering from RLS, we found greater mean values of age and work experience, higher percentages of drug consumption, smoking, and co-morbid illnesses compared with subjects who did not have RLS, although these differences were statistically significant only for age, work experience and drug consumption. Conclusion Rotational shift work acts as a risk or exacerbating factor for Restless Legs Syndrome.

Sharifian, Akbar; Firoozeh, Marjan; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Shahryari, Mehran; Rahimi, Mohsen; Hesamian, Mohammad; Fardi, Ali

2009-01-01

34

Relationship between intensity of night shift work and antioxidant status in blood of nurses.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Light-at-night exposure can disrupt the human circadian rhythm via clock gene expressions. The circadian rhythm influences antioxidant enzymes' activity and cellular mRNA levels of these enzymes. The employees working based on a shift system adjust to the changes occurring both on the cell level and on the level of the whole organism. Therefore, a question should be answered whether shift work disturbs oxidant-antioxidant balance and/or generates oxidative stress. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses selected from the Local Registry of the Chamber of Nurses and Midwives in Lodz: 359 nurses worked daily only and 349 working rotating night shifts. These two groups differed significantly in respect of age (p < 0.0001), menopausal status (p < 0.0001), and current smoking habit (p = 0.02). The average total work duration was significantly shorter (12.4 years) in nurses working currently rotating night shifts who worked significantly longer on night shifts than day-workers (26.6 years). RESULTS: We found statistically significant higher red blood cell glutathione peroxidase in nurses working on night shifts (21.0 ± 4.6 vs. 20.0 ± 5.0 U/g Hb, p < 0.009) after adjusting for age, oral contraceptive hormone use, smoking, and drinking alcohol during last 24 h. Statistically significant lower vitamin A and E levels were found in the premenopausal women working in rotating system (0.690 ± 0.238 vs. 0.786 ± 0.262 ?g/ml, p < 0.0001 for vitamin A and 10.93 ± 4.15 vs. 12.78 ± 4.75 ?g/ml, p < 0.0001 for vitamin E). The marker of lipid peroxidation (TBARS concentration) was significantly lower in the premenopausal nurses than postmenopausal ones working day shifts only (2.06 ± 0.76 vs. 2.21 ± 0.80 nmol/ml, p < 0.038). We observed that erythrocyte GSH-Px activity rose statistically significant in nurses working more night shifts per month (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results quoted above seem to support the existence of an association between light-at-night exposure and blood glutathione peroxidase activity in female shift workers. Nevertheless, in order to explain the mechanisms of this association, we need more studies. PMID:23179107

Gromadzi?ska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Sobala, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Lie, Jenny-Anne

2012-11-23

35

Rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States.  

PubMed

The risk of lung cancer among night-shift workers is unknown. Over 20 years of follow-up (1988-2008), we documented 1,455 incident lung cancers among 78,612 women in the Nurses' Health Study. To examine the relationship between rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for detailed smoking characteristics and other risk factors. We observed a 28% increased risk of lung cancer among women with 15 or more years spent working rotating night shifts (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.03) compared with women who did not work any night shifts. This association was strongest for small-cell lung carcinomas (multivariate RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47; Ptrend = 0.03) and was not observed for adenocarcinomas of the lung (multivariate RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.24; Ptrend = 0.40). Further, the increased risk associated with 15 or more years of rotating night-shift work was limited to current smokers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13; Ptrend < 0.001), with no association seen in nonsmokers (Pinteraction = 0.03). These results suggest that there are modestly increased risks of lung cancer associated with extended periods of night-shift work among smokers but not among nonsmokers. Though it is possible that this observation was residually confounded by smoking, our findings could also provide evidence of circadian disruption as a "second hit" in the etiology of smoking-related lung tumors. PMID:24049158

Schernhammer, Eva S; Feskanich, Diane; Liang, Geyu; Han, Jiali

2013-09-18

36

[Night shift work and cancer risk: a literature review].  

PubMed

About 15-20% of the employees in Europe and in the USA are engaged in shift work that involves night work. Some experimental and observational data indicate that this type of work might lead to circadian disruption, including disruption in the melatonin synthesis - a hormone of anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. A hypothesis that there is a potential link between exposure to light at night and the risk of breast cancer was formulated for the first time by Stevens in 1987. Since then, relatively few epidemiological studies have been carried out in this area (15 studies including 8 cohort and 7 case-control studies). All of them are reviewed in this article. The majority of the epidemiological studies performed to date have focused on the association between shift work and breast cancer risk, few studies have reported an increased risk of other cancers, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In six out of ten studies, a statistically significant association between night shift work and risk of breast cancer has been shown (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5 in nurses in Norway with > 30 years of night shift work). The increased cancer risk has been reported in nurses, radio-telephone operators, flight attendants, and women employed in the enterprises, in which 60% of employees work at night. Most of the analyses have been based on the data from the registries, with limited potential for the exposure assessment and confounders adjustment. Although some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among nurses, we are still far from drawing final conclusions. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are warranted. PMID:21870422

Brudnowska, Joanna; Pep?o?ska, Beata

2011-01-01

37

Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns. PMID:14564879

Manuaba, A

2001-12-01

38

Appetite-regulating hormones from the upper gut: disrupted control of xenin and ghrelin in night workers.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Shift work is associated with circadian rhythm disorder, impaired sleep and behavioural changes, including eating habits, predisposing to obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. It involves a neuro-hormonal dysregulation of appetite towards positive energy balance, including increased ghrelin and decreased leptin, but little is known about other hormones, such as xenin, derived from the upper gut (like ghrelin), and lower gut hormones. Our objective was to compare night workers with day workers in relation to appetite-regulating hormones and other metabolic parameters. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four overweight women, divided into night shift workers (n = 12) and day shift workers (n = 12). MEASUREMENTS: BMI, waist circumference, fat mass percentage; diet composition; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; lipids; adipokines; meal tolerance test curves of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, PYY3-36, oxyntomodulin, xenin, GLP-1; insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index). RESULTS: Night workers, as compared with day workers, had greater body fat mass percentage and tendency to greater waist circumference despite similar BMI; greater energy intake; impaired sleep; lower insulin sensitivity; increased triglycerides and tendency to increased C-reactive protein; similar levels of leptin and other adipokines. Night workers had a blunted post-meal suppression of ghrelin (AUCi0-60 min 19·4 ± 139·9 vs -141·9 ± 9·0 ng/ml·60 min, P < 0·01); blunted rise of xenin (AUC0-180 min 8690·9 ± 2988·2 vs 28 504·4 ± 20 308·3 pg/ml·180 min, P < 0·01) and similar curves of PYY3-36, oxyntomodulin and GPL-1. CONCLUSION: Compared with day workers within the same BMI range, night workers presented a disrupted control of ghrelin and xenin, associated with behavioural changes in diet and sleep and increased adiposity and related metabolic alterations. PMID:23199168

Schiavo-Cardozo, Daniela; Lima, Marcelo M O; Pareja, José Carlos; Geloneze, Bruno

2012-12-01

39

Influence of night-shift and napping at work on urinary melatonin, 17-?-estradiol and clock gene expression in pre-menopausal nurses.  

PubMed

Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses? ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect. PMID:23489707

Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L

40

Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and glucose dysregulation. However, its association with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this association in two cohorts of US women. Methods and Findings We followed 69,269 women aged 42–67 in Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I, 1988–2008), and 107,915 women aged 25–42 in NHS II (1989–2007) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Participants were asked how long they had worked rotating night shifts (defined as at least three nights/month in addition to days and evenings in that month) at baseline. This information was updated every 2–4 years in NHS II. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We documented 6,165 (NHS I) and 3,961 (NHS II) incident type 2 diabetes cases during the 18–20 years of follow-up. In the Cox proportional models adjusted for diabetes risk factors, duration of shift work was monotonically associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in both cohorts. Compared with women who reported no shift work, the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for participants with 1–2, 3–9, 10–19, and ?20 years of shift work were 1.05 (1.00–1.11), 1.20 (1.14–1.26), 1.40 (1.30–1.51), and 1.58 (1.43–1.74, p-value for trend <0.001), respectively. Further adjustment for updated body mass index attenuated the association, and the pooled hazard ratios were 1.03 (0.98–1.08), 1.06 (1.01–1.11), 1.10 (1.02–1.18), and 1.24 (1.13–1.37, p-value for trend <0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that an extended period of rotating night shift work is associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, which appears to be partly mediated through body weight. Proper screening and intervention strategies in rotating night shift workers are needed for prevention of diabetes. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Pan, An; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.

2011-01-01

41

Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.  

PubMed

This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems. PMID:23606613

Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-04-01

42

DIURNAL BODY TEMPERATURE CURVES IN SHIFT WORKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on body temperature at rest of three workers inexperienced in shift work presented, when working in dayshift, the normal well-known diurnal curve, and when working in nightshift a pattern significantly different from the normal one. The throe subjects showed a striking congruence of curves. During a nightshift, period of several weeks in succession every week appeared to involve a

J. H. van LOON

1963-01-01

43

Safety during night shifts: a cross-sectional survey of junior doctors' preparation and practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives We aimed to determine whether junior doctors and trusts in the region make use of published evidence relating to best practice during night shift work that can safeguard alertness, reduce fatigue and limit mistakes. We surveyed junior doctors’ preparation for and practice during night shifts, and the working and living conditions offered by hospitals for junior doctors carrying out night duties. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to junior doctors training within Health Education North West from 13 December 2012 to 14 February 2013. Participants 32% (16/42) of trusts within Health Education North West sent the survey to 2139 junior doctor email addresses; 24.5% (524/2139) entered data into the survey. Results 91.6% of surveyed junior doctors worked night shifts. Prior to starting night shifts, 65% do not have a ‘prophylactic’ afternoon nap. At work, half (49%) can access a room with a reclining chair while 24% have a room with a bed. 37% ‘never’ achieve a ‘natural break’ on night shift; 53% ‘never’ achieve the recommended 20–45?min nap. 91% of respondents were unaware of the duration of sleep inertia that can affect alertness upon waking. When converting between day/night shifts, 2% use light lamps and 6% use non-benzodiazepine sedatives. Principal themes from free text analysis were feeling lethargic or unwell during night shifts, concern for patient and personal safety and inability to rest or take breaks. Conclusions The trainees surveyed find night shifts difficult, yet do not/are unable to implement evidence-based recommendations to limit fatigue. Results suggest those surveyed experience a lack of rest facilities within their place of work and a demanding workload. The results may indicate the need to increase awareness of the potential benefits associated with different interventions that can help mitigate the fatigue associated with rotating shift work.

Jackson, Emma J; Moreton, Adam

2013-01-01

44

Zolpidem-Related Effects on Performance and Mood During Simulated Night-Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, on psychomotor task performance, subjective effects, and food intake were examined during simulated shift work. Seven participants completed this 23-day, within-participant design, residential laboratory study. They received a single oral zolpidem dose (0, 5, or 10 mg) 1 hr before bedtime for 3 consecutive days under 2 shift conditions: day shift and night

Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Margaret Haney; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

45

Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Pan and colleagues examined data from two Nurses' Health Studies and found that extended periods of rotating night shift work were associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, partly mediated through body weight.

An Pan; Eva S. Schernhammer; Qi Sun; Frank B. Hu

2011-01-01

46

Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

Lau, Chui Shan

2011-01-01

47

Effects of Changing Shift Schedules from a Full-day to a Half-day Shift before a Night Shift on Physical Activities and Sleep Patterns of Single Nurses and Married Nurses with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after

Misuzu WATANABE; Yasuhiro AKAMATSU; Hikari FURUI; Teruyuki TOMITA; Takemasa WATANABE; Fumio KOBAYASHI

2004-01-01

48

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: ;working the night shift'.  

PubMed

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a 'daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO(2) for photosynthesis. Thus, CAM photosynthesis extends over a 24-hour day using several daily interlocking cycles. To understand CAM photosynthesis, several landmark discoveries were made at the following times: daily reciprocal acid and carbohydrate cycles were found during 1870 to 1887; their precise identification, as malic acid and starch, and accurate quantification occurred from 1940 to 1954; diffusive gas resistance methods were introduced in the early 1960s that led to understanding the powerful stomatal control of daily gas exchanges; C(4) photosynthesis in two different types of cells was discovered from 1965 to approximately 1974 and the resultant information was used to elucidate the day and night portions of CAM photosynthesis in one cell; and exceptionally high internal green tissue CO(2) levels, 0.2 to 2.5%, upon the daytime decarboxylation of malic acid, were discovered in 1979. These discoveries then were combined with related information from C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis, carbon biochemistry, cellular anatomy, and ecological physiology. Therefore by approximately 1980, CAM photosynthesis finally was rigorously outlined. In a nutshell, 24-hour CAM occurs by phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) carboxylase fixing CO(2)(HCO(3) (-)) over the night to form malic acid that is stored in plant cell vacuoles. While stomata are tightly closed the following day, malic acid is decarboxylated releasing CO(2) for C(3) photosynthesis via ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco). The CO(2) acceptor, PEP, is formed via glycolysis at night from starch or other stored carbohydrates and after decarboxylation the three carbons are restored each day. In mid to late afternoon the stomata can open and mostly C(3) photosynthesis occurs until darkness. CAM photo-synthesis can be both inducible and constitutive and is known in 33 families with an estimated 15 to 20 000 species. CAM plants express the most plastic and tenacious photosynthesis known in that they can switch photosynthesis pathways and they can live and conduct photosynthesis for years even in the virtual absence of external H(2)O and CO(2), i.e., CAM tenaciously protects its photosynthesis from both H(2)O and CO(2) stresses. PMID:16228591

Black, Clanton C; Osmond, C Barry

2003-01-01

49

Blood Pressure Increases During a Simulated Night Shift in Persons at Risk for Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Shift work with sleep disruption is a systemic stressor that may possibly be associated with blood pressure dysregulation\\u000a and hypertension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  We hypothesize that rotation to a simulated night shift with sleep deprivation will produce blood pressure elevations in persons\\u000a at risk for development of hypertension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We examined the effects of a simulated night shift on resting blood pressure in 51

James A. McCubbin; June J. Pilcher; D. DeWayne Moore

2010-01-01

50

Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary  

PubMed Central

Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women) were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2%) or in public services (23.9%). Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years) were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years), men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p < 0.05). In women, weight (73.6 ± 15.5 vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p < 0.001), body mass index (27.5 ± 5.7 vs 25.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2; p<0.001) and the prevalence rate of hypertension in the past medical history (24.4 vs 13.4%; p < 0.01) were higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers. In addition, the proportion of current smokers was higher (37.7 vs 21.7%; p < 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol level was lower (1.56 ± 0.32 vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p < 0.01) in female shift workers than in female daytime workers. Both in men and in women, rotating shift workers spent less time sleeping both on working days and on non-working days, spent less time with sport activity, drank more coffee and they spent less time working per day, especially in light physical work, compared to daytime workers. In addition, low and middle educational levels were most frequently found among rotating shift workers as opposed to the daytime workers where high educational level was more common. Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

2012-01-01

51

Putting baseload to work on the night shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

1980-04-01

52

Portrayals of pro-Beijing WorkersNight Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to post-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores\\u000a the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated WorkersNight Schools for adults; the organisation of schools\\u000a in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these educational settings. The history\\u000a of the development of this organization

Chui Shan Lau

53

A 12 year prospective study of circulatory disease among Danish shift workers  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of the risk of heart disease after shift work reached different estimates and review authors disagree about the validity of some of the studies. A cross sectional study showed that shift workers had a higher prevalence of nearly every unfavourable work environment factor investigated. Conflicts at work and low decision latitude were more frequent among shift workers, and all?day walking or standing work and part?time jobs were more often found among female shift workers. Objectives To estimate the risk of circulatory disease in a prospective follow up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Danes, considering known or suspected confounding factors. Methods A cohort of 5517 people who were gainfully employed in 1990 were followed up for all hospital treatments due to circulatory diseases (390–458, ICD?8; I00–I99, ICD?10) from 1991 to 2002 inclusive. A log linear Poisson regression model was applied to control confounding factors and calculate the relative risk for 927 men and women working nights, evenings, or other non?day shifts compared to 4579 day workers. Results Non?day workers compared to day workers had a relative risk (RR) for all circulatory diseases of 1.31 (95% CI 1.06–1.63). Without control for BMI and smoking, the RR estimate was 1.33 (95% CI 1.07–1.65). For a subgroup of workers with at least three years' seniority, the RR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.09–1.81). The population based aetiological fraction of shift work was estimated to 5%. Conclusion This study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that shift work carries an excess risk of circulatory diseases.

Tuchsen, F; Hannerz, H; Burr, H

2006-01-01

54

Associations between Rotating Night Shifts, Sleep Duration, and Telomere Length in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Telomere length has been proposed as a marker of aging. However, our knowledge of lifestyle risk factors determining telomere length is limited. Methods We evaluated the associations between years of rotating night shifts, self-reported sleep duration, and telomere length in 4,117 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was determined by Real-Time PCR assay. Information on rotating night shifts and sleep duration was collected via questionnaires prior to blood collection. We used multivariable linear regression to investigate the associations between rotating night shifts, sleep duration, and telomere length. Results Compared with women in the category (9 hours), those in the lowest category of sleep duration (?6 hours) had a 0.12 unit decrease in z score after adjustment for age, BMI and cigarette smoking (equivalent to 9-year telomere attrition, P for trend ?=?0.05). Significant positive association between sleep duration and telomere length was seen among women under age of 50 (P for trend ?=?0.004), but not among those over 50 (P for trend ?=?0.33) (P for interaction ?=?0.005). In addition, we observed that women with a longer history of rotating night shifts tended to have shorter telomere length, but this relation was not statistically significant (P for trend ?=?0.36). Conclusion We found that sleep duration was positively associated with telomere length among women under 50 years old. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations.

Liang, Geyu; Schernhammer, Eva; Qi, Lu; Gao, Xiang; De Vivo, Immaculata; Han, Jiali

2011-01-01

55

Human rights of migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs : A case of North Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To discuss the gender dimension of migration and human rights, and to provide an assessment of how to improve human rights protections for migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs across registered and unregistered migrant women workers in North Cyprus. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey is done to establish the employment conditions of migrant women workers in

Fatma Güven-Lisaniler; Sevin U?ural; Leopoldo Rodríguez

2008-01-01

56

Sleepiness during night-shift – sleeping habits or melatonin rhythm? A laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relation between individual sleeping habits, and sensitivity to sleepiness during five simulated night-shifts. Seventeen male volunteers were selected by their features of “morningness–eveningness” and flexibility or rigidity of sleeping habits. Subjective scales of sleepiness and fatigue, mental performance, sleep, attenuation alpha test and the melatonin circadian rhythm were measured. Data analysis compared the following groups: evening–morning,

B Farbos; S Bourgeois-Bougrine; P Cabon; R Mollard; A Coblentz

2000-01-01

57

A Combined Field and Laboratory Design for Assessing the Impact of Night Shift Work on Police Officer Operational Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. Design: For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Setting: Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants: N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Results: Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. Conclusions: This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance. Citation: Waggoner LB; Grant DA; Van Dongen HPA; Belenky G; Vila B. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1575-1577.

Waggoner, Lauren B.; Grant, Devon A.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

2012-01-01

58

Diurnal Variation in Ventilatory Capacity: An Epidemiological Study of Cotton and other Factory Workers employed on Shift Work  

PubMed Central

The change in F.E.V.0·75 during a working shift was studied in a random sample of 473 men employed in three cotton mills in The Netherlands working a three-shift system. Results were also obtained for 198 men, not exposed to industrial dust, who were working in a biscuit factory and two textile factories in the same area. The men were seen only during the shift on which they were working at the time of the study. Men with byssinosis gave a typical picture of the effects of cotton dust on susceptible workers: a generally low F.E.V. with a marked reduction during the shift; –0·16 l. on the early morning shift, and –0·25 l. and –0·33 l. respectively on the afternoon and night shifts. Men without byssinosis in the card and blow rooms showed mean changes in F.E.V. during the shift similar to those of men working in the spinning room: a slight rise in the early morning shift of +0·02 l. followed by a fall in both afternoon and night shifts in the region of –0·10 litres. This pattern of change was also found among the workers in the non-dusty factories. The rise in the early shift cannot be explained by the clearing of mucus from the air passages; cotton workers without respiratory symptoms and men in the non-dusty factories who did not produce sputum still showed an increase in F.E.V. during the early shift, though less marked than that of men with respiratory symptoms or who produced phlegm. The evidence suggests that a diurnal variation in lung function exists and should be taken into consideration both in epidemiological studies and when ventilatory capacity tests are used in periodic medical examinations.

Walford, Joan; Lammers, B.; Schilling, R. S. F.; Hoven, D. van den; Genderen, van; Veen, Y. G. van der

1966-01-01

59

Rescheduling a three shift system at a steel rolling mill: effects of a one hour delay of shift starting times on sleep and alertness in younger and older workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new work schedule at a Finnish steel mill with special attention to effects on older workers. The schedule was designed to improve sleep before the morning shift, and alertness during the morning shift, by delaying shift start and end times. METHODS: Evaluation was by a shiftwork health and safety questionnaire, recordings of work-rest-sleep cycles with activity monitors worn on the wrist, daily diaries, and on site computerised testing of fatigue and alertness by the NIOSH fatigue test battery. RESULTS: The one hour delay in shift starting times improved sleep before the morning shift, and improved waking fatigue, sleepiness, and performance during the morning shift. Evening and night shift sleep and fatigue or sleepiness, however, were affected negatively by the new work schedule, but the results for those shifts were less consistent across the various measures. Despite the improvements, most workers were not satisfied with the new schedule because of social concerns. Few interactions of age with the new work schedule were found, suggesting that the effects of the work schedule were uniform across age groups. CONCLUSION: A change of as little as one hour in shift starting times can improve morning shift sleep and alertness, but there are trade offs from these improvements in terms of night shift effects and social considerations. It seems, then, that optimal shift start and end times for an entire organisation are difficult to institute on a wide scale. Tailoring shift schedules to subgroups within an organisation is suggested.

Rosa, R R; Harma, M; Pulli, K; Mulder, M; Nasman, O

1996-01-01

60

[Evaluation of the impact of night-work on health in a population of workers in Tuscany].  

PubMed

Night-work, loading to subversion of physiological circadian rhythms and habits, may cause a lowering of work performance, an increase in the risk of accidental events and, more generally, a perception of less satisfactory living condition. In our experience we have interviewed 359 workers (night-workers and not). We found, in line with the Literature, that night-workers receive a less satisfactory quality of sleep, often associated with daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of disorders of various organs and systems is higher in these subjects, as well as the consumption of caffeine and nicotine. Regarding road and work-accidents, a similar trend is not so clearly confirmed in our series; in this context we have, nevertheless, to take account of some potential bias. Our experience confirmed that night-work may produce animpact on the individual overall well-being and, consequently, on the companies' productivity. To reduce this impact and the related costs, it is necessary to plan interventions on both workers and work organization. PMID:23405668

Mucci, N; Montalti, M; Bini, C; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

61

A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to sum up evidence of the associations between different aspects of night shift work and female breast cancer using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We systematicly searched all cohort and case-control studies published in English on MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCInfo, APC Journal Club and Global Health, from January 1971 to May 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; odd ratio, OR; or hazard ratio, HR) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. A log-linear dose-response regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between various indicators of exposure to night shift work and breast cancer risk. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and breast cancer was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35]. Further meta-analyses on dose-response relationship showed that every 5-year increase of exposure to night shift work would correspondingly enhance the risk of breast cancer of the female by 3% (pooled RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05; Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Our meta-analysis also suggested that an increase in 500-night shifts would result in a 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21; Pheterogeneity = 0.06) increase in breast cancer risk. This systematic review updated the evidence that a positive dose-response relationship is likely to present for breast cancer with increasing years of employment and cumulative shifts involved in the work. PMID:23975662

Wang, F; Yeung, K L; Chan, W C; Kwok, C C H; Leung, S L; Wu, C; Chan, E Y Y; Yu, I T S; Yang, X R; Tse, L A

2013-08-23

62

Arrhythmias and increased neuro-endocrine stress response during physicians' night shifts: a randomized cross-over trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of a 24 h (h) physicians on-call duty (OCD) ('night shift') on 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate variability, blood pressure (BP), and various biochemical serum and urine 'stress markers' compared with a 'regular' day at work. Methods and results The study was designed as a prospective randomized cross-over trial with each physician completing a 24

Markus Rauchenzauner; Florian Ernst; Florian Hintringer; Hanno Ulmer; Christoph F. Ebenbichler; Marie-Therese Kasseroler; Michael Joannidis

2009-01-01

63

Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Depressive Rotational Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Shift work is associated with sleep deprivation, occupational stress, and increased risk of depression. Depressed patients show increased oxidative stress. During excessive oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) increases and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreases in body. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the serum level of TAC and MDA among depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondooyan Tehran Oil Refinery. 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression level. The level of TAC and MDA was measured by 8 mL fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the ABTS. Results of this study showed that TAC mean and standard deviation concentration was 2.451 (±0.536)?mg/dL and MDA was 3.725 (±1.098)?mic·mol/L, and mean and standard deviation of depression score and BMI were 14.07 (±3.84) and 24.92 (±3.65)?kg/m2, respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r = 0.218 and r = 0.212), respectively, (P < 0.05).

Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hashemi, Hassan

2013-01-01

64

Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW) and with irregular shift work (ISW) while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1) was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio). The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P < 0.001), severe stress (P < 0.05), and less sleep (P < 0.05) were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

Lindholm, Harri; Ahlberg, Jari; Sinisalo, Juha; Hublin, Christer; Hirvonen, Ari; Partinen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo; Savolainen, Aslak

2012-01-01

65

Shifting from implicit to explicit knowledge: Different roles of early- and late-night sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in this process. Implicit and explicit knowledge (insight) related to a hidden regularity were assessed in an associative motor-learning task (number reduction task, NRT), which was performed in two sessions (initial practice and retest) separated by 3 h of either early-night sleep, rich in SWS, or of late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep. About half of the participants developed signs of implicit rule knowledge (i.e., speeded reaction times for responses determined by the hidden regularity) at initial practice preceding early or late sleep. Of these, half developed explicit knowledge across early-night sleep, significantly more than across late-night sleep. In contrast, late-night subjects preferentially remained on the level of implicit rule knowledge after sleep. Participants who did not develop implicit knowledge before sleep had comparable rates of transition to implicit or explicit knowledge across early and late sleep. If subjects gained explicit knowledge across sleep, this was associated with lower amounts of REM sleep, specifically in the late-night group. SWS predominant during the early night may restructure implicit memory representations in a way that allows creating an explicit representation afterward, whereas REM sleep in the late night appears to stabilize them in their implicit form.

Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger,, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

66

Retrospective cohort study of the risk of obesity among shift workers: findings from the Industry-based Shift Workers' Health study, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors investigated the effect of shift working on the risk of obesity using data from the Industry-based Shift Workers' Health (IbSH) study, a retrospective cohort study based on a health care database system belonging to a manufacturing corporation in Japan.MethodsThe study database contains data on annual health check-ups and work schedules for every worker in the corporation in Japan

Tatsuhiko Kubo; Ichiro Oyama; Takehiro Nakamura; Kiyoyumi Shirane; Hirotake Otsuka; Masamizu Kunimoto; Koji Kadowaki; Takashi Maruyama; Hajime Otomo; Yoshihisa Fujino; Tetsuro Matsumoto; Shinya Matsuda

2010-01-01

67

Comparisons of psychosomatic health and unhealthy behaviors between cleanroom workers in a 12-hour shift and those in an 8-hour shift.  

PubMed

The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and physical fitness tests were administered to 338 workers in clean rooms producing electronic parts in 12-h shifts. The results were compared to those in 95 workers in 8-h shifts and 284 daytime management, clerical and engineering workers. The 12-h shift workers complained of poor health, dissatisfaction with life and poor recuperation from fatigue more than the 8-h shift workers although the rates of complaints were highest in the daytime workers. The GHQ scores were similar in the two shift groups, and much better than those in the daytime workers. However, the 12-h shift workers showed significantly lower fitness levels than the 8-h shift workers, and the levels were even worse than the daytime workers who had higher mean age and BMI levels compared with the shift workers. The tendency to have sedentary freetime activities and larger alcohol and cigarette consumption were observed in the 12-h shift workers. The 12-h shift work may have contributed to the unhealthy behaviors resulting in lower physical fitness levels. Health promotion services at the workplace should devote greater attention to long-hour shift workers, together with devising the ways to improve working conditions and environments for reducing fatigue at work. PMID:14564915

Yamada, Y; Kameda, M; Noborisaka, Y; Suzuki, H; Honda, M; Yamada, S

2001-12-01

68

Atherosclerotic risk and social jetlag in rotating shift-workers: First evidence from a pilot study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify atherosclerotic risk using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in steel workers employed in different shift-work rotations, and to elucidate its relationship to social jetlag and shift schedule details. PARTICIPANTS: Male workers in a steel factory (n=77, 32 fast clockwise (CW), 30 slow counterclockwise (CC), 15 day workers (DW); mean age 42 ± SD 7.6 yrs) with at least 5 years of experience in their current work schedule participated. METHODS: All workers completed questionnaires on demographics, health, psychotropic agents, sleep, social and work life, social jetlag (difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and days off used as a marker of circadian disruption) and chronotype (mid-sleep time on free days corrected for sleep deficit on workdays). In 63 workers we measured PWV, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) between 08:00 and 12:30 h in controlled posture conditions (no caffeine/smoking/exercise). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in PWV (covariates: age, BP) between the different shift-rotations (CW, CC and DW). In all workers combined, HR and social jetlag were significantly positively correlated. Demographic variables did not differ between shift-workers and day workers; shift-workers (CW, CC) reported significantly more stomach upsets, digestion problems, weight fluctuations, and social jetlag. The CW and CC workers did not differ in ratings of how shift-work affected sleep, social and work life. CONCLUSIONS: PWV was not different between the two shift-rotations. This pilot study shows first evidence that HR is related to social jetlag, and therefore warrants more studies in different shift schedules. PMID:23324695

Kantermann, Thomas; Duboutay, Françoise; Haubruge, Damien; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Skene, Debra J

2013-01-01

69

An Abrupt Shift in the Day\\/Night Cycle Causes Desynchrony in the Mammalian Circadian Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the neuroanatomical locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Here we demonstrate that an abrupt shift in the light\\/dark (LD) cycle disrupts the synchronous oscillation of circadian components in the rat SCN. The phases of the RNA cycles of the period genes Per1 and Per2 and the cryptochrome gene Cry1 shifted rapidly in the ventrolateral, photoreceptive

Mamoru Nagano; Akihito Adachi; Ken-ichi Nakahama; Toru Nakamura; Masako Tamada; Elizabeth Meyer-Bernstein; Amita Sehgal; Yasufumi Shigeyoshi

2003-01-01

70

Bangalore @ night: Indian IT professionals and the global clock ticking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the question of what the night means to IT (information technology) professionals working in the Indian IT industry in Bangalore. In particular, it argues that the way IT work gets done (in India) demands a type of flexibility of an IT worker that‘forces’ him to rethink perceptions of working hours (in particular day and night shift).

M. Baas

2009-01-01

71

Markers of insulin resistance in day and shift workers aged 30-59 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine relationships between shift work and markers (metabolic abnormalities) of insulin resistance (IR). Methods. A cross-sectional study of 2,824 day and 826 shift workers. All the subjects were male blue-collar workers aged 30-59 years. Four IR markers [(1) hypertension (systolic blood pressure 𔓄 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ⃆ mmHg or under treatment for hypertension); (2) hyperglycemia (fasting

Teruo Nagaya; Hideyo Yoshida; Hidekatsu Takahashi; Makoto Kawai

2002-01-01

72

Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV.

Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

2007-01-01

73

The suitability of a caffeinated energy drink for night-shift workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has indicated that caffeinated ‘functional energy drinks’ (FEDs) are effective in counteracting sleepiness. It is not known however, what impact FEDs have on sleep itself. FEDs contain several active ingredients, including caffeine. They may therefore impact negatively on sleep and hence subsequent performance, deeming their use counterproductive. In a randomised cross-over design, 15 young adults participated in a

Sarah M. Jay; Renée M. Petrilli; Sally A. Ferguson; Drew Dawson; Nicole Lamond

2006-01-01

74

A comparison of heart rate during rest and work in shift workers with different work styles.  

PubMed

To determine if the type of work performed should be considered in research on shift work and cardiovascular disease, we compared the heart rates, total number of steps walked, and blood pressures of 12 shift workers on the same rotating 3-shift schedule in a pulp and paper mill. Six workers were selected from the paper manufacturing section (group 1) and six workers from the chemical products section (group 2). Average heart rate (in beats per min) monitored during duty time was 84.3 in group 1 and 87.4 in group 2. Average heart rate during work was not significantly higher than that during rest in both groups 1 (work 85.8, rest 75.3) and 2 (work 87.9, rest 83.1). There was no significant difference in the total number of steps walked. A non-significant decrease in systolic blood pressure value was found in group 1 compared with that in group 2. Although future studies will be needed to explain the relation between different work styles and their effects on the health of shift workers, our results suggest no significant difference in heart rates among workers engaged in different kinds of work on the same shift work schedule. PMID:14620672

Inoue, Masaiwa; Fujimura, Takae; Morita, Hideko; Inagaki, Junko; Kan, Hirohiko; Harada, Noriaki

2003-10-01

75

Shift work, safety, and aging.  

PubMed

It has long been recognized that older shift workers may have shorter and more disturbed day sleeps between successive night shifts than their younger colleagues. This has given rise to considerable concern over the safety of aging shift workers because of the increasing age of the work force and increases in retirement age. Because there have been no direct studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on safety, the present paper begins by reviewing the literature relating safety to features of shift systems. It then considers the general effect of age on occupational injury rates before examining existing evidence of the combined effects of shift work and age on performance capabilities. The results of the literature review indicate that when the a priori risk is constant, there is reasonably clear evidence that injury rates are higher at night, and that they increase over successive night shifts more rapidly than over successive day shifts. Further, although occupational injuries are less frequent in older workers, those that do occur tend to be more serious. Finally, there is some suggestive evidence from studies of objectively measured performance capabilities that older workers may be less able to both maintain their performance over the course of a night shift and cope with longer spans of successive night shifts. It is concluded that it seems possible, even though unproven as yet, that older workers may be at greater risk both to injury and accident on the night shift. There is a strong need for future epidemiological studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on injuries and accidents, and that these should attempt to separate the effects of age per se from those of generation. PMID:18484360

Folkard, Simon

2008-04-01

76

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff) and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

2012-01-01

77

Psychosocial work characteristics predicting daytime sleepiness in day and shift workers.  

PubMed

Characteristics of work organization other than working time arrangements may contribute importantly to daytime sleepiness. The present study was designed to identify the psychosocial factors at work that predict daytime sleepiness in a sample of day and shift workers. Participants working at a pulp and chemical factory completed an annual questionnaire regarding psychosocial factors at work using the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (i.e., quantitative workload, variance in workload, job control, support from supervisor, coworkers, or family/friends, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms), as well as daytime sleepiness (through the Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) and sleep disturbances for three years starting in 2002 (response rates, 94.6-99.0%). The present analysis included 55 day workers (11 women) and 57 shift workers (all men) who participated in all three years of the study, worked under the same work schedule throughout the study period, and had no missing data on any of the daytime sleep items. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the effects of work schedule (day vs. shift work) and psychosocial factors at work in 2002 on the ESS scores in subsequent years, with sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, chronic diseases, and sleepiness levels at baseline as covariates. Given significant and near-significant interactions of work schedules with psychosocial factor or study year, the ANCOVA, with the factors of psychosocial work characteristics and study year, was performed by type of work schedule. The results indicated a significant main effect of psychosocial work characteristics (p = 0.010, partial eng2 = 0.14) and an almost significant main effect of study year (p = 0.067, partial eng2 = 0.06) and interaction between psychosocial work characteristics and study year (p = 0.085, partial eng2 = 0.06) for variance in workload among the day work group. The day workers reporting high variance in workload in 2002 exhibited significantly higher ESS scores in 2003 and 2004 than did those reporting low variance in workload. The ANCOVA for the shift work group showed a main effect of psychosocial work characteristics for job satisfaction (p = 0.026, partial eng2 = 0.10) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.094, partial eng2 = 0.06) with the interaction between psychosocial work characteristics and study year for job satisfaction (p = 0.172, partial eng2 = 0.04) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.035, partial eng2 = 0.07). The shift workers with low job satisfaction and high symptoms of depression in 2002 showed significantly greater ESS scores in 2003 and/or 2004 than did those with opposite characteristics. These results may suggest a potential predictive value of variance in workload for day workers as well as job satisfaction and depressive symptoms for shift workers with respect to daytime sleepiness. The present findings may imply that redesigning these aspects of work environment would be of help in managing daytime sleepiness. PMID:17190723

Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Haratani, Takashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Kaida, Kosuke; Fukasawa, Kenji

2006-01-01

78

Cardiac strain of confectionery worker in relation to heat exposure during regular work shift  

PubMed Central

Context: In India, a wide variety of occupations are performed in adverse indoor working environment. Work physiological studies in these jobs are scanty as compared to investigations done on more arduous outdoor occupations. Aims and Objectives: Physiological strain of workers engaged in sweet making activities was assessed in terms of cardiac strain indices in relation to heat stress. Setting and Design: 33 full-time workers from eastern India were compared for cardiac strain profile obtained during summer and winter during their regular work shift. A comparison was also done in between younger (n=12) and older (n=16) subjects. Materials and Methods: Working heart rate (WHR) was recorded continuously during work. The pulse deceleration index (PDI) was obtained from recovery heart rate (RHR). Net cardiac cost (NCC) and relative cardiac cost (RCC) were the main indices used to evaluate physical strain. Thermal stress assessed from wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Statistical Analysis: Students’ t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank paired tests were used for comparing physiological responses. Values were considered significant when P < 0.05. Results: Work load was significantly higher in summer for all workers. RCC of younger workers in winter and summer ranged between 18% and 26%. This was significantly lower as compared to the RCC of older workers which was 27% in winter and 30% in summer. The physiological workload appeared to be moderate in nature. The WBGT index was above the recommended range in summer for both the groups. Older workers showed a no recovery pattern in terms of recovery pulse that indicated toward a cumulative stress which may be attributed to a combined effect of heat and work in summer and extra amount of work performed in winter season. Conclusion: The physical workload is aggravated with various ergonomic stressors present in the work place. An ergonomic intervention has been indicated as further scope of this study.

Biswas, Rajib; Samanta, Amalendu; Saha, Prasenjit

2011-01-01

79

Rotating Shift-Work as an Independent Risk Factor for Overweight Italian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N?=?229), rotating shift workers (N?=?110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels.

Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

2013-01-01

80

Influence of differences in their jobs on cardiovascular risk factors in male blue-collar shift workers in their fifties.  

PubMed

This study examined relationships between different job types of shift work and hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Male blue-collar workers 50-59 years of age (n = 210) on the same three-shift schedule in a pulp and paper mill were divided into two groups; 118 in paper manufacturing (group 1) and 92 in the chemical products section (group 2). Only the frequency of hypertension differed significantly (p = 0.012) between the groups, 52.2% (n = 48) in group 2 vs 33.9% (n = 40) in group 1. The odds ratio for group 2 in relation to hypertension was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.2). These results indicate a positive association between job type of shift work and hypertension and suggest that different job types of shift workers should not be combined when the effects of shift work on blood pressure are being examined. PMID:15473087

Inoue, Masaiwa; Morita, Hideko; Inagaki, Junko; Harada, Noriaki

81

Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.  

PubMed

Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

2013-01-04

82

The effect of shift-work on food intake and eating habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work on food intake and eating patterns in order to assess the impact of this on health. A total of 36 shift workers were measured anthropometrically and were asked to complete food diaries for six consecutive days, and a lifestyle questionnaire. The results revealed night workers did not

S. L. Reeves; E. Newling-Ward; C. Gissane

2004-01-01

83

Health Effects of Shift Work  

PubMed Central

More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended.

LaDou, Joseph

1982-01-01

84

Avaliação do padrão de sono dos profissionais de Enfermagem dos plantões noturnos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Evaluation of the sleep pattern in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

objective: This study aimed to assess the quality of sleep and verify the presence of excessive daytime somnolence in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São

Juliana Inhauser; Acioli Barboza; Edvaldo Leal de Moraes; Eloísa Aparecida Pereira; Rubens Nelson; Amaral de Assis

85

Evaluation of the sleep pattern in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units Avaliação do padrão de sono dos profissionais de Enfermagem dos plantões noturnos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to assess the quality of sleep and verify the presence of excessive daytime somnolence in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Methods: Seventy-five Nursing professionals were evaluated: 33% were registered nurses and 66% were licensed

Juliana Inhauser; Acioli Barboza; Edvaldo Leal de Moraes; Eloísa Aparecida Pereira; Rubens Nelson; Amaral de Assis

86

Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare. PMID:19916089

Campbell, C; Scott, K

2011-01-01

87

Optimal Shift Duration and Sequence: Recommended Approach for Short-Term Emergency Response Activations for Public Health and Emergency Management  

PubMed Central

Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts.

Burgess, Paula A.

2007-01-01

88

Effectiveness of the hearing conservation program: Change in hearing threshold shift incidence among industrial workers, 1978 to 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hearing conservation programs (HCP) are widely employed in preventing noise-induced hearing loss, but studies of their effectiveness have been rare. The impact of the implementation of hearing conservation programs was assessed in a large group of highly noise-exposed blue-collar workers by investigating time-trends in hearing-threshold shift incidence. Serial annual audiograms for employees of 14 British Columbia lumber mills for the period 1978 to 2003 were obtained from local regulatory-agency archives. Audiograms and concomitant otological medical histories were linked to subjects' work histories and noise exposure data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the incidence of hearing threshold shift while controlling for age, baseline level of hearing loss, and other potential confounders. A total of 109257 audiograms were associated with 10590 subjects. Mean noise exposure in this group was 91.4 dBA(A). Mean interval between hearing tests was 566 days and mean age at first threshold shift was 44. Forty-six percent of subjects had at least one OSHA significant threshold shift during follow up. Preliminary analyses indicated a trend toward lower incidence of threshold shifts over the study period, with incidence in 5 approximately equal 5-year periods from 1978 to 2003 being 3.2%, 6.6%, 4.9%, 4.3% and 2.4%, respectively.

Davies, Hugh

2005-04-01

89

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)|

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

90

[Improvement of medical care for shift workers in gas industry of Far North].  

PubMed

Adaptation of individuals to shifted duty work in the presence of "polar strain syndrome" appeared to induce disturbances of natural work and rest rhythms. Therefore, health changes occur, especially in shifted duty expeditions connected with frequent flights from Central and Southern regions of Russia to Far North and vice versa. Conditions of gas extraction in Far North necessitated creation of adequate system of medical care. Such system constructed and tested in Nadym district could produce real medical, social and economic effects. PMID:7757383

Shishkina, T N

1995-01-01

91

Melatonin-Depleted Blood from Premenopausal Women Exposed to Light at Night Stimulates Growth of Human Breast Cancer Xenografts in Nude Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers has been postulated to result from the suppression of pineal melatonin production by exposure to light at night. Exposure of rats bearing rat hepatomas or human breast cancer xenografts to increasing intensities of white fluorescent light during each 12-hour dark phase (0-345 MW\\/cm2) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of nocturnal

David E. Blask; George C. Brainard; Robert T. Dauchy; John P. Hanifin; Leslie K. Davidson; Jean A. Krause; Leonard A. Sauer; Moises A. Rivera-Bermudez; Margarita L. Dubocovich; Samar A. Jasser; Darin T. Lynch; Mark D. Rollag; Frederick Zalatan

2005-01-01

92

Math Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a rationale, a guide and resources that can used be used to initiate a math night at school for parents and students. The resources include sixteen modules on mathematical topics beyond childrenâs everyday schoolwork. Each module is a self-contained math activity station, complete with materials for a tri-fold display, exploration questions, exercises, background information on the topic, and links to additional content and ideas.

2011-01-01

93

Increasing awareness of sleep hygiene in rotating shift workers: arming law-enforcement officers against impaired performance.  

PubMed

Research into the effects of rotating shift work on health, social, and performance indices suggests significantly more health concerns and judgement errors and poorer sleep patterns in shift workers on rotating versus nonrotating schedules. 31 male and 7 female law-enforcement officers voluntarily participated in a training session on sleep hygiene practices. On the Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale administered prior to and after training were significant increases in awareness of sleep hygiene and knowledge of nicotine, caffeine, and hypnotics. We predicted that use of this knowledge would increase sleep satisfaction. However, 1-mo. follow-up scores on the Post-sleep Inventory of Webb, et al. reflected no change. It appears that scheduling demands, coupled with feelings of low self-efficacy toward managing those demands, resulted in little or no practice of sleep hygiene. A more productive approach may be to incorporate a comprehensive behavioral program within departments to instill and reinforce better practice of sleep hygiene. PMID:7808891

Holbrook, M I; White, M H; Hutt, M J

1994-08-01

94

Nightmares and Night Terrors  

MedlinePLUS

... other nights. What are night terrors? Some children have a different kind of scary dream called a "night terror." Night terrors happen during ... night terrors stop completely when your child is a teenager. However, some people, especially people who have active ... When should I worry about nightmares or night terrors? Nightmares and ...

95

Workplace violence in Oregon: an analysis using workers' compensation claims from 1990-1997.  

PubMed

One of the most serious occupational problems in the workplace is the occurrence of violent assaults. This study examined 2028 workers' compensation claims of workplace violence from Oregon between 1990 and 1997, and used Current Population Survey data for risk analysis. The rate of workplace violence was 1.86 per 10,000 employees annually (95% confidence interval, 1.78-1.94), with females and workers under 35 years of age experiencing the most violence. The average claim resulted in approximately 40 days of indemnity and $6200 in costs. Workers on evening and night shifts had significantly higher rates of being victims of violence, as did those working on weekends. Preventative interventions should be targeted at younger workers and those with less tenure. Special measures should be focused on ensuring the safety of evening/night-shift workers and weekend employees. PMID:15076654

McCall, Brian P; Horwitz, Irwin B

2004-04-01

96

The Feasibility of Adapted Group-Based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) for the Treatment of Depression by Community Health Workers Within the Context of Task Shifting in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of a large treatment gap for depression and a scarcity of specialist resources, there is a need for task\\u000a shifting to scale up mental health services to address this gap in South Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of an\\u000a adapted manualized version of grouped based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) for use by supervised community health workers through

I. PetersenA; A. Bhana; K. Baillie

97

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

98

Sleep and health in oil rig workers-before and after a two week work period offshore.  

PubMed

This study compared subjective sleep and subjective health complaints among Norwegian oil rig workers, before and after a two week work period. The study also compared differences between two different work schedules. The workers worked either two weeks of day shift (n=90) or two weeks of a swing shift schedule (n=93), involving one week of night shifts, immediately followed by one week of day shifts. Overall, the workers reported significantly poorer sleep quality and more complaints of insomnia at the end compared to the start of the work period. However, there was no significant difference in terms of subjective health complaints. Furthermore, there were no clear differences in changes in sleep quality, insomnia or subjective health complaints during the work period between day- and swing shift workers. However, at the end of the work period a higher proportion of insomniacs were seen among swing shift workers compared with day workers. To conclude, sleep quality and complaints of insomnia became worse during the work period. However, there were few differences in changes in terms of sleep or subjective health complaints between day- and swing shift, suggesting that 12?h day shift affected sleep and health similarly to the schedule involving night work. PMID:23196391

Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

2012-11-28

99

Sleepiness, Long Distance Commuting and Night Work as Predictors of Driving Performance  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n?=?649). The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR?=?5.25, CI, 1.42–19.49, p<0.01) followed by driving ?150 kms (OR?=?3.61, CI, 1.66–7.81, p<0.001), obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR?=?2.58, CI, 1.03–6.46, p<0.05), driving after night shift (OR?=?2.19, CI, 1.24–3.88, p<0.001), being <43 years old (OR?=?1.95, CI, 1.11–3.41, p<0.05) and using mobile phones during the journey (OR?=?1.90, CI, 1.10–3.27, p<0.05). Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers.

Di Milia, Lee; Rogers, Naomi L.; Akerstedt, Torbjorn

2012-01-01

100

Changes in frequency of premature complexes and heart rate variability related to shift work  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether an increased risk of cardiovascular disease might be caused by increased arrhythmogeneity and by unfavourable changes in autonomic cardiac control the changes in the occurrence of premature complexes (PVCs) and in heart rate variability (HRV) were studied in subjects who started to work in shifts.?METHODS—1 Year changes in frequency of PVCs and HRV were measured in 49 shift workers and 22 control subjects working in daytime. All respondents were starting in a new job in integrated circuit or waste incinerator plants.?RESULTS—The incidence of PVC increased significantly in shift workers over the 1 year follow up, compared with daytime workers. The frequency of ventricular extrasystoles increased in 48.9% of the shift workers, and in 27.3% of the daytime workers. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the number of nights worked and the change in PVCs was 0.33 (p=0.004). A small non-significant unfavourable change in HRV was found in both the shift and daytime workers.?CONCLUSIONS—A change in arrhythmogeneity, but not in cardiac autonomic control, might explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in shift workers.???Keywords: arrhythmia; heart rate; shift work

van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Schouten, E; Maan, A; Swenne, C; Kok, F

2001-01-01

101

A Case-Control Study of Occupational Injuries for Consecutive and Cumulative Shifts Among Hospital Registered Nurses and Patient Care Associates  

PubMed Central

Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies.

Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian

2013-01-01

102

Meal composition and shift work performance.  

