It is important for an occupational health service to plan health supervision and measures for shift and night workers considering the biorhythmic and psychosocial desynchronisation, as well as the frequent prevalence of combined effects of adverse environmental and working conditions. The measures taken should be preventive to reduce the expected health risks rather than being rehabilitative. Both a medical surveillance and a counselling service are recommended before and during engagement in shift and night work. Sleep, digestive, metabolic and cardiovascular troubles should be noted and followed up. Medical counselling is especially necessary in the first months of shift and night work exposure and then after long-term exposure. The postulate for timed surveillance and intervention is supported by data of our epidemiologic investigations. The importance of the single health measures is underlined by direct reference to the relevant literature. Recommendations that should be applied in all countries and enterprises are in accordance with the ILO Night Work Convention 1990a and include: (1) appropriate occupational health services provided for night and shift workers, including counselling; (2) first aid facilities during all shift hours; (3) the option of transfer to day work when certified unfit for night work for reasons of health; and (4) measures for women on night shifts, in particular special maternity protection (transfer to day work, social security benefits or an extension of maternity leave). Examples of occupational health services already installed in some states for shift and night workers, and information on future developments are given. Up to now the medical service has been implemented mostly on the basis of collective agreements rather than on the basis of legal provisions. The Austrian Night Shift/Heavy Work Law Regulations of 1981, revised 1993, are cited: workers exposed to night shifts under defined single or combined additional heavy workloads are entitled to a special health assessment, additional rest pauses, additional free time and early retirement depending on years of exposure. PMID:15676309
This paper reviews briefly our research findings on sleep and health for shift workers at a bakery and a dish factory and aims to give some information on health protection with improved sleep. Our medical examinations revealed that rises in blood pressure (BP) were frequently observed in male bakery workers on the fixed night shift. They took a two-hour nap
The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the quality of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health and wellbeing, during the wellbeing, during the shift. Three groups of sanitary workers, one working in the morning, one working two shifts, and the other working three, took part. All completed a version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. The three groups differed on many outcome measures, although the differences that did exist didn't suggested advantages for one shift system over the others. PMID:23393869
Della Betta, F; Martinellit, R; Del Re, C; Tarquini, M; Fantasia, D; Paoletti, A
Recent studies indicate a circadian rhythm in blood pressure and heart rate and its association with various neurotransmitters. In the present study, we examine the circadian nature of blood pressure/heart rate and salivary cortisol in night shift workers and whether these circadian changes produced by night shifts are reversible. Sixteen healthy nurses of both genders, aged 20-40 years, performing day and night shift duties, were randomly selected out of 22 who volunteered for this study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was done in all the subjects and salivary cortisol levels were analyzed during both day and night shift duties. There were clinically significant changes in the Acrophase of blood pressure and cortisol levels, indicating ecphasia (odd timing of systolic blood pressure) individually during night as well as day shifts. However, this pattern was statistically not significant. A reverse pattern of Acrophase was observed in 8 out of 16 subjects when they were posted on day shift. No significant change was found in midline estimating statistics of rhythm (MESOR) of blood pressure values. Changes in Double amplitude (Predictable change) were observed in 8 subjects during night shifts as well as in 7 subjects during day shifts. However, the pattern was not similar and night workers had an altered circadian pattern in the night as well as during day shifts. Changes in Double amplitude, Acrophase and Salivary cortisol were found during night as well as day shifts but these changes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) due to incomplete recovery during day shifts (changes again seen when they came back to day shifts). Salivary cortisol levels were lowest in early morning, increased at midnight and further increased in the afternoon during night shifts along with ecphasia. It is possible that nurses working the night shift felt more tired due to the altered circadian cycle. PMID:21914954
Anjum, B; Verma, N S; Tiwari, S; Singh, R; Mahdi, A A; Singh, R B; Singh, R K
Two types of methods based on a particular principle allow enhancing and sustaining workers' alertness all along their night work. The first one rather consists in arousing workers by exposing them to stimulant environment conditions (light or noise…) or by giving them natural or pharmacological reactivating substances (caffeine or amphetamines…) for example. The second principle consists in increasing workers' possibilities
Anne BONNEFOND; Patricia TASSI; Joceline ROGE; Alain MUZET
Shift and night work concern every year more and more workers, specifically women. Recent recommendations on good practice for the medical surveillance of shift and night workers have been edited in France. They confirmed that this kind of organisation, unavoidable in some economical sectors is associated with a significant higher risk of sleep and wake disorders, cardiovascular disorders, overweight and obesity, breath cancer. Specific surveillance of shift and night workers is recommended in occupational health. PMID:24851373
Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien
Shift and night work are recognized as risk factors for health and safety; they are related to a wide range of public health problems ranging from cardiovascular disease and cancer to mental disorders and accidents. Occupational health physicians should evaluate workers' fitness for shift and night work before their assignment, at regular intervals, and if health problems connected with shift work occur. The evaluation should be accompanied by a careful job analysis to ensure that shift schedules are arranged according to ergonomic criteria. This arrangement can reduce health problems and make coping with irregular working hours possible, even for people suffering from contraindicative illnesses. Both health disorders representing absolute or relative contraindication and actual work conditions should be taken into account. Health checks should be aimed at detecting early signs of intolerance, such as sleeping and digestive trouble, drug consumption, accidents, and female reproductive function problems. PMID:23405656
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of sleepiness during night shift (SNS) in male shiftworkers with nonpharmacological self-management (nPSM) practices to facilitate good day sleep, and also with job stress. Sleepiness on the job and possible correlates to SNS among 157 male shiftworkers in a rotating three-shift schedule at a chemical plant were cross-sectionally investigated using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate analyses revealed that SNS was positively associated with drinking alcoholic beverages before day sleep, but inversely associated with subjective health status, being of the evening type, abstaining from caffeine before day sleep, having a bath before day sleep, job control, reward from work, feeling suited to the job, and support from colleagues. SNS correlated with certain nPSM practices and also with possible modifiers of job stress. These findings provide clues to developing countermeasures against SNS among shiftworkers. The effects of nPSM practices and job stress management on their day sleep and SNS should be examined in detail. PMID:21828956
Kageyama, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Abe-Gotoh, Ayano
Introduction : Shift work is practised in manufacturing industry to increase production capacity up to three times compared to the normal daily eight hours working system and able to optimize the utilization of machine and equipment. However, shift work has negatif effects on human social interaction, health and safety. Methodology : The study was conducted to evaluate production workers' perception
BM Deros; NK Khamis; A Ludin
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505 Section...and Differentials Â§ 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505 Section...and Differentials Â§ 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with...
National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Experience (NLS) data were used to describe those people who work outside the traditional 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. work day. Depending on the approximate time of day they worked, respondents were classified into four categories of workers: day, evening, night, and split shift (working hours interrupted by…
The effects of changing from a full-day to a half-day shift work before a night duty shift on physiological and psychological\\u000a functions during the night shift were investigated in 12 healthy unmarried nurses working on the same ward of a university\\u000a hospital. Three shift patterns, i.e., a day shift following a day shift, a night shift following a day shift,
Fumio Kobayashi; Hikari Furui; Yasuhiro Akamatsu; Takemasa Watanabe; Hiroshi Horibe
Shift and night work are necessary in hospital work organization. They may have adverse effects on workers' health, due to disruption of biological rhythms, mainly as concerns sleep, digestive, fertility, psychoneurotic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders, besides being a probable (according to IARC) risk factor for cancer (breast in particular). Hence, the primary intervention deals with a proper organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, able to avoid or limit the circadian disruption and related consequences as much as possible. In addition, useful countermeasures should be adopted, dealing with reduction of night work, increase of rest pauses and rest days, improved social services, and temporary transfer to day work, as well as a careful medical surveillance, aimed at detecting early signs of intolerance and at counseling for improving self-care strategies for a better coping. PMID:23405635
The circadian rhythms of most shiftworkers do not adapt to night shift. We have studied oil workers on a rotating system involving 2 weeks day shift (0600–1800 h) and 2 weeks night shift (1800–0600 h) throughout a day and night shift sequence. Urine samples were collected 3-hourly whilst awake, with an over-sleep collection, for the measurement of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin by radioimmunoassay.
R. G Barnes; S. J Deacon; M. J Forbes; J Arendt
Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research.
Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim
Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomized controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions have been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467
Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don
In this review, the results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work have been collected. They are discussed mainly from the standpoint of their possible utilization in industry, in understanding the problems of shift wor...
Decreased melatonin production, due to acute suppression of pineal melatonin secretion by light exposure during night work, has been suggested to underlie higher cancer risks associated with prolonged experience of night work. However, the association between light exposure and melatonin production has never been measured in the field. In this study, 24-h melatonin production and ambulatory light exposure were assessed during both night-shift and day/evening-shift periods in 13 full-time rotating shiftworkers. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and light exposure was measured with an ambulatory photometer. There was no difference in total 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods. The night-shift period was characterized by a desynchrony between melatonin and sleep-wake rhythms, as shown by higher melatonin production during work and lower melatonin production during sleep when working night shifts than when working day/evening shifts. Light exposure during night work showed no correlation with aMT6s excreted during the night of work (p?>?.5), or with the difference in 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods (p >?.1). However, light exposure during night work was negatively correlated with total 24-h aMT6s excretion over the entire night-shift period (p?.01). In conclusion, there was no evidence of direct melatonin suppression during night work in this population. However, higher levels of light exposure during night work may have decreased total melatonin production, possibly by initiating re-entrainment and causing internal desynchrony. This interpretation is consistent with the proposition that circadian disruption, of which decreased melatonin production is only one of the adverse consequences, could be the mediator between night shiftwork and cancer risks. PMID:22324558
Dumont, Marie; Lanctôt, Valérie; Cadieux-Viau, Raphaëlle; Paquet, Jean
The circadian rhythms of most shiftworkers do not adapt to night shift. We have studied oil workers on a rotating system involving 2 weeks day shift (0600-1800 h) and 2 weeks night shift (1800-0600 h) throughout a day and night shift sequence. Urine samples were collected 3-hourly whilst awake, with an over-sleep collection, for the measurement of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin by radioimmunoassay. In three separate groups results showed adaptation by delay of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in the first week of night shift. The rates of phase shift (mean +/- SEM) were 1.51 +/- 0.16 h/day (n = 5), 1.32 +/- 0.41 h/day (n = 5) and 1.77 +/- 0.31 h/day (n = 17). Specific environmental and social factors together with the shift schedule on oil rigs may facilitate adaptation to a 12 h night shift within a week. PMID:9502203
Barnes, R G; Deacon, S J; Forbes, M J; Arendt, J
Shiftwork-induced sleep deprivation and circadian disruption probably leads to an increase in the production of cytokines and dysregulation of innate immune system, respectively. This project aims evaluating changes in salivary IL-1 beta, cortisol, and melatonin in night workers. Method. Two day and three night healthy workers participated in this study. Sleep was evaluated by actimetry and activity protocols. Saliva was collected at waking and bedtime the last workday and the following two days-off and was analyzed by ELISA. Results. Neither sleep duration nor efficiency showed any association with salivary IL-1beta. IL-1beta levels were higher at waking than at bedtime during working days for all workers, but only one day and one night-worker maintained this pattern and hormone rhythms during days off. For this night worker, melatonin levels were shifted to daytime. A second one presented clear alterations in IL-1beta and hormone rhythms on days-off. Conclusions. Our preliminary results suggest that night work can disturb the variation pattern of salivary IL-1beta. No association of this variation with sleep was observed. It seems that disruption in hormone rhythms interfere with salivary IL-1beta production. IL- 1beta production pattern seems to be maintained when rhythms are present, in spite of a shift in melatonin secretion. PMID:22317688
Reinhardt, Érica Lui; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; Markus, Regina Pekelmann; Fischer, Frida Marina
Night shift work is associated with increased risk of several cancers, but the risk of skin cancer among night shift workers is unknown. We documented 10?799 incident skin cancers in 68?336 women in the Nurses’ Health Study from June 1988 to June 2006 and examined the relationship between rotating night shifts and skin cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for confounding variables (phenotypic and established risk factors of skin cancer), and performed stratified analysis to explore the modifying effect of hair color. Working 10 years or more on rotating night shifts was associated with a 14% decreased risk of skin cancer compared with never working night shifts (age-standardized incidence rate: 976 per 100?000 person-years (PY) vs 1070 per 100?000 PY, respectively; adjusted hazard ratios = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.81 to 0.92, Ptrend < .001). This association was strongest for cutaneous melanoma; working 10 years or more of rotating night shifts was associated with 44% decreased risk of melanoma, after adjustment for melanoma risk factors (age-standardized incidence rate: 20 per 100?000 PY vs 35 per 100?000 PY, respectively; adjusted hazard ratios = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.36 to 0.87, Ptrend = .005). Hair color, a surrogate for an individual’s susceptibility to skin cancer, was a statistically significant effect modifier for the observed associations; darker-haired women had the lowest risk (Pinteraction = .02).
Razavi, Pedram; Qureshi, Abrar A.
Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…
The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter? PMID:24087803
Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J
Interviews were conducted with 30 shift workers and 30 day workers in the paper industry to discover differences in their experience of retirement. Each group of 30 workers was further divided (10 workers in each group) into those who had been retired for less than 1 year, those who had been retired for 2-4 years, and those who had been retired…
Poppe, Christopher J.; Rodeheaver, Dean
Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p < .001). The authors concluded that although the nurses may recover from cardiac stress the first day off following a night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day. PMID:20795886
Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der
Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800–0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200–0000 h), 1 week night (0000–1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2–3
R. G Barnes; M. J Forbes; J Arendt
Summary In a study of the internal desynchronization of circadian rhythms in 12 shift workers, 4 of them, aged 25–34 years, agreed to be sampled every 2 h during their night shift (0000 hours to 0800 hours). They were oil refinery operators with a fast rotating shift system (every 3–4 days). We found marked changes in the secretory profiles of melatonin,
Y. Touitou; Y. Motohashi; A. Reinberg; C. Touitou; P. Bourdeleau; A. Bogdan; A. Auzéby
The Shinkansen Super-Express trains of the Japanese National Railways, the so-called bullet trains, run from early morning until late at night. Accordingly the car-cleaners of the Shinkansen must do late night shift work. A self-administered questionnaire survey including items about health and work conditions was given to 246 workers at Osaka Station, who were then divided into 3 groups: Group A consisted of 102 night workers working 5 successive days with 2 days off, Group B consisted of 124 alternate-day 24-hour workers working 3 days a week, while Group C included 20 day-workers working 6 days a week. A subjective fatigue inventory was administered before and after work for a week to 20 workers selected from each of three groups, group A, B above group D whose shift was 2 times 2 successive night shifts with one day off, and one holiday a week. The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that the rates of complaints such as gastroenteric disorders and general fatigue were the highest in group A. The results of the subjective fatigue inventory show a tendency for the number of complaints in group A and B to increase significantly after the last work shift of the week, but not in the case of group D. The authors demonstrated that there was a close relationship between patterns of night-shift work and various kinds of health problems, and concluded that to insert a day off on the third day of the group D shift was effective in reducing the work load. PMID:6536773
Ueno, M; Nakagiri, S; Taniguchi, T; Arisawa, T; Mino, Y; Kodera, R; Kanazawa, S; Oyama, K; Ogawa, T; Ohta, T
To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p?=?0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p?=?0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p?=?0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval. These observations demonstrate that persistent day-and-night RSW pose a vigorous obstacle to the normalization of e-ALT among workers with preexisting abnormal liver function. We suggest that workers and managers approach with caution the consideration of assigning or accepting long-term day-and-night RSW when an employee health screening shows evidence of abnormal liver function. PMID:24354767
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung
Shift and night work are crucial factors in work organization. They may have adverse effects on workers' health, due to disruption of biological rhythms, mainly as concerns sleep, digestive, fertility, psychoneurotic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders, besides being a probable (according to IARC) risk factor for cancer (breast in particular). Hence, the primary intervention deals with a proper organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, able to avoid or limit the circadian disruption and related consequences as much as possible. In addition, useful countermeasures should be adopted, dealing with reduction of night work, increase of rest pauses and rest days, improved social services, and temporary transfer to day work, as well as a careful medical surveillance, aimed at detecting early signs of intolerance and at counseling for improving self-care strategies for a better coping. PMID:23405653
Disruption of circadian rhythm has a significant impact on the physical, psychosocial, and professional lives of night shift nurses. How night shift nurses learn the coping techniques they employ to adapt to this disruption was examined in a qualitative, cross-sectional survey of 42 nurses. A template analysis technique was used to categorize the responses, which were then compared to industry "best practices" in fatigue countermeasures. Results documented the variety of sleep/wake routines nurses employ to cope with circadian disruption as well as a wide-ranging variety of behaviors related to driving while fatigued. PMID:24256933
Lawson Carney, Mary
Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses? ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect. PMID:23489707
Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L
Rotating night shift work is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, likely via circadian disruption. We hypothesized that circadian pathway genes influence breast cancer risk, particularly in rotating night shift workers. We selected 178 common variants across 15 genes pertinent to the circadian system. Using a mixed candidate- and tag-single nucleotide polymorphism approach, we tested for associations between these variants and breast cancer risk in 1,825 women within the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort and investigated potential interactions between genotype and rotating shift-work in a subset of 1,318 women. Multiple-testing-adjusted p-values were obtained by permutation (n=10,000). None of the selected variants was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, when accounting for potential effect modification, rs23051560 (Ala394Thr) in the largest circadian gene, Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) was most strongly associated with breast cancer risk (nominal test for interaction p-value=0.0005; 10,000-permutation-based main-effects p-value among women with <24 months of shift-work=0.003). The observed multiplicative association with breast cancer risk per minor allele (A) was 0.65 (95%CI=0.51–0.82) among women with <24 months of shift-work, and 1.19 (95%CI=0.93–1.54) with ?24 months of shift-work. Women homozygous for the minor allele (AA) with ?24 months of shift-work had a 2.83-times higher breast cancer risk compared to homozygous AA women with <24 months of shift-work (95%CI=1.47–5.56). In smmary, common variation in circadian genes plays at most a small role in breast cancer risk among women of European ancestry. The impact of NPAS2 Ala394Thr in the presence of rotating shift-work requires further investigation.
Monsees, Genevieve M.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Schernhammer, Eva S.
An Internet-based survey was conducted during the fall and winter of 2003-2004 to help assess the impact of shift worker fatigue on ground mishaps and operational errors. The survey was designed for those commanders, first sergeants, superintendents, supe...
J. C. Miller S. D. Fisher C. M. Cardenas
Workers who were on rotating shifts for several years served as subjects for the recording of the EEG during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. It was found that the duration of sleep is reduced when it must take place during the daytime, or at times other than...
J. Foret O. Benoit
By concentrating on the impact of a specific shift-system feature on the well-being of those concerned, rather than on the impact of the shift system as a whole, one might be able to offer more meaningful suggestions as to what constitutes a better form of shift system. The present study focused on the impact of the number of consecutive night
Jane Barton; Evelien Spelten; Peter Totterdell; Lawrence Smith; Simon Folkard
Night-Shift Work Related Problems in Young Female Nurses in Japan: Takashi OHIDA, et al. Department of Public Health Administration, National Institute of Public Health—Background: The relationship of night-shift work to sleep problems and work performance was examined in young female nurses in 11 hospitals in Japan. Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaires, carried
Takashi OHIDA; AMM KAMAL; Tomofumi SONE; Toshihiro ISHII; Makoto UCHIYAMA; Masumi MINOWA; Sadahiko NOZAKI
Multi-shifts working condition is harder than the single shift one, and it is expected that the working condition be improved. One of approaches for the improvement is to make the work schedule so as to achieve the worker’s preference on it as large as possible. The preference depends on each of workers and it may vary with the time. Tackling with such a situation, an interactive multi-shift scheduling method is proposed in the paper. The method checks the feasibility of workers’ preferences, makes a fundamental shift schedule, and improves the schedule by shifts exchange between the workers. A necessary condition of a feasible schedule is clarified, and a prescreening procedure on the feasibility is developed. By the method, the workers’ preferences on shifts are reflected in the shift schedule as large as possible.
Shiotani, Gakuhei; Yura, Kenji
Background Shift work with sleep disruption is a systemic stressor that may possibly be associated with blood pressure dysregulation\\u000a and hypertension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose We hypothesize that rotation to a simulated night shift with sleep deprivation will produce blood pressure elevations in persons\\u000a at risk for development of hypertension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method We examined the effects of a simulated night shift on resting blood pressure in 51
James A. McCubbin; June J. Pilcher; D. DeWayne Moore
The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.
Approximately 10% of employees undertake night-work which is a significant predictor of weight-gain, possibly because responses to activity and eating are altered at night. It is known that the appetite-related hormone, acylated ghrelin is suppressed after an acute bout of exercise during the day, but no researcher has explored whether evening exercise alters acylated ghrelin and other appetite-related outcomes during a subsequent night-shift. Six healthy men (mean±SD: age 30±8 yrs, body mass index 23.1±1.1 kg/m2) completed two crossover trials (control and exercise) in a random order. Participants fasted from 10:00 h, consumed a test meal at 18:00 h and then cycled at 50% peak oxygen uptake or rested between 19:00-20:00 h. Participants then completed light activities during a simulated night-shift which ended at 05:00 h. Two small isocaloric meals were consumed at 22:00 and 02:00 h. Venous blood samples were drawn via cannulation at 1-h intervals between 19:00-05:00 h for the determination of acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations. Perceived hunger and wrist actimetry were also recorded. During the night-shift, mean±SD acylated ghrelin concentration was 86.5±40.8 pg/ml following exercise compared with 71.7±37.7 pg/ml without prior exercise (P=0.015). Throughout the night-shift, leptin concentration was 263±242 pg/ml following exercise compared with 187±221 pg/ml without prior exercise (P=0.017). Mean levels of insulin, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids and wrist actimetry were also higher during the night-shift that followed exercise (P<0.05). These data indicate that prior exercise increases acylated ghrelin and leptin concentrations during a subsequent simulated night-shift. These findings differ from the known effects of exercise on acylated ghrelin and leptin during the day, and therefore have implications for energy balance during night-work.
Morris, Chris; Fullick, Sarah; Gregson, Warren; Clarke, Neil; Doran, Dominic; MacLaren, Don; Atkinson, Greg
Rationale Increased sleepiness while working and sleep disruptions are common complaints among shift workers. Consequently, shift workers\\u000a may be more susceptible to diminished performance and work-related accidents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To examine the effects of the central nervous system stimulant methamphetamine on psychomotor task performance, subjective\\u000a effects, and food intake during shift work under laboratory conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Seven participants completed this 23-day, within-participant design, residential
Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Margaret Haney; Jennifer Nasser; Richard W. Foltin
BACKGROUND: Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder characterized by symptoms that follow a circadian pattern. Night and rotating shift work schedules exert adverse effects on functions of the human body by disturbing circadian rhythms, and they are known to cause sleep disturbances and insomnia. In this paper, we investigate the possible association between shift work and
Akbar Sharifian; Marjan Firoozeh; Gholamreza Pouryaghoub; Mehran Shahryari; Mohsen Rahimi; Mohammad Hesamian; Ali Fardi
Objective: Melatonin has received considerable publicity for its sleep-promoting properties; however, there is little scientific evidence of its efficacy. The objective of this study is to determine whether there are measurable beneficial effects from exogenous melatonin in emergency physicians after intermittent night-shift duty. Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in the emergency department of an urban tertiary
Seth W Wright; Laurie M Lawrence; Keith D Wrenn; Mary Lou Haynes; Larry W Welch; Heide M Schlack
This study investigated whether the night-time conspicuity of road workers can be enhanced by positioning retroreflective strips on the moveable joints in patterns that convey varying degrees of biological motion. Participants were 24 visually normal adults (12 young M=26.8 years; 12 older M=72.9 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were recorded for each participant. Experimenters acting as road workers walked in place on a closed road circuit within simulated road work sites, facing either the oncoming driver or the roadway (presenting sideways to the driver) and wearing one of four clothing conditions: (i) standard road worker vest; (ii) standard vest plus thigh-mounted retroreflective strips; (iii) standard vest plus retroreflective strips on ankles and knees; (iv) standard vest plus retroreflective strips positioned on the extremities in a configuration that conveyed biological motion ("biomotion"). As they drove along the closed road participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first recognized that a road worker was present. The results demonstrated that regardless of the direction of walking, road workers wearing biomotion clothing were recognized at significantly (p<0.05) longer distances (3×), relative to the standard vest alone. Response distances were significantly shorter for the older drivers. Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of the ability to recognize road workers than was visual acuity or glare sensitivity. We conclude that adding retroreflective strips in the biomotion configuration can significantly improve road worker conspicuity regardless of the road worker's orientation and the age of the driver. PMID:24816151
Wood, Joanne M; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Tyrrell, Richard A
In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 veterans affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses' years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariable analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. PMID:24403000
de Cordova, Pamela B; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Schmitt, Susan K; Stone, Patricia W
To examine the effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters a 17-day field study at a fire station was carried out. Eleven firefighters, who were engaged in firefighting emergency services, participated in this study. At the fire station, night duty (22:00-07:00) was divided into 5 periods (P1: 22:00-00:00; P2: 23:45-01:45; P3: 01:30-03:30; P4: 03:15-05:15; P5: 05:00-07:00). The participants were assigned to one of these 5 periods and awakened to answer calls from the city's central information centre. They took naps in individual rooms during night duty, except when on night shift or when called out on an emergency. Subjective complaints of fatigue, critical flicker fusion frequencies, 3-choice reaction times, and oral temperature were measured before and after work and following breaks during their 24 working hours. Heart rate variability was also recorded to evaluate autonomic nerve activity. The results show that during P3 and P4, participants who had to wake up at midnight took shorter naps. The rates of subjective complaints regarding P3 and P4 tended to be higher than those for P1, P2, and P5. The ratios of the low frequency component of heart rate variability to the high frequency component during P4 were significantly lower than those during P5. It is assumed that such an irregular sleeping pattern causes many complaints of subjective fatigue, and adversely affects physiological functions. A night-duty shift schedule ensuring undisturbed naps should be considered. PMID:15764302
Takeyama, H; Itani, T; Tachi, N; Sakamura, O; Murata, K; Inoue, T; Takanishi, T; Suzumura, H; Niwa, S
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention involving night meal composition on sleepiness and sleep duration in night security guards. A total of 54 male night security guards with a mean age of 30.8 years (SD?=?5.5 years) filled out a 24-h dietary recall and were submitted to anthropometric measurement. Twenty-four workers were assigned to the intervention. The intervention was carried out over three consecutive weeks under three conditions. On the first week, no change in workers' food composition was introduced. On the second week, the amount of carbohydrates was increased by 20-30% compared with the first week's intake, whereas during the third week protein intake was increased by 30-40% compared with baseline levels (first week). Throughout the study period, workers wore an actigraph device to estimate sleeping and waking times. A two-factor mixed model analysis with sleep duration as the outcome showed an interaction effect between body mass index (BMI) and condition (F2,56?=?3.9; p?=?0.03). Sleep duration was higher in obese workers compared with nonobese workers during the Carbohydrate condition (357 and 267?min, respectively). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed an increase in sleepiness under all conditions at 3:00?h (F1,276?=?165.73; p?0.01) postprandially. A significant difference in sleepiness was also found between the obese and nonobese groups (F1,276?=?14.8; p?0.01). The effect of the night meal content on sleep duration seems to be mediated by BMI. A carbohydrate-rich meal increased the duration of sleep in obese workers, and may therefore also influence sleepiness. PMID:24456339
Nehme, Patricia; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Ulhôa, Melissa; Moulatlet, Eloisa; Codarin, Maria Alice; Moreno, Claudia Roberta
The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans. PMID:20937863
Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J
The call center industry, a burgeoning sector is characterized by unique job demands, which render it susceptible to high attrition rates and negative health concerns. This study examined the relationship between job stress from interpersonal factors, job stress from work factors, coping, inadequate sleep, and negative physical health reports among call center shift workers (n = 239), a relatively under-researched population. Inadequate sleep and job stress from interpersonal factors were associated with negative physical health outcome for the participants in this study. Further, spending longer in the call center industry was associated with negative health outcome for the shift worker participants. PMID:23040668
Rameshbabu, Anjali; Reddy, Diane M; Fleming, Raymond
The study examines the effect of shift work on the worker. The major biological problems associated with shift work are discussed and the use of models, such as the stress and strain model, are explored to examine the detrimental effects of this type of w...
T. H. Monk
Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ?10) and sleep restriction (?5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ?5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (?4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety. PMID:23357032
Di Milia, Lee; Kecklund, Göran
The change in F.E.V.0·75 during a working shift was studied in a random sample of 473 men employed in three cotton mills in The Netherlands working a three-shift system. Results were also obtained for 198 men, not exposed to industrial dust, who were working in a biscuit factory and two textile factories in the same area. The men were seen only during the shift on which they were working at the time of the study. Men with byssinosis gave a typical picture of the effects of cotton dust on susceptible workers: a generally low F.E.V. with a marked reduction during the shift; –0·16 l. on the early morning shift, and –0·25 l. and –0·33 l. respectively on the afternoon and night shifts. Men without byssinosis in the card and blow rooms showed mean changes in F.E.V. during the shift similar to those of men working in the spinning room: a slight rise in the early morning shift of +0·02 l. followed by a fall in both afternoon and night shifts in the region of –0·10 litres. This pattern of change was also found among the workers in the non-dusty factories. The rise in the early shift cannot be explained by the clearing of mucus from the air passages; cotton workers without respiratory symptoms and men in the non-dusty factories who did not produce sputum still showed an increase in F.E.V. during the early shift, though less marked than that of men with respiratory symptoms or who produced phlegm. The evidence suggests that a diurnal variation in lung function exists and should be taken into consideration both in epidemiological studies and when ventilatory capacity tests are used in periodic medical examinations.
Walford, Joan; Lammers, B.; Schilling, R. S. F.; Hoven, D. van den; Genderen, van; Veen, Y. G. van der
Results form the present research suggest that leadership style may be different for day and night and shifts, the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction is different for night and day shift employees, and the relationship between leadership and performance appraisal is not different for day and night shift workers. Implications for shift workers and further research questions are discussed. PMID:8225962
Holdnak, B J; Harsh, J; Bushardt, S C
The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074
Nicoletti, Corinne; Müller, Christian; Tobita, Itoko; Nakaseko, Masaru; Läubli, Thomas
Introduction Some studies have suggested that night work may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in nurses. We aimed to explore the role of circadian gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to night work-related breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of Norwegian nurses comprising 563 breast cancer cases and 619 controls within a cohort of 49,402 Norwegian nurses ages 35 to 74 years. We studied 60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm in cases and controls. The data were analyzed in relation to the two exposure variables "maximum number of consecutive night shifts ever worked" and "maximum number of consecutive night shifts worked for at least 5 years." The odds of breast cancer associated with each SNP was calculated in the main effects analysis and in relation to night shift work. The statistically significant odds ratios were tested for noteworthiness using two Bayesian tests: false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). Results In the main effects analysis, CC carriers of rs4238989 and GG carriers of rs3760138 in the AANAT gene had increased risk of breast cancer, whereas TT carriers of BMAL1 rs2278749 and TT carriers of CLOCK rs3749474 had reduced risk. The associations were found to be noteworthy using both the FPRP and BFDP tests. With regard to the effect of polymorphisms and night work, several significant associations were observed. After applying FPRP and BFDP in women with at least four night shifts, an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with variant alleles of SNPs in the genes AANAT (rs3760138, rs4238989), BMAL1 (rs2290035, rs2278749, rs969485) and ROR-b (rs3750420). In women with three consecutive night shifts, a reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with carriage of variant alleles of SNPs in CLOCK (rs3749474), BMAL1 (rs2278749), BMAL2 (rs2306074), CSNK1E (rs5757037), NPAS2 (rs17024926), ROR-b (rs3903529, rs3750420), MTNR1A (rs131113549) and PER3 (rs1012477). Conclusions Significant and noteworthy associations between several polymorphisms in circadian genes, night work and breast cancer risk were found among nurses who had worked at least three consecutive night shifts.
Question of the study Accidents at work are often caused by sleepiness and their prevention is of importance for ensuring safety at the workplace.\\u000a In this study, we performed an objective, physiological assessment of sleepiness in construction workers at different hours\\u000a of extended day shift.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods A total of 34 tunnel workmen were examined with the Pupillary Sleepiness Test (PST) at
B. J. Wilhelm; C. Heine; A. Widmann; W. Durst; H. Lüdtke; G. Otto
Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF?HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules.
Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.
Shift work is associated with sleep deprivation, occupational stress, and increased risk of depression. Depressed patients show increased oxidative stress. During excessive oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) increases and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreases in body. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the serum level of TAC and MDA among depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondooyan Tehran Oil Refinery. 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression level. The level of TAC and MDA was measured by 8 mL fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the ABTS. Results of this study showed that TAC mean and standard deviation concentration was 2.451 (±0.536)?mg/dL and MDA was 3.725 (±1.098)?mic·mol/L, and mean and standard deviation of depression score and BMI were 14.07 (±3.84) and 24.92 (±3.65)?kg/m2, respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r = 0.218 and r = 0.212), respectively, (P < 0.05).
Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hashemi, Hassan
The consequences of sleep deprivation and sleepiness have been noted as the most important health problem in our modern society among shift workers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and their possible effects on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and nonshift workers. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected by PSQI, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and RLS Questionnaire. Occupational impact of different sleep disorders was detected by Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire. These questionnaires were filled in by 210 shift workers and 204 nonshift workers. There was no significant difference in the age, BMI, marital status, and years of employment in the two groups. Shift workers scored significantly higher in the OISD. The prevalence of insomnia, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers. Correlations between OISD scores and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were significant. We concluded that sleep disorders should receive more attention as a robust indicator of work limitation.
Yazdi, Zohreh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Elmizadeh, Khadijeh; Abbasi, Mahnaz
Background: Various adverse health effects associated with shift work have been documented in the medical literature. These include increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, cerebrovascular disorders, and mortality. Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an elevation in inflammatory makers such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and C-reactive protein (CRP). It is hypothesized that the increased risk of many disorders associated with shift work may be due to inflammatory processes resulting from sleep deprivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between night work and inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: Fifty workers were selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly assigned to one of two groups in a cross over study. The 25 workers in group 1 were scheduled to work the following consecutive shifts: three day shifts, one day off, and three night shifts. Group 2 were scheduled to work the following consecutive shifts: three night shifts, one day off, and three day shifts. Blood samples were obtained between 7:A.M. and 8:A.M. after the periods of day work and night work and tested for inflammatory markers. Statistical Analyses: SPSS 11.5 and S-data were used to analyze data using the Student's t-test and paired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in IL-6, CRP, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets following night work compared with day work. TNF-? was increased but it was not statistically significant, and also the change in monocyte counts was not significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated an increase in inflammatory markers following night work, as reported in several pervious studies on sleep deprivation. No significant changes in monocyte count can be justified by the results of a study which showed that the elevation in blood levels of inflammatory markers is due to increase in gene expression, not in monocyte counts.
Khosro, Sadeghniiat; Alireza, Safaiyan; Omid, Aminian; Forough, Sharifi
A substantial proportion (-27%) of workers in Japan is engaged in shift work. Many epidemiological studies have shown that the consequences of shift work range from transient and reversible insomnia/sleepiness to major deleterious lifestyle-related disease and cancer pathogenesis. The present paper reviews evidence on sleep disorders and lifestyle-related disease in shift workers and the proposed pathophysiological pathways by which sleep restriction and circadian misalignment may lead to lifestyle-related disease and cancer genesis. PMID:24605533
Objective This study aimed to determine identify any association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome by comparing the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome in shift work groups and daytime work groups for female workers. Methods Based on data from health examinations carried out from April to December of 2012, we selected as our subjects 254 female workers from the Daegu area Dyeing Industrial Complex. We diagnosed the metabolic syndrome using the examination results, and information about age, whether or not they did shift work, job type, smoking habits, drinking habits, exercise habits, and past medical history was collected through self-administered questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The variables found in a univariate analysis to be significant in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome - age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work - were included in a logistic regression analysis of the risk of the metabolic syndrome for female workers. Results The prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome for the total group of study subjects was 11.8%, for daytime workers was 2.8%, and for shift workers was 15.3%. A logistic regression analysis of the odds of the metabolic syndrome for female workers was conducted that included factors associated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome: age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work. The results revealed that the odds ratio of the metabolic syndrome in the shift work group, 6.30 (95% CI 1.24-32.15), was significantly higher when compared with the daytime work group. Conclusion Shift work appears to have an association with the metabolic syndrome in female workers. Accordingly, we believe that the attention of government agencies and business owners is needed together with the individual practice of health behaviors to manage the metabolic syndrome for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in female shift workers.
Objective To examine the inhalation exposure of cooks at night markets in Taiwan to PAHs and to estimate the corresponding potential\\u000a human health risks posed by the inhalation of carcinogenic PAHs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Eight-hour personal air samples collecting particle-bound PAHs and XAD-2 retaining PAHs in the gas phase were taken by personal\\u000a PM2.5 cyclones with cooks carrying the sampler on the shoulder while
Ping Zhao; Kuo-Pin Yu; Chi-Chi Lin
Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV.
Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.
Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ?20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers.
Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong
A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.
Baker, T.L. [Institute for Circadian Physiology, Boston, MA (United States)
Context: In India, a wide variety of occupations are performed in adverse indoor working environment. Work physiological studies in these jobs are scanty as compared to investigations done on more arduous outdoor occupations. Aims and Objectives: Physiological strain of workers engaged in sweet making activities was assessed in terms of cardiac strain indices in relation to heat stress. Setting and Design: 33 full-time workers from eastern India were compared for cardiac strain profile obtained during summer and winter during their regular work shift. A comparison was also done in between younger (n=12) and older (n=16) subjects. Materials and Methods: Working heart rate (WHR) was recorded continuously during work. The pulse deceleration index (PDI) was obtained from recovery heart rate (RHR). Net cardiac cost (NCC) and relative cardiac cost (RCC) were the main indices used to evaluate physical strain. Thermal stress assessed from wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Statistical Analysis: Students’ t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank paired tests were used for comparing physiological responses. Values were considered significant when P < 0.05. Results: Work load was significantly higher in summer for all workers. RCC of younger workers in winter and summer ranged between 18% and 26%. This was significantly lower as compared to the RCC of older workers which was 27% in winter and 30% in summer. The physiological workload appeared to be moderate in nature. The WBGT index was above the recommended range in summer for both the groups. Older workers showed a no recovery pattern in terms of recovery pulse that indicated toward a cumulative stress which may be attributed to a combined effect of heat and work in summer and extra amount of work performed in winter season. Conclusion: The physical workload is aggravated with various ergonomic stressors present in the work place. An ergonomic intervention has been indicated as further scope of this study.