PubMed

Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance. PMID:15780155

Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

2005-01-01

103

Correlates shift work with increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H. pylori -infected shift workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  There is an ongoing discussion whether work under shift work conditions enhances the ulcerogenic potential of Helicobacter pylori infections. This may be induced by a disruption of the circadian rhythm. The present study assessed whether there is an association\\u000a between H. pylori infection and an increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H. pylori-infected

Anke van Mark; Michael Spallek; David A. Groneberg; Richard Kessel; Stephan W. Weiler

2010-01-01

104

A longitudinal study of the influence of shift work on serum uric acid levels in workers at a telecommunications company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Hyperuricemia is a lifestyle-related disease. Although there have been many previous reports about the association of serum uric acid (UA) levels with lifestyle, including eating habits and alcohol intake, there has been no report of a longitudinal study of the relationship between serum UA levels and shift work. Aims To clarify the influence of shift work on serum UA

Mirei Uetani; Yasushi Suwazono; Etsuko Kobayashi; Takeya Inaba; Mitsuhiro Oishi; Koji Nogawa

2005-01-01

105

The adaptation of night nurses to different work schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine full-time permanent night nurses, 94 part-time permanent night nurses, and 44 nurses working in a weekly rotating two-shift system but doing some night work from time to time answered questionnaires on morningness, rigidity of sleeping habits, aspects and effects of night work, subjective health, etc. For one month they also carefully registered their sleeping times. The full-time nurses displayed

PAUL VERHAEGEN; RAF COBER; MONIQUE DE SMEDT; JAN DIRKX; JAN KERSTENS; DIRK RYVERS; PATRICK VAN DAELE

1987-01-01

106

Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)

Brady, Philip

1995-01-01

107

Sleep loss and circadian disruption in shift work: health burden and management.  

PubMed

About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches. PMID:24138359

Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Howard, Mark E; Grunstein, Ronald R

2013-10-21

108

Impact of nightshift work on overweight and abdominal obesity among workers of a poultry processing plant in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The authors examined the associations of shiftwork with overweight and abdominal obesity through a cross-sectional study of 1206 employees 18 to 50 yrs of age who were working on a production line in a poultry processing plant. Night-shift workers (n = 800) were considered exposed, whereas day shiftworkers (n = 406) were considered nonexposed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference ? 88 cm in women and ? 102 cm in men. The mean age of the workers was 30.5 yrs (standard deviation = 8.7 yrs), and 65.2% were women. Nightshift workers compared to dayshift workers showed higher prevalences of overweight (42.2% vs. 34.3%; p=?.020) and abdominal obesity (24.9% vs. 19.5%; p =?.037). After adjusting for sociodemographics, parental overweight status, behavioral characteristics, and sleep characteristics, including hours of sleep, the prevalence ratios for overweight and abdominal obesity were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [ CI]: 1.00-1.61) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.10-1.92), respectively, for the nightshift workers compared to the dayshift workers. A consistent finding in our study was the independent contribution of night shiftwork to overweight and abdominal obesity among Brazilian workers. Further studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms involved and the complex behavioral and social adaptations experienced by night-shift workers. PMID:22390246

Macagnan, Jamile; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Olinto, Maria Teresa A

2012-04-01

109

The Impact of Rotating Shift Work on the Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Nurses  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Shift work has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. These symptoms overlap with those reported by patients with functional bowel disorders. Because shift work will lead to misalignment between the endogenous circadian timing system and the external 24 h environment, we hypothesized that nurses participating in shift work will have a higher prevalence of functional bowel disorders when compared with nurses participating in day shifts. METHODS Nurses engaged in patient care were invited to complete Rome III, irritable bowel syndrome–quality of life measure (IBS-QOL) and modified Sleep-50 questionnaires. Respondents were classified as working day, night, or rotating shifts. The prevalence of IBS, functional constipation, functional diarrhea, and individual gastrointestinal symptoms was determined. RESULTS Data were available for 399 nurses (214 day shift, 110 night shift, and 75 rotating shift workers). Rotating shift nurses had a significantly higher prevalence of IBS compared to day shift nurses (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression correcting for age, gender, and sleep quality proved this association robust. IBS-QOL scores among groups were similar. Prevalence of functional constipation and functional diarrhea was similar between groups. Rotating shift nurses had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal pain compared to day shift (81% vs. 54%, P < 0.0001) and night shift workers (61%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Participation in shift work, especially rotating shift work, is associated with the development of IBS and abdominal pain that is independent of sleep quality. Circadian rhythm disturbances may have a function in the pathogenesis of IBS and abdominal pain.

Nojkov, Borko; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Chey, William D.; Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A.

2010-01-01

110

Night Jungle Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph examines the adequacy of current jungle and infantry doctrine in addressing the conduct of night operations in a jungle environment. Daytime jungle operations already have much in common with night operations in general due to the limited v...

T. B. Bennett

1993-01-01

111

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

112

Night Vision Camcorder System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain night vision device imagery, a portable lightweight night vision camcorder system has been designed. This system has the capability to record night vision imagery in confined quarters (e.g., cockpits) and other remote sites under variou...

J. H. Allen R. C. Hebb

1993-01-01

113

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

114

Adnyamathanha Night Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.

Curnow, Paul

2009-06-01

115

Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition.

Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Wright, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

116

Night vision camcorder system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain night vision device imagery, a portable lightweight night vision camcorder system has been designed. This system has the capability to record night vision imagery in confined quarters (e.g., cockpits) and other remote sites under various environmental conditions. The system is composed of a commercial third generation night vision monocular, a special optical coupler, and a consumer camcorder. Engineering drawings for the optical coupler are included as an appendix. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the night vision camcorder system imaging characteristics. The results of these experiments indicate that the limiting resolution of recorded night vision video is about 30% to 40% of the limiting resolution of the third generation monocular, depending upon the type of video filming method used.

Allen, John H.; Hebb, Richard C.

1993-10-01

117

The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

Merkus, Suzanne L; van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

2012-07-05

118

Shedding light on night myopia.  

PubMed

First described during the 18th century, the cause of night myopia remains a controversial topic. Whereas several explanations have been suggested in the literature, particularly related with accommodation or chromatic shift in scotopic light conditions, no definitive explanation for its aetiology has been provided. We describe an experiment in which ocular refractive state was objectively and subjectively measured while viewing two kind of stimulus: letters on a bright background and a punctual source of light in a dark background. We found that under photopic conditions the optimum refractive state of the accommodating eye is significantly more myopic when maximizing perceived quality of a point source on a dark background compared to a conventional letter chart with black letters on a white background. Optical modeling suggested this difference in refractive state is due to spherical aberration. Since isolated point sources are more likely encountered at night, whereas extended objects are more likely encountered in the daytime, our results suggest that a significant part of the night myopia phenomenon is determined by the nature of the visual stimulus and the visual task used to assess ocular refractive state. PMID:22593090

López-Gil, Norberto; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C; Thibos, Larry N; González-Méijome, José Manuel

2012-01-01

119

Career shift phenomenon among doctors in tacloban city, philippines: lessons for retention of health workers in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background At the height of the global demand for nurses in the 1990s, a phenomenon of grave concern arose. A significant number of medical doctors in the Philippines shifted careers in order to seek work as nurses overseas. The obvious implications of such a trend require inquiry as to the reasons for it; hence, this cross-sectional study. The data in the study compared factors such as personal circumstances, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, perceived benefits versus costs of the alternative job, and the role of social networks/linkages among doctors classified as career shifters and non-shifters. Methodology A combined qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in the study. Data gathered came from sixty medical doctors practicing in three major hospitals in Tacloban City, Philippines, and from a special nursing school also located in the same city. Respondents were chosen through a non-probability sampling, specifically through a chain referral sampling owing to the controversial nature of the research. A set of pre-set criteria was used to qualify doctors as shifters and non-shifters. Cross-tabulation was carried out to highlight the differences between the two groups. Finally, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess if these differences were significant. Results Among the different factors investigated, results of the study indicated that the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and certain socio-demographic factors such as age, length of medical practice, and having children to support, were significantly different among shifters and non-shifters at p ? 0.05. This suggested that such factors had a bearing on the intention to shift to a nursing career among physicians. Conclusion Taken in the context of the medical profession, it was the level of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction that was the immediate antecedent in the intention to shift careers among medical doctors. Personal factors, specifically age, support of children, and the length of medical practice gained explanatory power when they were linked to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. On the other hand, factors such as perceived benefits and costs of the alternative job and the impact of social networks did not differ between shifters and non-shifters. It would then indicate that efforts to address the issue of physician retention need to go beyond economic incentives and deal with other sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among practicing physicians. Since this was an exploratory study in a particular locale in central Philippines, similar studies in other parts of the country need to be done to gain better understanding of this phenomenon at a national level.

2011-01-01

120

Tender for the night: After-dark cultural complexities in the night-time economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the night-time economy emerged in Britain in the early 1990s in the context of strategies to counter de-industrialization and inner-urban decline. Despite registering a shift towards more fluid, fragmented and diversified structures and rhythms of work, leisure and urban space, a framework that acknowledges cultural complexity has not, in practice, characterized night-time economy policy. After-dark cultural complexity

David Rowe; Nathaniel Bavinton

2011-01-01

121

Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.  

PubMed

Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate this lead to frustration. When asked as to whether they would could shift job if they get regular one more than 50 % said yes this means that there need to be come training and intervention for the shift workers and their family so that the problems faced and their impact on personal health of the female nurses could be reduced. PMID:22317381

Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

2012-01-01

122

Earth at Night  

NASA Video Gallery

This view of Earth at night is a cloud-free view from space as acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite. A joint program by NASA and NOAA, Suomi NPP captured this nighttime image by the day-night band of the satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite VIIRS. It combines the Earth at night view created by NASA's Earth Observatory with data processed by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center with the EO Blue Marble: Next Generation. Credit: NASA Goddard/NASA's Earth Observatory/NOAA/DOD › Related story› Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-12-04

123

Armodafinil for Treatment of Excessive Sleepiness Associated With Shift Work Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (?3 months) shift work disorder (SWD) of moderate or greater severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-week, randomized controlled study was conducted at 42 sleep research facilities in North America from April 2 through December 23, 2004, and enrolled 254 permanent or rotating night shift workers with SWD. Entry criteria included excessive sleepiness during usual night shifts for 3 months or longer (corroborated by mean sleep latency of ?6 minutes on a Multiple Sleep Latency Test), insomnia (sleep efficiency ?87.5% during daytime sleep), and SWD that was judged clinically to be of moderate or greater severity. Patients received armodafinil, 150 mg, or placebo 30 to 60 minutes before each night shift. Physiologic sleep propensity during night shift hours, clinical impression of severity, patient-reported sleepiness, and cognitive function were assessed during laboratory night shifts at weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Armodafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency from 2.3 (1.6) minutes at baseline to 5.3 (5.0) minutes at final visit, compared with a change from 2.4 (1.6) minutes to 2.8 (2.9) minutes in the placebo group (P<.001). Clinical condition ratings improved in more patients receiving armodafinil (79%) vs placebo (59%) (P=.001). As reported by patients' diaries, armodafinil significantly reduced sleepiness during laboratory nights (P<.001), night shifts at work (P<.001), and the commute home (P=.003). Armodafinil improved performance on standardized memory (P<.001) and attention (power, P=.001; continuity, P<.001) tests compared with placebo. Armodafinil was well tolerated and did not affect daytime sleep, as measured by polysomnography. CONCLUSION: In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic SWD of moderate or greater severity, armodafinil significantly improved wakefulness during scheduled night work, raising mean nighttime sleep latency above the level considered to indicate severe sleepiness during the daytime. Armodafinil also significantly improved measures of overall clinical condition, long-term memory, and attention. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00080288

Czeisler, Charles A.; Walsh, James K.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas

2009-01-01

124

One Night in January.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)

Rottmann, Larry

1992-01-01

125

One Night in January.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)|

Rottmann, Larry

1992-01-01

126

Night Leg Cramps  

MedlinePLUS

... leg cramps are likely to be related to muscle fatigue and nerve problems. The risk of having night ... lowering drugs (statins) Dialysis Other conditions Dehydration Diarrhea Muscle fatigue Nerve damage, as from cancer treatments Osteoarthritis Parkinson's ...

127

Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.  

PubMed

Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23294148

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

2013-01-07

128

Countermeasures for night work performance deficits: The effect of napping or caffeine on continuous performance at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napping and caffeine consumption, two common strategies for improving alertness and performance on the night shift, were investigated in two separate studies. Performance was measured with a simulated assembly line task (SALT) during a single night work shift. Both strategies proved beneficial. Performance and subjective alertness were improved following either a 2.3-h evening nap or ingestion of caffeine (4 mg\\/kg)

Paula K. Schweitzer; Mark J. Muehlbach; James K. Walsh

1992-01-01

129

Late-night hours draw busy patients.  

PubMed

Planned Parenthood of Houston and southeast Texas is currently implementing a reproductive health care clinic with night-time hours. The clinic provides for the reproductive health care needs of college students with after-class jobs, women with two jobs or with night-shift employment, and all other women who do not have time to go to a daytime clinic. The clinic operates twice a month on Fridays and was initially open 10:30 p.m. - 7 a.m., but now it has changed its hours to 7:30 p.m. - 3:30 a.m. The clinic is staffed by one clinician and two clinic assistants, which attend to an average of 17-22 patients per night's schedule. Women who use the clinic keep their appointments better and do not have to wait so long for care. PMID:12322321

1999-10-01

130

Shift Work Is Not Associated with High Blood Pressure or Prevalence of Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.

Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

2010-01-01

131

[Working time and sleep in nursing staff employed in "3 x 8" and "2 x 12" fast rotating shift schedules].  

PubMed

The study is aimed at assessing, in 200 nurses shift workers, the impact on sleep of two different working areas ("emergency" and "hospitalization") having the same "3 x 8" shift system, and of two different shift schedules at quick rotation ("2 x 12" and "3 x 8") in the same working area ("emergency"). Night and morning shifts prove to interfere to a greater extent with sleep in relation to both "2 x 12" and "3 x 8" shift systems as well as to the two operative areas. Hence the importance to consider in shift work planning, the direction of shift rotation and the length of the duty period according to the type of activity. PMID:23393870

Castellini, G; Anelli, M M; Punzi, S; Boari, P; Camerino, D; Costa, G

132

Fishing at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE are, as I have explained in the book referred to by ``S. W.'' in NATURE of December 29, 1904 (p. 201), many reasons for night-fishing by our pilchard and other fishing fleets. He quotes one, however, which is quite unsatisfactory, namely, the convenience of catching the morning market. To a few ports this might apply, but as a general

F. G. Aflalo

1905-01-01

133

"Twelfth Night" for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with pictures, letters,…

Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

134

Modeling Day and Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners make a "mini-globe" to investigate the causes of day and night on our planet. This is an introductory activity in a guide related to the science of sleep and daily rhythms. This lesson guide includes background information, information about cooperative learning, setup and management tips, extensions and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Greg L.

2009-01-01

135

Working at night and work ability among nursing personnel: when precarious employment makes the difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the association between night work and work ability, and verify whether the type of contractual employment has any\\u000a influence over this association.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Permanent workers (N = 642) and workers with precarious jobs (temporary contract or outsourced; N = 552) were interviewed and filled out questionnaires concerning work hours and work ability index. They were classified\\u000a into: never worked at night, ex-night workers,

Lucia Rotenberg; Rosane Harter Griep; Frida Marina Fischer; Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca; Paul Landsbergis

2009-01-01

136

Advanced night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

Thacker, Clinton

2003-02-01

137

Night nursing - staff's working experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence.

Nilsson, Kerstin; Campbell, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

2008-01-01

138

Neural activation in arousal and reward areas of the brain in day-active and night-active grass rats  

PubMed Central

In the diurnal unstriped Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) access to a running wheel can trigger a shift in active phase preference, with some individuals becoming night-active (NA), while others continue to be day-active (DA). To investigate the contributions of different neural systems to the support of this shift in locomotor activity, we investigated the association between chronotype and Fos expression during the day and night in three major nuclei in the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic (ACh) arousal system – medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal band of Broca (VDB and HDB respectively) –, and whether neural activation in these areas was related to neural activity in the orexinergic system. We also measured Fos expression in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cells of two components of the reward system that also participate in arousal – the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and supramammillary nucleus (SUM). NAs and DAs were compared to animals with no wheels. NAs had elevated Fos expression at night in ACh cells, but only in the HDB. In the non-cholinergic cells of the BF of NAs, enhanced nocturnal Fos expression was almost universally seen, but only associated with activation of the orexinergic system for the MS/ VDB region. For some of the areas and cell types of the BF, the patterns of Fos expression of DAs appeared similar to those of NAs, but were never associated with activation of the orexinergic system. Also common to DAs and NAs was a general increase in Fos expression in non-dopaminergic cells of the SUM and anterior VTA. Thus, in this diurnal species, voluntary exercise and a shift to a nocturnal chronotype changes neural activity in arousal and reward areas of the brain known to regulate a broad range of neural functions and behaviors, which may be also affected in human shift workers.

Castillo-Ruiz, Alexandra; Nixon, Joshua P.; Smale, Laura; Nunez, Antonio A.

2009-01-01

139

Shift work is a risk factor for increased total cholesterol level: a 14-year prospective cohort study in 6886 male workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The widespread adoption of 24 h continuous operations in a number of industries has resulted in an increase in shift work, which may influence lipid metabolism because of disturbed circadian rhythms, broken sleep and lifestyle problems. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of shift work on serum total cholesterol as an index of lipid metabolism.Methods:A

M Dochi; Y Suwazono; K Sakata; Y Okubo; M Oishi; K Tanaka; E Kobayashi; K Nogawa

2009-01-01

140

Influence of shift-work on selected immune variables in nurses.  

PubMed

Shift-work, particularly night-work, interferes with the physiological circadian rhythm and has the potential to induce psycho-physiological disturbances. A nurse population was investigated to establish whether shift-work can induce changes in a number of immune variables. Lymphocyte immunophenotype and proliferative response, NK cytotoxicity, cytokines and cortisol were determined in 68 shift-working and 28 daytime nurses at baseline and at 12 months. None of the variables studied differed significantly between shift and daytime workers, either at baseline or at 12 months, except IL-1? and TNF-?, which were significantly higher among daytime nurses at baseline, but not at follow-up. No effect of shift-work on immune variable and cortisol levels was seen at 12 months after adjustment for baseline values and job seniority. The specific work schedule as well as job type likely influenced our results, suggesting that rotational shift-work does not necessarily affect the immune system adversely. The immune changes reported by other studies in shift-workers should not be generalized. PMID:21804267

Copertaro, Alfredo; Bracci, Massimo; Gesuita, Rosaria; Carle, Flavia; Amati, Monica; Baldassari, Maurizio; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Santarelli, Lory

2011-08-01

141

Breastfeeding experiences of Taiwan nurses on rotational shifts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of ten three-shift nurses, with particular focus on how they make arrangements regarding breastfeeding in relation to their workplaces and work breaks. Using a qualitative approach, data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with ten three-shift nurses who had breastfed for more than six months and who returned to work after childbirth. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants, each of whom was interviewed for 1.5-2 hours. Content analysis was used to synthesize interview transcripts. The following three predominant themes and nine sub-themes were identified: (1) managing to express milk--finding appropriate times to express milk during day shifts, learning the timing to express milk during night shifts, and expressing all milk from the breasts during early morning 'graveyard' shifts; (2) dealing with the conflict between work and expressing milk--learning to both take care of patients and express milk, coming back to work on time after expressing milk, and finding "good" places to express milk; and (3) viewing breastfeeding as part of life--being with the baby at home more than being out, turning cars into mobile breastfeeding and milk-expressing "rooms", and breastfeeding as an accomplishment. These findings can help nurses and other healthcare professionals provide anticipatory guidance to women who plan to continue to breastfeed after returning to work. Study results can provide a reference for shift workers who continue to breastfeed after they return to work. PMID:19061176

Wu, Chao-Hua; Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru

2008-12-01

142

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with flying robots)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven flying robot “fairies” joined human actors in the Texas A&M production of William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The production was a collaboration between the departments of Computer Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer\\u000a Engineering, and Theater Arts. The collaboration was motivated by two assertions. First, that the performing arts have principles\\u000a for creating believable agents that will transfer

Robin Murphy; Dylan Shell; Amy Guerin; Brittany Duncan; Benjamin Fine; Kevin Pratt; Takis Zourntos

2011-01-01

143

New York City at Night  

NASA Website

One of the Expedition 35 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station exposed this 400 millimeter night image of the greater New York City metropolitan area on March 23, 2013. For orientation purposes, note that Manhattan runs ...

144

Tactical Night Terrain Flight Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents two experiments which were conducted to determine the training required to improve tactical night terrain flight aircrew performance. These experiments sought, specifically, to identify critical factors which should be included in a ...

J. A. Bynum G. L. Holman

1979-01-01

145

Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call. Methods Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons. Results Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep. Conclusions Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

2010-01-01

146

In praise of cloudy nights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The value of cloudy nights for the training of students in the techniques of observational astronomy cannot be too heavily stressed. Only on cloudy nights can students get down to the real business of extracting physical information from their observations free from the constraint of preparing for the evening's observations. A plea is made for using basic material of the highest professional standards in these activities.

McNally, D.

147

Productivity on a weekly rotating shift system: circadian adjustment and sleep deprivation effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little doubt that productivity and safety can be impaired on the night shift. Two main factors have been identified that may be responsible for this. On the one hand, the circadian rhythm in performance on at least simple tasks is at a low ebb at night, and adjusts only slowly over a span of night shifts. On the

STJEPAN VIDA?EK; LJILJANA KALITERNA; BISERKA RADOŠEVI?-VIDA?EK; SIMON FOLKARD

1986-01-01

148

Night Myopia Studied with an Adaptive Optics Visual Analyzer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10?6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of ?0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.

Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Canovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro

2012-01-01

149

Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.  

PubMed

Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

2010-10-20

150

Rewards and Challenges of Shift Work  

MedlinePLUS

... out sleep-depriving distractions. Purchase a “white noise” machine. Studies show that shift workers and non-shift ... peaceful sounds, such as ocean waves. White noise machines block out extraneous, not-so-peaceful sounds. You’ ...

151

A night in the life of an OR nurse.  

PubMed

The author shares a personal experience, during a night shift in the OR, that changed her forever. I was defined as a nurse by that moment of trauma. I spent 9 years as a trauma specialist in a large U.S. hospital. We did gun shots and stabbings every single night. After facing the results of too many school shootings, I came back to Canada. I was tired. After that night, death was never again an idea, a poetic notion of the spirit leaving the body. It was cold, it was pulseless, it was bloody, and it has a smell all it's own. To this day I can tell if a patient is going to die on the table, I can smell it. I had faced fear and death, and survived. I was certainly not "new" anymore... nor was I naïve. PMID:16092570

Laukkanen, Cindy

2005-06-01

152

TWAN: The World at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

Tafreshi, Babak A.

2011-06-01

153

Family Nights, Fairs, and Competitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. We think that math nights, fairs, and competitions can motivate students by answering not only cognitive needs but also social needs of the middle school student. This resource guide offers math content for family nights as well as investigations and activities for math fairs, including project ideas. For those students interested in testing their skills, we have included national math competitions created for middle school students.

Herrera, Terese A.

2010-01-01

154

Night work and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees over the time span 1984 to 2008.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence showing that night work is associated with increased morbidity, but only a few studies have focused on its relation to mortality. This study investigates the relationship between the type of working-time arrangement (weekly night work/daytime work) and total and cause-specific mortality among men and women. The data consist of a representative working conditions survey of Finnish employees conducted in 1984 (2286 men/2216 women), which has been combined with register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland covering the years 1985-2008. In the 1984 survey, the employees were asked if they worked during the night (23:00-06:00 h) and if so, how often. In this study, the authors compare employees who worked at night (121 men/89 women) to daytime employees who did not do night work (1325 men/1560 women). The relative risk of death was examined by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for background (age, level of education, family situation, and county), health (longstanding illness, pain symptoms, smoking status, and psychological symptoms), and work-related factors (weekly working hours, physical and psychological demands, demands of learning at work, and perceived job insecurity). Female employees working at night had a 2.25-fold higher risk of mortality than female dayworkers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.20) after adjustment for background and health- and work-related factors. In addition to total mortality, night work was also associated with tumor mortality. Female night workers had a 2.82-fold higher risk of tumor mortality than female dayworkers (95% CI 1.20-6.65) in the adjusted model. Among men, no such significant association was observed. The present study indicated that female night workers had a higher risk of both total and tumor mortality compared to female daytime employees. Additional research on the potential factors and mechanisms behind the association between night work and mortality is required. PMID:22621357

Nätti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Oinas, Tomi; Mustosmäki, Armi

2012-06-01

155

Advanced Night View Subsystem (ANVS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on the Advanced Night Viewer Subsystem (ANVS) FLIR program. During this program a basic concept was established for a miniature FLIR with a dual field of view that permitted simultaneous operation for (1) flying a Remotely Piloted...

1974-01-01

156

Day-Night-Twilight Chart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Day-Night-Twilight Chart' provides a ready reference as to the sunlit portions of the northern hemisphere at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z and 1800Z. It is anticipated, that as a guide to those weather reporting stations which are affected by solar heating at ...

1967-01-01

157

Calling Time: Managing Activities in Space and Time in the Evening\\/Night-time Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen the emergence of two policy objectives and associated development trends in UK city centres relating to urban vitality and to the urban renaissance policy agenda. These involve a shift towards more city centre residential development and, associated with the 24-Hour City agenda, a shift towards the development of evening\\/night-time economies (ENTEs). Mixed land uses are seen

Steven Tiesdell; Anne-Michelle Slater

2006-01-01

158

Factor Analytical Description of Night Vision Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human night vision capacity is described by interindividual correlations between different night vision tests. A component analysis showed that four independant factors explained 74% of the total variance: light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity, dark ada...

L. Persson H. Leyon H. Marmolin

1982-01-01

159

Short Sleep on Work Nights Common  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Short Sleep on Work Nights Common: Poll International survey highlights how culture ... Japanese sleep 30 to 40 minutes less on work nights than people in the other countries, averaging ...