Biswas, Rajib; Samanta, Amalendu; Saha, Prasenjit
Investigated the relationship between shift schedules and mental health, job satisfaction, social participation, organizational commitment, anticipated turnover, absenteeism and tardiness among nurses (N=440). Results indicated that workers on fixed work schedules would be better off than workers on rotating work schedules. (Author)
The International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently classified "shiftwork that involves circadian disruption" as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) on the basis of "limited evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of shift-work that involves nightwork", and "sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of light during the daily dark period (biological night)". The epidemiologic evidence of a relationship between shift and night work and breast cancer in women is based upon nine studies, six of which suggest a moderately increased risk to develop breast cancer after prolonged exposure to shift and night work. The aim of this paper is to summarize the possible physio-pathological mechanisms (internal disruption of biological circadian rhythms and clock genes, melatonin suppression through light by night, sleep deprivation) and the problems connected with a proper risk assessment of the risk for breast cancer risk in women shift workers. PMID:21086703
Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N?=?229), rotating shift workers (N?=?110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels.
Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea
Over the last 20 years, the US dairy industry has experienced a significant transformation from small farm operations to an industrialization of the milking process. This transformation has resulted in improvements in process efficiency and product quality. Milking tasks in large-herd parlors are highly-repetitive involving awkward postures and high muscle loads of the upper extremity. Field-based direct measures of physical exposures have been limited in challenging work settings such as dairies. This study evaluated full-shift exposures of posture and motion of the upper extremity among large-herd parlor milkers using wireless inclinometry. Results suggest large-herd parlor workers may be exposed to high exposure levels (posture, movement velocity, repetition, and inadequate rest) associated with the development of shoulder pathology. Compared to other high-risk occupations involving shoulder-intensive work, parlor workers may have higher exposure levels. These findings warrant the need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of cost-effective intervention strategies. PMID:22019358
Douphrate, David I; Fethke, Nathan B; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C; Reynolds, Stephen J
Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.
Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.
Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206
Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D
OBJECTIVES--It has been reported that groups of workers in petrochemical industries who have been exposed to low concentrations of chemicals for prolonged periods have an increased urinary albumin excretion compared with unexposed controls. This increase, however, seemed to be unrelated to the extent, duration, and type of exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suggestion that the small increase in albumin excretion might be due to differences in physical workload between the exposed and control groups or to the fact that the exposed workers are shift workers whereas the controls are employed on day duty. METHODS--To elucidate the effect of shift work, again a series of renal and hepatic variables were studied in organochlorine workers but now with two different control groups. One control group comprised shift workers and the other only workers on day duty. The exposed and both control groups had roughly equal physical workloads, although one control group comprised shift workers and the other workers who work only during day time. RESULTS--There were no significant changes in the results of the liver tests between the exposed group and either of the control groups, nor between the two control groups. No significant differences for any renal test were found between the exposed workers and control shift workers, but albumin was significantly lower in the control day workers than in the exposed workers and control shift workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that the previously reported small increase in albuminuria in industrial workers is due to alterations in circadian rhythms due to the shift work system rather than to prolonged exposure to low concentrations of potentially nephrotoxic chemicals.
Boogaard, P J; Caubo, M E
The issues of realistically rendering naturally illuminated scenes at night are examined. This requires accurate models for moonlight, night skylight, and starlight. In addition, several issues in tone re- production are discussed: eliminatiing high frequency information invisible to scotopic (night vision) observers; representing the flare lines around stars; determining the dominant hue for the displayed image. The lighting and tone
Henrik Wann Jensen; Peter Shirley; William B. Thompson; James A. Ferwerda; Michael M. Stark
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new work schedule at a Finnish steel mill with special attention to effects on older workers. The schedule was designed to improve sleep before the morning shift, and alertness during the morning shift, by delaying shift start and end times. METHODS: Evaluation was by a shiftwork health and safety questionnaire, recordings of work-rest-sleep cycles with activity
R R Rosa; M Härmä; K Pulli; M Mulder; O Näsman
Most of the problems that arise in shift workers prove to be social or family-bound rather than strictly medical, though health may in fact be affected seriously by these problems. The present study was concerned with the question whether, and in what way, men giving up shift work (‘ drop-outs ’) differ from those who stay on shift work, and
M. KOLLER; M. KUNDI; R. CERVINKA
Night shift work and rapid transmeridian travel result in a misalignment between circadian rhythms and the new times for sleep, wake, and work, which has health and safety implications for both the individual involved and the general public. Entrainment to the new sleep/wake schedule requires circadian rhythms to be phase-shifted, but this is often slow or impeded. The authors show superimposed light and melatonin PRCs to explain how to appropriately time these zeitgebers to promote circadian adaptation. They review studies in which bright light and melatonin were administered to try to counteract jet lag or to produce circadian adaptation to night work. They demonstrate how jet lag could be prevented entirely if rhythms are shifted before the flight using their preflight plan and discuss the combination of interventions that they now recommend for night shift workers.
Revell, Victoria L.; Eastman, Charmane I.
Almost 15% of the full-time workers in the United States are shift workers. We review the physiologic challenges inherent\\u000a not only in traditional night or rotating shifts but also in extended-duration shifts and other nonstandard hours. The challenging\\u000a schedules of those in particularly safety-sensitive professions such as police officers, firefighters, and health care providers\\u000a are highlighted. Recent findings describing the
Laura K. Barger; Steven W. Lockley; Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam; Christopher P. Landrigan
Extended hours of shift work has the potential for adverse consequences for workers, particularly during the nightshift, such as poorer sleep quality during the day, increased worker fatigue, and fatigue-related accidents and decreased work performance. This study examined subjective and objective measurements of sleep and performance in a group of underground miners before and after the change from a backward-rotating
Jamil L. Hossain; Lawrence W. Reinish; Ronald J. Heslegrave; Gordon W. Hall; Leonid Kayumov; Sharon A. Chung; Pintu Bhuiya; Dragona Jovanovic; Nada Huterer; Jana Volkov; Colin M. Shapiro
Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data were presented as mean value (SD). Over 90% of workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, is the most feasible method for the protection of industrial workers from prevailing noise in workplace environments in the developing countries. PMID:22718110
Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore
Hearing conservation programs (HCP) are widely employed in preventing noise-induced hearing loss, but studies of their effectiveness have been rare. The impact of the implementation of hearing conservation programs was assessed in a large group of highly noise-exposed blue-collar workers by investigating time-trends in hearing-threshold shift incidence. Serial annual audiograms for employees of 14 British Columbia lumber mills for the period 1978 to 2003 were obtained from local regulatory-agency archives. Audiograms and concomitant otological medical histories were linked to subjects' work histories and noise exposure data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the incidence of hearing threshold shift while controlling for age, baseline level of hearing loss, and other potential confounders. A total of 109
Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts.
Burgess, Paula A.
This paper reports the development of maximum acceptable weight of lift databases for male and female industrial workers for 12-hour work periods. Using a psychophysical methodology, 37 males and 37 females, experienced in manual lifting, performed various lifting tasks involving four frequencies, three box sizes, and three height levels. The maximum acceptable weight of lift was significantly influenced by the
A Maryland elementary school enlightened parents and community members about school technology by hosting a technology night showcasing student work. Through staff and community members' cooperative efforts, the technology committee created a comprehensive program composed of several elements: student involvement, district vision,…
DuPont, Albert P.
The purpose of this article is to analyze some connections between experience, health and work, especially in the field of night work. As a result of the baby boom, the proportion of elderly workers is steadily increasing, while at the same time many workers are reaching retirement age and being replaced by younger people. And, in the same time, there is an overall gradual increase in shift work and night work. To our knowledge, worker experience has not been extensively studied in this context. This was our focus in studying work activity in two very different situations, in a hospital and in a steel industry. In these two studies we observed that the experienced workers endeavor to plan ahead, especially at night. They do this to limit fatigue and to avoid emergencies and ensure that work is stress-free and as far as possible under control. But experience not only brings workers to plan ahead, it also enables them to do so, thanks to the resources it confers: gaining familiarity with tasks and acquiring the ability to identify critical situations, gaining knowledge about themselves and awareness of situations that cause difficulty; and gaining a better overview of the collective aspects of their work and of ways to share tasks or obtain assistance. They are able to undertake these strategies thanks to specific skills and capacities they have built along their professional career, which notably leads them to find the best trade-off between several goals, possibly contradictory. Such experience is especially valuable at night, when the worker is tired, and when there are fewer supervisors present. This experience can only be gained, however, if the work environment fosters its acquisition and provides an opportunity to make use of it, especially during the night shift and especially with respect to planning tasks ahead of time. PMID:20673571
Pueyo, Valérie; Toupin, Cathy; Volkoff, Serge
An extensive body of knowledge exists documenting the significant swings in error rates, perception, judgment, and overall alertness levels in the course of a day. The literature also demonstrates pronounced differences in performance levels whereby night workers routinely underperform day workers in any set of tasks. The performance split widens with task complexity. Rotating shift workers, such as nuclear power plant operators, have been shown to experience performance problems comparable to straight night workers. Finally, sleep research also documents that extended hours, such as the so-called 4-day work week, can undermine alertness levels, particularly in the last 2 to 3 h of a daily shift. These issues suggest that cyclical performance by shift workers may be evident in nuclear plant operators. This paper seeks evidence of such cyclical performance by examining operating transients at nuclear power plants involving human error.
Maloney, S. (Devonrue, Ltd., Boston, MA (United States))
The aim of the present study was to estimate spillover effects between the work and the family sphere in a sample of nurses (N = 2058). Hierarchical regression analyses investigated whether shift work schedules were associated with negative or positive spillover, both from family to work and vice versa, controlling for demographic factors, job demands and decision latitude. With daytime work as a reference group, all types of shift work (day and evening shift, night shift only and rotating 3 shift) were associated with higher negative work-to-family spillover. Night work was associated with significantly less negative family-to-work spillover. None of the different shift work schedules were related to any type of positive spillover. The results indicate that working outside of daytime hours is less compatible with workers' family lives, compared to working ordinary day shifts. On the other hand, working night shifts only was associated with reduced negative family-to-work spillover. PMID:24629875
Kunst, Jonas Rønningsdalen; Løset, Gøril Kvamme; Hosøy, Daniel; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E; Magerøy, Nils; Pallesen, Ståle
Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender and…
Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope
Background Working on shifts, especially on a night shift, influences the endogenous sleep regulation system leading to diminished sleep time and increased somnolence. We attempted to evaluate the impact of shifts on sleepiness and correlate the sleepiness score to the experience in a shift schedule. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study consists of 42 male and 2 female workers involved in a tunnel construction. They underwent spirometry, pulse oximetry and were asked to complete the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed that workers of lower Epworth had a mean age of 43.6 years, compared to the mean age of 36.4 years of workers with higher Epworth. Furthermore, workers of lower Epworth were characterized by a mean number of shift years equal to 14.8, while those of higher Epworth possessed a mean number of shift years equal to 8. The shift schedule did not reveal any statistically significant correlation. Conclusions Workers employed for a longer time had diminished sleepiness. However, there is no relationship between night shifts and sleepiness, possibly because of exposure to artificial lighting in the construction site.
A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes
Background As low- and middle-income countries face continued shortages of human resources for health and the double burden of infectious and chronic diseases, there is renewed international interest in the potential for community health workers to assume a growing role in strengthening health systems. A growing list of tasks, some of them complex, is being shifted to community health workers’ job descriptions. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) - as the community health worker cadre in Malawi is known - play a vital role in providing essential health services and connecting the community with the formal health care sector. The objective of this study was to understand the performed versus documented roles of the HSAs, to examine how tasks were prioritized, and to understand HSAs’ perspectives on their roles and responsibilities. Methods A situational analysis of the HSA cadre and its contribution to the delivery of health services in Zomba district, Malawi was conducted. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 70 HSAs. Observations of three HSAs performing duties and work diaries from five HSAs were collected. Lastly, six policy-maker and seven HSA supervisor interviews and a document review were used to further understand the cadre’s role and to triangulate collected data. Results HSAs performed a variety of tasks in addition to those outlined in the job description resulting in issues of overloading, specialization and competing demands existing in the context of task-shifting and prioritization. Not all HSAs were resistant to the expansion of their role despite role confusion and HSAs feeling they lacked adequate training, remuneration and supervision. HSAs also said that increasing workload was making completing their primary duties challenging. Considerations for policy-makers include the division of roles of HSAs in prevention versus curative care; community versus centre-based activities; and the potential specialization of HSAs. Conclusion This study provides insights into HSAs’ perceptions of their work, their expanding role and their willingness to change the scope of their practice. There are clear decision points for policy-makers regarding future direction in policy and planning in order to maximize the cadre’s effectiveness in addressing the country’s health priorities.
With a goal to test the influence of individual traits of circadian rhythms on the tolerance of shiftwork a circadian questionnaire has been developed with the method of factors analysis. There are two scales in the final form of the questionnaire representing two chronobiological characteristics: morningness - eveningsness (circadian phase-position) and flexibility of the sleep-wake-rhythm. Sex- and age-norms exist for the two scales. Reliability and validity have been demonstrated. The results of an epidemiological study shows that the hypothesis of better adjustment to shiftwork of evening-types can not be verified. A better predictor of tolerance to shift work in terms of wellbeing seems to be the individual circadian trait flexibility of sleep-wake-rhythm. PMID:2336856
Röhner, J; Kaufmann, O; Schurig, H U
Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in a model for night work in rats, based on daily 8-h activity schedules during the resting phase. We demonstrate that the major alterations leading to internal desynchrony induced by this working protocol, flattened glucose and locomotor rhythms and the development of abdominal obesity, were caused by food intake during the rest phase. Shifting food intake to the normal activity phase prevented body weight increase and reverted metabolic and rhythmic disturbances of the shift work animals to control ranges. These observations demonstrate that feeding habits may prevent or induce internal desynchrony and obesity. PMID:20080873
Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Saderi, Nadia; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina
A high percentage of the division's doctors and employees work at night to guarantee urgent assistance and diagnostic services to patients. Night work is not recommended for persons with rather serious case histories due to the disruption of circadian rhythms or the increased workload required of certain operators during nighttime hours. All of the evaluations of health operators with a limited capacity to work on the night shift in our hospital were analysed, except for female workers restricted from night work during pregnancy or puerperium, as provisioned by the regulation that protects working mothers. Forty-two cases were considered (six physicians and 36 operators in the division) out of a total of 2676 employees assigned to night work and the conditions that led to the formulation of the decision are divided as follows: 16 Mental disturbances currently subject to treatment (depression, post-traumatic anxiety disorder, primary insomnia...), 8 Tumours (breast, colon, Ewing Sarcoma), 7 Neurological disorders (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia), 6 Cardiovascular disease (previous IMA; arrhythmias, arterial hypertension not controlled by theraphy) and 5 others patologies (total 45). The cases will be analysed in detail with an analysis of the characteristics of the exempt group of workers and with reference to the temporary or indefinite nature of the exemption. PMID:23405636
Bacis, M; Cologni, L; Belotti, L; Mosconi, G
This article presents a study on the impact of shiftwork and chronotype on the perception of the work conditions, workload and adjustment to shiftwork by the workers of two sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer, which operates in three fixed shifts. The workers are allocated in one of the shifts (morning, evening and night shifts) without evaluation of their chronotype and/or social needs. The workers' evaluation of the shift system and their work show that they prefer a fixed shift and to work in a shift compatible with their chronotype. The workers with chonotype uncompatible with the shift time tend to be less satisfied with the work conditions and content and feel more discomfort/pain. PMID:22316957
de M Guimarães, L B; Pessa, S L R; Biguelini, C
The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877
Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J
The authors examined the associations of shiftwork with overweight and abdominal obesity through a cross-sectional study of 1206 employees 18 to 50 yrs of age who were working on a production line in a poultry processing plant. Night-shift workers (n = 800) were considered exposed, whereas day shiftworkers (n = 406) were considered nonexposed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference ? 88 cm in women and ? 102 cm in men. The mean age of the workers was 30.5 yrs (standard deviation = 8.7 yrs), and 65.2% were women. Nightshift workers compared to dayshift workers showed higher prevalences of overweight (42.2% vs. 34.3%; p=?.020) and abdominal obesity (24.9% vs. 19.5%; p =?.037). After adjusting for sociodemographics, parental overweight status, behavioral characteristics, and sleep characteristics, including hours of sleep, the prevalence ratios for overweight and abdominal obesity were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [ CI]: 1.00-1.61) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.10-1.92), respectively, for the nightshift workers compared to the dayshift workers. A consistent finding in our study was the independent contribution of night shiftwork to overweight and abdominal obesity among Brazilian workers. Further studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms involved and the complex behavioral and social adaptations experienced by night-shift workers. PMID:22390246
Macagnan, Jamile; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Olinto, Maria Teresa A
Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)
Shifting Gears was launched in 2007 by the Joyce Foundation, a Chicago-based organization focused on improving the quality of life of citizens residing in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The primary goal of Shifting Gears is to increase the number of low-skilled, low-income Midwestern adults who obtain college-level occupational…
Bragg, Debra; Dresser, Laura; Smith, Whitney
This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…
Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce
Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)
Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies.
Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian
Shiftwork has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of metabolic disorders and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and insulin among fixed night workers (n = 9), fixed early morning workers (n = 6), and day workers (n = 7). Food intake was recorded for 7 days using a diary. Blood samples were collected every 4 h over the course of 24 h, yielding six samples. Total carbohydrate intake was lowest (p < .0005), whereas fat (p = .03) and protein (p < .0005) were highest on the early morning shifts. Early morning workers also had overall elevated cortisol levels relative to the other two groups. Cortisol levels appeared to be more influenced by time since waking prior to the shift than by time-of-day. Cortisol was highest for the early morning group than the day group 12 h after waking, and both the early morning and night groups had higher levels than the day group 16 h after waking (p < .05 in all cases). In contrast, the homesostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) appeared to be more influenced by time-of-day than by time since waking prior to the shift. The early morning group had higher levels of HOMA-IR at 08:00 h than the other groups (p < .05). In conclusion, the early morning group had the highest overall concentrations of cortisol and tended to have higher levels of HOMA-IR, indicating that more attention should be given to these workers. Moreover, all three groups showed pronounced cortisol levels on awakening, suggesting that they may have adjusted to their awaking time. (Author: email@example.com ). PMID:20636217
Padilha, Heloisa Guarita; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Folkard, Simon; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition.
Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Wright, Kenneth P.
A 3-year follow-up study of an occupational cohort was conducted to clarify the effect of the type of shift work on the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The subjects were 1,677 Japanese male employees aged 36 to 57. Age, each component of MetS, serum uric acid, serum insulin, lifestyle factors, and occupational position were used for the analyses. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2-shift work (n = 686) and 3-shift work (n = 99) against daytime work (n = 868) for the development of MetS, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, were 1.43 (1.05, 1.95) and 0.72 (0.37, 1.41), respectively. When Japanese criteria were adopted for defining MetS, the corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.88 (1.29, 2.74) and 0.87 (0.39, 1.97), respectively. The results of the analyses suggested that 2-shift work was a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23930797
Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki
A physical training intervention was carried out on 75 nurses and nursing aides working irregular shifts to determine the effects of such an intervention on health, sleep-wakefulness and adaptation to shiftwork. The study design and changes in physical fitness, fatigue, sleep and psychosomatic symptoms are examined. Training (T) and control (C) groups were built randomly from matched sets of subjects.