160

Parallel Track Tactics for Night Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article advocates parallel track tactics for night attack. The need for this technique is established, and a short historical development is given. Procedures for planning and flight operations are discussed, and the advantages over current night tac...

M. B. Tutin

1988-01-01

161

Shift Work Sleep Disorder is Associated with an Attenuated Brain Response of Sensory Memory and an Increased Brain Response to Novelty: An ERP study  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To study the neurophysiological changes in attention and memory functions in shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants: 9 healthy night workers (NW) (mean age = 40 y; SD ± 8.9 y); 8 night workers meeting diagnostic criteria for SWSD (mean age = 37 y ± 9.4 y) and 9 healthy day workers (DW) (mean age = 35 y ± 7.3 y). Methods and Procedure: Using standard PSG the sleep related measures (TIB, TST, SOL, SE, and sleep stage distribution) were obtained prior to EEG/ERP study. Measures of habitual sleep were obtained from 2 week sleep logs and sleepiness was assessed with standardized measures. Using 32-EEG leads the ERPs to 3 types of sounds (novel, duration deviant, and simple tone) were obtained. The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflecting memory processing and P3a-reflecting the shift of involuntary attention were obtained. Statistical Analysis: The statistical comparisons of ERPs and sleep related parameters were performed using repeated measured ANOVAs and t-tests where appropriate. Results: Patients with SWSD had reduced TST and increased WASO relative to healthy workers. ERP results demonstrated significant attenuation of MMN amplitude over frontal regions in SWSD patients relative to NW and DW. In the SWSD patients, the P3a was increased to novelty across frontocentral brain regions with respect to the same locations in healthy controls. Conclusion: The ERP evidence of sensory memory reduction and attentional hyper-reaction to novel sound in conjunction with disturbed sleep suggests the need for more neurophysiological studies in SWSD workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Jefferson C; Kick A; Spear L; Tepley N; Drake CL. Shift work sleep disorder is associated with an attenuated brain response of sensory memory and an increased brain response to novelty: an ERP study. SLEEP 2010;33(5):703-713.

Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Jefferson, Catherine; Kick, Ashley; Spear, Laura; Tepley, Norman; Drake, Christopher L.

2010-01-01

162

The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.  

PubMed

A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751

Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

2010-04-01

163

Visual Acuity in Day for Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

In film production, it is sometimes not convenient or directly impossible to shoot some night scenes at night. The film budget, schedule or location may not allow it. In these cases, the scenes are shot at daytime, and the 'night look' is achieved by placing a blue filter in front of the lens and under-exposing the film. This technique, that

164

Visual Acuity in Day for Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lm production, it is sometimes not convenient or di- rectly impossible to shoot some night scenes at night. The lm budget, schedule or location may not allow it. In these cases, the scenes are shot at daytime, and the 'night look' is achieved by placing a blue lter in front of the lens and under-exposing the lm. This technique,

Gloria Haro; Marcelo Bertalmío; Vicent Caselles

2006-01-01

165

Prior Exercise Lowers Blood Pressure During Simulated NightWork With Different Meal Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundShift-work and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for raised blood pressure (BP). Exercise can reduce BP in diurnally-active individuals, but it is unknown whether postexercise hypotension persists when people are active and eating at night. We present the first investigation into the acute effects of exercise on BP monitored during simulated night-work.MethodsNine normotensive participants, aged 20–42 years, completed at

Sarah Fullick; Chris Morris; Helen Jones; Greg Atkinson

2009-01-01

166

Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the nurses' sleep health project.  

PubMed

Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on a sample of shiftworking nurses. Responses were obtained from 1202 nurses working at university hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, including 727 two-shift workers and 315 three-shift workers. The questionnaire included items relevant to age, gender, family structure, work environment, health-related quality of life (QOL), diurnal type, depressive symptoms, and SWD. Participants who reported insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness for at least 1 mo that was subjectively relevant to their shiftwork schedules were categorized as having SWD. The prevalence of SWD in the sampled shiftworking nurses was 24.4%; shiftworking nurses with SWD showed lower health-related QOL and more severe depressive symptoms, with greater rates of both actual accidents/errors and near misses, than those without SWD. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that more time spent working at night, frequent missing of nap opportunities during night work, and having an eveningness-oriented chronotype were significantly associated with SWD. The present study indicated that SWD might be associated with reduced health-related QOL and decreased work performance in shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. The results also suggested that missing napping opportunities during night work, long nighttime working hours, and the delay of circadian rhythms are associated with the occurrence of SWD among shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. PMID:23445510

Asaoka, Shoichi; Aritake, Sayaka; Komada, Yoko; Ozaki, Akiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Inoue, Yuichi

2013-02-27

167

Food Use in Households in Three Work-Shift Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of work shift on the money value, quantity in pounds, and nutritive value of convenience and nonconven ience foods used at home as well as to describe selected food-related practices of households classified by shift status (day, afternoon, or night). Data from 1,325 housekeeping households for whom shift status could be determined

Joanne M. Pearson; Oral Capps; Julein Axelson

1985-01-01

168

Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801

Simuni?, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

2012-06-01

169

Estimation and evaluation of shift work as risk factors for occupational injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of shift work and extended working hours on occupational injuries. Estimation based on four studies shows that the risk of occupational injury during afternoon shifts was 6% lower than that during morning shifts. The same kind of calculation showed that the risk of occupational injury during night shifts was 15% lower than during morning shifts.

Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

2011-01-01

170

Heart rate patterns in sedentary shift work: influence of circadian rhythm, meals and personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate was recorded at regular intervals during the course of 8-h sessions of simulated sedentary shift work performed for 12 consecutive days. Separate groups of subjects were assigned to one of three shifts, commencing either at 0400 hours (“morning” shift), 0800 hours (“day” shift) or 2200 hours (“nightshift). A major meal was taken during a break in the

W. P. Colquhoun

1988-01-01

171

Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD).  

PubMed

Nearly 20% of the labor force worldwide, work shifts that include work hours outside 07:00 h to 18:00 h. Shift work is common in many occupations that directly affect the health and safety of others (e.g., protective services, transportation, healthcare), whereas quality of life, health, and safety during shift work and the commute home can affect workers in any field. Increasing evidence indicates that shift-work schedules negatively influence worker physiology, health, and safety. Shift work disrupts circadian sleep and alerting cycles, resulting in disturbed daytime sleep and excessive sleepiness during the work shift. Moreover, shift workers are at risk for shift work disorder (SWD). This review focuses on shift work and the assessment and management of sleepiness and sleep disruption associated with shift work schedules and SWD. Management strategies include approaches to promote sleep, wakefulness, and adaptation of the circadian clock to the imposed work schedule. Additional studies are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the health risks of shift work, understanding which shift workers are at most risk of SWD, to investigate treatment options that address the health and safety burdens associated with shift work and SWD, and to further develop and assess the comparative effectiveness of countermeasures and treatment options. PMID:22560640

Wright, Kenneth P; Bogan, Richard K; Wyatt, James K

2012-05-03

172

Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.  

PubMed Central

Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers.

Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

1990-01-01

173

Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.  

PubMed

Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

1990-01-01

174

The Night Vision Aid for Legally Blind People with Night Blindness: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Night Vision Aid (NVA) was evaluated to determine its effectiveness as an orientation and mobility aid for legally blind persons with night blindness. On the average, the NVA did not significantly improve the Ss' mobility at night; the majority of them preferred the Wide Angle Mobility Light. (CL)

Morrissette, Diane L.; Goodrich, Gregory L.

1983-01-01

175

Light Night: an “enlightening” place marketing experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The Light Night initiative currently under development in the UK offers an innovative approach to revitalising town and city centres by involving residents and visitors through culture and the arts. This initiative is based on the successful Nuit Blanche (White Night) culture-led urban revitalisation model tested in cities like Brussels, Madrid, Montreal, Rome, São Paulo, Skopje and Toronto,

Salim Jiwa; J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak; Martin Blackwell; Toyubur Rahman

2009-01-01

176

Night Reconnoitering Capability for Military Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AN/PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles were evaluated as a potential viewing device to enable a military dog handler to work his dog, e.g., a scout dog, off-leash at night. Supplementary IR illuminating devices mounted on the dog were evaluated in conjunction ...

E. S. Tomlinson M. Krauss

1974-01-01

177

Better visibility Needed on Highways at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of the highway fatalities occur during the hours of darkness with a quarter of the daytime traffic volume. This is significant of conditions beyond the control of driver or pedestrian. Campaigns for education of driver and pedestrian, to be effective both day and night, must be accompanied by measures to improve night visibility, such as systems of

L. A. S. Wood

1936-01-01

178

Progress in color night vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2012-01-01

179

Re-viewing Her Nights: Modes of excess in Indian cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the debates around the regional language film Avalude Ravukal (Her Nights, d. I.V. Sasi, 1978), a controversial film produced by the Kerala film industry credited as being responsible for launching soft-porn cinema as a genre in India. This paper tracks the shifting circuits of Avalude Ravukal and its fractured aesthetic codes to analyze the role of cultural

Navaneetha Mokkil Maruthur

2011-01-01

180

Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.  

PubMed

Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health issues. Sophia lives with her parents and infant brother. There is a maternal family history of insomnia and sleep walking and a paternal history of sleep walking. Her mother adheres to a strict daily schedule. Sleep deprivation, different parental child-rearing practices, social isolation, and lack of quality parent time were all identified by the mother as significant marital stressors. During the office visit, Sophia required 30 minutes to warm up and smile, and over 60 minutes before she spoke her first word. Physical examination was normal (including growth measurements) and the developmental examination was age-appropriate. Upon completion of the assessment, she was engaging, playful, and cooperative with the pediatrician. PMID:18698194

Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

2008-08-01

181

Who are the crowdworkers?: shifting demographics in mechanical turk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a crowdsourcing system in which tasks are distributed to a population of thousands of anonymous workers for completion. This system is increasingly popular with researchers and developers. Here we extend previous studies of the demographics and usage behaviors of MTurk workers. We describe how the worker population has changed over time, shifting from a primarily

Joel Ross; Lilly Irani; M. Six Silberman; Andrew Zaldivar; Bill Tomlinson

2010-01-01

182

[Health consequences of shift work].  

PubMed

In humans many biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes occur in a rhythmic manner. Accumulating experimental and epidemiological evidence indicate that disturbances in biological rhythms could lead to unfavorable alterations in body function, thus exerting negative health impact. In industrialized countries, it is estimated that between 15 and 30% of the working population is involved in some kind of permanent night work and rotating shift work. Today, shift work is regarded as a significant occupational stressor which has marked negative effects on both health and well-being. This review surveys data on association between shift work and health problems, including sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcer, metabolic syndrome, breast cancer and undesirable pregnancy outcome. PMID:22010477

Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Kapa?a-Kempa, Magdalena; Zawilska, Jolanta B

2011-01-01

183

Polysomnographic Sleep and Circadian Temperature Rhythms as a Function of Prior Shift Work Exposure in Retired Seniors  

PubMed Central

In an earlier published telephone interview study (n > 1,000) we have shown that retired shift workers subjectively report worse sleep than retired day workers. This laboratory study sought to determine whether these findings held up when objective polysomnograhic (PSG) measures of sleep were taken and whether retirees' circadian temperature rhythms differed as a function of shift work exposure. All completers of the telephone interview were invited to attend a 36-hour laboratory study for which participants were paid. This involved continuous core body temperature measurement (using an ingestible pill-based system) and 2 nights of PSG. Shift work exposure (plus other measures) was collected by taking a detailed work history. The second laboratory night was scored into sleep stages. Post hoc, we divided participants into 4 shift work exposure groups: 0 years (ie, no exposure to shift work), 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years. Sample sizes were 11, 16, 15, and 15, respectively, with approximate equality in mean age (71.7 years of age, 69.1 years of age, 70.0 years of age, and 70.4 years of age, respectively) and percent male (63%, 50%, 67%, and 73%, respectively). Shift work exposure was associated with worse PSG sleep in a dose-related fashion. The percentages of participants with sleep efficiency, 80% for the 0 years, 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years groups were 36%, 63%, 67%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01), and the percentages with total sleep time (TST), 6 hours were 36%, 56%, 53%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01). From the circadian rhythm record, shift work exposure appeared to result (P = 0.06) in an increased spread of phase angles (difference between habitual bedtime and time of temperature trough). In conclusion, it appears likely that shift work may be related to a scarring of sleep and circadian rhythms. This may be associated with a change in the relationship between habitual sleep timing and the phase of the circadian pacemaker.

Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Billy, Bart D.; Fletcher, Mary E.; Kennedy, Kathy S.

2013-01-01

184

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system and beyond. From the Galilean moons of Jupiter, to the farthest reaches of our galaxy, space science intrigued learners of all ages and was the perfect theme for this family night event. Here the authors share their "stellar" experience, and include a detailed description of the activities from the Astronomy Night sessions.

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-11-01

185

5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for a period of...in a pay period, including both night and day hours, is less than 8 hours. ...overtime, Sunday, and holiday pay. Night pay differential is in...

2010-01-01

186

5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... An employee is entitled to a night pay differential for a period of...in a pay period, including both night and day hours, is less than 8 hours. ...overtime, Sunday, and holiday pay. Night pay differential is in...

2009-01-01

187

Empowering Public Welfare Workers through Mutual Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the organizational binds facing social workers concerned with the provision of services to clients in times of fiscal restraint. Suggests a mutual support group as a step toward empowerment. Workers may shift from a support group to a coalition for action as change agents within institutional settings. (JAC)|

Sherman, Wendy Ruth; Wenocur, Stanley

1983-01-01

188

Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 13 to 14% of European and North American workers are involved in shift work. The present aim is to explore the relationships between coping strategies adopted by shift workers and their leisure-time energy expenditure. Twenty-four female and 71 male shift workers (mean ± SD age: 37 ± 9 years) completed an adapted version of the Standard Shift-work Index (SSI), together with

S. Fullick; C. Grindey; B. Edwards; C. Morris; T. Reilly; D. Richardson; J. Waterhouse; G. Atkinson

2009-01-01

189

Biogeochemistry: As different as night and day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of northern ecosystems shows that the effects on plant growth of rising night-time temperatures are opposite to those of increasing daytime temperatures -- a finding that has implications for carbon-cycle models. See Letter p.88

Still, Christopher

2013-09-01

190

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

191

Sun and Moon | Day and Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students record observations of the day and night sky over weeks or a month. Discussions around the observations are intended to help students recognize the patterns in their observations. Literature connections are included.

Schools, Orange C.

2010-07-01

192

Shift Registers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Shift Registers, is the twelfth chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Serial-in, serial-out shift register, Parallel-in, parallel-out shift register, and Ring counters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-18

193

Nature's Late-Night Light Shows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

Peterson, Carolyn Collins

2002-09-01

194

The Shifting \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, numerous ICT-related investigation powers have been introduced or extended. Have these shifted the balance between criminal investigation and privacy? Do governments allow more privacy infringements for the sake of law enforcement than they used to do? As a first step towards answering these questions, this paper presents the results of a case study of communications interception

Bert-Jaap Koops

2003-01-01

195

Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with

M N Bates; J Fawcett; S Dickson; R Berezowski; N Garrett

2005-01-01

196

Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night  

PubMed

Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. We have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. ) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mM, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. We conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions. PMID:9847119

Schleucher; Vanderveer; Sharkey

1998-12-01

197

Changing the Waveform of Circadian Rhythms: Considerations for Shift-Work  

PubMed Central

Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24?h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified.

Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Michael R.

2012-01-01

198

Pedestrian detection in near-infrared night vision system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several premium automotive brands offer night vision systems to enhance the driver's ability to see at night. Most recent generation night vision systems have added pedestrian detection as a feature to assist drivers to avoid potential collisions. This paper reviews pedestrian detection based on two different sensing technologies: active night vision operating in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic

Yun Luo; Jeffrey Remillard; Dieter Hoetzer

2010-01-01

199

Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

2006-01-01

200

Behavioral management of night eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-01-01

201

Solar power for the lunar night  

SciTech Connect

Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

Landis, G.A.

1989-05-01

202

Using biological motion to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the conspicuity of road workers at night can be enhanced by distributing retroreflective strips across the body to present a pattern of biological motion (biomotion). Twenty visually normal drivers (mean age = 40.3 years) participated in an experiment conducted at two open-road work sites (one suburban and one freeway) at night-time. At each site, four road workers walked in place wearing a standard road worker night vest either (a) alone, (b) with additional retroreflective strips on thighs, (c) with additional retroreflective strips on ankles and knees, or (d) with additional retroreflective strips on eight moveable joints (full biomotion). Participants, seated in stationary vehicles at three different distances (80 m, 160 m, 240 m), rated the relative conspicuity of the four road workers. Road worker conspicuity was maximized by the full biomotion configuration at all distances and at both sites. The addition of ankle and knee markings also provided significant benefits relative to the standard vest alone. The effects of clothing configuration were more evident at the freeway site and at shorter distances. Overall, the full biomotion configuration was ranked to be most conspicuous and the vest least conspicuous. These data provide the first evidence that biomotion effectively enhances conspicuity of road workers at open-road work sites. PMID:21376898

Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Chaparro, Alex; Britt, Thomas W

2010-12-30

203

Differences in beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval between day and night.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval during the day and night. A new algorithm was used to detect the onset of the QRS, the apex of the T wave, and end of the T in ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings. Beat-to-beat variability of QT, QaT, and QTc during the day and night was studied in the time, frequency, and chaotic domains. Participants were adults without clinical evidence of heart disease. Although the QT duration was higher (p = 0.0001) at night, the beat-to-beat variability of this interval was lower: in the time domain (decreased standard deviation, p = 0.0005), in the frequency domain (decreased low-frequency power of the spectra, p = 0.004), and the chaotic domain (tighter clustering of the points in the Poincaré plots). The high-frequency to low-frequency ratio of the power spectra of the QT (and the RR) was higher (p = 0.03) at night. Beat-to-beat QT variability in the time, frequency, and chaotic domains is decreased at night with shift of the QT modulation to higher frequencies corresponding to respiration and representing vagal preponderance. The techniques presented here and the findings in normal subjects may be useful in evaluating the risk for arrhythmic events in patients with heart disease. PMID:11103859

Kostis, W J; Belina, J C

2000-11-01

204

Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

205

Power from the Sun - Light at Night.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the basics of photovoltaic technology are explained. The application described in the paper is the lighting of a house during the night from energy generated and collected during the day. The aspects covered in a general fashion are the ener...

A. T. Aarsse

1984-01-01

206

Night terrors associated with thalamic lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe a case with night terrors (NT) symptomatic of a thalamic lesion.Methods: Videopolysomnography and brain MRI were used to study a 48 year old woman with a recent onset of brief episodes, occurring exclusively during nocturnal sleep, where she suddenly sat up in bed, screamed and appeared to be very frightened.Results: Videopolysomnography recorded an episode suggestive of NT.

Giancarlo Di Gennaro; Alain Autret; Addolorata Mascia; Paolo Onorati; Fabio Sebastiano; Pier Paolo Quarato

2004-01-01

207

Bazaars of the Thousand and One Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

A re-reading of the Thousand and One Nights in light of economic thought is attempted here. These stories characterize a bazaar economy as the dark side of medieval economics. The process-view of the bazaar is discussed in relation to Smith, Walras and the Austrian School. The tacit notions of 'market price' and 'natural price' are touched upon. Auctions are then

Eyup Ozveren

2007-01-01

208

The Political Content of Late Night Comedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2000 national election season, there was unprecedented attention paid by the media, and by presidential campaigns, to the political content of late night comedy shows such as the Tonight Show with Jay Leno and the Late Show with David Letterman. Focusing on the more than thirteen thousand jokes about U.S. political figures from 1996 to 2000 on late

David Niven; S. Robert Lichter; Daniel Amundson

2003-01-01

209

Family Literacy Night: A Celebration of Reading!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family Literacy Night is an exciting way to engage students and their parents in meaningful literacy activities while building community spirit and strengthening the partnership between school and home. It is an opportunity for students to show their parents what they do in school; how they create in the computer lab, how they work in the art…

Campbell, Becky; Morton, Shirley; Rumschlag, Hella

2011-01-01

210

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-01-01

211

Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

2011-01-01

212

Family Reading Night: A How to Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

Rehmer, Julie

2007-01-01

213

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

Undrus, A.

2012-12-01

214

First Observation of the 5577 Å Oxygen Green Line in the Night Airglow of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the morning of November 20, 1999, the night airglow of Venus was observed in the visible spectral region, using the Keck I telescope and the HIRES echelle spectrometer. We report detection of the O(1S-1D) 5577 Å green line. The relative velocity of earth and Venus was 12.8 km\\/s, corresponding to a Doppler shift of 0.24 Å. With a spectral

T. G. Slanger; D. L. Huestis; P. C. Cosby; T. A. Bida

2000-01-01

215

Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The literature on shift work, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and changes in traditional risk factors is reviewed. Seventeen studies have dealt with shift work and cardiovascular disease risk. On balance, shift workers were found to have a 40% increase in risk. Causal mechanisms of this risk via known cardiovascular risk factors, in relation to circadian rhythms, disturbed sociotemporal patterns, social support, stress, behavior (smoking, diet, alcohol, exercise), and biochemical changes (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc) are discussed. The risk is probably multifactorial, but the literature has focused on the behavior of shift workers and has neglected other possible causal connections. In most studies methodological problems are present; these problems are related to selection bias, exposure classification, outcome classification, and the appropriateness of comparison groups. Suggestions for the direction of future research on this topic are proposed. PMID:10360463

Bøggild, H; Knutsson, A

1999-04-01

216

TopOwl night vision improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TopOwl® is an original concept of binocular Helmet Mounted Sight and Display system (HMSD) for helicopters, where two Image Intensifier Tubes (IIT) are integrated on the headgear and optically coupled to the clear visor placed in front of the pilot's eyes. Thales recently developed a new version of its TopOwl®'s Display Module with the objective to have an HMSD capable to achieve all kind of missions up to the darkest night levels. The main enhancements are the redesign of the optical combination, the use of new optical materials and of latest generation of optical design tools. Two flyable prototypes of this new design were manufactured. A performance assessment has been conducted, showing a significant improvement of the night vision performances, reaching performances equivalent to those of last issued NVGs. These evaluations are being completed by different flight test evaluations.

Lemoine, Olivier; Ebert, Jean Claude; Saviot, Frédéric; Charbonneau, Marie; Coumert, Bruno

2008-05-01

217

Commission 21: Light of the Night Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 21 consists of IAU members and consultants with expertise and interest in the study of the light of the night sky and its various diffuse components, at all accessible electromagnetic frequencies. In cosmic distance scales, the subjects of Commission 21 range from airglow and tropospheric scattering in Earth's atmosphere, through zodiacal light in the solar system, including thermal emission from interplanetary dust, integrated starlight in the Milky Way galaxy, diffuse galactic light due to dust scattering in the galactic diffuse interstellar medium, thermal emissions from interstellar dust and free free emission from ionized interstellar gas, to various diffuse extragalactic background sources, including the cosmologically important cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations of the diffuse night sky brightness at any frequency typically include signals from several of these sources, and it has been the historic mandate of Commission 21 to foster the necessary collaboration of experts from the different astronomical sub-disciplines involved.

Witt, Adolf N.; Murthy, Jayant; Gustafson, Bo Å. S.; Baggaley, W. Jack; Dwek, Eli; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Mann, Ingrid; Mattila, Kalevi; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

218

Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

2006-06-01

219

Multi-channel automotive night vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source?the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

2013-09-01

220

Simulating Variations in Night Sky Irradiance Via CRT Projector Controls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Availability of spectrally correct simultaneous near-IR and visual imagery in night mission capable simulators would improve night vision goggle (NVG) training fidelity. While providing the aided, through-the-goggle view, it can also provide unaided perip...

J. H. Allen R. C. Hebb

1997-01-01

221

Simulation of night sky background for HAGAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For experiments like HAGAR, based on atmospheric Cherenkov technique, performance of the experiment depends strongly on the level of night sky background (NSB) at the observation site. Proper modeling of NSB in simulations is important to get the realistic estimate of the performance parameters. Here we present the Monte Carlo simulation of NSB and its comparison with experimental data. Effect of after-pulsing in photo-multiplier tubes is also modeled in present simulations.

Saha, Lab; Hagar Collaboration

222

Low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of Phalaenopsis to acclimate its photosynthetic capacity and metabolic activity to cool night temperature conditions is crucial for improving\\u000a orchid production in terms of efficient greenhouse heating. The extent to which Phalaenopsis possesses acclimation potential and the mechanistic background of the metabolic processes involved, have, however, not been\\u000a studied before. Plants were subjected to a direct and gradual

Bruno Pollet; Lynn Vanhaecke; Pieter Dambre; Peter Lootens; Kathy Steppe

2011-01-01

223

2010 National Observe the Moon Night!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

2010-05-01

224

Behavioral management of night eating disorders.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-03-28

225

Agomelatine Efficacy in the Night Eating Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (?5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment.

Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

2013-01-01

226

Agomelatine efficacy in the night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (-5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

2013-05-16

227

"Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

Bueter, Chuck

2008-05-01

228

Daytime noise and subsequent night sleep in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of daytime noise on recovery processes during subsequent undisturbed night sleep were studied in six healthy men (21–27 years), exposed to 80 dB (A) pink noise 8 h per day for 2 days. Sleep EEG, ECG, and respiration were recorded in the laboratory for five consecutive nights: two baseline nights, two nights following noise stimulation, and again one

Beate Fruhstorfer; Heinrich Fruhstorfer; Peter Grass

1984-01-01

229

Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twice each year, millions of night-migratory songbirds migrate thousands of kilometers. To find their way, they must process and integrate spatiotemporal information from a variety of cues including the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we discovered that night-migratory songbirds possess a tight cluster of brain regions highly active only during night vision.