M. I. HÄRMÄ; J. ILMARINEN; P. KNAUTH; J. RUTENFRANZ; O. HÄNNINEN
Violent incidents have marred Friday-night football games, Saturday-night dances, and other activities in schools across the country. Describes what a number of districts are doing to protect students at such events and offers advice from school security officers. (MLF)
This poster shows a global view of Earth at night, compiled from over 400 satellite images collected during the nighttime phase of the orbit. Much of Earth is illuminated at night by city lights. The poster includes elementary-secondary activities on the backside from Mission Geography (http://missiongeography.org/).
Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure.
van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J
Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871
Merkus, Suzanne L; van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J
Background At the height of the global demand for nurses in the 1990s, a phenomenon of grave concern arose. A significant number of medical doctors in the Philippines shifted careers in order to seek work as nurses overseas. The obvious implications of such a trend require inquiry as to the reasons for it; hence, this cross-sectional study. The data in the study compared factors such as personal circumstances, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, perceived benefits versus costs of the alternative job, and the role of social networks/linkages among doctors classified as career shifters and non-shifters. Methodology A combined qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in the study. Data gathered came from sixty medical doctors practicing in three major hospitals in Tacloban City, Philippines, and from a special nursing school also located in the same city. Respondents were chosen through a non-probability sampling, specifically through a chain referral sampling owing to the controversial nature of the research. A set of pre-set criteria was used to qualify doctors as shifters and non-shifters. Cross-tabulation was carried out to highlight the differences between the two groups. Finally, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess if these differences were significant. Results Among the different factors investigated, results of the study indicated that the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and certain socio-demographic factors such as age, length of medical practice, and having children to support, were significantly different among shifters and non-shifters at p ? 0.05. This suggested that such factors had a bearing on the intention to shift to a nursing career among physicians. Conclusion Taken in the context of the medical profession, it was the level of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction that was the immediate antecedent in the intention to shift careers among medical doctors. Personal factors, specifically age, support of children, and the length of medical practice gained explanatory power when they were linked to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. On the other hand, factors such as perceived benefits and costs of the alternative job and the impact of social networks did not differ between shifters and non-shifters. It would then indicate that efforts to address the issue of physician retention need to go beyond economic incentives and deal with other sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among practicing physicians. Since this was an exploratory study in a particular locale in central Philippines, similar studies in other parts of the country need to be done to gain better understanding of this phenomenon at a national level.
Students and families are invited to participate in a worldwide campaign to observe and record the magnitude of visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. GLOBE at Night is an easy observation and reporting activity with a goal of collecting 5,000 observations. Information for parents, students and teachers details the data collection activity, and participants can subscribe to the GLOBE at Night mailing list to receive updates and results. The site includes background information and interactive simulations that show the effects of light pollution on the night sky, and finding the constellation Orion.
Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts) in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating). Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in rotating-shift nurses (81.9%) than in day-shift nurses (59.2%). Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01) and GI medications (p = 0.002) were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.
Vincent Van Gogh's painting "The Starry Night" is discussed, and ways that an art teacher can use this painting as a resource for learning are suggested. Specific activities to use with elementary and secondary students are included. (RM)
Hausman, Jerome J.
The Globe at Night program is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by inviting citizen-scientists to measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations from a computer or smart phone. Light pollution threatens not only our âright to starlightâ, but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. Nearly 100,000 measurements have been contributed from people in 115 countries during the campaigns each winter/spring over the last 8 years, making Globe at Night the most successful light pollution awareness campaign to date! Explore the last 8 years of data in our interactive data map, or see how your city did with our regional map generator. The Globe at Night website is easy to use, comprehensive and holds an abundance of background information. The database is usable for comparisons with a variety of other databases, like how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.
Observatory, National O.
Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)
Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594
Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah
Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate this lead to frustration. When asked as to whether they would could shift job if they get regular one more than 50 % said yes this means that there need to be come training and intervention for the shift workers and their family so that the problems faced and their impact on personal health of the female nurses could be reduced. PMID:22317381
Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G
The prevalence of hazardous incidents induced by attentional impairment during night work and ensuing commute times is attributable to circadian misalignment and increased sleep pressure. In a 10-day shift work simulation protocol (4 day shifts and 3 night shifts), the efficacies of 2 countermeasures against nighttime (2300 to 0700 h) attentional impairment were compared: (1) Morning Sleep (0800 to 1600
Nayantara Santhi; Daniel Aeschbach; Todd S. Horowitz; Charles A. Czeisler
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (?3 months) shift work disorder (SWD) of moderate or greater severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-week, randomized controlled study was conducted at 42 sleep research facilities in North America from April 2 through December 23, 2004, and enrolled 254 permanent or rotating night shift workers with SWD. Entry criteria included excessive sleepiness during usual night shifts for 3 months or longer (corroborated by mean sleep latency of ?6 minutes on a Multiple Sleep Latency Test), insomnia (sleep efficiency ?87.5% during daytime sleep), and SWD that was judged clinically to be of moderate or greater severity. Patients received armodafinil, 150 mg, or placebo 30 to 60 minutes before each night shift. Physiologic sleep propensity during night shift hours, clinical impression of severity, patient-reported sleepiness, and cognitive function were assessed during laboratory night shifts at weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Armodafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency from 2.3 (1.6) minutes at baseline to 5.3 (5.0) minutes at final visit, compared with a change from 2.4 (1.6) minutes to 2.8 (2.9) minutes in the placebo group (P<.001). Clinical condition ratings improved in more patients receiving armodafinil (79%) vs placebo (59%) (P=.001). As reported by patients' diaries, armodafinil significantly reduced sleepiness during laboratory nights (P<.001), night shifts at work (P<.001), and the commute home (P=.003). Armodafinil improved performance on standardized memory (P<.001) and attention (power, P=.001; continuity, P<.001) tests compared with placebo. Armodafinil was well tolerated and did not affect daytime sleep, as measured by polysomnography. CONCLUSION: In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic SWD of moderate or greater severity, armodafinil significantly improved wakefulness during scheduled night work, raising mean nighttime sleep latency above the level considered to indicate severe sleepiness during the daytime. Armodafinil also significantly improved measures of overall clinical condition, long-term memory, and attention. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00080288
Czeisler, Charles A.; Walsh, James K.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas
Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with pictures, letters,…
Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine
This video demonstrates the new "Sky" feature of Google Earth 4.2 just released on August 22, 2007 . It lets you look up at the night sky and zoom in on photographs taken by powerful telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope. It also provides placemarks to cool things you can see in the universe.
Opening the windows at night and closing them during the day is a traditional way to cool an adobe house during the summer in New Mexico. How big the windows should be, where the should be located, and how much hot weather can be tolerated with this cooling scheme is discussed.
Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.
Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni
UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.
As the prevalence of shift work is increasing, it is important to elucidate the impact that shift work has on health. Because of the alternating work schedules present in rotating shift work and working at night, shift workers are in a chronic state of circadian disruption. Animal models of circadian disruption are useful because they offer more experimental control than the largely correlational human shift work studies. The effects of chronic circadian disruption on food preference, glucose tolerance, corticosterone secretion, and performance in a stress-inducing task were investigated in female Long-Evans rats. A 64-day photoperiod shifting paradigm was used to induce circadian disruption. Surprisingly, neither the photoperiod shifted animals, nor the control animals demonstrated a preference for either an unhealthy or healthy diet. Nor was there a difference between the groups in weight gained during photoperiod shifting. However, the photoperiod shifted rats gained significantly more weight than control animals, without eating more food during discriminative fear conditioning to context (DFCTC). Surprisingly, chronic photoperiod shifting appeared to facilitate retention in the DFCTC task. The photoperiod shifted animals also had increased serum glucose values during fasting and after a glucose challenge test. The photoperiod shifted animals only had elevated corticosterone during the final two phases of photoperiod shifting. This study demonstrates that chronic photoperiod shifting elicits weight gain when exposed to a stressful event and impairs glucose tolerance in the same individual. PMID:24631903
Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; Himmler, Stephanie M; McDonald, Robert J
A night target detection/recognition test was developed to follow a daylight air reconnaissance test. The night flights were flown in a modified OH-58 helicopter about 30 meters above ground level by pilots trained to use night vision goggles. Detection/r...
R. W. Bauer G. D. Pettit
Study Objective: To assess night shift improvements in mood, fatigue, and performance when the misalignment between circadian rhythms and a night shift, day sleep schedule is reduced. Design: Blocks of simulated night shifts alternated with days off. Experimental subjects had interventions to delay their circadian clocks to partially align with a night shift schedule. Control subjects had no interventions. Subjects were categorized according to the degree of circadian realignment independent of whether they were in the experimental or control groups. Twelve subjects were categorized as not re-entrained, 21 as partially re-entrained, and 6 as completely re-entrained. Setting: Home sleep and laboratory night shifts. Participants: Young healthy adults. Interventions: Experimental subjects had intermittent bright light pulses during night shifts, wore dark sunglasses outside, and had scheduled sleep episodes in darkness. Measurements and Results: A computerized test battery was administered every 2 hours during day and night shifts. After about one week on the night shift schedule, which included a weekend off, the partially and completely re-entrained groups had markedly improved mood, fatigue, and performance compared to the group that was not re-entrained. The completely and partially re-entrained groups were similar to each other and had levels of mood, fatigue, and performance that were close to daytime levels. Conclusions: Partial re-entrainment to a permanent night shift schedule, which can be produced by feasible, inexpensive interventions, is associated with greatly reduced impairments during night shifts. Citation: Smith MR; Fogg LF Eastman CI. A compromise circadian phase position for permanent night work improves mood, fatigue, and performance. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1481-1489.
Smith, Mark R.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.
This 30-month study, conducted by SRI and sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, investigated the effect of working unconventional hours, i.e., afternoon, night, and rotating shifts, on the psychological and physiological ...
D. L. Tasto M. J. Colligan E. W. Skjei S. J. Polly
This is what the Earth looks like at night. Can you find your favorite country or city? Surprisingly, city lights make this task quite possible. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The above image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) currently operates four satellites carrying the Operational Linescan System (OLS) in low-altitude polar orbits. Three of these satellites record nighttime data. The DMSP-OLS has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible-near infrared (VNIR) radiance at night. With the OLS VIS band data it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning-illuminated clouds. The Nighttime Lights of the World data set is compiled from the October 1994 - March 1995 DMSP nighttime data collected when moonlight was low. Using the OLS thermal infrared band, areas containing clouds were removed and the remaining area used in the time series. This animation is derived from an image created by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon from data provided by Christopher Elvidge of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.
Snodgrass, Stuart; Simmon, Robert; Mayhew, Craig; Imhoff, Marc; Elvidge, Christopher
Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience. PMID:20726184
Occupation is a fundamental right, enabling social interaction and financial support for the individual. However, it is an undeniable source of stress, with consequences for physical and mental health. The prevalence of depression and somatic complaints were assessed in 1,013 public workers using the Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire investigating for the presence of somatic problems designed by the research team. The results were related to demographic characteristics, history of previous depressive episodes, work schedule (day work, night and day rotating shift work, day rotating shift work), and duration of current work schedule. There were more cases of moderate depression in the day rotating shift workers (84%) than in those working at night (83%). More women had mild or moderate depression than men (22% and 4% versus 10% and 3%, respectively). Severe depression was found only in men. Nearly 10% of depressed individuals reported previous depressive episodes. A link between depression and somatic complaints was also found. In particular, 59% of depressed subjects reported gastrointestinal complaints and 41% did not (P<0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of depressive symptoms could be facilitated by occupation. A history of depressive symptoms should not be neglected, given the risk of recurrence. Somatic complaints could represent a “wake-up call” regarding depression. Global assessment and effective support are fundamental for promotion of a better quality of life in the at-risk category of workers.
Luca, Maria; Bellia, Salvatore; Bellia, Marcello; Luca, Antonina; Calandra, Carmela
Occupation is a fundamental right, enabling social interaction and financial support for the individual. However, it is an undeniable source of stress, with consequences for physical and mental health. The prevalence of depression and somatic complaints were assessed in 1,013 public workers using the Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire investigating for the presence of somatic problems designed by the research team. The results were related to demographic characteristics, history of previous depressive episodes, work schedule (day work, night and day rotating shift work, day rotating shift work), and duration of current work schedule. There were more cases of moderate depression in the day rotating shift workers (84%) than in those working at night (83%). More women had mild or moderate depression than men (22% and 4% versus 10% and 3%, respectively). Severe depression was found only in men. Nearly 10% of depressed individuals reported previous depressive episodes. A link between depression and somatic complaints was also found. In particular, 59% of depressed subjects reported gastrointestinal complaints and 41% did not (P<0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of depressive symptoms could be facilitated by occupation. A history of depressive symptoms should not be neglected, given the risk of recurrence. Somatic complaints could represent a "wake-up call" regarding depression. Global assessment and effective support are fundamental for promotion of a better quality of life in the at-risk category of workers. PMID:24707177
Luca, Maria; Bellia, Salvatore; Bellia, Marcello; Luca, Antonina; Calandra, Carmela
Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.
The 9-session NASA Family Science Night program invites middle school children and their families to discover the wide variety of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics being performed at NASA and in everyday life. Family Science Night programs explore various themes on the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and the Universe through fun, hands-on activities, including at-home experiments. Information about Family Science Night implementation and support resources, including the facilitator's guide, are available by registering on the Family Science Night Facilitators website (see Related & Supplemental Resources for link).
The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.
Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration
Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)
Beers, Thomas M.
The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades; however, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unspecified. One environmental change that has coincided with elevated rates of depression is increased exposure to artificial light at night. Shift workers and others chronically exposed to light at night are at increased risk of mood disorders, suggesting that nighttime illumination may influence brain mechanisms mediating affect. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night may impact affective responses and alter morphology of hippocampal neurons. Ovariectomized adult female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were housed for 8 weeks in either a light/dark cycle (LD) or a light/dim light cycle (DM), and then behavior was assayed. DM-hamsters displayed more depression-like responses in the forced swim and the sucrose anhedonia tests compared with LD-hamsters. Conversely, in the elevated plus maze DM-hamsters reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Brains from the same animals were processed using the Golgi-Cox method and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were analyzed for morphological characteristics. In CA1, DM-hamsters significantly reduced dendritic spine density on both apical and basilar dendrites, an effect which was not mediated by baseline cortisol, as concentrations were equivalent between groups. These results demonstrate dim light at night is sufficient to reduce synaptic spine connections to CA1. Importantly, the present results suggest that night-time low level illumination, comparable to levels that are pervasive in North America and Europe, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of mood disorders. PMID:21292405
Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J
The present study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation of omega-3 and/or vitamin C on serum interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration and depression scores among shift workers in Shahid Tondgoyan oil refinery. The study design was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Totally 136 shift workers with a depression score ?10 in 21-item Beck Depression Rating Scale were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 (180 mg eicosapentaenoate acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or/and vitamin C 250 mg or placebo twice daily (with the same taste and shape as omega-3 and vitamin C) for 60 days in four groups. Depression score, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and after 60 days. This study showed that supplementation of omega-3 plus vitamin C is associated with a decrease in depression score (p<0.05). Supplementation of omega-3 without vitamin C, is associated with a reduction in depression score (p<0.0001) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (p<0.01). Therefore omega-3 supplementation showed a better effect on reducing depression score and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but supplementation of vitamin C along with omega-3 did not have significant effect on change in C-reactive protein level compared to omega-3 alone. (Registration number: IRCT201202189056N1)
Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…
Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara
The method used at airports in determining the cloud height at night is presented. Several problems, the equation used, and a simple design of an alidade (an instrument that shows cloud heights directly) are also included. (MP)
Mathematics Teacher, 1980
Background Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p?=?.04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). Conclusions/Significance These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.
Santhi, Nayantara; Horowitz, Todd S.; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.
Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10?6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of ?0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.
Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Canovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro
The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.
Tafreshi, Babak A.
More than 6 million Americans work night shifts on a regular or rotating basis. The negative consequences of shift work have been established, and recent evidence suggests that patients with shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) are at increased risk of these consequences and co-morbidities. SWSD is a relatively common but under-recognised, and hence undertreated, condition with potentially serious medical, social, economic and quality-of-life consequences. In addition to increased risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disease, patients with SWSD experience clinically significant excessive sleepiness or insomnia associated with work during normal sleep times, which has important safety implications. A number of studies have evaluated countermeasures or interventions in shift workers; proposed treatments include chronobiotic interventions, such as light exposure, melatonin, hypnotic agents, caffeine and CNS stimulants (amphetamine), and the wake-promoting agents modafinil and armodafinil. However, most studies evaluating pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological interventions simulate night-shift work under conditions that may not accurately reflect real-world activities. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological countermeasures evaluated mostly in simulated laboratory conditions have been shown to improve alertness or sleep in shift workers but have not yet been evaluated in patients with SWSD. To date, three randomised, double-blind clinical studies have evaluated pharmacological therapies in patients with SWSD. These studies showed that modafinil and armodafinil significantly improve the ability to sustain wakefulness during waking activities (e.g. working, driving), overall clinical condition, and sustained attention or memory in patients with SWSD. In conclusion, SWSD is a common condition that remains under-recognised and undertreated. Further research is needed to evaluate different treatment approaches for this condition, to clarify the substantial health and economic consequences of SWSD, and to determine the potential for interventions or treatments to reduce the negative consequences of this condition. PMID:17181377
Schwartz, Jonathan R L; Roth, Thomas
Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.
Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.
This is an activity about the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights. Learners will plot the Auroral Oval in the northern hemisphere and determine the height of the northern lights using Carl Stormer's triangulation method. This activity corresponds to the NASA CONNECT video, titled Dancing in the Night Sky, and has supplemental questions to support the video viewing.
The infinite universe, uniformly populated with stars, was popularized in the 16th century. Early in the 17th century Kepler argued that within such a universe the sky everywhere would be as bright as the Sun. Since that time astronomers have sought in various ways to resolve the ''dark night sky paradox'' that is nowadays widely known as ''Olbers' paradox.'' It
E. R. Harrison
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.
Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.
A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.
Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)
This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia.
As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms. PMID:22926058
Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night. PMID:17427123
Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy
Abstract Objective: To examine the impact of night-shift duration (?9 hours or >9 hours) on efficacy and tolerability of armodafinil in patients with shift work disorder (SWD). Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a 6 week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Shift workers with diagnosed SWD and late-in-shift sleepiness (between 4?am and 8?am, including the commute home) received armodafinil 150?mg or placebo before their night shift. Results: Proportion of patients with at least minimal improvement in late-in-shift sleepiness, late-in-shift Clinical Global Impressions-Change (CGI-C) rating and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), as well as overall Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and modified Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS-M), were assessed at baseline and final visit. Results: Of the 383 patients enrolled, 279 (73%) worked shifts ?9 hours and 104 (27%) worked shifts >9 hours. A greater percentage of patients receiving armodafinil had at least minimal improvement in late-in-shift CGI-C (?9 hours: 78% vs 60%, P?=?0.0017; >9 hours: 77% vs 46%, P?=?0.0020) regardless of shift duration. Armodafinil patients also demonstrated significantly greater improvements in GAF score (?9 hours: 9.5 vs 5.4, P?0.0001; >9 hours: 9.6 vs 4.3, P?=?0.0019) and KSS score (?9 hours: -2.9 vs -1.9, P?=?0.0002; >9 hours: -2.8 vs -1.6, P?=?0.00 28). Improvement in SDS-M composite score was significantly greater for armodafinil patients working >9 hours (-6.8 vs -2.7, P?=?0.0086). Headache was the most frequent adverse event in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Patients receiving armodafinil had significantly greater improvements in late-in-shift clinical condition and in wakefulness and overall global functioning than did placebo-treated patients, regardless of shift duration. Prospectively designed, randomized clinical trials that include objective measures of sleepiness are needed to support these findings. PMID:24450538
Harsh, John; Yang, Ronghua; Hull, Steven G
A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751
Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal
This paper presents a physically-based model of the night sky for realistic image synthesis. We model both the direct appearance of the night sky and the illumination coming from the Moon, the stars, the zodiacal light, and the atmosphere. To accurately predict the appearance of night scenes we use physically-based astronomi- cal data, both for position and radiometry. The Moon
Henrik Wann Jensen; Frédo Durand; Julie O'b. Dorsey; Michael M. Stark; Peter Shirley; Simon Premoze
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Study Objective: To study the neurophysiological changes in attention and memory functions in shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants: 9 healthy night workers (NW) (mean age = 40 y; SD ± 8.9 y); 8 night workers meeting diagnostic criteria for SWSD (mean age = 37 y ± 9.4 y) and 9 healthy day workers (DW) (mean age = 35 y ± 7.3 y). Methods and Procedure: Using standard PSG the sleep related measures (TIB, TST, SOL, SE, and sleep stage distribution) were obtained prior to EEG/ERP study. Measures of habitual sleep were obtained from 2 week sleep logs and sleepiness was assessed with standardized measures. Using 32-EEG leads the ERPs to 3 types of sounds (novel, duration deviant, and simple tone) were obtained. The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflecting memory processing and P3a-reflecting the shift of involuntary attention were obtained. Statistical Analysis: The statistical comparisons of ERPs and sleep related parameters were performed using repeated measured ANOVAs and t-tests where appropriate. Results: Patients with SWSD had reduced TST and increased WASO relative to healthy workers. ERP results demonstrated significant attenuation of MMN amplitude over frontal regions in SWSD patients relative to NW and DW. In the SWSD patients, the P3a was increased to novelty across frontocentral brain regions with respect to the same locations in healthy controls. Conclusion: The ERP evidence of sensory memory reduction and attentional hyper-reaction to novel sound in conjunction with disturbed sleep suggests the need for more neurophysiological studies in SWSD workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Jefferson C; Kick A; Spear L; Tepley N; Drake CL. Shift work sleep disorder is associated with an attenuated brain response of sensory memory and an increased brain response to novelty: an ERP study. SLEEP 2010;33(5):703-713.
Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Jefferson, Catherine; Kick, Ashley; Spear, Laura; Tepley, Norman; Drake, Christopher L.
The optical response of noble-metal nanoparticles that exhibit pronounced plasmonic effects their dimmers and clusters, using the ideas taken a velvet night is studied and analyzed. Far-field and near-field characteristics of plasmonic nanoparticles are investigated to study the shape effect on the resonance behavior for an efficient manipulation by their strength and excitation wavelength. Numerical results with high accuracy, reduced complexity and reduced computational time due to extensive use of semi-analytical solutions in combination with boundary integral equation approach are obtained.
Raguin, Ludmila; Bowler, David; Hafner, Christian; Vahldieck, Rüdiger
Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100º horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However,
Gregory Craig; Sion Jennings; David Thorndycraft
BackgroundShift-work and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for raised blood pressure (BP). Exercise can reduce BP in diurnally-active individuals, but it is unknown whether postexercise hypotension persists when people are active and eating at night. We present the first investigation into the acute effects of exercise on BP monitored during simulated night-work.MethodsNine normotensive participants, aged 20–42 years, completed at
Sarah Fullick; Chris Morris; Helen Jones; Greg Atkinson
This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.
Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.
Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on a sample of shiftworking nurses. Responses were obtained from 1202 nurses working at university hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, including 727 two-shift workers and 315 three-shift workers. The questionnaire included items relevant to age, gender, family structure, work environment, health-related quality of life (QOL), diurnal type, depressive symptoms, and SWD. Participants who reported insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness for at least 1 mo that was subjectively relevant to their shiftwork schedules were categorized as having SWD. The prevalence of SWD in the sampled shiftworking nurses was 24.4%; shiftworking nurses with SWD showed lower health-related QOL and more severe depressive symptoms, with greater rates of both actual accidents/errors and near misses, than those without SWD. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that more time spent working at night, frequent missing of nap opportunities during night work, and having an eveningness-oriented chronotype were significantly associated with SWD. The present study indicated that SWD might be associated with reduced health-related QOL and decreased work performance in shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. The results also suggested that missing napping opportunities during night work, long nighttime working hours, and the delay of circadian rhythms are associated with the occurrence of SWD among shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. PMID:23445510
Asaoka, Shoichi; Aritake, Sayaka; Komada, Yoko; Ozaki, Akiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Inoue, Yuichi
Are green buildings good for occupants? This is the central question addressed in a study, funded by the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Building, Technology, State, and Community Programs), to develop a protocol for assessing the ancillary benefits of green buildings. Ancillary benefits are defined as unexpected or hidden positive outcomes that accrue as a result of the green building but that are not directly related to design goals for energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. If occupant benefits of green buildings are as substantial as thought, understanding how workers perceive and experience them is an important step toward designing green facilities that are truly supportive of human performance and well-being. In this article, the authors explore differences in the perceptions and experiences of daytime and night-shift workers in a new green manufacturing facility. Particular attention is paid to the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and worker comfort. After presenting summaries of the data, they discuss the extent to which differences can be attributed to the green attributes of the building or to other potential factors, such as other design features and the nature of shift work itself.
Heerwagen, J.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Seattle, WA (United States); Wise, J.A. [Eco-Integrations, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)
Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption.
deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.
Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052
deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T; Streva, Vincent A; Hill, Steven M; Hanifin, John P; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Belancio, Victoria P
A questionnaire was given to 400 workers on different shift schedules (day, 2 shift, 3 shift (weekly rotation) and 4 shift (2-3 day rotation)), shortly before, and in the year after the work schedules of 131 of them had been changed to accommodate an overall reduction in the total amount of shift working. Those workers who had to change from
T. AKERSTEDT; L. TORSVALL
Trusts may wish to consider more flexible, staggered daytime shifts, which accommodate married nurses--for instance, 9.30 am-3.30 pm on weekdays with longer hours at weekends/on nights to ensure that contractual requirements are met. For larger trusts, creche/nursery facilities may solve the problem. After-school clubs on site on a voluntary basis may also mean that more married women and unmarried women with children could more easily accommodate standard shifts. The tribunal decision seems to condone the provision of somewhat ad hoc training and supervision, whereas in professional practice continuous supervision and participation in professional developments are essential elements in the provision of safe, high-quality clinical practice. PMID:10623151
Lloyd, R; Goulding, J
A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.
Castellano, Timothy P.
Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact of these shift schedules compared to day work, to the extent that health can be measured by the WAI. PMID:20636221
Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter
About one in five employed Americans do not regularly work a standard daytime schedule (Presser, 1990a). Instead, they work evenings, nights, a split or extended shift of more than 12 hours, or a rotating shift in which the hours change regularly-- for ex...
H. B. Presser
The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801
Simuni?, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana
The present study was initiated following a report that a few helicopter pilots had failed a test of stereoscopic depth perception after a prolonged training flight employing night vision goggles (NVGs). In order to determine the cause of the loss, 12 helicopter pilots/copilots were assessed for depth perception, lateral and vertical phoria, and contrast sensitivity before and after training flights requiring the pilots to wear night vision goggles for the duration of the flight. Pilots flew one to three missions while wearing either PVS-5A or AN/AVS-6 goggles. Mission duration ranged from 1 to 4 h. The results indicate that contrast sensitivity and depth perception when monocular cues are present did not degrade over the course of the mission. Lateral phoria, however, did demonstrate an average exophoric shift of 1.5 prism diopters for 12 out of the 24 missions. The results indicate that the original report of a loss of depth perception based on a test of depth requiring stereopsis might have been caused by a shift in lateral phoria. It would be expected that as additional fusional effort is required, the minimum resolvable disparity degrades due to the increase in accommodation brought about through vergence accommodation. Possible causes for the phoria shift and future testing are discussed. PMID:2751588
Sheehy, J B; Wilkinson, M
Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended.
Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704
Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M
Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers.
Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M
Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)
Robinson, J.; And Others
This report describes the results of a program to provide the first phase of development of a day\\/night imager suitable for application in a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) being developed by the U.S. Army. Major objectives defined for the first phase development have been achieved, specifically; (1) A television camera which demonstrates feasibility of the Night Solid State Imager approach
K. A. Hoagland
The AN/PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles were evaluated as a potential viewing device to enable a military dog handler to work his dog, e.g., a scout dog, off-leash at night. Supplementary IR illuminating devices mounted on the dog were evaluated in conjunction ...
E. S. Tomlinson M. Krauss
Understanding patterns of human activity from the fusion of multimodal sensor surveillance sources is an important capability. Most related research emphasizes improvement in the performance of biometric systems in controlled conditions characterized by suitable lighting and favorable acquisition distances. However, the need for monitoring humans in night environments is of equal if not greater importance. This chapter will present techniques for the extraction, processing and matching of biometrics under adverse night conditions in the presence of either natural or artificial illumination. Our work includes capture, analysis and evaluation of a broad range of electromagnetic bands suitable for night-time image acquisition, including visible light, near infrared (IR), extended near IR and thermal IR. We develop algorithms for human detection and tracking from night-time imagery at ranges between 5 and 200 meters. Identification algorithms include face, iris, and gait recognition, supplemented by soft biometric features. Our preliminary research indicates the challenges in performing human identification in night-time environments.
Bourlai, T.; Kalka, N.; Cao, D.; Decann, B.; Jafri, Z.; Nicolo, F.; Whitelam, C.; Zuo, J.; Adjeroh, D.; Cukic, B.; Dawson, J.; Hornak, L.; Ross, A.; Schmid, N. A.
Continuous measurements of peroxy radicals HO2+RO2, the photolysis rate coefficient JNO2 and JO1D, metrological measurements and number of other three gases including NO2, NO3, O3 and VOCS were carried out at the space research centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK in August/September 2007 during the Leicester Air Quality Monitoring project LAMP? 07. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 20 to 110 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon, A mean afternoon concentration of 35 +_2.2 parts per trillion by volume pptv was calculated from continuous measurements of the sum of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals using the Chemical amplification technique. There is 70pptv recorded on 19th and 20th August in night time. Radical chemistry during the night time is controlled by the reactivity of ozone and the nitrate radical.NO3 is formed by the reaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide but is present in significant concentrations only during the night, since it is quickly photolyzed by sunlight yielding either NO2 or NO.
Karunaharan, A.; Monks, Paul. S.
Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health issues. Sophia lives with her parents and infant brother. There is a maternal family history of insomnia and sleep walking and a paternal history of sleep walking. Her mother adheres to a strict daily schedule. Sleep deprivation, different parental child-rearing practices, social isolation, and lack of quality parent time were all identified by the mother as significant marital stressors. During the office visit, Sophia required 30 minutes to warm up and smile, and over 60 minutes before she spoke her first word. Physical examination was normal (including growth measurements) and the developmental examination was age-appropriate. Upon completion of the assessment, she was engaging, playful, and cooperative with the pediatrician. PMID:18698194
Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T
The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate <0.20). Expression is greater at night in ?70%. These findings were supported by the results of radiochemical in situ hybridization histology and quantitative real time-PCR studies. We also found that the regulatory mechanism controlling the night/day changes in the expression of most genes involves norepinephrine-cyclic AMP signaling. Comparison of the pineal gene expression profile with that in other tissues identified 334 genes (496 probe sets) that are expressed greater than 8-fold higher in the pineal gland relative to other tissues. Of these genes, 17% are expressed at similar levels in the retina, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Functional categorization of the highly expressed and/or night/day differentially expressed genes identified clusters that are markers of specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, melatonin synthesis, photodetection, thyroid hormone signaling, and diverse aspects of cellular signaling and cell biology. These studies produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of the 24-h dynamics of the pineal gland from one focused on melatonin synthesis to one including many cellular processes.
Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; M?ller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Klein, David C.
Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936
Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T
Objective To determine whether analgesic use for painful procedures performed in neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs during nights and days and during each of the 6?h period of the day. Design Conducted as part of the prospective observational Epidemiology of Painful Procedures in Neonates study which was designed to collect in real time and around-the-clock bedside data on all painful or stressful procedures. Setting 13 NICUs and paediatric intensive care units in the Paris Region, France. Participants All 430 neonates admitted to the participating units during a 6-week period between September 2005 and January 2006. Data collection During the first 14?days of admission, data were collected on all painful procedures and analgesic therapy. The five most frequent procedures representing 38?012 of all 42?413 (90%) painful procedures were analysed. Intervention Observational study. Main outcome assessment We compared the use of specific analgesic for procedures performed during each of the 6?h period of a day: morning (7:00 to 12:59), afternoon, early night and late night and during daytime (morning+afternoon) and night-time (early night+late night). Results 7724 of 38?012 (20.3%) painful procedures were carried out with a specific analgesic treatment. For morning, afternoon, early night and late night, respectively, the use of analgesic was 25.8%, 18.9%, 18.3% and 18%. The relative reduction of analgesia was 18.3%, p<0.01, between daytime and night-time and 28.8%, p<0.001, between morning and the rest of the day. Parental presence, nurses on 8?h shifts and written protocols for analgesia were associated with a decrease in this difference. Conclusions The substantial differences in the use of analgesics around-the-clock may be questioned on quality of care grounds.
Guedj, Romain; Danan, Claude; Daoud, Patrick; Zupan, Veronique; Renolleau, Sylvain; Zana, Elodie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Lapillonne, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Granier, Michele; Durand, Philippe; Castela, Florence; Coursol, Anne; Hubert, Philippe; Cimerman, Patricia; Anand, K J S; Khoshnood, Babak; Carbajal, Ricardo
The electroencephalographic records from 43 young subjects who slept four consecutive nights in a laboratory environment were studied in an effort to describe the first night effect. These records showed that the first night of laboratory sleep contains m...
H. W. Agnew W. B. Webb R. L. Williams
This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…
Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton
Sleep inertia is the impaired cognitive performance immediately upon awakening, which decays over tens of minutes. This phenomenon has relevance to people who need to make important decisions soon after awakening, such as on-call emergency workers. Such awakenings can occur at varied times of day or night, so the objective of the study was to determine whether or not the
Frank A. J. L. Scheer; Thomas J. Shea; Michael F. Hilton; Steven A. Shea
This study was conducted to evaluate a prototype enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG) that combines thermal and image intensification (I2) capabilities. Two infantry squads acted as participants. Soldiers were trained to use the ENVG and they received fami...
C. B. Carstens, C. C. Bonnett, E. S. Redden
Night vision and thermal images are extensively used in military operations, as they help in mission planning and executions tasks. Image fusion effectively combines information present in each type of image. This research explored two wavelet-based image...
T. T. Neo
In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.
Peterson, Carolyn Collins
Benefits to females of short-term mating have recently been identified, and it has been suggested that women have evolved\\u000a adaptations for this strategy. One piece of evidence supporting such a female adaptation would be that women find the experience\\u000a of a one-night stand as affectively positive as men. Individuals (N?=?1,743) who had experienced a one-night stand were asked to rate
A large proportion of the American and European work-force is engaged in night and shift work. The aim of this brief article is to present those involved with some practical advice regarding how they might best cope. The advice is presented in terms of a theoretical framework involving a triad of mutually interactive factors.
Timothy H. Monk
Chronic exposure to light at night (LAN) is a circadian disruptor and may be linked to various health risks, including mood disorders. We recently demonstrated that chronic exposure to dim (5 lux) LAN provokes depressive-like behaviors and reduced hippocampal CA1 dendritic spine density in female hamsters. Whether this model is responsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors remains unspecified. In this study, we exposed hamsters to 5 lux LAN and treated with citalopram to determine effects on depressive-like behavior and CA1 dendritic spine density. Female hamsters were ovariectomized at adulthood and housed in either a standard light-dark cycle (LD) or dim LAN (dLAN). After 4 weeks exposure, treatment with either citalopram or vehicle was administered for 2 weeks while hamsters remained in experimental lighting conditions. Depressive-like behavior was assayed using the forced swim test and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analyzed for dendritic spine density. Treatment with citalopram rescued behavior in the forced swim test in hamsters housed in dLAN, but had no effect on hamsters housed in LD. Dendritic spine density in CA1 was moderately improved by citalopram treatment, but not fully restored. These results validate our LAN paradigm as a depression model by showing citalopram selectively improves depressive-like behavior in dLAN conditions, but not in LD conditions. These data also suggest standard SSRI therapy may be effective for individuals experiencing depression related to circadian disruption and LAN exposure, such as shift workers. PMID:22889310
Bedrosian, Tracy A; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Rotating shift work causes fatigue and other physical problems in many Air Force personnel. If Air Force supervisors and workers were more aware of their daily body rhythms and what effect rotating shift work has on those rhythms, they could better plan t...
M. F. Fukey
Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country.
Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306
Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
A dangerous situation is created when the pilot looks inside the cockpit for instrument information when flying combat and low altitude missions. While looking at instruments, a pilot cannot be performing situation analysis; yet not looking at instruments runs such risks as flying into the ground, particularly in low visibility conditions or in relatively featureless terrain where visual cues for altitude and attitude are inadequate or deceptive. The AN/AVS-7 HMD solves this problem for night flight for both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft which must operate in a 'nap of the earth' flight regime. The display unit mounts on the AN/AVS-6 night vision goggles and provides symbology overlaid on the pilot's outside view; cockpit instrument information is thus provided through the goggles. The pilot is immediately aware of changes in either his surroundings or the instrument readings. This minimizes the risk of critical information being missed in one area while the pilot is looking in the other. The 'day' HMD version of the AN/AVS-7 display now carries these advantages into daytime flights. This display unit operates in conditions from full sunlight to dusk, provides the same symbology as the night display, and connects to the night display interface with no aircraft modification. The day HMD mounts to the helmet using the attachment points previously reserved for the night vision goggles. This display improves the safety of daytime operations by keeping the eyes 'out of the cockpit' in difficult situations such as those presented during landings, cargo lifting and flight utilizing terrain masking. It offers the possibility of a less stressful way of familiarizing the pilot with the symbology and of the dynamic relationships it has to the aircraft and background motions. This familiarization is now accomplished during night flights using night vision goggles. The 'day' HMD is also a useful maintenance aid, easing the ground crew's checkout of the aircraft systems during the day.
Givens, Gerald S.; Yona, Zvi
Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.
Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.
Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live
College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…
Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.
Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C
Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.
Landis, Geoffrey A.
All About Circuits is a website that Ã¢ÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.Ã¢ÂÂ Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Shift Registers, is the twelfth chapter in Volume IV Ã¢ÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Serial-in, serial-out shift register, Parallel-in, parallel-out shift register, and Ring counters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).
Kuphaldt, Tony R.
The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.
Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.
The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.
Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.