Henrik Mouritsen; Gesa Feenders; Miriam Liedvogel; Kazuhiro Wada; Erich D. Jarvis

2005-01-01

230

Smoking during the night: prevalence and smoker characteristics.  

PubMed

We report on the smoking patterns and characteristics of individuals who smoke at night. We also explore the relationship between night smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation outcomes. Participants (N = 691) were heavy smokers enrolled in cessation research clinics. Data were from three studies. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants monitored their smoking (ad libitum, day and night) on electronic diaries (EDs) during a 2-week baseline period and for 4 weeks following a target quit day. A total of 41% of smokers recorded at least one episode of night smoking. Within this group, night smoking occurred on 26% of nights, averaging two episodes per night. ED data correlated with a single self-report item assessing the frequency of night smoking. Night smoking was associated with greater nicotine dependence and daily caffeine consumption. It also predicted risk for lapsing beyond traditional measures of nicotine dependence. Night smoking is common, is associated with nicotine dependence, and it represents additional risk for cessation failure. People who smoke at night may need nicotine replacement therapy overnight. Future research should determine whether treatments that improve sleep quality also improve cessation outcomes in night smokers. PMID:18188757

Scharf, Deborah M; Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul

2008-01-01

231

Factors influencing a motorist's ability to detect deer at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) occur at night when deer are active and the ability of motorists to see them is impaired. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of motorists to detect deer at night and examine select factors which may influence detection distances. We examined the ability of motorists to detect deer at night and the

Lauren L. Mastro; Michael R. Conover; S. Nicole Frey

2010-01-01

232

Helicopter Flights with Night-Vision Goggles: Human Factors Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity amb...

M. S. Brickner

1989-01-01

233

46 CFR 9.5 - Night, Sunday, and holiday defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Night, Sunday, and holiday defined...OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.5 Night, Sunday, and holiday defined...purpose of this part the word night shall mean the time between 5 p.m. of any day and 8 a.m. of the...

2010-10-01

234

46 CFR 9.5 - Night, Sunday, and holiday defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Night, Sunday, and holiday defined...OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.5 Night, Sunday, and holiday defined...purpose of this part the word night shall mean the time between 5 p.m. of any day and 8 a.m. of the...

2009-10-01

235

46 CFR 9.6 - Rate for night service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Rate for night service. 9.6 Section 9...OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.6 Rate for night service. The rate of extra...authorized overtime services performed at night on any week day is hereby fixed at...

2009-10-01

236

46 CFR 9.6 - Rate for night service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Rate for night service. 9.6 Section 9...OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.6 Rate for night service. The rate of extra...authorized overtime services performed at night on any week day is hereby fixed at...

2010-10-01

237

What Makes Day and Night? The Earth's Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In part one of this activity, students are introduced to day and night through a whole class reading. In the second part of this lesson, a kinesthetic modeling of day and night allows students to experience the spinning Earth and the day/night cycle.

First, Project

2009-04-28

238

Dispelling Late-Night MythsNews Consumption among Late-Night Comedy Viewers and the Predictors of Exposure to Various Late-Night Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores two largely untested assumptions that dominate popular and scholarly examinations of the “late-night comedy audience.” The first assumption is that young people are tuning in to late-night comedy programs instead of the news. The second assumption is that there is one monolithic “late-night audience.” Using data from both the 2004 Pew Research Center Political Communications Study and

Dannagal G. Young; Russell M. Tisinger

2006-01-01

239

Objective Sleep Measures and Subjective Sleep Satisfaction: How Do Older Adults With Insomnia Define a Good Night’s Sleep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between objective sleep measures and subjective sleep satisfaction was explored in a sample of 47 older adults (59 years and older; 35 women, 12 men) with primary insomnia. Participants submitted to all-night sleep evaluations (polysomnography) for 2 nights. After each night, participants provided subjective sleep-satisfaction ratings. Depth of sleep (decreased Stage 1 sleep and increased Stages 3 and

Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

1998-01-01

240

Recognition of shift-work disorder in primary care.  

PubMed

To recognize shift-work disorder (SWD), primary care physicians can screen for persistent excessive sleepiness (ES) and insomnia in patients who work night or rotating shifts. If SWD is suspected, a differential diagnosis should be generated, as ES and insomnia are commonly associated with other morbidities. Ask patients about symptoms of other common sleep/wake disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a useful tool for subjectively evaluating ES. PMID:20074506

Schwartz, Jonathan Rl

2010-01-01

241

Moon night sky brightness simulation for the Xinglong station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a sky brightness monitor at the Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, we collected data from 22 dark clear nights and 90 moon nights. We first measured the sky brightness variation with time for dark nights and found a clear correlation between sky brightness and human activity. Then with a modified sky brightness model of moon nights and data from these nights, we derived the typical value for several important parameters in the model. With these results, we calculated the sky brightness distribution under a given moon condition for the Xinglong station. Furthermore, we simulated the sky brightness distribution of a moon night for a telescope with a 5° field of view (such as LAMOST). These simulations will be helpful for determining the limiting magnitude and exposure time, as well as planning the survey for LAMOST during moon nights.

Yao, Song; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Yuan, Hai-Long; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Dong, Yi-Qiao; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Deng, Li-Cai; Lei, Ya-Juan

2013-10-01

242

Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity.

Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

2012-01-01

243

Night vision disturbances after successful LASIK surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the changes in correlations of higher order aberrations of the first corneal surface with halo phenomena, a form of image degradation, under night vision conditions measured objectively after successful LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) surgery. Methods A prospective, observational, analytical study of 110 eyes that had undergone successful LASIK surgery for myopia and astigmatism. Preoperative sphere was (mean (SD)) ?3.48 (1.70) D (0 to ?8.00 D) and preoperative cylinder was ?0.86 (0.87) D (0 to ?4.00 D). Visual disturbance caused by halo phenomena was measured with the Starlights v1.0, and pupil size was measured with Colvard pupilometry after adaptation to a dark environment (0.17 lux). Corneal aberrations were computed for a corneal diameter representative of the eye's entrance pupil under night vision conditions. Results The halo disturbance index increased in this study by a factor of 2.15 after successful LASIK surgery. Total root mean square for monochromatic higher order aberration displayed a significant correlation with halo disturbance index (r?=?0.42; p<0.01). However, only secondary astigmatism (r?=?0.36; p<0.01), coma (r?=?0.25; p?=?0.02) and spherical aberration (r?=?0.40; p<0.01) were responsible for such behaviour, with the remaining corneal aberrations up to the sixth order not displaying any significant correlation when considered individually. Conclusion Patients undergoing LASIK procedures display an increase of halo phenomena around lights in night vision conditions, even when the results of the surgery are considered entirely satisfactory according to current international standards of predictability, efficacy and safety. Secondary astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration are the higher order aberrations up to the sixth order that significantly correlated with halo disturbance index.

Villa, Cesar; Gutierrez, Ramon; Jimenez, Jose Ramon; Gonzalez-Meijome, Jose Manuel

2007-01-01

244

Perceived night length ratios in ancient Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first record we have of a seasonal night length ratio for Egypt is from the mid 16th century BC. The origin of this estimate is traced to observations made three centuries previously, and the later reinterpretation and instrumental use of this ratio is traced down to 100AD. Extended comment is made on the astronomical dating involved in this description of events, and an attempt is made to reconstruct the alleged confirmation (or calibration) of the new timepiece that plays a central part in the story. It is believed that this is the earliest example of this fundamental scientific practice on record.

Fermor, John

245

Using ``Earth at Night" images in education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Earth at Night" is a mosaic image of the nighttime earth using data from the weather satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Original data are chosen to be cloud-free and near new moon in order best to reveal city and highway lights, fires (manmade and natural), gas flares in oil fields, and fishing boats using lights. The resultant mosaic illustrates many of the resource and environmental issues that affect our planet, including of course light pollution. This talk will be illustrated with the latest of these data, and relate my experiences in using these images for education, both within the classroom and for the general public.

Sullivan, W. T.

2001-12-01

246

Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

2000-06-01

247

Gear shift control mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes

Janson

1987-01-01

248

Respiratory findings in gun factory workers exposed to solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Gun factory workers are exposed to many solvents (toluene, acetone, butanol, xylene, benzene, trichloroethylene). We investigated whether chronic exposure to solvents had adverse effect on respiratory system.Material and methods: The workers were questionnaired by modified Medical Research Council's respiratory questionnaire before morning start shift. Then physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable dry rolling spirometer were performed.

Aytül Çakmak; Aydanur Ekici; Mehmet Ekici; Mesut Arslan; Ahmet Iteginli; Ercan Kurtipek; Türkan Kara

2004-01-01

249

Daily and Nightly Anxiety Among Patients Affected by Night Eating Syndrome and Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested if there were any differences about nocturnal and diurnal anxiety between patients either affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Night eating Syndrome (NES). Fifty four patients affected by BED, 13 by NES and 16 by both BED and NES were tested using the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). Their nocturnal eating

Sandra Sassaroli; Giovanni Maria Ruggiero; Piergiuseppe Vinai; Silvia Cardetti; Gabriella Carpegna; Noemi Ferrato; Paola Vallauri; Donatella Masante; Silvio Scarone; Sara Bertelli; Roberta Bidone; Luca Busetto; Simona Sampietro

2009-01-01

250

Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology.  

PubMed

Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

2013-02-13

251

Radiative Influence of Antarctica on the Polar-Night Vortex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperatures over the Antarctic plateau are sharply colder than those over its maritime surroundings. The sharp temperature contrast due to Antarctica is conveyed upward through 9.6-m absorption by ozone, which shapes the thermal structure in the stratosphere. The radiative impact of Antarctica on the polar stratosphere is investigated in three-dimensional integrations of the nonlinear primitive equations, coupled to a full radiative-transfer calculation that is performed with and without clouds. Cooling associated with Antarctica depresses radiative-equilibrium temperatures by as much as 10 K. This direct radiative influence emerges clearly at high latitudes of the lowermost stratosphere. It is accompanied elsewhere by temperature changes of opposite sign, which result indirectly through adiabatic warming by the induced residual meridional circulation. Collectively, these influences reinforce the polar-night vortex, shift the jet axis poleward, and intensify downward transport over the polar cap by the residual circulation. In this way, radiative forcing from below contributes significantly to the features that distinguish the Antarctic vortex from the Arctic vortex.

Francis, Gene L.; Salby, Murry L.

2001-05-01

252

Assessment of Night Vision Problems in Patients with Congenital Stationary Night Blindness  

PubMed Central

Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the “Light Lab”. In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the “2D Light Lab” showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling.

Bijveld, Mieke M. C.; van Genderen, Maria M.; Hoeben, Frank P.; Katzin, Amir A.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Riemslag, Frans C. C.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2013-01-01

253

Community Health Worker Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

254

Shift work and cognition in the nurses' health study.  

PubMed

Rotating night-shift work, which can disrupt circadian rhythm, may adversely affect long-term health. Experimental studies indicate that circadian rhythm disruption might specifically accelerate brain aging; thus, we prospectively examined shift-work history at midlife as associated with cognitive function among older women in the Nurses' Health Study. Women reported their history of rotating night-shift work in 1988 and participated in telephone-based cognitive interviews between 1995 and 2001; interviews included 6 cognitive tests that were subsequently repeated 3 times, at 2-year intervals. We focused on shift work through midlife (here, ages 58-68 years) because cognitive decline is thought to begin during this period. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we evaluated mean differences in both "average cognitive status" at older age (averaging cognitive scores from all 4 interviews) and rates of cognitive decline over time across categories of shift-work duration at midlife (none, 1-9, 10-19, or ?20 years). There was little association between shift work and average cognition in later life or between shift work and cognitive decline. Overall, this study does not clearly support the hypothesis that shift-work history in midlife has long-term effects on cognition in older adults. PMID:24076971

Devore, Elizabeth E; Grodstein, Francine; Schernhammer, Eva S

2013-09-27

255

Invited commentary: Shift work and cancer.  

PubMed

In this issue of the Journal, Parent et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(9):751-759) report significant associations between night-shift work and risk of cancer at several sites among men. These findings not only address the need for shift-work studies that evaluate cancers other than breast and prostate cancer but also support the increasing concern that the negative effects of shift work may be broadly applicable to risk of many cancers via the direct oncostatic properties of melatonin. Studies of shift work have been limited by a lack of detailed data for determining which aspects of this multifaceted exposure may be associated with increased cancer risk. Additionally, the influence of individual-level characteristics, such as preference for daytime activity versus nighttime activity or chronotype, has not been considered. In moving forward, launching new cohort studies of shift work and cancer risk is the most tenable approach, though it will be limited by the years of follow-up required in order to accrue adequate numbers of cancer cases. Studies incorporating biomarkers of effect are useful for providing immediate information that can aid not only in identifying the underlying mechanisms of the shift-work-cancer association but also in interpreting existing epidemiologic data and informing the design of future epidemiologic studies of cancer risk. PMID:23035018

Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott

2012-10-03

256

Domiciliary night nursing service: luxury or necessity?  

PubMed Central

The nursing records of the 242 patients who used the domiciliary night nursing care service in Newham Health District showed that three distinct groups of patients were nursed during 1979 at a cost of 8.8 pounds a day. Forty-three elderly chronically sick and five disabled patients aged under 50 received care for more than 28 days, 63 patients had terminal cancer, and 131 needed short-term care or observation. Data were also collected from a one-day survey of patients receiving care. This domiciliary care enabled the chronically sick and disabled to retain their independence and remain at home. Referrals from casualty departments and general practitioners avoided admission to acute beds. On account of the lack of continual surveillance the service is unsuitable for the elderly mentally ill.

Martin, M H; Ishino, M

1981-01-01

257

An automated portable night vision testing system.  

PubMed

This report describes a new testing system designed to assess night vision parameters of the military population in the field, and to quantify the effects of various environmental stress factors, such as extended exposure to high altitude, on the dark adaptation process. The instrument is based on an established procedure for dark adaptation measurement in which the subject continuously adjusts the threshold luminance of a recurrently flashing stimulus. The device described here represents a modernized version of the original technique, which features an automated testing procedure and provides for computerized data translation of the dark adaptation function. It also offers the advantages of rugged construction and field portability not available in clinical style instruments. PMID:3689280

Kobrick, J L; Witt, C; Miletti, J

1987-11-01

258

Night vision support devices: Human engineering integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although NVGs extend the luminance range over which vision can be used, current AN/PVS systems require special cockpit lighting to be fully effective, reduce visual depth of field and diminish the field of view. All three of these factors are extremely important to pilots performing night operations. The results of several operationally oriented efforts conducted by the U.S. Air Force to improve visual performance, cockpit lighting, and flight information transfer in conjunction with the use of NVGs are described. The efforts include an operational definition of NVG compatible lighting, a recommended approach to improving depth of focus, an attempt to expand field of view, and a description of a NVG HUD using optically injected flight data. All efforts center around using or modifying current AN/PVS NVGs used by US forces.

Genco, L. V.

1985-12-01

259

Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

260

Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

261

Night Shift: Expansion of Temporal Niche Use Following Reductions in Predator Density  

PubMed Central

Predation shapes many fundamental aspects of ecology. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether predators can influence patterns of temporal niche construction at ecologically relevant timescales. Partitioning of time is an important mechanism by which prey avoid interactions with predators. However, the traits that control a prey organism's capacity to operate during a particular portion of the diel cycle are diverse and complex. Thus, diel prey niches are often assumed to be relatively unlikely to respond to changes in predation risk at short timescales. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We report results that suggest that the anthropogenic depletion of daytime active predators (species that are either diurnal or cathemeral) in a coral reef ecosystem is associated with rapid temporal niche expansions in a multi-species assemblage of nocturnal prey fishes. Diurnal comparisons of nocturnal prey fish abundance in predator rich and predator depleted reefs at two atolls revealed that nocturnal fish were approximately six (biomass) and eight (density) times more common during the day on predator depleted reefs. Amongst these, the prey species that likely were the most specialized for nocturnal living, and thus the most vulnerable to predation (i.e. those with greatest eye size to body length ratio), showed the strongest diurnal increases at sites where daytime active predators were rare. While we were unable to determine whether these observed increases in diurnal abundance by nocturnal prey were the result of a numerical or behavioral response, either effect could be ecologically significant. These results raise the possibility that predation may play an important role in regulating the partitioning of time by prey and that anthropogenic depletions of predators may be capable of causing rapid changes to key properties of temporal community architecture.

Micheli, Fiorenza

2012-01-01

262

First-night effect in normal subjects and psychiatric inpatients.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the first-night effect in psychiatric inpatients using large subject samples (n > 30) in order to obtain a good statistical evaluation. Thirty-two normal subjects and 94 psychiatric inpatients (38 depressives and 56 insomniacs) were studied for three consecutive nights in the hospital sleep laboratory. Our results showed clearly that there was a first-night effect in normal subjects, similar to that reported in previously published data, characterized by a longer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency (p < 0.05), increased wakefulness (p < 0.01) and total sleep time (p < 0.02) and a decreased sleep efficiency (p < 0.01). REM sleep latency and stage REM in the first third of the night were still altered in the second night. Both clinical groups had a less marked first-night effect than normal subjects, showing alterations only observed in REM sleep (p < 0.01) (decreased REM sleep, longer REM sleep latency, increased REM sleep gravity center). However, the first-night effect was more pronounced in insomniacs than in depressed patients. No statistical differences between the second and third nights' recordings were found in sleep parameters. It is suggested that first-night data should not be simply discarded but could be used in subsequent analyses. PMID:7481418

Toussaint, M; Luthringer, R; Schaltenbrand, N; Carelli, G; Lainey, E; Jacqmin, A; Muzet, A; Macher, J P

1995-07-01

263

Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds.  

PubMed

Twice each year, millions of night-migratory songbirds migrate thousands of kilometers. To find their way, they must process and integrate spatiotemporal information from a variety of cues including the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we discovered that night-migratory songbirds possess a tight cluster of brain regions highly active only during night vision. This cluster, here named "cluster N," is located at the dorsal surface of the brain and is adjacent to a known visual pathway. In contrast, neuronal activation of cluster N was not increased in nonmigratory birds during the night, and it disappeared in migrants when both eyes were covered. We suggest that in night-migratory songbirds cluster N is involved in enhanced night vision, and that it could be integrating vision-mediated magnetic and/or star compass information for night-time navigation. Our findings thus represent an anatomical and functional demonstration of a specific night-vision brain area. PMID:15928090

Mouritsen, Henrik; Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D

2005-05-31

264

Delayed Payment Contracts and a Firm's Propensity to Hire Older Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are jobs for which firms employ older workers but tend not to hire new older workers. This may be attributable in part to implicit con tracts that discourage worker shirking and malfeasance by shifting compensation to the end of the contract. Such \\

Robert Hutchens

1986-01-01

265

Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.  

PubMed Central

Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1.

Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

1981-01-01

266

The Characteristics of Sleepiness During Real Driving at Night--A Study of Driving Performance, Physiology and Subjective Experience  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving. Design: Participants drove 55 km (at 90km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design). Setting: Instrumented car on a real road in normal traffic. Participants: Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register. Interventions: Daytime and nighttime drives. Measurement and Results: The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving. Conclusion: Night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness. Citation: Sandberg D; Anund A; Fors C; Kecklund G; Karlsson JG; Wahde M; Åkerstedt T. The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night—a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1317-1325.

Sandberg, David; Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Goran; Karlsson, Johan G.; Wahde, Mattias; Akerstedt, Torbjorn

2011-01-01

267

The Plasma Concentration of Copper and Prevalence of Depression Were Positively Correlated in Shift Nurses.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported the prevalence of depression in shift nurses to be 15%, and in some cases it may even be as high as 23%. Depression is a major cause of poor sleep quality and can impede efforts to overcome the chronic fatigue that commonly affects shift nurses. Adverse mental health issues have been confirmed in shift nurses, but few studies have investigated the underlying cause of poor mental health in different shift-nurse populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum trace element levels to mental health and the tendency toward depression in shift nurses. We collected blood samples from 90 shift nurses (day, evening, and night shift) who worked in intensive care units and asked them to complete a general data questionnaire as well as the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition. The night-shift nurses showed mild-to-moderate depression levels, which were significantly higher than those of the control group and other shift nurses. Night-shift nurses also had higher levels of plasma copper, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-6, and alanine aminotransferase (p < .05) than the control group and other nurses. Elevated concentrations of ferritin and IL-6 are considered important markers for the onset of depression. The results of this study suggest that plasma copper concentrations in nurses should be monitored. PMID:23460604

Chang, Mei-Yu; Tseng, Chin-Ho; Chiou, Ya-Ling

2013-03-01

268

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Railroad Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study measured the exposure of railroad workers to diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke by using personal air samples taken over two consecutive work shifts. Urine samples were collected from 87 subjects at the end of the study work shifts a...

M. B. Schenker S. J. Samuels N. Y. Kado S. K. Hammond T. J. Smith

1990-01-01

269

Drax's Reading in Neverwinter Nights: with a tutor as henchman  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an account of what a teacher educator learned from using the video game Neverwinter Nights with Drax, a high school student whose reading is like that of an elementary school student. Neverwinter Nights is a role-playing adventure game that requires reading print along with other meaningful signs such as sounds, artefacts, color, maps, etc. Using examples from eight

MICHELLE COMMEYRAS

2009-01-01

270

HMD digital night vision system for fixed wing fighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.

Foote, Bobby D.

2013-05-01

271

Drax's Reading in Neverwinter Nights: With a Tutor as Henchman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an account of what a teacher educator learned from using the video game Neverwinter Nights with Drax, a high school student whose reading is like that of an elementary school student. Neverwinter Nights is a role-playing adventure game that requires reading print along with other meaningful signs such as sounds, artefacts, color, maps,…

Commeyras, Michelle

2009-01-01

272

Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

Tapp, Kenneth L.

1985-01-01

273

Thermal mass and night ventilation as passive cooling design strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculated the influence of thermal mass and night ventilation on the maximum indoor temperature in summer. The results for different locations in the hot humid climate of Israel are presented and analyzed. The maximum indoor temperature depends linearly on the temperature difference between day and night at the site. The fit can be applied as a tool to predict

Edna Shaviv; Abraham Yezioro; Isaac G Capeluto

2001-01-01

274

Impact of climate warming on passive night cooling potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-time ventilation is often seen as a promising passive cooling concept. However, as it requires a sufficiently high temperature difference between ambient air and the building structure, this technique is highly sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. In order to quantify the impact of climate warming on the night-time ventilative cooling potential in Europe, eight representative locations across a latitudinal

N. Artmann; D. Gyalistras; H. Manz; P. Heiselberg

2008-01-01

275

Confirmatory Test of Crew Served Weapons Night Vision Sight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test item is a battery-powered, optical-electronic device possessing an image intensifier tube for night observation and for aimed fire of crew served weapons at night under ambient light conditions (starlight and moonlight illumination). The test ite...

R. D. Windsor

1968-01-01

276

Experimental investigation of heat transfer during night-time ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-time ventilation is seen as a promising approach for energy efficient cooling of buildings. However, uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort restrain architects and engineers from applying this technique. One parameter essentially affecting the performance of night-time ventilation is the heat transfer at the internal room surfaces. Increased convection is expected due to high air flow rates and the

N. Artmann; R. L. Jensen; H. Manz; P. Heiselberg

2010-01-01

277

Migration of the sandworm Nereis virens during winter nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many previous reports of the sandworm Nereis virens Sars swimming in the water column. This behavior usually has been attributed to reproductive processes. Sandworms were found swimming in surface waters at night on ebb tides during many nights of January, February and March in a Maine (USA) estuary. None of the specimens examined contained gametes or possessed

D. Dean

1978-01-01

278

Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) processing and viewing tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has developed software tools for processing, viewing, and analyzing hyperspectral data. The tools were specifically developed for use with the U.S. Army's NVESD Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS), but they can also be used to process hyperspectral data in a variety of other formats. The first of these tools is

Christopher G. Simi; Roberta Dixon; Michael J. Schlangen; Edwin M. Winter; Christopher LaSota

2001-01-01

279

Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

280

USE OF WEATHER FORECASTS TO CONTROL NIGHT COOLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional night cooling control strategies relies on the knowledge of the current situation - indoor and outdoor. The building is ventilated - passive or as free cooling via a mechanical ventilation system - with cool night air, hoping that the building will warm up the following day due to excess of free gains. In cool or moderate climates this often

Kim B. Wittchen; Ejvind Løgberg; Søren Pedersen; Rolf Djurtoft; Jesper Thiesen

281

DAY VS. NIGHT SAMPLING FOR SPIDERS IN GRAPE VINEYARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared day sampling (between 0700 and 1100) and night sampling (between 1900 and 2300) of spiders on grapevines in a California vineyard in 1993 and 1994, shaking spiders from the vines onto a drop cloth and vacuuming them up. Pooled density of the seven most abundant spider species did not differ significantly between day and night sampling, nor did

Michael J. Costello; Kent M. Daane

2005-01-01

282

GREEN COOLING: COMBINING VEGETATED ROOFS WITH NIGHT VENTILATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effects of green roofs and night ventilation on internal temperature of buildings using test cells with different configurations. Three cells are used in these tests, all of them cooled with night ventilation, one with an insulated green roof, another with an uninsulated green roof and another with a conventional code compliant insulated roof. Several series are

Pablo La Roche

283

A population study in cotton ginnery workers in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Khogali, M. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 308-313. A population study in cotton ginnery workers in the Sudan. An epidemiological study in cotton ginneries in the Sudan covered 323 permanently employed ginnery workers, a random sample of 35 seasonal farfara workers, and a control group of 24 members of a fire brigade. All the workers studied were men. The study showed a prevalence of byssinosis (defined as chest tightness starting on return from the annual holiday and continuing for at least three consecutive days) in 20% of the ginnery workers and in 48·6% of the farfara workers. Workers exposed to dust showed a mean fall in F.E.V.1·0 of -0·10 litre during the shift, while workers not so exposed showed a mean rise of +0·23 litre; this difference was statistically significant. The F.E.V.1·0 was adjusted for age and standing height. The adjusted means of F.E.V.1·0 were significantly lower for workers exposed to dust compared with those in the control group. The workers with byssinosis showed a statistically significant fall in F.E.V.1·0 when compared with all ginnery workers; and a highly significant fall when compared with cotton workers without chest symptoms. An attempt was made to grade the byssinotics according to the extent of fall in F.E.V.1·0 during the shift. The concentration of fine dust (< 7 ?) was measured in each work place. There was a statistically significant association between the prevalence of byssinosis and the concentration of fine dust when comparing the ginnery and farfara workers. Also, there was a significant relationship between the mean adjusted F.E.V.1·0, the mean fall in F.E.V.1·0, and the fine dust concentration.