By the end of the first night on a 12h night-shift, wakefulness may have lasted up to 24h since the previous sleep. Although most work situations requiring critical decisions are foreseen and effectively resolved by well trained staff, such wakefulness can produce impairments in dealing with unexpected challenging situations involving uncertainty, change, distractions and capacity to evaluate risks. Also compromised can be the ability to engage in and keep abreast of protracted negotiations undertaken throughout the night. These effects, which are not just 'sleepiness', seem due to deteriorations with 'supervisory executive functions' of the prefrontal cortex; a region that appears particularly vulnerable to prolonged wakefulness. Recent research findings are presented to support this case, and some evidence-based recommendations made about practical countermeasures. PMID:22935776
This paper contributes to our understanding of the role of temporary workers in learning for innovation in network contexts. The strategy literature advocates that the knowledge and talent of workers is vital to competitive success yet at the same time temporary workers are becoming more prevalent, making relationships with workers more ephemeral. These shifting competitive and employment contexts make insights
The use of night vision devices (NVDs) by US Army foot soldiers, aviator,s and drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles has enhanced operations at night by allowing increased mobility and potentially safer operations. With this increased capability in the night environment has come an increased exposure to the hazards of that environment and the risks that the command structure must manage and balance with mission requirements. Numerous vehicular accidents have occurred during night filed exercises involving drivers wearing image intensification (I2) systems. These accidents can frequently be attributed to perceptual problems experienced by the drivers. Performance with NVDs generally increases with practice and experience. However, there is little formal training provided in night driving skills and few opportunities to practice these skills under realistic conditions. This paper reports the approach and preliminary result of an effort to define and demonstrate a low-cost night driving simulator concept for training night driving skills with I2 devices and to identify and evaluate the techniques and resources that are available for implementing this approach.
Ruffner, John W.; Piccione, Dino; Woodward, Kim G.
Background: Some health problems are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as one of the most common health-related problems that can cause disability among health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between shift working and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSs) among nursing personnel. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 454 health care workers including nurses and nurses’ aides in a general hospital in Iran. A Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of MSs. Logistic regression analysis with adjusting for confounding factors was performed to evaluate the associations between shift working and the prevalence of MSs. Results: Lower back, knees, and upper back symptoms with the prevalence of 57.4%, 48.4%, and 47%, respectively, were the most common MSs. The prevalence of MSs in eight regions of the body (lower back, neck, knees, upper back, shoulder, wrist, buttock, and ankle) was higher among shift workers than day workers. The differences were statistically significant only in the lower back and ankle regions (P < 0.05). Odds Ratio for lower back symptoms in shift workers was 1.94 compared to day workers (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that shift working could be associated with increased prevalence of lower back disorders among nursing personnel. This study emphasizes on the importance of proper work planning and regulating working hours for nursing personnel.
Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid
This paper presents a two-step analysis of night ventilation as a way of cooling office buildings and providing comfort in summer. Experimental data first allows us to discuss some factors which affect the performance of the technique, to show that significant comfort improvement may be obtained in “well-designed” rooms, and to investigate the energy removal from the building by defining
P Blondeau; M Spérandio; F Allard
BACKGROUND: A Night Float (NF) system has been implemented by many institutions to address increasing concerns about residents' work hours. The purpose of our study was to examine the perceptions of residents towards a NF system. METHODS: A 115-item questionnaire was developed to assess residents' perceptions of the NF rotation as compared with a regular call month. The categories included
Harish Jasti; Barbara H Hanusa; Galen E Switzer; Rosanne Granieri; Michael Elnicki
Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…
Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary
Commission 21, one of IAU's smallest commissions, consists of some hundred members and consultants working to understand and describe the light of the night sky with emphasis on the diffuse components. Many more work on these topics without being members of the commission. Light is here defined in its broader sense of electromagnetic radiation of any frequency. The diffuse components
Bo Å. S. Gustafson; Adolf N. Witt; E. Dwek; P. Lamy; R. Henry; I. Mann
Commission 21 consists of IAU members and consultants with expertise and interest in the study of the light of the night sky and its various diffuse components, at all accessible electromagnetic frequencies. In cosmic distance scales, the subjects of Commission 21 range from airglow and tropospheric scattering in Earth's atmosphere, through zodiacal light in the solar system, including thermal emission
Adolf N. Witt; Jayant Murthy; Bo Å. S. Gustafson; W. Jack Baggaley; Eli Dwek; Anny-Chantal Levasseur-Regourd; Ingrid Mann; Kalevi Mattila; Jun-ichi Watanabe
A review of the general background light of the night sky is given with particular reference to the historical aspects of the studies over about four decades. Particular topics discussed are the integrated starlight, the diffuse galactic light, the technological problems of observations with reference to the effect of the size of field on the quality of the analysis, the
F. E. Roach
Why should your school have a Family Math Night?: (1) Help students learn essential math concepts; (2) Give parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence; and (3) Promote math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry…
The idea that shiftwork may be carcinogenic in humans has gained widespread attention since the pioneering work linking shiftwork to breast cancer over two decades ago. However, the biomolecular consequences of long-term shiftwork exposure have not been fully explored. In this study, we performed a genome-wide CpG island methylation assay of microRNA (miRNA) promoters in long-term night shiftworkers and day workers. This analysis indicated that 50 CpG loci corresponding to 31 miRNAs were differentially methylated in night shiftworkers compared to day workers, including the circadian-relevant miR-219, the expression of which has been implicated in several cancers. A genome-wide expression microarray assay was carried out in a miR-219-overexpressed MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which identified 319 differentially expressed transcripts. The identified transcriptional targets were analyzed for network and functional interrelatedness using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Overexpression of miR-219 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells resulted in accentuated expression of apoptosis- and proliferation-related anti-viral immunodulators of the Jak-STAT and NF-?? pathways. These findings suggest that long-term night shiftwork exposure may lead to the methylation-dependent downregulation of miR-219, which may in turn lead to the downregulation of immunomediated antitumor activity and increased breast cancer risk. PMID:23813567
Shi, Fengqin; Chen, Xinyi; Fu, Alan; Hansen, Johnni; Stevens, Richard; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla B; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Yong
NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.
Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.
Commission 21 consists of IAU members and consultants with expertise and interest in the study of the light of the night sky and its various diffuse components, at all accessible electromagnetic frequencies. In cosmic distance scales, the subjects of Commission 21 range from airglow and tropospheric scattering in Earth's atmosphere, through zodiacal light in the solar system, including thermal emission from interplanetary dust, integrated starlight in the Milky Way galaxy, diffuse galactic light due to dust scattering in the galactic diffuse interstellar medium, thermal emissions from interstellar dust and free free emission from ionized interstellar gas, to various diffuse extragalactic background sources, including the cosmologically important cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations of the diffuse night sky brightness at any frequency typically include signals from several of these sources, and it has been the historic mandate of Commission 21 to foster the necessary collaboration of experts from the different astronomical sub-disciplines involved.
Witt, Adolf N.; Murthy, Jayant; Gustafson, Bo Å. S.; Baggaley, W. Jack; Dwek, Eli; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Mann, Ingrid; Mattila, Kalevi; Watanabe, Jun-ichi
TopOwl® is an original concept of binocular Helmet Mounted Sight and Display system (HMSD) for helicopters, where two Image Intensifier Tubes (IIT) are integrated on the headgear and optically coupled to the clear visor placed in front of the pilot's eyes. Thales recently developed a new version of its TopOwl®'s Display Module with the objective to have an HMSD capable to achieve all kind of missions up to the darkest night levels. The main enhancements are the redesign of the optical combination, the use of new optical materials and of latest generation of optical design tools. Two flyable prototypes of this new design were manufactured. A performance assessment has been conducted, showing a significant improvement of the night vision performances, reaching performances equivalent to those of last issued NVGs. These evaluations are being completed by different flight test evaluations.
Lemoine, Olivier; Ebert, Jean Claude; Saviot, Frédéric; Charbonneau, Marie; Coumert, Bruno
The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.
Falkner, David E.
This paper presents results of measurements of night sky background in the range 300-650 nm and several sub-intervals. Measurements were performed at Piano Battaglia (Sicily) pointing both to the zenithal direction and towards a mountain about 1 km far. These results are very useful for studying the sensitivity ? of fluorescence and Cerenkov on-ground telescopes, and for fluorescence on-space detectors looking down to the Earth to observe cosmic-rays and neutrinos.
Catalano, O.; Mineo, T.; Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Cusumano, G.; Giarruso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.
This paper presents a method for pedestrian detection and tracking using a single night-vision video camera installed on the vehicle. To deal with the nonrigid nature of human appearance on the road, a two-step detection\\/tracking method is proposed. The detection phase is performed by a support vector machine (SVM) with size-normalized pedestrian candidates and the tracking phase is a combination
Fengliang Xu; Xia Liu; Kikuo Fujimura
The analysis of development of night vision devices (NVD) and image-intensifier tubes (IIT) is conducted, the change of their characteristics from zero up to the third generations surveyed, the appearance IIT of the fourth generation is determined. Alternatively IIT the solid-state image converters (SSIC) surveyed. SSIC essentially changes appearance NVD and their basic performances. The essential change of the characteristics NVD also is reached at the expense of usage of pulse laser illumination with a gating.
Koshchavtsev, Nikolay F.
... stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back ... an electroretinogram, which measures the function of the retina. How common is X-linked congenital stationary night ...
Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400
Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (-5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076
Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna
The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118
Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V
In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.
Kahle, Anne B.
More and more businesses are providing their full range of services 24 h a day, 7 days a week, thus forcing their employees to work either rotating shifts or fixed night shifts. Dictates of our endogenous circadian clock prevent our brains and bodies to be indefinitely adaptable to those work schedules. Shift work operations are thus associated with serious healthy
Olivier Van Reeth
Summary The effects of daytime noise on recovery processes during subsequent undisturbed night sleep were studied in six healthy men (21–27 years), exposed to 80 dB (A) pink noise 8 h per day for 2 days. Sleep EEG, ECG, and respiration were recorded in the laboratory for five consecutive nights: two baseline nights, two nights following noise stimulation, and again one
Beate Fruhstorfer; Heinrich Fruhstorfer; Peter Grass
A tape recording system for recording night cough in asthmatics at home is described. Objective cough counts and half hour periods containing cough did not correlate with diary card scores awarded to eight children on seven nights each. Night cough diary scores may mislead in the assessment of symptom severity.
L N Archer; H Simpson
Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.
Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.
The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8 years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating behavior and quality of life. NES was diagnosed in 25% of patients; significantly more patients diagnosed with BN meet criteria for NES compared to those diagnosed with AN. In general, patients with NES did not differ from patients without NES on eating behaviors, attitudes, or quality of life; symptoms of NES frequently co-occurred. This study supports previous research finding that night eating behavior is common in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:20826005
Lundgren, Jennifer D; McCune, Ashley; Spresser, Carrie; Harkins, Paula; Zolton, Lauren; Mandal, Konoy
Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity.
Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H
Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659
Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H
Commission 21, one of IAU's smallest commissions, consists of some hundred members and consultants working to understand and describe the light of the night sky with emphasis on the diffuse components. Many more work on these topics without being members of the commission. Light is here defined in its broader sense of electromagnetic radiation of any frequency. The diffuse components of the light of the night sky encompass a variety of physical phenomena over the full range of cosmic distance scales and include scattered light, thermal emission, line emission, and any other emission phenomena producing a diffuse light source. These attract interest not only as scientific topics of study in their own right but also as an unwanted foreground or background against which all other sky phenomena are observed. Commission 21 has for mandate to promote research and availability of results on issues related to the diffuse light of the night sky. This document is a report on activities in this field and is not confined to the activities of its members, no distinction is made between work carried out by commission members and non commission members. The report is organized starting with a summary of the state of broad surveys that provide most of the observations. The report on developments in the various disciplines start with the sources closest to the observer known as airglow and progresses by way of the interplanetary and interstellar mediums to the increasingly distant integrated starlight, diffuse galactic light and diffuse emission in other galaxies ending with the extragalactic background radiation.
Gustafson, Bo Å. S.; Witt, Adolf N.; Dwek, E.; Lamy, P.; Henry, R.; Mann, I.
Many stony coral-dwelling fishes exhibit adaptations to deal with hypoxia among the branches of their hosts; however, no information exists on the respiratory ecophysiology of obligate fish associates of non-coral organisms such as sea anemones and sponges. This study investigated metabolic and behavioral interactions between two-band anemonefish (Amphiprion bicinctus) and bulb-tentacle sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor) at night. We measured the net dark oxygen uptake ( , ?mol O2 h(-1)) of fish-anemone pairs when partners were separate from each other, together as a unit, and together as a unit but separated by a mesh screen that prevented physical contact. We also measured the effects of water current on sea anemone and quantified the nocturnal behaviors of fish in the absence and presence of host anemones in order to discern the impacts of anemone presence on fish behavior. Net of united pairs was significantly higher than that of both separated pairs and united pairs that were separated by a mesh screen. Anemone increased with flow rate from 0.5 to 2.0 cm s(-1), after which remained constant up to a water flow rate of 8.0 cm s(-1). Furthermore, the percentage time and bout frequency of flow-modulating behaviors by fish increased significantly when anemones were present. We conclude that physical contact between anemonefish and sea anemones elevates the of at least one of the partners at night, and anemonefish behavior at night appears to oxygenate sea anemone hosts and to augment the metabolism of both partners. PMID:23447664
Szczebak, Joseph T; Henry, Raymond P; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Chadwick, Nanette E
This article reports on social workers' motivations to become field instructors. The findings from qualitative interviews indicate that current organizational culture has a powerful influence on social workers' motivations to volunteer to become field instructors. The implications of this shift are discussed in relation to rejuvenating the…
Globerman, Judith; Bogo, Marion
Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the “Light Lab”. In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the “2D Light Lab” showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling.
Bijveld, Mieke M. C.; van Genderen, Maria M.; Hoeben, Frank P.; Katzin, Amir A.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Riemslag, Frans C. C.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.
Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the "Light Lab". In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the "2D Light Lab" showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling. PMID:23658786
Bijveld, Mieke M C; van Genderen, Maria M; Hoeben, Frank P; Katzin, Amir A; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Riemslag, Frans C C; Kappers, Astrid M L
This paper considers possible mechanisms for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES). NES is a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian rhythm of meals and of several neuroendocrine factors. The disorder occurs in genetically vulnerable people when exposed to stress. No convincing mechanism of the NES has been reported until now. To search for the mechanisms of NES, the long term treatment of two highly perceptive patients with rapid onset of the disorder are described. Disruption of three neuroendocrine systems compatible with these histories are discussed: the glucocorticoid system, the melanocortin [corrected] system, and the serotonergic system. Current evidence favors the serotonergic system and this view is strongly supported by the great effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of NES. PMID:20571317
Stunkard, A; Lu, X-Y
Satellite measurements from the Aura MLS instrument show a layer of OH near 82 km in the night. This layer confirms earlier measurements by ground-based LIDAR. The MLS and LIDAR observations measure OH in the lowest vibrational state and are distinct, but related chemically, from vibrationally-excited emission from the OH Meinel bands in the near infrared. The Caltech 1-D model has been extended to include vibrational dependence of OH reactions and shows good agreement with MLS OH data and with observations of the Meinel bands. The model shows a chemical lifetime of HO(x) that increases from less than a day at 80 km to over a month at 87 km. Above this altitude transport processes become an important part of HOx chemistry. The model predicts that ground state OH represents 99% of the total OH up to 84 km.
Pickett, H. M.; Read, W. G.; Lee, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.
There are jobs for which firms employ older workers but tend not to hire new older workers. This may be attributable in part to implicit con tracts that discourage worker shirking and malfeasance by shifting compensation to the end of the contract. Such \\
A mathematical model of atmospheric optics was developed to predict the nighttime sky-glow impacts of a proposed nuclear waste repository in a national park. The prediction performance of the Night-Sky-Glow Model was evaluated to the extent possible with existing data. The model was applied to the proposed facility from several viewpoints within the park and the potential for normal perception of the calculated night glow and the potential of the night glow to obscure starlight were estimated.
Yocke, Mark A.; Hogo, Henry; Henderson, Don
State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)
The report is comprised of tables of benefits, on a state by state basis, as required by law including: Type of Law and Insurance Requirements for Private Employment; Numerical Exemptions; Coverage of Agricultural Workers; Jurisdictions in Which Workers' ...
The document contents include: Type of law and insurance requirements for private employment; Numerical exemptions; Coverage of agricultural workers; Jurisdictions in which workers' compensation laws apply to domestic employment; Medical benefits and meth...
Table of Contents: Type of Law and Insurance Requirements for Private Employment; Numerical Exemptions; Coverage of Agricultural Workers; Jurisdictions in Which Workers' Compensation Laws Aply to Domestic Employment; Medical Benefits and Methods of Physic...
Many Army personnel can be classified as knowledge workers-people who produce not tangible products, but some form of processed or enhanced information. Most Army knowledge workers depend on computer processing to complete their tasks efficiently. However...
E. J. Japel M. M. Moore W. Schmidt S. Rugaber H. Astudillo
Shift-work disorder (SWD) and its defining symptoms can negatively affect health, quality of life, and work performance. The gravity of these consequences necessitates vigilance for the symptoms of SWD by primary care physicians. The threshold for treatment intervention for emergency service workers, such as firefighters, who make crucial decisions under shift-work conditions and who are experiencing SWD should be lower than for shift workers in general. The economic costs of untreated SWD are likely to be high. Early diagnosis and treatment of SWD may reduce these costs in addition to reducing the human burden of this circadian rhythm sleep disorder. PMID:20074508
This report indicates that although during the last 55 years the ranks of women workers have risen from only one out of five to two out of five of all workers, the profile of the average woman worker has greatly changed from that of a 28-year-old single factory worker or clerk of 1920 to that of a 35-year-old woman of today who may be found in any…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Our study investigated a group of 216 wool textile workers (158 women and 58 men). Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire in wool textile workers and in 130 not exposed (control) workers. Ventilatory capacity was measured in wool workers by recording maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves on Monday before and after the work shift. Forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the vital capacity (FEF50, FEF25) were measured on the MEFV curves. Analysis of the data demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms in wool workers than in controls, being the highest in wool workers for nasal catarrh (M: 63.8%; F: 44.9%) and for sinusitis (M: 62.1%; F: 43.0%). A high prevalence of acute symptoms, associated with the work shift, was also noted in wool workers. Exposure to wool dust caused significant across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity varying from 1.4% for FEV1 to 9.1% for FEF50. Textile workers exposed to wool for > 10 years in the workplace had similar across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity tests as those with shorter exposures. In a large number of these wool workers, FEF50 and FEF25 were below 70% of predicted normal values. Smokers had acute and chronic lung function changes similar to those of nonsmokers, indicating that smoking did not account for all the respiratory effects seen in wool processing workers. Our data suggest that dust exposures in wool textile mills may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function. PMID:7645578
Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kanceljak, B; Godnic-Cvar, J; Sitar-Srebocan, V
A group of 59 workers (41 men and 18 women) employed in swine confinement areas was studied to assess the presence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of abnormalities in ventilatory function. A control group of 46 (31 men and 15 women) unexposed workers was studied for the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. For both male and female swine confinement workers complaints of chronic cough, dyspnoea, and chest tightness were significantly more frequent than among control workers. Male workers also complained more of chronic phlegm. Male swine confinement workers who were smokers had significantly higher prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, and chronic bronchitis than male non-smoking swine confinement workers. The frequency of acute symptoms associated with the workshift was high among the swine confinement workers with more than half of the workers complaining of cough and dyspnoea associated with work. Significant acute across shift reductions in lung function occurred in swine confinement workers, being largest for FEF25. All Monday preshift ventilatory capacity measurements in male confinement workers were significantly lower than predicted values; FVC and FEV1 were found to be lower than predicted values for women. The data indicate that exposure in swine confinement buildings is associated with the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and impairment of lung function. Smoking appears to aggravate these changes.