Khogali, Mustafa

1969-01-01

284

Residents' perceptions of a night float system  

PubMed Central

Background A Night Float (NF) system has been implemented by many institutions to address increasing concerns about residents' work hours. The purpose of our study was to examine the perceptions of residents towards a NF system. Methods A 115-item questionnaire was developed to assess residents' perceptions of the NF rotation as compared with a regular call month. The categories included patient care, education, medical errors, and overall satisfaction. Internal Medicine housestaff (post-graduate years 1–3) from three hospital settings at the University of Pittsburgh completed the questionnaire. Results The response rate was 90% (n = 149). Of these, 74 had completed the NF rotation. The housestaff felt that the quality of patient care was improved because of NF (41% agreed and 18% disagreed). A majority also felt that better care was provided by a rested physician in spite of being less familiar with the patient (46% agreed and 21% disagreed). Most felt that there was less emphasis on education (65%) and more emphasis on service (52%) during NF. Overall, the residents felt more rested during their call months (83%) and strongly supported the 80-hour workweek requirement (77%). Conclusion Housestaff felt that the overall quality of patient care was improved by a NF system. The perceived improved quality of care by a rested physician coupled with a perceived decrease in the emphasis on education may have significant implications in housestaff training.

Jasti, Harish; Hanusa, Barbara H; Switzer, Galen E; Granieri, Rosanne; Elnicki, Michael

2009-01-01

285

What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

2005-05-01

286

Spatial navigation using night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While anecdotal reports suggest that Night Vision Goggles influence spatial navigation and wayfinding (Braithwaite, Douglass, Durnford, and Lucas, 1998), few studies have systematically characterized the nature of these effects. To address this issue, the current study examined the impact of NVGs on navigation and wayfinding performance. One group of participants were required to navigate a walking maze and retrieve target objects while wearing NVGs (experimental condition), while a second control group navigated the maze without NVGs. We measured several performance metrics of navigation and wayfinding. Our results show that navigation and wayfinding with NVGs (experimental group) appeared to be harder, with longer navigation durations and more navigational errors compared to not using NVGs (control group). However, a significant decrease in navigation duration over the course of the wayfinding trials occurred earlier with NVGs, in addition to significant decreases in navigational steps compared to the control group. These results support the notion that NVGs directly affect spatial navigation and wayfinding performance. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning and NVG training programs. Further research is necessary to expand our understanding of the impact of NVGs on spatial cognition.

Gauthier, Michelle; Parush, Avi; Macuda, Todd; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

2006-06-01

287

{GUVI} Observations of Night Time Ionospheric Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TIMED spacecraft is currently mapping the nighttime Earth disk and limb with the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI). Images are made in the OI 135.6 nm line which is excited by the recombination of O+ ions. The intensity in these disk images is related to the total electron content of the ionosphere and density profiles can be recovered from the limb scans. Prominent in these images are UV signatures of the Equatorial Anomaly that was first imaged by the DE-1 satellite. Data is currently available from essentially the same local time and is suitable for the study of the longitudinal dependence of the Anomalies. It is known that the Earth's ionosphere shows the occurrence large longitudinal and latitudinal variations in the F-region plasma density that change with season and solar cycle. These plasma density fluctuations occur over a very large range of scale sizes and have been observed by for about three decades by satellites [e.g., ISIS 2, ESRO-4, Atmosphere Explorers, Dynamics Explorer-2, San Marco II, DMSP, etc.]. Their morphology, origin, day-to-day variability, and predictability are still not well understood. The GUVI night data that gives insight into these largest scale structures will be discussed.

Swenson, C. M.; Christensen, A. B.; Walterscheid, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Meng, C. I.; Craven, J. D.; Meier, R. R.; Strickland, D. J.; Crowley, G.

2002-05-01

288

Big Bangs in the Night Sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big bang theory of the universe holds that we exist amidst the remnants of a single huge explosion about 15 billion years ago. Absent acceleration, the recession velocity v between any two remnants (galaxies) is proportional to the present distance. This is the Hubble law, v=Hr, where H≈ 65 km\\/sec\\/megaparsec. For small velocities, one can use the red shift,

Russell L. Collins

2002-01-01

289

Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood  

PubMed Central

This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night shifts, as opposed to day shifts, was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms. For mothers only, working rotating shifts predicted relationship conflict. Increases in role overload were positively related to both depression and conflict; working a nonday shift explained variance in depression and conflict above and beyond role overload. Results suggest that for new parents, working nonday shifts may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms and relationship conflict.

Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

2010-01-01

290

Shift work and work injury in the New Zealand Blood Donors' Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between work patterns and the occurrence of work injury. Methods A cross sectional analysis of the New Zealand Blood Donors Health Study conducted among the 15?687 (70%) participants who reported being in paid employment. After measurement of height and weight, a self?administered questionnaire collected information concerning occupation and work pattern, lifestyle behaviour, sleep, and the occurrence of an injury at work requiring treatment from a doctor during the past 12?months. Results Among paid employees providing information on work pattern, 3119 (21.2%) reported doing shift work (rotating with nights, rotating without nights, or permanent nights) and 1282 (8.7%) sustained a work injury. In unadjusted analysis, work injury was most strongly associated with employment in heavy manual occupations (3.6, 2.8 to 4.6) (relative risk, 95% CI), being male (1.9, 1.7 to 2.2), being obese (1.7, 1.5 to 2.0), working rotating shifts with nights (2.1, 1.7 to 2.5), and working more than three nights a week (1.9, 1.6 to 2.3). Snoring, apnoea or choking during sleep, sleep complaints, and excessive daytime sleepiness were also significantly associated with work injury. When mutually adjusting for all significant risk factors, rotating shift work, with or without nights, remained significantly associated with work injury (1.9, 1.5 to 2.4) and (1.8, 1.2 to 2.6), respectively. Working permanent night shifts was no longer significantly associated with work injury in the adjusted model. Conclusion Work injury is highly associated with rotating shift work, even when accounting for increased exposure to high risk occupations, lifestyle factors, and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Fransen, M; Wilsmore, B; Winstanley, J; Woodward, M; Grunstein, R; Ameratunga, S; Norton, R

2006-01-01

291

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals’ policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention.

Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-01-01

292

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored.  

PubMed

Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

Nkonki, Lungiswa; Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-10-24

293

High night blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients: not harmless.  

PubMed

The left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is better related to activity than resting systolic blood pressure (BP) in treated hypertensive patients. Many recommend ambulatory BP monitoring only during the day. However, 24-hour BP monitoring may be useful in treated patients to check adequate control of BP during the entire 24-hour period. We tested the influence of night BP on LVMI in treated versus nontreated patients. We compared two groups of hypertensive patients: A: 40 patients who had discontinued therapy at least 8 days prior to the study; B: 24 patients treated for more than 3 months with the same drugs (beta-blockers in 14 cases). Ambulatory BP was recorded every 30 minutes during night and every 15 minutes during day (Spacelabs 5200). The LVMI was calculated from M mode echo blind reading (Devereux's formula). Correlation coefficients between LVMI and casual, systolic BP were calculated for both day (7:00 AM to 10:59 PM) and night time (11:00 PM to 6:59 AM). Day systolic BP is better related to LVMI than casual and night systolic BP in group A. In contrast, a significantly higher correlation existed between night BP and LVMI in B, though average night BP level was lower. Conclusion: 24-hour BP monitoring may be useful in treated hypertensive patients. Inadequate lowering of night BP may partially account for persistent LVH in treated hypertensive patients. PMID:3415799

Gosse, P; Campello, G; Roudaut, R; Dallocchio, M

1988-07-01

294

Improving nursing shift-to-shift report.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority commissioned an external review for improvements to patient care. From this review arose the Achieving Benchmarks through Collaboration Project, which was composed of 32 projects and a number of subprojects. One such subproject dealt with the reconfiguration of the nursing shift-to-shift report. Its mandate was to improve report, thus making it more efficient, effective, and consistent. This article is a review of this reconfiguration. PMID:17149090

Benson, Ember; Rippin-Sisler, Catherine; Jabusch, Kimberly; Keast, Shelley

295

Shift Work and Circadian Dysregulation of Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans), the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work) or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep-wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift work-induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

Gamble, Karen L.; Resuehr, David; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

2013-01-01

296

Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

2009-05-01

297

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

298

12-h or 8-h shifts? It depends.  

PubMed

Since 12-h shifts were first implemented, the question has been asked - are 'twelves' better than 'eights'? People trying to answer this question invariably refer to the limited literature at their disposal, often piecemeal, small-scale studies comparing 8-h versus 12-h shifts in isolated groups of workers in which many other factors vary concurrently. The narrow perspective and sometimes 'vested interests' of the organizations, researchers, publishers and individual workers can influence both the choice of measures, the analysis of results and their interpretation. The current review suggests that it is not sufficient to evaluate a shift pattern on the basis of a single dimension of a working time arrangement, such as shift length. Numerous factors associated with the work practice influence the outcome of a shift pattern including start times, pattern of shifts and amount of overtime. Moreover, the type of work being done and the demographics or characteristics of the workforce are additional mediating factors. Finally, and perhaps most critically, the relative importance assigned to different outcome measures is an important consideration. There are situations where total sleep time might increase following a change to 12-h shifts, whereas domestic life for some workers may deteriorate. Additionally, safety measures may show improvements on 8-h shifts but physical or psychological health outcomes may be worse. The myriad combinations of work pattern, work task, worker and outcome measure under investigation mean that the best way to take account of these complexities may be to use an approach that manages 'system' risk. Given the non-linearities in the system, and the fact that current approaches either ignore, or privilege a subset of outcomes, it is perhaps more appropriate to conceptualize working time arrangements as an 'ecosystem' and to address the risks in the overall system as opposed to a single dimension such as shift length. PMID:22306236

Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

2012-02-02

299

Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate\\u000a whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician\\u000a specialities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing\\u000a with

Birgitta Malmberg; Roger Persson; Per Flisberg; Palle Ørbaek

2011-01-01

300

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Paton, J.B. [Fort Devens, MA (United States)

1992-10-01

301

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Paton, J.B. (Fort Devens, MA (United States))

1992-10-01

302

Helmet-mounted display for the night attack mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army's AH64 Apache helicopter performance during the Panama invasion and Desert Storm has silenced years of skeptical speculation regarding the utility of a visually coupled helmet-mounted display (HMD) in combat. Unfortunately, in the fixed wing community, pilot night vision is limited to viewing a HUD for FLIR imagery or image intensification (I2) from a helmet mounted goggle. Presently, restricted visual freedom and high head/neck ejection safety risks are accepted penalties for operating at night. Full visual freedom during the night missions is a feature not yet afforded to any U.S. military fighter aircraft. This paper will focus specifically on a candidate HMD system for the night attack mission. Included are trade-off discussions relative to several specific design decisions.

Whitcraft, Robert J.

1992-10-01

303

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Deve...

R. F. Szydlowski L. E. Wrench P. J. O'Neill J. B. Paton

1993-01-01

304

Could a Full Moon Keep You Up at Night?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Could a Full Moon Keep You Up at Night? Study finds it's ... have told of the powers of a full moon, from werewolves to sudden madness to unexplained seizures, ...

305

Could a Good Night's Sleep Guard Against Alzheimer's?  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Could a Good Night's Sleep Guard Against Alzheimer's? Study found that older people who got more ... 2014) Thursday, October 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Seniors' Health Sleep Disorders MONDAY, Oct. 21 ( ...

306

Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

2005-02-01

307

Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate: The Army's Sensor Developer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) of the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), Research, Development, and Engineering Center (RDEC), conducts a vigorous research and development program to transition technology to...

1997-01-01

308

Feasibility Study on Effects of Anthocyanin in Improving Night Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed in order to determine the feasibility of the night-vision beneficial effects of the biologically active agent of 'bilberry' extract, anthocyanin, a pigment believed to consist of anthocyanidin glucoside. This study consisted primaril...

J. E. Borges

1965-01-01

309

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Paton, J.B. (Directorate of Logistics, Fort Devens, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

310

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback  

SciTech Connect

The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Paton, J.B. [Directorate of Logistics, Fort Devens, MA (United States)

1993-01-01

311

Physiological effects of rotational work shifting: a review.  

PubMed

The high cost of capital equipment, demands of the world markets, and continuity requirements of many technological processes have forced industry to operate three-shift, 24-hour days. Workers on fixed schedules experience no particular problems from shift work, but those who are shifted periodically can undergo physiological and emotional disturbances. These disturbances occur because most human systems function according to circadian rhythms that can be easily disoriented. The primary cause is the periodic shifting of the light-dark, wake-sleep cycles. Extensive literature exists on the cause and symptoms of disturbances in the human physiological rhythms. The information contained in this literature can be applied to protecting the health and well-being of the worker. PMID:627940

Winget, C M; Hughes, L; LaDou, J

1978-03-01

312

[Medical justification of the eight-hour shift work].  

PubMed

The 8-hour shift work is one of the main achievements of the organized workers. International solidarity with United States miners, who were massacred in Chicago in 1886, and the aftermath of World War I promoted the establishment of 8-hour shift work in many countries. In Mexico, the 1917 Social Rights Declaration adhered to this position under the idea that the excessive workload above the 8-hour limit had negative effects on the health of workers; nevertheless, this statement seems to be sustained only by testimonies, anecdotal opinions and/or by the logic and common sense that then prevailed. For this reason, a literature review was carried out in search for the evidence supporting this apparently immovable length of the shift work. The globalization of the economy and the tendency towards flexibility and deregulation of current contractual relationships, are the new challenges that the 8-hour shift work is facing. PMID:17550706

Haro-García, Luis; Sánchez-Román, Raúl; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Larios-Díaz, Enrique

313

Indomethacin or prednisolone at night in rheumatoid arthritis?  

PubMed

Indomethacin, 100 mg orally, was compared with prednisolone, 5 mg, as addititional therapy at night, in a two-week, double-blind, between-patient study in twenty-four in-patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both therapies proved equally effective, and significantly lessened morning stiffness and increased grip strenght. Two patients with dyspepsia were discontinued from the indomethacin group. Using indomethacin at night avoided the central nervous system side-effects frequently seen with this compound. PMID:734314

Murthy, M H; Rhymer, A R; Wright, V

1978-02-01

314

Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. Methods At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Results Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel, and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Conclusions Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk.

Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, S.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

2009-01-01

315

Integral night variations of the non-sounding ionospheric region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for night variations in the minimum reflected frequency, f(min), corresponding to variations in the nonsounding ionosphere is reported. It is found that the quantity f(min) exhibits quasiperiodic variations similar to those described by Serafimov (1970). The mid-latitude effects of low-latitude phenomena, such as the atomic nitrogen collapse are considered. Also, the effect of dynamic structural processes in the night intermediate E-F region on f(min) are examined.

Serafimov, K. B.; Serafimova, M. K.

316

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the American Museum of Natural History provides a description of Olbersâ Paradox which poses the question of why the sky is dark at night. The site presents an explanation for why a bright night sky would be expected but is not present and also describes the development of the paradox. Implications about the age of the Universe and its expansion are included.

2006-07-22

317

Day and night warming have different effect on root lifespan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots are key components of C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the regulation of response of terrestrial ecosystems to global climate warming, which is predicted to occur with greater warming magnitudes at night than during daytime across different regions on the Earth. However, there has been no detailed study to investigate the effect of asymmetrical warming on root dynamics at the level of terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the effects of day and night warming on root lifespan in the semiarid temperate steppe in northern China, a field study with a full factorial design including control, day warming, night warming and continuous warming was conducted using modified rhizotron technique during three growing seasons in 2007-2009. Our results show that day, night and continuous warming had different effects on longevity of roots born in spring, summer and autumn, and that day warming significantly prolonged overall lifespan for the roots born in the three growing seasons, while night warning had no effect on overall lifespan. Day and night warming had different effects on root non-structural carbohydrate content, suggesting that allocation of photoassimilate may account for the differential responses of root lifespan to day and night warming. These results differ from other processes associated with ecosystems C cycle such as total ecosystem productivity, net ecosystem productivity and soil respiration. Our findings highlight that it is essential to incorporate the differential effects of day and night warming on root dynamics into simulating and predicting the responses and feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems C cycling to global warming.

Bai, W. M.; Xia, J. Y.; Wan, S. Q.; Zhang, W. H.; Li, L. H.

2012-01-01

318

Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other Absence Behaviour at an Oil Refinery from 1962 to 1965  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing use of continuous process shift work in modern industry, few studies on the medical aspects of shift work can be found in recent literature of occupational health. Physiologists have shown that the ability of the body to adjust its circadian rhythms to alteration in hours of work or sleep can take up to a month. The usual type of shift work in industry involves weekly changes of hours, and thus on theoretical grounds at least this may not be the most suitable frequency for shift changes. Sickness absence of male refinery workers has been studied over a four-year period. The figures show that continuous three-cycle shift workers have consistently and significantly lower rates of sickness than day workers in similar occupations. The annual inception rate (spells) standardized for age was 108% for shift workers and 182% for day workers, and the average annual duration per man was 11 days for shift workers and 18 days for day workers, although the average length of spell was slightly longer among shift workers. As far as is known, such a difference has not been described before in detail. Age-related lateness and absenteeism have been measured and show similar wide differences between the two groups. Although both types of worker are largely self-selected, the difference is not due to medical selection or to an excess of any one type of disease in day workers. Over three-quarters of 150 shift workers interviewed stated that they preferred shift work hours and that sleeping difficulties were not common. It is suggested that the main reasons for the difference between shift and day workers' sickness absence lie in the degree of personal involvement in the work and in the social structure of the working group.

Taylor, P. J.

1967-01-01

319

Comparison of Automatic and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in a Night-by-Night Analysis: A Randomized, Crossover Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Long-term compliance is suboptimal in the treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Objectives: We compared the efficacy of and the adherence to automatic continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) and constant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) based on a night-by-night analysis. Methods: We performed a randomized, single-blind crossover study in 20 patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS. After diagnostic polysomnography

Wolfgang Galetke; Norbert Anduleit; Kerstin Richter; Sven Stieglitz; Winfried J. Randerath

2008-01-01

320

Workers influence royal reproduction  

PubMed Central

Understanding which parties regulate reproduction is fundamental to understanding conflict resolution in animal societies. In social insects, workers can influence male production and sex ratio. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated worker influence over which queen(s) reproduce(s) in multiple queen (MQ) colonies (skew), despite skew determining worker-brood relatedness and so worker fitness. We provide evidence for worker influence over skew in a functionally monogynous population of the ant Leptothorax acervorum. Observations of MQ colonies leading up to egg laying showed worker aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour towards queens and predicted which queen monopolized reproduction. In contrast, among-queen interactions were rare and did not predict queen reproduction. Furthermore, parentage analysis showed workers favoured their mother when present, ensuring closely related fullsibs (average r = 0.5) were reared instead of less related offspring of other resident queens (r ? 0.375). Discrimination among queens using relatedness-based cues, however, seems unlikely as workers also biased their behaviour in colonies without a mother queen. In other polygynous populations of this species, workers are not aggressive towards queens and MQs reproduce, showing the outcome of social conflicts varies within species. In conclusion, this study supports non-reproductive parties having the power and information to influence skew within cooperative breeding groups.

Gill, Richard J.; Hammond, Robert L.

2011-01-01

321

Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -a field study.  

PubMed

We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; p<0.01) and longer naps (62 vs. 35?min; p=0.01) before the first night shift than high-strain group. Difficulties initiating sleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (p<0.01). High-strain group had more often at least one lapse in PVT during the night shift (p=0.02). Average sleep duration (06:49h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain. PMID:23698323

Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

2013-05-22

322

[The relationship between fatigue and the specific features of a flight shift of civil aviation flight crew].  

PubMed

The paper considers the development of fatigue in civil pilots in relation to the specific features of a flight shift, the duration of a flight, the size of a crew size, and the number of night flight hours. The flight lasting 28 consecutive days negatively affects the pilot's working capacity, with flight hours exceeding 90 hours, due to accumulated fatigue. At the stages "before landing" and "after landing", the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders depends on the duration of a flight shift, peaking with the flights lasting more than 10-13 working hours. Inclusion of additional crewmen during flight shifts of more than 12 hours results in a reduction in the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders. Night air departure and arrival are most unfavorable according to the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders, i.e. the length of night time during flights, they are followed by a night air departure and daylight air arrival; a daylight air departure and night arrival rank third. Flights with daylight departure and daylight arrival are least of all exhausting. A night air arrival is characterized by the greatest degrees of integral fatigue at the stages "before landing" and "after landing", these are little associated with the duration of a flight shift. The existing provision, that such flights may be made thrice in succession, carries a risk for chronic fatigue. It is proposed to permit not more two flight shifts in succession during night air arrival. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the factor of possible fatigue development on developing the regulation of flight shifts. PMID:20373715

Rodionov, O N

323

Advanced worker protection system  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

324

Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and physician supply in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lower-income countries face severe health worker shortages. Recent evidence suggests that this problem can be mitigated by task-shifting--delegation of aspects of health care to less specialized health workers. We estimated the potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and physician supply in Uganda. The study was performed at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinic, a large

Joseph B Babigumira; Barbara Castelnuovo; Mohammed Lamorde; Andrew Kambugu; Andy Stergachis; Philippa Easterbrook; Louis P Garrison

2009-01-01

325

Shift Worked, Quality of Sleep, and Elevated Body Mass Index in Pediatric Nurses.  

PubMed

Using the Neuman Systems Model framework, the relationship between shift worked, quality of sleep, and body mass index (BMI) was explored in nurses working at least 8hours per shift on units providing 24-hour care at a Magnet recognized, Midwestern free-standing pediatric hospital. Electronic surveys collected demographic data and the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI) measured sleep quality. Sleep quality was not significantly correlated to elevated BMI >30. Night shift participants' reported fairly bad to very bad sleep quality scores at higher rates than day shift participants. Study findings will inform nurses and organizations concerned with maintaining a healthy workforce. PMID:23545126

Huth, Jennifer J; Eliades, Aris; Handwork, Colleen; Englehart, Jennifer L; Messenger, Jennifer

2013-03-29

326

Shift work, cancer and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary intends to instigate discussions about upcoming epidemiologic research, and its interpretation, into putative links between shift work, involving circadian disruption or chronodisruption [CD], and the development of internal cancers. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened an expert group to examine the carcinogenicity of shift work, inter alia characterized by light exposures at unusual

Thomas C Erren

2010-01-01

327

Style Shift in Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…

Al-Qinai, Jamal

2009-01-01

328

SPECTRAL SHIFT CONTROL REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spectral Shift Control Reactor is a variation of the pressurized-; water reactor. Reactivity control is accomplished by varying the concentration ; of a heavy water-water mixture in the primary loop of the reactor. The addition ; of heavy water changes the relative number of neutrons at any particular energy ; (that is, shifts the neutron spectrum), resulting in more

R. W. Deuster; Z. Levine

1961-01-01

329

Bronchoconstriction in potroom workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on airway responsiveness of an oral dose of a beta-adrenergic blocker (80 mg propranolol) given before work, was studied in 15 potroom workers who complained of dyspnoea, chest tightness and wheezing after they had started to work in potrooms. The same study was performed in a group of 10 potroom workers, selected at random, who had not complained

M Sari?; E Zuskin; M Gomzi

1979-01-01

330

Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

1995-01-01

331

Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific…

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

332

Perspectives about Social Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers

Ware, Mark E.; And Others

333

Workplace bullying among healthcare workers.  