Zuskin, E; Zagar, Z; Schachter, E N; Mustajbegovic, J; Kern, J
Respiratory symptoms and abnormalities of lung function were studied in 84 female and 27 male hemp workers employed in two textile mills (A and B) processing soft hemp (C sativa). In mill A 46 women and 27 men were investigated and 38 female workers were studied in mill B. Forty nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in female hemp workers when compared to control workers. Among the men these differences were significant for nasal catarrh and sinusitis. A high prevalence of byssinosis was found among female hemp workers in both mills (group A, 47.8%; group B, 57.9%) as well as in the male workers (66.7%). Statistically significant across shift reductions in lung function were found for all ventilatory capacity measurements in female and male hemp workers varying from 7.1% for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to 15.1% for flow rates at 50% vital capacity (FEF50). Measured Monday baseline values before the work shift were significantly lower than expected for hemp workers, being particularly reduced for FEF25 and FEF50. The data suggest that occupational exposure to hemp dust is a significant risk factor for the development of acute and chronic lung disease in workers employed in this textile industry.
Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Pokrajac, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J
The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)
Tapp, Kenneth L.
One of three individualized courses included in a lodging curriculum, this course covers the basic policies and procedures used by the night auditor in hotels and motels. The course is comprised of four units: (1) The Hand Transcript, (2) Balancing Cashier Totals, (3) Preparing the Night Audit, and (4) Auditing on Miscellaneous Machines. Each unit…
US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory
Scott Theleman; Jennifer Hegarty; Richard Vollmerhausen; Courtney Scott; John Schroeder; Frank P. Colby; S. Napier
The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…
Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.
Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.
Foote, Bobby D.
While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…
Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.
The control system requirements for a night vision pilotage system (NVPS) are not well understood. Terms such as 'good control' and 'no objectionable overshoot' are common when referring to control system response. Understanding the pilot's performance is key to the design of NVPS systems. The pilot's head motions become the 'target dynamics' for the NVPS to track and, as a result, are the foundation for the requirements of a pilotage system. Mission success and pilot survival depend on presenting the right image at the right time. To date, extensive research has revealed only portions of a suitable head motion model. Most studies focus on average human performance while this system requires performance at the extremes. Additional information gleaned from the references include several heuristic block diagram 'models' describing the eye and head coupled vision system. While the blocks were not defined in empirical terms that lend themselves to direct simulation and thus system synthesis, the information assembled does provide valuable insight into the dynamics of the human vision system. The above form the basis of the model presented here. This paper presents the important points and conclusions from reference materials and provides a quantitative guide for design of NVPS control systems. Additionally, a single-axis model is presented that provides a framework for additional study. This model incorporates the significant delays, models a head motion tracker, and provides a proper head motion model for the case whereby the pilot's eyes are assumed fixed with respect to the head. Results using this model are presented.
Heaton, Mark W.; Ewing, William S.
The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 ?m. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).
Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.
A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.
Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark
In low level light (LLL) color night vision technology, dual spectrum images with respective special information were acquired, and target identification probability would be effectively improved through dual spectrum image fusion. Image registration is one of the key technologies during this process. Current dual spectrum image registration methods mainly include dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme and image characteristic pixel searching scheme. In dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme, additional prismatic optical components should be used, and large amount of radiative energy was wasted. In image characteristic pixel searching scheme, complicated arithmetic made it difficult for its real time realization. In this paper, dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision system structure feature and dual spectrum image characteristics was studied, dual spectrum image gray scale symbiotic matrix 2-dimensional histogram was analysed, and a real time image registration method including electronic digital shifting, pixel extension and extraction was put forward. By the analysis of spatial gray-scale relativity of fusion image, registration precision is quantitatively expressed. Emulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic is fast and exact for our dual channel dual spectrum image registration. This method was realized on dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.
Bai, Lian-Fa; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-Hua
The photochemical model for the Venus nighttime atmosphere and night airglow (Krasnopolsky, 2010, Icarus 207, 17-27) has been revised to account for the SPICAV detection of the nighttime ozone layer and more detailed spectroscopy and morphology of the OH nightglow. Nighttime chemistry on Venus is induced by fluxes of O, N, H, and Cl with mean hemispheric values of 3×1012, 1.2×109, 1010, and 1010 cm-2 s-1, respectively. These fluxes are proportional to column abundances of these species in the daytime atmosphere above 90 km, and this favors their validity. The model includes 86 reactions of 29 species. The calculated abundances of Cl2, ClO, and ClNO3 exceed a ppb level at 80-90 km, and perspectives of their detection are briefly discussed. Properties of the ozone layer in the model agree with those observed by SPICAV. An alternative model without the flux of Cl agrees with the observed O3 peak altitude and density but predicts an increase of ozone to 4×108 cm-3 at 80 km. Reactions H+O3 and O+HO2 that may excite the OH nightglow have equal column rates. However, the latter is shifted to 92-94 km, and the models agree better with the nightglow observations if O+HO2 does not contribute to the OH excitation. Schemes for quenching of the OH vibrational quanta by CO2 are chosen to fit the observed band distribution in the ?v=1 sequence at 2.9 ?m. The models agree with all observational constraints for the mean nighttime atmosphere. Analytic relationships between the nightglow intensities, the ozone layer, and the input fluxes of atomic species are given. The model results are compared with those of three-dimensional models for the Venus thermosphere.
Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.
Objectives: To objectively evaluate sleep quality of shift-working nurses, we used an Actiwatch 2, a watch-like actigraphy device designed to measure sleep and wakefulness based on the amount of movement. Subjective sleep quality was also assessed using the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Methods: Nineteen shift-working nurses wore the Actiwatch 2 for 5 days. The monitoring began with 2 days of the morning shift, which were followed by a 16-hour night shift and a rest day. Sleep recordings were obtained four times: night sleep after the second morning shift ("sleep 1"), napping on the night shift ("nap 1"), daytime napping after the night shift ("nap 2") and night sleep after the night shift ("sleep 2"). Actiwatch 2 sleep measures include sleep onset latency, snooze time, sleep efficiency, and percent sleep. In addition, the perceived quality of sleep was obtained using five questions of the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Objective and subjective sleep quality were compared between different sleep/nap times: sleep 1 vs. sleep 2, and nap 1 vs. nap 2. Results: Percent sleep of sleep 2 was higher than that of sleep 1. In almost all responses to the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, the perceived quality of sleep on sleep 2 was better than those of sleep 1, and that of nap 2 was better than nap 1. A significant negative correlation was found between the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 and the characteristics of participants (age, number of children, and length of career). There were positive correlations between the perceived sleep quality of sleep and percent sleep, and between the perceived sleep quality of nap and sleep efficiency. Moreover, the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 tended to decrease in participants whose bedtime deviated from the mean value on morning shift days and the rest day. Conclusions: We found that perceived sleep quality is related to percent sleep, and that the perceived sleep quality of nap is related to sleep efficiency. The results suggest that improving the sleep quality of daytime napping after the night shift is necessary for nurses with children, and that keeping a regular bedtime is necessary to improve the sleep quality of napping on the night shift. PMID:24622035
Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Lee, Bumsuk; Tozato, Fusae; Gennai, Kazuko; Shiihara, Yasufumi
Background and Purpose: Neurology residency training programs have been profoundly impacted by recent changes in resident duty hours, workloads, and supervisory requirements. In response, many programs have adopted a night float coverage system to minimize the requirements for overnight call. The majority involves residents working a block of night shifts in what is typically a service-oriented rotation. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the impact of this design on resident education and patient care. We have developed a novel on-site nighttime neurohospitalist model for the explicit purpose of steepening the initial learning curve for neurology residents in an effort to rapidly improve their neurological skills and, in conjunction, overnight patient care. We surveyed residents after the initiation of this system to assess their perception of the impact of direct overnight supervision on education and patient care. Methods: As part of ongoing quality improvement efforts, surveys were administered to neurology house staff at a tertiary academic medical center after they had completed service on the night float rotation both with and without an attending in the hospital using a retrospective pre/postdesign. Results: There was a robust positive impact on resident’s perception of overall quality, educational value, and clinical quality on the night float rotation with an attending on-site. Despite an overall perception that their autonomy was maintained, residents believed barriers to contact the attending were lower, and attending interaction during critical decision making was more frequent. Conclusions: Direct overnight supervision by a neurohospitalist enhances the educational value and care quality on overnight resident rotations.
Greene, James G.
To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946
Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L
The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.
BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116
Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie
The Globe at Night (GaN) project website contains seven years of night-sky brightness data contributed by citizen scientists. We perform a statistical analysis of naked-eye limiting magnitudes (NELMs) and find that over the period from 2006 to 2012 global averages of NELMs have remained essentially constant. Observations in which participants reported both NELM and Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements are compared to a theoretical expression relating night sky surface brightness and NELM: the overall agreement between observed and predicted NELM values based on the reported SQM measurements supports the reliability of GaN data.
Birriel, J. J.; Walker, C. E.; Thornsberry, C. R.
This is an activity about day and night as a result of the Earth's rotation. Learners will first identify what they already know about day, night, and rotation and will be asked to share any questions they may have. Then, a book is read out loud in class and students are asked to identify relevant and important vocabulary words. On day two of this activity, learners will act as the Earth in creating a kinesthetic model of the day and night rotation. Lastly, learners will identify what was learned and complete a worksheet. This is Activity 5 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.
Study Objectives To evaluate the clinical relevance of night-to-night variability of sleep schedules and insomnia symptoms. Methods The sample consisted of 455 patients (193 men, mean age=48) seeking treatment for insomnia in a sleep medicine clinic. All participants received group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). Variability in sleep parameters was assessed using sleep diary data. Two composite scores were computed, a behavioral schedule composite score (BCS) and insomnia symptom composite score (ICS). The Insomnia Severity Index, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Morningness-Eveningness Composite Scale were administered at baseline and post-treatment. Results Results revealed that greater BCS scores were significantly associated with younger age, eveningness chronotype, and greater depression severity (p<.001). Both depression severity and eveningness chronotype independently predicted variability in sleep schedules (p<.001). Finally, CBTI resulted in reduced sleep variability for all sleep diary variables, except bedtime. Post-treatment symptom reductions in depression severity were greater among those with high versus low baseline BCS scores (p<.001). Conclusions Results suggest that variability in sleep schedules predict reduction in insomnia and depressive severity following group CBTI. Schedule variability may be particularly important to assess and address among patients with high depression symptoms and those with evening chronotype.
Suh, Sooyeon; Nowakowski, Sara; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Ong, Jason C.; Siebern, Allison T.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Manber, Rachel
Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.
Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen
22. Night view looking NW showing bridge lighted. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY
59. Night view looking W at Brooklyn side span and anchorage. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY
The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.
Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.
A study was performed in order to determine the feasibility of the night-vision beneficial effects of the biologically active agent of 'bilberry' extract, anthocyanin, a pigment believed to consist of anthocyanidin glucoside. This study consisted primaril...
J. E. Borges
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)
Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.
Current research into sleep in care homes indicates that care-giving processes at night disturb vital sleep-a key element in the everyday wellbeing of older people. This article considers the use of technology to support the provision of relationship-centred care at night. Within the context of a large study on sleep in later life, research was carried out to gain an understanding of care staff's acceptance of technology. The findings indicate a hesitancy to rely on technology. To fulfil a professional duty of care at night, the personal assessment of a resident's wellbeing is perceived as best when performed by care-home staff. However, in night-time care, a relationship-centred approach supported by technology has the potential to improve the sleep of older people living in care homes, which in turn could improve their active participation in everyday life. PMID:24260993
Eyers, Ingrid; Carey-Smith, Bruce; Evans, Nina; Orpwood, Roger
In this report, researchers present an assessment framework for evaluating the expected crash consequences of performing a particular work activity on a given highway at night versus doing that same activity during the day. Researchers predicate the frame...
G. L. Ullman B. R. Ullman M. D. Finley
This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, unravels the riddle of the dark night sky, known as Olbers' Paradox. It walks students through the history of various proposed solutions from 1610 to the present.
This video of the United States at night and the Aurora Borealis was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken September 29, 2011...
The results of the analysis of the year-long (2007) monitoring of the night time data of the VLF signal amplitude from the Indian Navy station VTX at 18.2kHz, received at the Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata, are presented. We analyzed this data to find out the correlation, if any, between the night time fluctuation and the seismic events. We
Suman Ray; S. K. Chakrabarti
This website from the American Museum of Natural History provides a description of Olbersâ Paradox which poses the question of why the sky is dark at night. The site presents an explanation for why a bright night sky would be expected but is not present and also describes the development of the paradox. Implications about the age of the Universe and its expansion are included.
This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…
Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.
This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…
Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others
This study has been carried out to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms among 311 Sudanese workers in different sections of the Khartoum Weaving and Spinning Company. The prevalence of byssinosis was 67% among blowers, 40% in carders and draw-frame workers, 42% in simplex workers and 37% in ring-frame workers. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged between 29 to 47% in all groups. A significant fall in FEV1 was recorded in carders and draw- and ring-frame workers. There was also a statistically significant decrease in FVC after shift in all groups except in the ring-frame group. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of byssinosis was very high in mills processing coarse cotton. Application of control measures and the early detection of exposure effects will reduce the prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory impairments. PMID:3949393
Awad el Karim, M A; Osman, Y; el Haimi, Y A
Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans), the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work) or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep-wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift work-induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.
Gamble, Karen L.; Resuehr, David; Johnson, Carl Hirschie
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simo, Maria Jose; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
The purpose of this study was to describe antecedents and characteristics of nonfatal fall-related injuries among health care workers in the United States. A special request was made for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to obtain nonfatal fall-related injury data from 2008 to 2010. Overall, workers in the nursing-related profession had the highest percentages of workplace fall-related injuries. Ninety-one percent of these injured workers were female, and more than 50% were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. More than 25% of fall injuries resulted in 31 or more workdays being lost. This study indicated that the most affected body parts were the lower extremities, with most injuries resulting in sprains, strains, and tears. Accordingly, this 3-year study revealed that a high number of fall injuries occurred at night for health care workers compared to other workers in the U.S. private sector.
Yeoh, Han T.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Wu, Xuefang
Eusocial insect societies display a remarkable reproductive division of labor between a single fertile queen and thousands of largely sterile workers. In most species, however, the workers retain the capacity to reproduce, particularly in queenless colonies where typically many workers lay eggs. As yet, the molecular determinants that initiate this shift in worker fertility are still poorly documented. By using RNA interference we here demonstrate that the knockdown of epidermal growth factor receptor, a gene which was previously shown to be involved in queen-worker caste differentiation, also induces reproduction in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). These data show that worker fertility and queen-worker caste determination partly rely on the same gene regulatory networks, thereby providing a major breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular determinants of the social insects' spectacular reproductive division of labor. PMID:24333651
Formesyn, Ellen M; Cardoen, Dries; Ernst, Ulrich R; Danneels, Ellen L; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Koker, Dieter; Verleyen, Peter; Wenseleers, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane; de Graaf, Dirk C
Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.
Brickner, Michael S.
The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical – especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.
Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave. PMID:12280376
The report presents a symposium which explores and identifies directions and methods needed to conduct meaningful research on the relationship between shift work and worker health. Topics include aspects of chronobiology relating to the optimization of sh...
P. G. Rentos R. D. Shepard
Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…
Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino
The U.S. Army Aviation mission includes flying helicopters at low altitude, at night, and in adverse weather. Night Vision Devices (NVDs) are used to supplement the pilot's visual cues for night flying. As the military requirement to conduct night helicopter operations has increased, the impact of helicopter flight operations with NVD technology in the Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) became increasingly
Loran A. Haworth; Christopher J. Blanken; Zoltan P. Szoboszlay
Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a nonprogressive retinal disorder that can be associated with impaired night vision. The last decade has witnessed huge progress in ophthalmic genetics, including the identification of three genes implicated in the pathogenicity of autosomal-recessive CSNB. However, not all patients studied could be associated with mutations in these genes and thus other genes certainly underlie this disorder. Here, we report a large multigeneration family with five affected individuals manifesting symptoms of night blindness. A genome-wide scan localized the disease interval to chromosome 15q, and recombination events in affected individuals refined the critical interval to a 10.41 cM (6.53 Mb) region that harbors SLC24A1, a member of the solute carrier protein superfamily. Sequencing of all the coding exons identified a 2 bp deletion in exon 2: c.1613_1614del, which is predicted to result in a frame shift that leads to premature termination of SLC24A1 (p.F538CfsX23) and segregates with the disorder under an autosomal-recessive model. Expression analysis using mouse ocular tissues shows that Slc24a1 is expressed in the retina around postnatal day 7. In situ and immunohistological studies localized both SLC24A1 and Slc24a1 to the inner segment, outer and inner nuclear layers, and ganglion cells of the retina, respectively. Our data expand the genetic basis of CSNB and highlight the indispensible function of SLC24A1 in retinal function and/or maintenance in humans. PMID:20850105
Riazuddin, S Amer; Shahzadi, Amber; Zeitz, Christina; Ahmed, Zubair M; Ayyagari, Radha; Chavali, Venkata R M; Ponferrada, Virgilio G; Audo, Isabelle; Michiels, Christelle; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Nasir, Idrees A; Zafar, Ahmad U; Khan, Shaheen N; Husnain, Tayyab; Jiao, Xiaodong; MacDonald, Ian M; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Sieving, Paul A; Katsanis, Nicholas; Hejtmancik, J Fielding
Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a nonprogressive retinal disorder that can be associated with impaired night vision. The last decade has witnessed huge progress in ophthalmic genetics, including the identification of three genes implicated in the pathogenicity of autosomal-recessive CSNB. However, not all patients studied could be associated with mutations in these genes and thus other genes certainly underlie this disorder. Here, we report a large multigeneration family with five affected individuals manifesting symptoms of night blindness. A genome-wide scan localized the disease interval to chromosome 15q, and recombination events in affected individuals refined the critical interval to a 10.41 cM (6.53 Mb) region that harbors SLC24A1, a member of the solute carrier protein superfamily. Sequencing of all the coding exons identified a 2 bp deletion in exon 2: c.1613_1614del, which is predicted to result in a frame shift that leads to premature termination of SLC24A1 (p.F538CfsX23) and segregates with the disorder under an autosomal-recessive model. Expression analysis using mouse ocular tissues shows that Slc24a1 is expressed in the retina around postnatal day 7. In situ and immunohistological studies localized both SLC24A1 and Slc24a1 to the inner segment, outer and inner nuclear layers, and ganglion cells of the retina, respectively. Our data expand the genetic basis of CSNB and highlight the indispensible function of SLC24A1 in retinal function and/or maintenance in humans.