PubMed

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-07-24

334

Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simo, Maria Jose; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-01-01

335

Nonfatal Occupational Falls Among U.S. Health Care Workers, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe antecedents and characteristics of nonfatal fall-related injuries among health care workers in the United States. A special request was made for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to obtain nonfatal fall-related injury data from 2008 to 2010. Overall, workers in the nursing-related profession had the highest percentages of workplace fall-related injuries. Ninety-one percent of these injured workers were female, and more than 50% were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. More than 25% of fall injuries resulted in 31 or more workdays being lost. This study indicated that the most affected body parts were the lower extremities, with most injuries resulting in sprains, strains, and tears. Accordingly, this 3-year study revealed that a high number of fall injuries occurred at night for health care workers compared to other workers in the U.S. private sector.

Yeoh, Han T.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Wu, Xuefang

2013-01-01

336

Josephson shift registers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of Josephson shift-register circuits that have been designed, fabricated, or tested is presented with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operaton is possible with current Nb/Al2O3/Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/sq cm would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible.

Przybysz, John X.

1989-08-01

337

Immunological and respiratory findings in spice-factory workers.  

PubMed

Immunological and respiratory findings were studied in a group of 45 female spice-factory workers (mean age: 39 years; mean exposure: 17 years). In addition a group of 45 female control workers matched by sex, age, and smoking habit were also studied. Intradermal skin testing with mixed spice dust allergen demonstrated positive skin reactions in 73.3% of exposed and in 33.3% of control workers (P less than 0.001). Increased IgE serum levels were found in 36.8% of exposed and in 9.7% of the control workers (P less than 0.01). The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the exposed workers than in the control workers (P less than 0.01). There was, however, no consistent correlation between skin reactivity and chronic respiratory symptoms. There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift. These complaints were more frequent in workers with positive skin tests for the symptoms of cough, chest tightness, and irritated and dry throat. Ventilatory capacity was measured by recording maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves. There were statistically significant mean reductions during the work shift for all measured lung function parameters in workers with positive skin reactions. In those workers with negative skin reactions only FEF50 and FEF25 reached statistical significance. Aqueous extracts of different spices (chilli pepper, paprika, caraway, coriander leaves, coriander seeds, cinnamon, ginger, onion, curry, and parsley) caused a dose-related contractile response of isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. These data suggest that immunologic reactions to spices are frequent in spice workers and may be related to acute symptoms and lung function changes, but not to chronic changes. The data further suggest that, in addition to any immunologic response these spices may produce in vivo, they probably also provoke direct irritant reactions in the airways as suggested by in vitro data. PMID:3168968

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Skuric, Z; Pokrajac, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Maayani, S

1988-10-01

338

Dark or Short Nights: Differential Latitudinal Constraints in Nestling Provisioning Patterns of a Nocturnally Hunting Bird Species  

PubMed Central

In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50°N; Finland 63°N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1±0.1; FIN: 6.6±0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5±0.3; FIN: 3.9±0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of ?11° to ?15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from ?17° in April to ?14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from ?11° in April to ?1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations.

Zarybnicka, Marketa; Korpimaki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael

2012-01-01

339

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

2010-01-01

340

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating syndrome in other populations; therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study

Sharon H. Thompson; Rita DiGioacchino DeBate

2009-01-01

341

12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity  

SciTech Connect

Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication.

Gould, S. (Production Training Center, Commonwealth Edison Co. (US))

1989-01-01

342

Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed?Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

2013-08-01

343

The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Background:Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure).Methods:We conducted a population-based case-control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above.Results:A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97-1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01-1.47) with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant.Conclusion:We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose-response relationships. PMID:24022188

Fritschi, L; Erren, T C; Glass, D C; Girschik, J; Thomson, A K; Saunders, C; Boyle, T; El-Zaemey, S; Rogers, P; Peters, S; Slevin, T; D'Orsogna, A; de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Heyworth, J S

2013-09-10

344

Modafinil for Excessive Sleepiness Associated with Shift-Work Sleep Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Patients with shift-work sleep disorder chronically have excessive sleepiness during night work and insomnia when attempting to sleep during the day. We evaluated the use of modafinil for treating sleepiness in patients with this disorder. methods In a three-month, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 209 patients with shift- work sleep disorder to receive either 200 mg of modafinil or

Charles A. Czeisler; James K. Walsh; Thomas Roth; Rod J Hughes; Kenneth P. Wright; Lilliam Kingsbury; Sanjay Arora; Jonathan R. L. Schwartz; Gwendolyn E. Niebler; David F. Dinges

2005-01-01

345

The Electronic Literature Foundation presents The Arabian Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A jug of wine, a loaf of bread-and thou" reads one of the enduring lines of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayya, as translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Translations of the entire Rubaiyat and the Arabian Nights can be found online here, courtesy of the Electronic Literature Foundation. The Rubaiyat is attributed to Omar Khayyam, the Persian philosopher and mathematician who lived in the 11th century. The site includes four versions translated by Fitzgerald, and a more substantial translation by E.H. Winfield. Users can also read Fitzgerald's notes on his own translations, along with searching through all of the verses by keywords. Several translations of the Arabian Nights are also available, including those by Andrew Lang and the explorer Sir Richard Burton. Additionally, there is an interpretive essay on the translation of the Arabian Nights available here, composed by Professor Daniel Beaumont of the University of Rochester.

1999-01-01

346

Previously Unidentified Objects Found in MPC "One Night Stands" File  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MPC "One Night Stands" file contains asteroid astrometry not associated with any identified object. This contains large amounts of astrometry for objects which are observed on one night and not believed to have been given followup on subsequent nights. Using a large computer cluster, we applied algorithms from Kubica et al. and our own software and found a variety of new linkages in this data set, including three new object identifications, all of which have been accepted into the MPC. Our current approach is extremely slow and computationally costly. We will report on our methods and their implications and discuss and more efficient approaches which we hope to test using this data set.

Myers, Jonathan; Efrat, A.; Spahr, T.

2013-10-01

347

Arabian sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) prefer the hottest nights?  

PubMed

A vehicle-mounted net was used to collect hourly samples of sandflies on 15 nights during June in northern Oman. Every half hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity were measured (there was no cloud or rainfall during this period). The sandflies caught were mainly Phlebotomus alexandri and Sergentomyia clydei. Their circadian activity increased rapidly after sunset (18.50 hours). The high level of activity was fairly constant during 9h of darkness until dawn, when it decreased rapidly. A few flies were still active at 07.00 hours, 1.5h after sunrise. A multiple regression showed that the main factor affecting sandfly activity was light intensity. When this factor was removed, by considering only the 135 catches collected during the 9h of darkness, the second most important factor was low relative humidity, followed by low wind velocity. Temperature was not a significant factor in the analysis, because of its strong negative correlation with humidity. However, when the effect of humidity was removed from the regression, high temperature became significant, but less important than wind. The regressions showed that, for flight activity, the optimum humidity was around 10%; the probable maximum wind velocity was 3.5 m s-1 and 11 degrees C was the probable minimum temperature. Thus, when the 4 nights with highest catches (200-260 flies/night) were compared with the 4 nights with lowest catches (50-120 flies/night), the best nights had a low humidity (10-25%) and low wind speed (< 0.3 m s-1) in combination with highest temperatures (31-43 degrees C). PMID:8025330

Roberts, D M

1994-04-01

348

Considerations of circadian impact for defining ‘shift work’ in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human

Richard G Stevens; Johnni Hansen; Giovanni Costa; Erhard Haus; Timo Kauppinen; Kristan J Aronson; Gemma Castaño-Vinyals; Scott Davis; Monique H W Frings-Dresen; Lin Fritschi; Manolis Kogevinas; Kazutaka Kogi; Jenny-Anne Lie; Arne Lowden; Beata Peplonska; Beate Pesch; Eero Pukkala; Eva Schernhammer; Ruth C Travis; Roel Vermeulen; Tongzhang Zheng; Vincent Cogliano; Kurt Straif

2010-01-01

349

A Study of the Effects of Shift Operations on Student Achievement in Electronics Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine if the hours during which students participated in electronics training had any influence on their learning efficiency and their ability to function effectively as students, and to identify those factors that contributed to diminished learning efficiency. The three shifts used for the experiment were the night

Johnson, Frank F., Jr.

350

The California Violence Prevention Initiative: advancing policy to ban Saturday night specials.  

PubMed

The California Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was conceived in 1993 as a 5-year, $35 million comprehensive community, media, research, and policy advocacy effort to reduce violence among youth. The VPI included an emphasis on three broad policy areas: shifting society's definition of violence to include a public health perspective, reducing access to alcohol and other drugs, and limiting availability of handguns. For the first 3 years of the VPI, the policy focus was on reducing the availability of handguns to youth through efforts to ban the manufacture and sale of Saturday night specials (SNSs). Prior to the VPI, there were no local SNS bans. Now, there are bans in 41 California jurisdictions, including major population centers. After two vetoes of a statewide legislative ban by the former governor, an SNS ban was signed by a newly elected governor. PMID:10608574

Wallack, L

1999-12-01

351

Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.

Stevens, Richard G

2009-01-01

352

Auditory Attention Shifting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research effort measured the spectral and temporal dynamics of human auditory attentional control, concentrating on the requirements for efficient shifting of auditory attention within the frequency spectrum of normal human hearing.

A. Reeves B. Scharf

2008-01-01

353

Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments  

PubMed Central

1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts.

Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

2012-01-01

354

Shifting human color memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who witnessed an automobile accident involving a green car were exposed to information that the car was blue. On a\\u000a subsequent color recognition test, most subjects shifted their color selection in the direction of the misleading information\\u000a and away from the actual perceived color. Shifting was greater for subjects who did not initially commit themselves to a color\\u000a selection.

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1977-01-01

355

Occupational exposure to asbestos and mortality among asbestos removal workers: a Poisson regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping\\/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping\\/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient

G Frost; A-H Harding; A Darnton; D McElvenny; D Morgan

2008-01-01

356

Worker Participation in Yugoslavia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues raised by the Yugoslavian practice of worker self-management are examined: government flexibility, effects of cultural pluralism and adult education, structural changes and trends, and social class formation. (SK)

Foley, Griff

1984-01-01

357

2-Naphthol levels and genotoxicity in rubber workers.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder cancer is a historical disease of rubber workers often been associated with exposure to aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine. While exposure to these compounds has decreased markedly over time, the bladder cancer risk has not decreased in direct proportion. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are candidates for urinary bladder cancer causation. We determined pre- and post-exposure urinary levels of 2-napthol (2NAP), the major metabolite of a model volatile PAC, in a group of non-smoking rubber workers. Pre- and post-exposure urine samples were collected from 43 non-smoking workers. Overall mean post-shift 2-naphthol levels were increased (13.95 ± 28.4 ?g/l), but non-significantly compared to samples collected pre-exposure (7.97 ± 22.1 ?g/l; p=0.29). The greatest difference was observed in the curing department where post-exposure samples were 4.5 fold higher, post shift samples were significantly higher in production workers as compared to non-production workers (p=0.02). Levels of 2NAP were not correlated with levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells nor with other estimates of exposure or effect. These data suggest that post-shift urinary 2NAP levels are increased, particularly in the curing department. However, the differences were not significantly different overall and urinary 2NAP levels did not predict the level of carcinogen DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells. PMID:21609755

Talaska, Glenn; Gaultney, Beverly; Peters, Susan; Succop, Paul; Vermeulen, Roel

2011-04-27

358

Effects of shift work on QTc interval and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There is evidence that shift work contributes to excess cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of shift work on heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability (CVRR). Methods: The study population consisted of 153 male shiftworkers and 87 male day workers who were employed at a copper-smelting

Katsuyuki Murata; Eiji Yano; Hideki Hashimoto; Kanae Karita; Miwako Dakeishi

2005-01-01

359

Work and Nonwork Experiences of Employees on Fixed and Rotating Shifts: An Empirical Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the relationship between shift time and use of leisure time, nonwork satisfaction, and mental and physical health among rank-and-file workers and nurses. Found employees working on fixed shift had higher job performance, motivation, and patients' care skill, and probably enjoyed better physical and emotional health. (Author/JAC)|

Jamal, Muhammad; Jamal, Saleha M.

1982-01-01

360

"Smoky Night" and "Crack": Controversial Subjects in Current Children's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses two children's picture books: "Smoky Night" and "The House that Crack Built." Notes that the books deal with the Los Angeles riots and the use and distribution of crack cocaine. Concludes that each book treats important issues with sensitivity and honesty and is engaging, even when dealing with controversial topics in a didactic…

Koehnecke, Dianne

2001-01-01

361

Portland Night High School: Pressing on the Accelerator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For 25 years, Portland Night High School (Oregon) has offered students with a job or family a way to complete high school. School features include individualized progression, nongraded credit-accrual based on task completion and demonstrated competency, relevant projects and activities, small class size, a model school-to-work program, and…

Boss, Suzie

1998-01-01

362

Performing A Thousand and One Nights in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the tales that make up the written corpus of A Thousand and One Nights were once orally recited. While their oral provenance is indisputable in many instances, the precise relationship between writing and orality, manuscripts and traditional spoken narrative is open to speculation. It is possible that certain tales thought to be written down or transcribed in manuscript

Susan Slyomovics

363

A Two-Layer Night-Time Vehicle Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-layer night time vehicle detector in this work. At the first layer, vehicle headlight detection is applied to find areas (bounding boxes) where the possible pairs of headlights locate in the image, the Haar feature based AdaBoost framework is then applied to detect the vehicle front. This approach has achieved a very promising performance for vehicle detection

Weihong Wang; Chunhua Shen; Jian Zhang; Sakrapee Paisitkriangkrai

2009-01-01

364

Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has

D Hartman; A H Crisp; P Sedgwick; S Borrow

2001-01-01

365

The Electroencephalogram During All Night Recording: Stages of Sleep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed account of the various categories of sleep patterns (or stages) and the general characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) periods encountered in a series of all night EEG recordings on a group of non-sleep deprived subjects is presented. (Aut...

K. Vankirk

1965-01-01

366

Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

Duke, Deborah C.

1994-01-01

367

The Reconstruction Era: The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that popular ballads are a way of introducing eighth graders to an historical period and giving them special insight into history through the emotions expressed in the lyrics. Illustrates by describing the use of Joan Baez's song, "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down," in a Reconstruction era unit. (SJL)|

Anastasio, Joseph L.

1981-01-01

368

Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

Weltsek, Gustave

2005-01-01

369

Polygraphic Study during Whole Night Sleep in Infantile Spasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole night EEG were polygraphically recorded and analyzed in 9 patients with infantile spasms prior to ACTH therapy. The subjects were divided into two groups, favorable and unfavorable, depending upon the response to the ACTH therapy. (1) Among the unfavorable group, the deep sleep stage was not observed; while the light sleep stage tended to dominate. (2) REM sleep

Yukio Fukuyama; Atsuko Shionaga; Yoko Iida

1979-01-01

370

Factors Associated With Fragmented Sleep at Night Across Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the factors most strongly asso- ciated with sleeping less than 6 consecutive hours at night for children aged 5, 17, and 29 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized survey design used a representative sample of infants born in 1997-1998 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews. Inter- views were scheduled

Évelyne Touchette; Dominique Petit; Jean Paquet; Michel Boivin; Chista Japel; Richard E. Tremblay; Jacques Y. Montplaisir

2005-01-01

371

Post-Juvenile Dispersal of Night Herons in Malaya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Malaya the only known breeding colony of the Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax is situated on the west coast, in the outer fringe of the mangrove on extensive mudflats near the small port of Kuala Gula, Perak. It appears that breeding at ...

L. Medway R. P. Lim

1970-01-01

372

Mr. Marconi's Results in Day and Night Wireless Telegraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

READING a brief account of these results in the Times of June 14, I perceive that Signor Marconi advances in explanation of the greater distance at which night signals were received, that the day signalling is affected by diselectrification of the transmitting elevated conductor.

J. Joly

1902-01-01

373

Family Math Night: Middle School Math Standards in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…

Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine

2006-01-01

374

Texts of the Arabian Nights and ideological variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the old part of the Arabian Nights as an example of an organized and intergrated collection of stories belonging to medieval Arabic literature. It examines the ways in which an ancient story of Indian origin, ‘The Ass, the Ox, the Farmer and His Wife’, and a story of ancient Near Eastern origin, ‘The Merchant and the Genie’,

Aboubakr Chraïbi

2004-01-01

375

Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) calibration and configuration: recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS) system has participated in a large variety of hyperspectral data collections for the Department of Defense. A large number of improvements to this system have been undertaken. They include the implementation of a calibration process that utilizes in-flight calibration units (IFCU). Other improvements include the completion and implementation of an updated laboratory wavelength assignments

Christopher G. Simi; Anthony B. Hill; Henry Kling; Christopher LaSota; Jerome A. Zadnik; John Parish; Joe Deaver

2001-01-01

376

Night Sky Optical Spectrum from a High Altitude Observatory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Night sky spectrum between 380 and 660 nm with effective spectral resolution of 0.2 nm is presented for evaluation of effects produced by the different sources of light including lights of urban origin. Numerous emission lines superposed on a continuum sp...

S. Louistisserand A. Bucher S. Koutchmy P. Lamy

1987-01-01

377

Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the

S. Henderson; K. Meymaris; D. Ward; C. Walker; R. Russell; S. Pompea; D. Salisbury

2006-01-01

378

Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

Connell, Shelley S.

2013-01-01

379

Roosting of passerines over open water at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night observations on the roosting of various species of birds on emergent vegetation over open water is presented. The following species were recorded: Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), Tree Swallow (Iridoproene bicolor), Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia), Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis), Purple Martin (Progne subis), red-winged black bird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Yellow-headed Black Bird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). (ACR)

1978-01-01

380

Night vision devices. Citations from the NTIS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This bibliography contains 323 citations in which various types of night vision devices are investigated. Most were developed for military applications but they can readily be adapted for civil usage, as for example, law enforcement. Abstracts on display screens, equipment design and effectiveness, electronic components, spurious noise reduction, and test methods are cited.

Habercom, G. E., Jr.

1980-08-01

381

Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography

D. Barringer; C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea; R. T. Sparks

2011-01-01

382

Remote Sensing of Urban Heat Islands by Day and Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

A night-time thermal image from the ASTER satellite sensor, of the western New territories of Hong Kong is compared with a daytime Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM? ) thermal image obtained nineteen days earlier. Densely built high rise areas which appear cool on daytime images are conversely, relatively warm on nighttime images, though the temperature differences are not well

Janet Nichol

2005-01-01

383

Vehicle detection at night using image processing and pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology to detect vehicles at night using image processing and pattern recognition. The using of mathematical morphology, the techniques of pattern recognition and the studying of perspective influences are the major innovations of our method. First, we present an initialisation phase that involves a road modelling. Afterwards, we present methodologies to detect vehicles on highways. We also

R. Taktak; M. Dufaut; R. Husson

1994-01-01

384

Polar Patterns: Day, Night, and Seasons - Issue 3, May 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue of the free online magazine, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears, highlights ways to teach about the extremes in day and night and seasons in the Arctic and Antarctica. The targeted literacy skill is cause/effect relationships. Art and poetry are integrated through a study of the aurora.

University, The O.

385

Workers, Wages, and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how plant-level wages, occupational mix, workforce education, and productivity vary with the adoption and use of new factory automation technologies, such as programmable controllers, computer-automated design, and numerically controlled machines. The authors' cross-sectional results show that plants that use a large number of new technologies employ more educated workers; employ relatively more managers, professionals, and precision-craft workers;

Mark Doms; Timothy Dunne; Kenneth R. Troske

1997-01-01

386

Perceived job insecurity and worker health in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic recessions, the industrial shift from manufacturing toward service industries, and rising global competition have contributed to uncertainty about job security, with potential consequences for workers’ health. To address limitations of prior research on the health consequences of perceived job insecurity, we use longitudinal data from two nationally-representative samples of the United States population, and examine episodic and persistent perceived

Sarah A. Burgard; Jennie E. Brand; James S. House

2009-01-01

387

Night work and the risk of cancer among men.  

PubMed

Night work might influence cancer risk, possibly via suppression of melatonin release. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between 1979 and 1985, job histories, including work hours, were elicited from 3,137 males with incident cancer at one of 11 anatomic sites and from 512 controls. Compared with men who never worked at night, the adjusted odds ratios among men who ever worked at night were 1.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.47) for lung cancer, 2.03 (95% CI: 1.43, 2.89) for colon cancer, 1.74 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.49) for bladder cancer, 2.77 (95% CI: 1.96, 3.92) for prostate cancer, 2.09 (95% CI: 1.40, 3.14) for rectal cancer, 2.27 (95% CI: 1.24, 4.15) for pancreatic cancer, and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.48, 3.61) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Equivocal evidence or no evidence was observed for cancers of the stomach (odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.10), kidney (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.86, 2.35), and esophagus (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80, 2.84) and for melanoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.49, 2.22). There was no evidence of increasing risk with increasing duration of night work, with risks generally being increased across all duration categories. Results suggest that night work may increase cancer risk at several sites among men. PMID:23035019

Parent, Marie-Élise; El-Zein, Mariam; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

2012-10-03

388

Discovery of a Nickel Oxide feature in the night airglow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent discovery of an orange spectral feature in OSIRIS/Odin spectra of the night airglow near 87 km raised interest in the possibility of other meteorite metallic emissions in the airglow. The feature was positively identified as the chemiluminescent FeO* emission from iron with ozone where the iron is of meteoric origin. We have subsequently found that the FeO* feature is present in most of the OSIRIS mesospheric spectra. Since the meteorite source of atomic metals in the mesosphere contains both iron and nickel, it is expected that emissions involving Ni should also be present in the night airglow. The presentation summarizes the laboratory observations of chemiluminescent NiO* emissions and includes a search for the NiO* signature in the night airglow. A previously unidentified 'continuum' extending longwave of 440 nm to 580 nm has been detected in the night airglow spectra obtained with two space-borne limb viewing instruments. Observations of visible night airglow spectra were conducted with the GLO spectrometer on Shuttle and the OSIRIS spectrometer on the ODIN satellite. Through a comparison of these atmospheric spectra with laboratory spectra using a vibrational band model , the continuum was identified as arising from the NiO* emission. The altitude profile of the new airglow emission has also been measured with OSIRIS. The similarity of the altitude profiles of the FeO* and NiO* emissions also suggests the emission is from NiO as both can originate from reaction of the metal atoms with mesospheric ozone. The observed ratio of NiO*/FeO* was 2.3 from the GLO observations and 0.3 for the OSIRIS observations. The observed NiO* to FeO* ratio exhibits considerable variability; possible causes of this observed variation including the temporal variations of the composition of meteor showers are briefly discussed.

Evans, W. F.; Gattinger, R.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Broadfoot, A. L.

2011-12-01

389

The impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on IL-6 and TNF-? immune responses  

PubMed Central

AIM Sleep disturbances induce proinflammatory immune responses, which might increase cardiovascular disease risk. So far the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep illnesses on the immune system have been investigated. The particular impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on specific immune responses has not been addressed so far. Methods Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index (PSQI) questionnaire and blood sampling was performed by 225 shift workers and 137 daytime workers. As possible markers the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? and lymphocyte cell count were investigated. A medical examination was performed and biometrical data including age, gender, height, weight, waist and hip circumference and smoking habits were collected by a structured interview. Results Shift workers had a significantly higher mean PSQI score than day workers (6.73 vs. 4.66; p < 0.001). Day workers and shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6 (2.30 vs. 2.67 resp.; p = 0.276), TNF-? (5.58 vs. 5.68, resp.; p = 0.841) or lymphocytes count (33.68 vs. 32.99, resp.; p = 0.404). Furthermore there were no differences in cytokine levels (IL-6 p = 0.761; TNF-? p = 0.759) or lymphocyte count (p = 0.593) comparing the sleep quality within the cohorts. When this calculation of sleep quality was stratified by shift and day workers irrespective of their sleep quality day workers and shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6, TNF-? or lymphocytes count. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation of lymphocytes count and smoking habits. Conclusion Shift work induces chronic sleep debt. Our data reveals that chronic sleep debt might not always lead to an activation of the immune system, as we did not observe differences in lymphocyte count or level of IL-6 or TNF-? serum concentration between shift workers and day workers. Therefore chronic sleep restriction might be eased by a long-term compensating immune regulation which (in healthy) protects against an overstimulation of proinflammatory immune mechanisms and moderates metabolic changes, as they are known from short-term sleep deprivation or sleep related breathing disorders.

2010-01-01

390

Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a ˜20% increase in number of lights and a ˜270% increase in lighted area - although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites - as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<˜15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near -1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).

Small, Christopher; Elvidge, Christopher D.

2013-06-01

391

[Effect of the first sleep night in polysomnography: classification by variable sensitivity and factorial analysis of differences between nights].  

PubMed

It has been known since the sixties that a habituation phenomenon is present in polysomnographic analyses of sleep, the first night including more awakenings and less Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM) than consecutive ones. Results about Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) are less clear. The study presented here attempted to classify the variables in function of their sensitivity to this phenomenon by comparing inter-night and inter-subject effects in a series of ANCOVA analyses and on the other hand, to group the same variables in function of a factorial analysis on the differences between the two first nights. The study included 26 subjects with no somatic nor psychiatric disorder and was performed at their homes for four consecutive nights. The most sensitive variables were, in descending order: Ultra-Slow spectral power band, REM sleep, Sleep Efficiency Index, Delta spectral power band, number of awakenings, duration of awakenings, number of ultradian sleep cycles and Total Sleep Time. The factorial analysis showed 7 factors, grouping separately the two series of results from the spectral analysis (corresponding to visually-scored NREM and REM sleep), awakenings, sleep duration variables, variables linked to REM sleep, microarousals and deep sleep. PMID:14646799

Le Bon, O; Arpi, S

2003-11-01

392

Performance and alertness on 8 h and 12 h rotating shifts at a natural gas utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8 h\\/5-7 day shift schedule was compared with a newly instituted 12 h\\/2-4 day schedule in this, our second worksite study of extended workshifts. Workers completed a performance\\/alertness test battery, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits, 2-4 times a week on all shifts. After 10 months adaptation to the 12 h shift schedule, there were

ROGER R. ROSA; MICHAEL H. BONNET

1993-01-01

393

Shift Work Disorder in Nurses - Assessment, Prevalence and Related Health Problems  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of shift work disorder in a sample of nurses, and its association to individual, health and work variables. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated three different shift work disorder assessment procedures all based on current diagnostic criteria and employing symptom based questions. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed with symptoms of shift work disorder as the dependent variable. Participants (n?=?1968) reported age, gender, work schedule, commuting time, weekly work hours, children in household, number of nights and number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours worked the last year, use of bright light therapy, melatonin and sleep medication, and completed the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire, Diurnal Scale, Revised Circadian Type Inventory, Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness) Scale – Revised, Fatigue Questionnaire, questions about alcohol and caffeine consumption, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence rates of symptoms of shift work disorder varied from 32.4–37.6% depending on the assessment method and from 4.8–44.3% depending on the work schedule. Associations were found between symptoms of shift work disorder and age, gender, circadian type, night work, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours and number of nights worked the last year, insomnia and anxiety. The different assessment procedures yielded similar results (prevalence and logistic regression analyses). The prevalence of symptoms indicative of shift work disorder was high. We argue that three symptom-based questions used in the present study adequately assess shift work disorder in epidemiological studies.

Flo, Elisabeth; Pallesen, Stale; Mager?y, Nils; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Gr?nli, Janne; Hilde Nordhus, Inger; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn

2012-01-01

394

Monitoring of workers exposed to a mixture of toluene, styrene and methanol vapours by means of diffusive air sampling, blood analysis and urinalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exposure of 34 male workers to combined toluene, styrene and methanol was monitored by personal diffusive sampling of solvent vapours in breathing zone air, analysis of shift-end blood for the 3 solvents and analysis of shift-end urine for hippuric, mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids and methanol. The exposure of most of the workers was below current occupational exposure limits. Regression

Toshio Kawai; Tomojiro Yasugi; Kazunori Mizunuma; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Ikuharu Morioka; Kazuhisa Miyashita; Yoko Uchida; Masayuki Ikeda

1992-01-01

395

Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. The GLOBE Program is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and Colorado State University with funding from NASA, NSF, and the U.S. Department of State.

Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

2006-05-01

396

Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?  

PubMed

The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of the attacks. However, the symptoms express themselves within the form of the sleepwalking/night terror syndrome rather than as rapid eye movement sleep related nightmares. The main group of subjects with the syndrome and with no history of major psychological trauma show no clinical or DIS-Q evidence of dissociation during wakefulness. The proposition that, within the character structure of this group, the mechanism still operates but exclusively within sleep remains a possibility. PMID:11264487

Hartman, D; Crisp, A H; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

2001-04-01

397

Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers` clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers` hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 {micro}g/ft{sup 2} on workers` hands and up to 714 {micro}g/fg{sup 2} inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers` vehicles were found on the drivers` floor (GM = 19 {micro}g/ft{sup 2}, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

Sanderson, W.T. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies; Henneberger, P.K. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies; Martyny, J. [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States); Ellis, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); Newman, L.S. [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

1999-04-01

398

Spectral and duration sensitivity to light-at-night in 'blind' and sighted rodent species.  

PubMed

Light-at-night (LAN) has become a defining feature of human and animal ecosystems and may possibly compromise human and animal physiology and health. Spectral and acclimation duration (AD) sensitivity were compared between social voles (Microtus socialis) and 'blind' mole rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) in four increasing ADs (0, 1, 7 and 21 days) to LAN (1×30 min, 293 ?W cm(-2)) of three different monochromatic lights [blue (479 nm), yellow (586 nm) and red (697 nm)]. Animals were sampled for urine and oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) promptly after each LAN-AD. Urine samples were analyzed for production rate, urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and urinary metabolites of adrenalin and cortisol. Overall, the blue light elicited the greatest effects on the biological markers of M. socialis, whereas similar effects were detected for S. ehrenbergi in response to red light. The increasing LAN-AD resulted in a dose-dependent decrement of all markers tested, except of stress hormones, which showed a direct positive correlation with LAN-AD. Our results suggest that: (1) photoperiod is an important cue for entraining physiological functions in the 'blind' S. ehrenbergi, which is essentially characterized by red-shifted sensitivity compared with the blue-shifted sensitivity detected for the sighted counterpart species, and (2) there is a strong association between LAN of the appropriate wavelength and adrenal endocrine responses, suggesting that LAN is a potential environmental stressor. PMID:21900468

Zubidat, Abed E; Nelson, Randy J; Haim, Abraham

2011-10-01

399

Proton Chemical Shifts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Hans Reich, professor of organic chemistry at the Uiversity of Wisconsin-Madison, this site contains a compilation of proton chemical shifts and coupling constants. This is an excellent resource for providing students familiarity with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Data.

Reich, Hans J.

2007-11-16

400

Style shifting in commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a quantitative analysis of style shifting in a corpus of Flemish radio and television commercials. Previous research draws attention to styling processes in advertising language, as discursive actions indexing social meanings. It will be shown that the exploitation of different stylistic varieties in our corpus can be analyzed along the same lines. The analysis presented here focuses

Sofie Van Gijsel; Dirk Speelman; Dirk Geeraerts

2008-01-01

401

The shift in windpower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain.

Gipe

1992-01-01

402

Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia.

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-01-01

403

Respiratory function and immunological status in cocoa and flour processing workers.  

PubMed

Respiratory function and immunological status were studied in 40 cocoa and 53 flour processing workers employed as packers in a confectionery industry and in 65 unexposed control workers in the same industry. A high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded in exposed workers, varying from 5.0% to 30.0% in cocoa workers and from 5.7% to 28.3% in flour workers. Occupational asthma was diagnosed in 2 (5%) of the cocoa workers and in 3 (5.7%) of the flour workers. None of the control workers suffered from occupational asthma. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly greater in cocoa and flour workers than in control workers. There was also a high prevalence of acute symptoms that developed during the work shift, being highest for cough (cocoa: 57.5%; flour: 50.9%) and eye irritation (cocoa: 50.0%; flour: 54.7%). Significant across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity were recorded in exposed workers, being largest for flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the vital capacity on maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves (FEF50, FEF75). The prevalence of positive skin tests for cocoa (60.2%) was significantly higher than the prevalence of positive skin tests for flour (25.8%) among the 93 exposed workers (p < 0.05). Control workers had significantly lower prevalences of positive skin tests to cocoa (4.6%) and flour (12.3%) than exposed workers (p < 0.01). Increased total serum IgE levels were found in 17.5% of cocoa and in 18.7% of flour workers; none of the control workers had increased IgE levels. Bronchoprovocation testing demonstrated significant decreases in lung function following inhalation of cocoa dust extract and flour dust in workers with respiratory symptoms and large across-shift reductions in lung function. Dust concentrations in the working environment were higher than those recommended by Croatian standards. These data suggest that workers employed in the processing of cocoa and flour may be at a high risk for the development of allergic sensitization and respiratory impairment. PMID:9408526

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Godnic-Cvar, J; Mustajbegovic, J; Budak, A

1998-01-01

404

Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment  

PubMed Central

There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.

Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

2012-01-01

405

Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment.  

PubMed

There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

2012-09-27

406

Why to stay away from your telescope at night?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New telescopes, small and not that small, are nowadays often designed to be handled without anybody close to them at night. Why would you try to do the same with a big old observatory, definitely not designed with remote operation in mind? This talk will present the many advantages of moving toward remote operations, from the obvious reduction in staff needed at night or the more comfortable setting of the observers when the site is in a harsh environment (like Mauna Kea), to the more subtle collateral benefits like a constant monitoring of the health of the facility, the telescope, and its instrumentation, an automatic alert system, the ability to remotely diagnose problems, which all make the life of the staff much easier and failures a much rarer occurrence. At the end, less downtime, cheaper operation, and better observations for better science.

Veillet, Christian

2011-03-01

407

Arabidopsis plants perform arithmetic division to prevent starvation at night  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic starch reserves that accumulate in Arabidopsis leaves during the day decrease approximately linearly with time at night to support metabolism and growth. We find that the rate of decrease is adjusted to accommodate variation in the time of onset of darkness and starch content, such that reserves last almost precisely until dawn. Generation of these dynamics therefore requires an arithmetic division computation between the starch content and expected time to dawn. We introduce two novel chemical kinetic models capable of implementing analog arithmetic division. Predictions from the models are successfully tested in plants perturbed by a night-time light period or by mutations in starch degradation pathways. Our experiments indicate which components of the starch degradation apparatus may be important for appropriate arithmetic division. Our results are potentially relevant for any biological system dependent on a food reserve for survival over a predictable time period. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00669.001

Scialdone, Antonio; Mugford, Sam T; Feike, Doreen; Skeffington, Alastair; Borrill, Philippa; Graf, Alexander; Smith, Alison M; Howard, Martin

2013-01-01

408

Night driving assistance system based on spatial perspective approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we put forward and evaluate a near real-time night driving assistance system intended for use in land vehicles (cars in particular) to help with T-junctions crossing at night. The onboard system of the host vehicle computes the remaining distance between itself and the nearest approaching vehicle using spatial perspective method. The algorithm evaluates the interspacing of the incoming vehicle's headlights. This allows the distance-to-contact to be determined or estimated. This work emphasises techniques to obtain the required image quality for distance sensing. The image quality was achieved when work was focused primarily at the hardware levels. With polaroids in place, the acquired images show that the headlight signals are clearly distinguishable from other ambient lights. This significantly simplifies image processing. Road-testing shows rather promising results. The system can be generalised to intersection settings, prevent rear-front collisions and may be extended for daytime applications with the introduction of virtual references.

Poh, Chung-Kiak; Poh, Chung-How

2004-10-01

409

The NPOESS VIIRS Day/Night Visible Sensor.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will feature the Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), a 22-channel imager that will contribute to nearly half of the NPOESS environmental data records. Included on VIIRS will be the Day/Night band (DNB), a visible channel designed to image the Earth and its atmosphere in all conditions ranging from bright solar illumination, to nocturnal lunar illumination, and negligible external illumination. Drawing heritage from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments orbiting since the late 1960s, the DNB will be used to detect clouds at night, understand patterns of urban development based on the emissions of cities, monitor fires, and image scenes of snow and ice at the surface of the Earth. Thanks to significant engineering improvements, the DNB will produce superior capabilities to the OLS for a number of new applications.

Lee, Thomas E.; Miller, Steven D.; Turk, F. Joseph; Schueler, Carl; Julian, Richard; Deyo, Steve; Dills, Patrick; Wang, Sherwood

2006-02-01

410

Correlates of PLMs variability over multiple nights and impact upon RLS diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveNight-to-night variability of periodic leg movements (PLMs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) was examined to define the range of intra-subject values, impact upon diagnosing RLS, and clinical correlates.

Lynn Marie Trotti; Donald L. Bliwise; Sophia A. Greer; Albert P. Sigurdsson; Gudbjörg Birna Gudmundsdóttir; Thomas Wessel; Lisa M. Organisak; Thor Sigthorsson; Kristleifur Kristjansson; Thordur Sigmundsson; David B. Rye

2009-01-01

411

33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation...Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round Lake, Charlevoix, MI. (b) Special Local...

2009-07-01

412

Respiratory function and symptoms in workers exposed simultaneously to jute and hemp.  

PubMed Central

The environment and health of a working population exposed simultaneously to jute and hemp were studied. Classical symptoms of byssinosis were not present but 21 workers (7%) complained of atypical tightness of the chest. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis among the exposed workers was statistically significant in comparison with controls. Effects of dust concentrations, age and duration of exposure on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis were studied. A statistically significant reduction in FEV1.0 at the end of a work shift occurred in all the exposed workers. Bronchodilators given after the shift showed that acute reductions in forced expiratory volumes were nearly fully reversible in all exposed workers. Smokers and those with chronic bronchitis had greater reductions in FEV1.0 values at the end of the work shift.

El Ghawabi, S H

1978-01-01

413

Circadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the eating and sleep-wake patterns of persons with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight\\/obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 ± 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls (mean age 39.0 ± 11.0 years; 28 women) wore wrist actigraphs for 7 days and completed sleep and food

John P. O’Reardon; Brenda L. Ringel; David F. Dinges; Kelly Costello Allison; Naomi L. Rogers; Nicole S. Martino; Albert J. Stunkard

2004-01-01

414

The Light of the Night Sky: Astronomical, Interplanetary and Geophysical  

Microsoft Academic Search

We bring together our general results in two figures. Figure 14 portrays the resolution of the light of the night sky into its three principal components based on a series of zenith observations extending over a year at the two stationse: Fritz Peak in Colorado, U.S.A., (latitude N 39°.9, longitude W 105°.5) and Haleakala in Hawaii, U.S.A. (latitude N 20°.7,

F. E. Roach

1964-01-01

415

Effect of day-night inhomogeneity on elf fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra-low-frequency (elf) fields in the earth--ionosphere resonator are computed in the presence of the day-night ionospheric inhomogeneity. It is shown that the presence of the inhomogeneity leads to significant changes in the field in the neighborhood of the node line of the first mode of elf oscillations, to curving of the level line of the field, and to reversion

L. M. Rabinovich

1986-01-01

416

Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured\\u000a and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning\\u000a in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all

Chun Shing Jason Pun; Chu Wing So

417

Clinical behavioral problems in day- and night-wetting children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this prospective, clinical study of 167 consecutive wetting children, the associations between specific forms of day and\\u000a night wetting and clinical behavioral symptoms according to a parental questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), as\\u000a well as ICD-10 child psychiatric diagnoses are analyzed. For the entire group, the proportion of children with at least one\\u000a ICD-10 diagnosis was 40.1% and for

Alexander von Gontard; Klaus Mauer-Mucke; Julia Plück; Walter Berner; Gerd Lehmkuhl

1999-01-01

418

Fermented Ginseng Improves the First-Night Effect in Humans  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The goal of this study was to clarify whether ginseng fermented by lactic acid bacteria (fermented ginseng, FG), can improve the first-night effect (FNE) in humans. Design: Behavioral tests and quantification of mRNA expression related to GABAergic neurotransmission in brain (glutamic acid decarboxylase 1, ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase [Abat], ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 [GAT1], ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 4, ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit ? 1 and ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit ? 2) were carried out in FG-treated mice. We also performed double-blind sleep recordings of human subjects given FG or placebo. Setting: A university-based sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Sixteen healthy male volunteers (aged 20.69 ± 0.44 years) were observed in the human study. Interventions: At the end of administration, 2 consecutive all-night polysomnography recordings were performed. Subjects also completed psychological questionnaires, and urine and saliva samples were taken to analyze stress-sensitive markers. Measurements and Results: The light-dark transition test demonstrated that FG had some anxiolytic effect in mice, but other anxiety measures were unaffected. The hippocampal mRNA expression showed a decrease of Abat and GAT1 suggesting an increase of GABA. Other regions (amygdala and cerebellum) showed no differences. Furthermore, there was some evidence (using simple pairwise comparisons but not supported in the full ANOVA model) that administration of FG tended to diminish decreases in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (seen as first night effects in the placebo group) without affecting sleep architecture. Conclusions: Our results suggest the administration of FG could improve the FNE in humans. The improvement may be related to an anxiolytic effect of FG which acts via GABAergic modification. Citation: Kitaoka K; Uchida K; Okamoto N; Chikahisa S; Miyazaki T; Takeda E; Séi H. Fermented ginseng improves the first-night effect in humans. SLEEP 2009;32(3):413–421.

Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Uchida, Kaoru; Okamoto, Naoko; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Takeda, Eiji; Sei, Hiroyoshi

2009-01-01

419

Day and Night (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan teaches young students that day and night result from the rotation of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

420

Mushroom compost worker's lung.  

PubMed Central

This study draws attention to difficulties in the diagnosis and the understanding of the mechanism of action of mushroom compost worker's lung. Descriptions are given of 4 workers in one factory who developed acute respiratory failure within a 6-month period; 13 others who were unaffected were also studied. Serological investigation appears to be largely unhelpful, and the evidence against the condition being included amongst the extrinsic allergic alveolitides is discussed. A detailed clinical and occupational history is essential for diagnosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Phillips, M S; Robinson, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Calder, I M

1987-01-01

421

The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first World Atlas of the zenith artificial night sky brightness at sea level. Based on radiance-calibrated high-resolution DMSP satellite data and on accurate modelling of light propagation in the atmosphere, it provides a nearly global picture of how mankind is proceeding to envelop itself in a luminous fog. Comparing the Atlas with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) population density data base, we determined the fraction of population who are living under a sky of given brightness. About two-thirds of the World population and 99 per cent of the population in the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) and European Union live in areas where the night sky is above the threshold set for polluted status. Assuming average eye functionality, about one-fifth of the World population, more than two-thirds of the United States population and more than one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. Finally, about one-tenth of the World population, more than 40 per cent of the United States population and one sixth of the European Union population no longer view the heavens with the eye adapted to night vision, because of the sky brightness.

Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C. D.

2001-12-01

422

Morphological scene change detection for night time security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) systems can be used to secure environments by sensing potential intruders and alerting security personnel to any security risks. To achieve this, the system compares the input from a camera to a reference image quantifying the level of change between the images, raising the alarm if this change is greater than a set triggering level. Morphological operators are than used to reduce the effect of any image change not related to a potential security risk; this includes noise and other minor changes thus decreasing the risk of false alarms. However in low light conditions MSCD systems can fail due to the reduced intensity differences between images containing security threats and reference images. This paper documents a proof of concept for a system that would use night vision images to address this problem. Here a low light scope camera attachment is used in place of a night vision camera and shows modifications to the previous MSCD system, which improves the performance when used with night vision images. The analysis of the modified system's performance in different low light environments, this includes analysis of appropriate binary threshold and alarm triggering levels for a range of environments. The latter includes indoors at a distance, indoors at close range, outdoors at a distance and outdoors at close range. The results shown demonstrate that MSCD systems operating in low light conditions have the potential to be used as a useful tool in a security system and are compared to the original to demonstrate the improvement.

Jarvis, Benjamin; Tickle, Andrew J.

2012-10-01

423

Night-time Noise Annoyance: State of the Art.  

PubMed

The annoyance-reaction is one of the central variables in noise research. After an introduction to different concepts and definitions of noise annoyance different scales of how noise annoyance can be measured are shown. The question is discussed whether disturbance effects of noise at different times of day are given. To clarify this problem, the results of a series of actual German noise studies are reported. In these studies differences between day- and night-time annoyance are found depending on the sound sources. For the case of road traffic noise no differences between day and night-time annoyance were found. In contrast, annoyance reactions are related to the time of day for railway and air traffic noise. Especially for aircraft noise, above a Leq of 50 dB(A) night-time annoyance rises faster than day-time annoyance. The effects are discussed in the frame of a cognitive model of noise annoyance. It is argued that annoyance judgements are based on an internal representation of the noise situation. Part of this representation are the event characteristics of the sound sources and their estimated impacts for disturbances at different times of day. PMID:12678946

Hoeger, Rainer; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Felscher-Suhr, Ute; Griefahn, Barbara

2002-01-01

424

Shortened night sleep impairs facial responsiveness to emotional stimuli.  

PubMed

Sleep deprivation deteriorates mood, impairs the recognition of facial expressions, and affects the ability to regulate emotions. The present study investigated the effect of partial sleep deprivation on facial responses to emotional stimuli. Thirty-three healthy undergraduates were tested twice: after a night with (i) 8h and (ii) 4h sleep. Self-reported sleepiness and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed. Emotional reactivity was measured with facial Electromyogram (EMG) while participants were asked to respond with either compatible or incompatible facial muscles to emotional stimuli in order to study whether partial sleep deprivation caused slower reactions mainly in response to incompatible stimuli (due to an additional effort to suppress the compatible reaction caused by decreased inhibitory control) or in response to both compatible and incompatible stimuli. Self-reported sleepiness and reaction times in a sustained attention task significantly increased after one night of partial sleep deprivation. Facial reactions to emotional stimuli were decelerated. No significant interaction between sleep restriction and compatibility of the muscle to the picture valence could be observed. Hence, volitional facial reactions in response to emotional stimuli were slower after one night of reduced sleep, but affective inhibitory control was not significantly impaired. However, slowed facial responding to emotional stimuli may affect social interaction after sleep restriction. PMID:23357729

Schwarz, Johanna F A; Popp, Roland; Haas, Jessica; Zulley, Jürgen; Geisler, Peter; Alpers, Georg W; Osterheider, Michael; Eisenbarth, Hedwig

2013-01-26

425

INVIS: integrated night vision surveillance and observation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite consists of three cameras, respectively sensitive in the visual (400-700 nm), the near-infrared (700-1000 nm) and the longwave infrared (8-14 ?m) bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The optical axes of the three cameras are aligned. Image quality of the fused sensor signals can be enhanced in real-time through Dynamic Noise Reduction, Superresolution, and Local Adaptive Contrast Enhancement. The quality of the longwave infrared image can be enhanced through Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction (SBNUC), intelligent clustering and thresholding. The visual and near-infrared signals are used to represent the resulting multiband nightvision image in realistic daytime colors, using the Color-the-Night color remapping principle. Color remapping can also be deployed to enhance the visibility of thermal targets that are camouflaged in the visual and near-infrared range of the spectrum. The dynamic false-color nighttime images can be augmented with corresponding synthetic 3D scene views, generated in real-time using a geometric 3D scene model in combination with position and orientation information supplied by the GPS and inertial sensors of the INVIS system.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Dijk, Judith; van Son, Rob

2010-04-01

426

Sleep-related eating disorder: a case report of a progressed night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387

Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

2012-01-01

427

The effect of work shift and sleep duration on various aspects of police officers' health.  

PubMed

Police officers are prone to cardiovascular disease, overweight, and obesity. Because night-shift work affects sleep, a modifiable risk factor linked to chronic disease, the researchers explored the relationship among shift work, sleep, and wellness for police officers. Sleep, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, stress, fatigue, and body mass index were used to compare officers who worked primarily day shifts to those who worked primarily evening or night shifts, and officers who slept less than 6 hours per day to those who slept at least 6 hours per day. A cross-sectional study of 85 male officers, 20 to 63 years old, was completed at three Midwestern police departments. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep. A questionnaire was used to collect officer demographics and work hours. Other measurements included serum CRP, height, weight, perceived stress, and vital exhaustion. The relative risk of sleeping less than 6 hours per day for officers who primarily worked non-day shifts, compared to those who worked day shifts, was 14.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-102.95, p < .001), and the relative risk of overall poor sleep quality for officers who slept less than 6 hours per day, compared to those who slept more hours, was 2.44 (95% CI, 1.15-5.20, p = .027). CRP was not associated with shift or sleep duration, even when adjusted for officers' ages. PMID:22515415

Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Budde, Laura; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Clark, M Kathleen

2012-04-23

428

Continuous White Noise to Reduce Resistance Going to Sleep and Night Wakings in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White noise generators were turned on at 75 dB at bedtime and kept on all night to treat resistance going to sleep and night wakings in one-year-old toddlers. In a multiple baseline design four sets of parents recorded duration of resistance going to sleep, number of night wakings, completed surveys of their child's feeding and sleeping patterns…

Forquer, LeAnne M.; Johnson, C. Merle

2005-01-01

429

5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Premium Pay Pay for Sunday Work § 550.172 Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay...to premium pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential...compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay...

2013-01-01

430

The night float paradigm to decrease sleep deprivation: good solution or a new problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980s physician residency training programs developed the night float rotation, characterized by a sequence of 5 - 15 days of night work without any daytime duties, thereby involving an abrupt reversal of the wake-sleep schedule. We examined the effect of the night float rotation on sleep, mood and performance of pediatric residents. Residents completed sleep diaries daily,

ANITA CAVALLO; M. Douglas RIS; PAUL SUCCOP

2003-01-01

431

Disturbed nights and 3-4 month old infants: the effects of feeding and thermal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents completed a prospective diary of a night's sleep for 87, 3-4 month old infants at home whose body temperatures were continuously recorded. We found that about half of the babies disturbed their parents in the night. Breast fed babies were more likely to wake parents in the middle of the night. The babies who disturbed their parents in the

M P Wailoo; S A Petersen; H Whitaker

1990-01-01

432

Response of night-migrating songbirds in cloud to colored and flashing light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-migrating birds often accumulate near bright man-made light on nights with low cloud cover or rain. Mass avian mortality eventsassociatedwiththisphenomenonhave been documented for more than 150 years. Understanding the mechanism that induces the aggregation of migrants in lighted air - space could lead to a reduction in such mor - tality. Toward this end, we subjected night- migratingbirdsflyingindensecloudcoverto alternating short

ALBERT M. MANVILLE