Riazuddin, S. Amer; Shahzadi, Amber; Zeitz, Christina; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Ayyagari, Radha; Chavali, Venkata R.M.; Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Audo, Isabelle; Michiels, Christelle; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Nasir, Idrees A.; Zafar, Ahmad U.; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Jiao, Xiaodong; MacDonald, Ian M.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Sieving, Paul A.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
The mothers of 180 preschool children were interviewed in their homes in a survey of feeding preferences and sleeping behaviour. We report here on the differences in current sleeping patterns and the age at which night feeds were dropped. There are clear differences in these two behaviours according to whether the baby was breast or bottle fed, and this result is not explicable in terms of social class. Night feeds disappear more slowly in the breast fed infant, and the problem of night waking both in the first year of life and when at nursery school appears to be associated with earlier breast feeding. The importance of such a finding is discussed in relation to the advice offered to mothers by health professionals. PMID:6678186
Wright, P; MacLeod, H A; Cooper, M J
"A jug of wine, a loaf of bread-and thou" reads one of the enduring lines of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayya, as translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Translations of the entire Rubaiyat and the Arabian Nights can be found online here, courtesy of the Electronic Literature Foundation. The Rubaiyat is attributed to Omar Khayyam, the Persian philosopher and mathematician who lived in the 11th century. The site includes four versions translated by Fitzgerald, and a more substantial translation by E.H. Winfield. Users can also read Fitzgerald's notes on his own translations, along with searching through all of the verses by keywords. Several translations of the Arabian Nights are also available, including those by Andrew Lang and the explorer Sir Richard Burton. Additionally, there is an interpretive essay on the translation of the Arabian Nights available here, composed by Professor Daniel Beaumont of the University of Rochester.
This study aimed to determine whether human mental processing actually slows down during the night hours, separately from the previously documented microsleeps, lapses in attention, and general slowing of motor responses. Eighteen healthy young adults were studied during 36 hours of constant wakeful bedrest. Every 2 hours, they performed a logical reasoning task. Items phrased in the negative voice took reliably longer to respond to than items phrased in the positive voice, indicating the need for more mental processing in those items. By subtracting "negative" from "positive" reaction times at each time of day, we were able to plot a circadian rhythm in the time taken for this extra mental processing to be done separately from microsleeps, psychomotor slowing, and inattention. The extra mental processing took longer at night and on the day following sleep loss than it did during the day before the sleep loss, suggesting that human mental processing slows down during the night under sleep deprivation.
Monk, T. H.; Carrier, J.
All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid. PMID:24787595
Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime
What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.
We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.
Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc
In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50 °N; Finland 63 °N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1 ± 0.1; FIN: 6.6 ± 0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5 ± 0.3; FIN: 3.9 ± 0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of -11° to -15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from -17° in April to -14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from -11° in April to -1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations. PMID:22615850
Zárybnická, Markéta; Korpimäki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael
In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50°N; Finland 63°N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1±0.1; FIN: 6.6±0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5±0.3; FIN: 3.9±0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of ?11° to ?15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from ?17° in April to ?14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from ?11° in April to ?1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations.
Zarybnicka, Marketa; Korpimaki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael
The workers' compensation system was designed to provide health care and compensation for workers with occupational injuries or illness without regard to fault. Nearly all workers are covered by workers' compensation insurance, but not every worker that i...
D. Lakdawalla R. Reville
Willmart Services, Inc. was established in the District of Columbia to upgrade the status of the household worker and to give this occupation new dignity and protection. The agency developed an experimental program which combined attitudinal training, tra...
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.
Modern, High Frequency (HF) communication techniques, such as spread spectrum and frequency hopping, require precise signal frequency information. The predominant HF propagation path is via the ionosphere, which often produces Doppler frequency shift and spread. This study examined the frequency spectra of selected HF signals traversing short and long mid-latitude paths and one high-latitude auroral zone path. Signal amplitude and Doppler shifts and spreads observed show diurnal, carrier frequency and ionospheric path dependencies. Higher frequency signals experienced more Doppler shift, especially during the daytime. Spectrum spreading was more pronounced at night and was affected by multiple reflections, the auroral oval and field-aligned ionization. Additional signal observations are needed to cover seasonal variations, disturbed ionospheric conditions and solar cycle variations. The impact of Doppler shift and spread on wide-spectrum HF communications also needs to be examined.
With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function.
Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.
Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers' lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432
Neither iterative registration, using drainage intersection maps for control, nor cross correlation techniques were satisfactory in registering day and night HCMM imagery. A procedure was developed which registers the image pairs by selecting control points and mapping the night thermal image to the daytime thermal and reflectance images using an affine transformation on a 1300 by 1100 pixel image. The resulting image registration is accurate to better than two pixels (RMS) and does not exhibit the significant misregistration that was noted in the temperature-difference and thermal-inertia products supplied by NASA. The affine transformation was determined using simple matrix arithmetic, a step that can be performed rapidly on a minicomputer.
Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L. (principal investigators)
Night awakenings are a normative part of early development. In the first year, night awakenings are associated with birth order, feeding route, sleep aid use, sleep location, infant temperament and development, infant-parent attachment, family socioeconomics, and cultural norms. In the second year, additional factors build on these foundational features, including parenting practices and object attachment. As children grow, contextual factors like preschool entry or changes in family member status may influence the continuation or exacerbation of awakenings. Future research should consider the multitude of factors that influence not only awakenings but also parental perceptions, family dynamics, and cultural norms. PMID:20970006
Schwichtenberg, Amy Jo; Goodlin-Jones, Beth
The effect on airway responsiveness of an oral dose of a beta-adrenergic blocker (80 mg propranolol) given before work, was studied in 15 potroom workers who complained of dyspnoea, chest tightness and wheezing after they had started to work in potrooms. The same study was performed in a group of 10 potroom workers, selected at random, who had not complained of such symptoms. In addition, another group of 12 potroom workers with respiratory symptoms were given 1 mg atropine subcutaneously. Ventilatory function was assessed from forced expiratory curves (by means of a waterless spirometer) and from maximum expiratory flow-volume curves (by means of a digital pneumotachograph). Bronchoconstriction during the first few hours' work was significantly potentiated by propranolol in the group of potroom workers with respiratory complaints. Propranolol did not produce this effect in workers who had not complained of respiratory symptoms. Atropine sulphate abolished the fall in ventilatory volumes which occurred during the first few hours of work. These findings suggest that acute bronchoconstriction, particularly in small airways, and respiratory symptoms occurring in certain potroom workers may be based on an alteration in autonomic balance with vagal preponderance.
Saric, M; Zuskin, E; Gomzi, M
The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping\\/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping\\/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient
G Frost; A-H Harding; A Darnton; D McElvenny; D Morgan
A cross-sectional study of shiftwork-related problems was carried out among health care workers at hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shiftwork were collected from 432 randomly selected sub- jects by questionnaire. Sleep, social and subjective problems were more prevalent in shiftworkers than day workers. Irregular
A. Choobineh; A. Rajaeefard; M. Neghab
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms\\/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard
F J Jongeneelen; F E van Leeuwen; S Oosterink; R B Anzion; F van der Loop; R P Bos; H G van Veen
The California Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was conceived in 1993 as a 5-year, $35 million comprehensive community, media, research, and policy advocacy effort to reduce violence among youth. The VPI included an emphasis on three broad policy areas: shifting society's definition of violence to include a public health perspective, reducing access to alcohol and other drugs, and limiting availability of handguns. For the first 3 years of the VPI, the policy focus was on reducing the availability of handguns to youth through efforts to ban the manufacture and sale of Saturday night specials (SNSs). Prior to the VPI, there were no local SNS bans. Now, there are bans in 41 California jurisdictions, including major population centers. After two vetoes of a statewide legislative ban by the former governor, an SNS ban was signed by a newly elected governor. PMID:10608574
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an entrepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives. PMID:11140891
Hobbs, D; Lister, S; Hadfield, P; Winlow, S; Hall, S
Shift work within the nursing profession is examined. The authors first address the prevalence of shift work in nursing, its patterns, and the evidence for dissatisfaction with shift work. Next, the consequences of shift work are discussed, such as family...
C. S. Weisman
This practical guide to current and potential users of lanthanide shift reagents (LSR) describes the selection of a LSR and the experimental techniques necessary to prepare and properly employ the various types of LSR. It gives a thorough review of previous literature reports in which lanthanide tris chelates and binuclear lanthanide-silver shift reagents were used in organic solvents to study achiral and chiral substrates, with particular focus on the sterochemical and conformational information obtained through use of LSR. It describes LSR suitable for use in aqueous solutions as well as computer fitting of lanthanide shift data through the dipolar shift equation. Other valuable information includes over 800 structures and 1500 references.
Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.
Stevens, Richard G
The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of physical demands and shift working on low back disorders (LBDs) among nursing personnel. The study used 2 questionnaires: a self-administered questionnaire composed of parts of Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire to assess LBDs and job content questionnaire to assess physical demands. The participants were divided into 4 groups: from group 1 (low physical demands day workers) to group 4 (high physical demands shift workers). In regression analysis, high physical demands were associated with the prevalence of LBDs independently (OR 4.4, 95% CI [2.40, 8.00] and p < .05), but there was no association between shift working and LBDs (p > .05). Odds ratio in high physical demands shift workers was 9.33 compared to the reference group (p < .001). Calculated synergistic index was 7.37. Simultaneous impacts of shift working and high physical demands may increase the prevalence of LBDs among nursing personnel. PMID:24629877
Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid; Attarchi, Mirsaeed
Discusses factors which affect the rate of productivity (the end of the farm-to-nonfarm shift, increased foreign competition, more highly educated workforce, rising cost of energy). Also discusses worker concerns over job security and how these concerns are reflected in union demands. (CT)
Franke, Walter H.
The Crew Systems Group at QinetiQ Farnborough, formerly part of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), have recently conducted development and flight evaluations of two monocular display systems that provided dynamic symbology for the pilot. The systems were the Pilkington Optronics (now Thales) Guardian monocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) used for daytime operations and the QinetiQ Display Night Vision
Craig Hudson; Peter J. Longman; Nat R. Makepeace
The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in
Dennis Ward; K. Meymaris; S. Henderson; R. Johnson
With more and more students--especially those taking online courses--demanding access to technology help at all hours of the day and night, colleges are responding by extending help-desk hours. More than half are open late into the evening, according to a recent survey by Educause, the educational technology consortium, and a few are available…
Objective This paper aims to study nightly disorder within a single bar over an extended period, in order to analyse variations across time (n = 258 nights). Methods The security staff of a large Canadian nightclub agreed to note detailed information on every intervention in which they were involved. Bouncers wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression and incivility that occurred in the bar. Environmental characteristics (e.g. number of admissions and alcohol sales) were collected by one of the co-authors. Results “Hot nights” were observed. The number of problem events was particularly high on Tuesday nights, which had the highest number of customers admitted and higher alcohol sales. The average alcohol sale per customer was also higher during long weekends, and alcohol sales were positively related to problem events. Finally, path analyses revealed that the presence of more bouncers was a deterrent. Conclusions The level of disorder in a bar varies greatly over time. Contrary to what is often postulated, bars are not always high- or low-risk. The results strongly support responsible alcohol-serving policies and highlight the benefits of adequate surveillance.
Boivin, Remi; Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frederic; Felson, Marcus
Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.
Suggests a way of teaching science to young children that is consistent with Piaget's interpretation of the child's spontaneous animism and that elicits a personal and in-depth response to knowledge. Describes construction and use of an environmental bubble to enhance children's interest in the night sky. (SW)
Four of the components of the light of the night sky are described; the aurora is not included.The early history of star counting to determine the brightness of the integrated starlight is reviewed and suggestions made for improving upon this work and extending it to longer wavelengths.Work on the zodiacal light since 1967 is described in detail. The most recent
M F Ingham
In the following we present material in tabular and graphical form, with the aim to allow the non specialist to obtain a realistic estimate of the diffuse night sky brightness over a wide range of wavelengths from the far UV longward of Ly to the far-infrared.
Leinert, C.; Bowyer, S.; Haikala, L. K.; Hanner, M. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Mann, I.; Mattila, K.; Reach, W. T.; Schlosser, W.; Staude, J. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Weinberg, J. L.; Witt, A. N.
This article presents the text of Joanne Yatvin's presidential address, delivered at the NCTE Annual Convention in New York City in November 2007. The title of her presidential address, "Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night," was taken from Matthew Arnold's (1867) poem "Dover Beach." Yatvin states that the federal government has usurped the right…
The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…
Objective: To identify the factors most strongly asso- ciated with sleeping less than 6 consecutive hours at night for children aged 5, 17, and 29 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized survey design used a representative sample of infants born in 1997-1998 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews. Inter- views were scheduled
Évelyne Touchette; Dominique Petit; Jean Paquet; Michel Boivin; Chista Japel; Richard E. Tremblay; Jacques Y. Montplaisir
From theoretical viewpoints, analyses of consumer motivation have been applied to the shopping and the tourism industry for decades. The objectives of this study are to understand tourists' motivations and their preferred leisure activities when they shop in tourist night markets. The unit of analysis is the Japanese tourist. According to the research results, novelty-seeking, experiencing local culture and customs
C. C. Tu; D. Y. Liou
Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…
Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine
The idea for a family literacy event resulted because teachers wanted more time to share reading strategies with parents, and parents wanted more information on how they could support and encourage their children with reading at home. With great success, Holy Cross School, Kemptville, Ontario, hosted a Family Literacy Night that coincided with the…
For 25 years, Portland Night High School (Oregon) has offered students with a job or family a way to complete high school. School features include individualized progression, nongraded credit-accrual based on task completion and demonstrated competency, relevant projects and activities, small class size, a model school-to-work program, and student…
At the International Labor Conference held in Geneva in June 1990, the following topics were discussed: the Director-General's report on the environment and the world of work; night work; safety in the use of chemicals; working conditions in hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments; and the promotion of self-employment. (JOW)
Labour Education, 1990
A night-time thermal image from the ASTER satellite sensor, of the western New territories of Hong Kong is compared with a daytime Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM? ) thermal image obtained nineteen days earlier. Densely built high rise areas which appear cool on daytime images are conversely, relatively warm on nighttime images, though the temperature differences are not well
A detailed account of the various categories of sleep patterns (or stages) and the general characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) periods encountered in a series of all night EEG recordings on a group of non-sleep deprived subjects is presented. (Aut...
A night of sleep has been recorded under the conditions of a sleep laboratory. The subject was a woman of 55 years, well-trained in dream recall. The subject was awakened three times at the end of sleep cycles. EEG was monitored for 7 h with a 16-channel polygraph (REEGA 16, Alvar) connected to two systems of EEG cartography: minicomputers (HP
P. Etevenon; S. Guillou
The increasing use of lasers on the modern battlefield may necessitate the wear of laser eye protection devices (LEPDs) by warfighters. Unfortunately, LEPDs that protect against visible laser wavelengths often reduce overall light transmittance and a wearer's vision can be degraded, especially in low light conditions. Wearing night vision goggles (NVGs) provides laser eye protection behind the goggles, but NVGs
Gary Martinsen; Paul Havig; James Dykes; Thomas Kuyk; Leon McLin
The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…
McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.
The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…
Purpose. Congenital stationary night blindness is a nonprogressive retinal disorder manifesting as impaired night vision and is generally associated with other ocular symptoms, such as nystagmus, myopia, and strabismus. This study was conducted to further investigate the genetic basis of CSNB in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Methods. A consanguineous family with multiple individuals manifesting cardinal symptoms of congenital stationary night blindness was ascertained. All family members underwent detailed ophthalmic examination, including fundus photographic examination and electroretinography. Blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Exclusion and genome-wide linkage analyses were completed and two-point LOD scores were calculated. Bidirectional sequencing of GNAT1 was completed, and quantitative expression of Gnat1 transcript levels were investigated in ocular tissues at different postnatal intervals. Results. The results of ophthalmic examinations were suggestive of early-onset stationary night blindness with no extraocular anomalies. The genome-wide scan localized the critical interval to chromosome 3, region p22.1-p14.3, with maximum two-point LOD scores of 3.09 at ? = 0, flanked by markers D3S3522 and D3S1289. Subsequently, a missense mutation in GNAT1, p.D129G, was identified, which segregated within the family, consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, and was not present in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Expression analysis suggested that Gnat1 is expressed at approximately postnatal day (P)7 and is predominantly expressed in the retina. Conclusions. These data suggest that a homozygous missense mutation in GNAT1 is associated with autosomal recessive stationary night blindness.
Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Chavali, Venkata R. M.; Ali, Shahbaz; Iqbal, Muhammad; Riazuddin, Saima; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Sieving, Paul A.; Ayyagari, Radha; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding
In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.
Cauthen, Nancy K.
Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.
Tucker, G. E.
OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.?METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.?RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.???Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring
Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia.
Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia. PMID:1998605
Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G
Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in a group of 288 workers (259 women and 29 men) employed in a confectionery plant. A group of workers (96 women and 31 men) not exposed to confectionery manufacture were also studied as controls. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was higher in exposed than in control workers, being greatest for confectionery workers exposed to the dust of flour, talc, and starch and the vapours of alcohol. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 7% of the women and 21% of the men, and chest tightness was reported by 27% of women and 66% of men. There was a high prevalence of acute irritative symptoms during the workshift in all groups of confectionery workers, especially for cough, dyspnoea, burning and dryness of the throat, and eye irritation. For all groups of confectionery workers there were statistically significant across shift reductions in ventilatory capacity, being most pronounced for maximum flow rate at 50% of the control vital capacity (FEF50; range 4.6-13.0%) and at 25% of the control vital capacity (FEF25; range 4.7-22.3%). Preshift values of FEF50 and FEF25 were significantly lower than predicted values. The data suggest that some workers employed in confectionery plants may develop acute and chronic respiratory symptoms associated with changes in lung function.
Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J
This study draws attention to difficulties in the diagnosis and the understanding of the mechanism of action of mushroom compost worker's lung. Descriptions are given of 4 workers in one factory who developed acute respiratory failure within a 6-month period; 13 others who were unaffected were also studied. Serological investigation appears to be largely unhelpful, and the evidence against the condition being included amongst the extrinsic allergic alveolitides is discussed. A detailed clinical and occupational history is essential for diagnosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.
Phillips, M S; Robinson, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Calder, I M
High-latitude environments, such as the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, are subject to seasonally segregated light-dark cycles, which have important consequences for microbial diversity and function on an annual basis. Owing largely to the logistical difficulties of sampling polar environments during the darkness of winter, little is known about planktonic microbial community responses to the cessation of photosynthetic primary production during the austral sunset, which lingers from approximately February to April. Here, we hypothesized that changes in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic community structure, particularly shifts in favor of chemolithotrophs and mixotrophs, would manifest during the transition to polar night. Our work represents the first concurrent molecular characterization, using 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic communities in permanently ice-covered lakes Fryxell and Bonney, before and during the polar night transition. We found vertically stratified populations that varied at the community and/or operational taxonomic unit-level between lakes and seasons. Network analysis based on operational taxonomic unit level interactions revealed nonrandomly structured microbial communities organized into modules (groups of taxa) containing key metabolic potential capacities, including photoheterotrophy, mixotrophy and chemolithotrophy, which are likely to be differentially favored during the transition to polar night. PMID:24152712
Vick-Majors, Trista J; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A
Toluene is widely used in adhesive, printing, painting and petroleum industries in many countries. This study was conducted to examine the effect of chronic exposure to toluene below 100ppm on neurobehavioral performance using a computerized neurobehavioral test battery that emphasizes simple instructions and practice prior to testing. The Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with Korean language instructions was administered to 54 workers from three different industries: oil refinery, gravure printing, and rubber boat manufacturing. The battery consisted of the following tests: Digit Span (DS), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Selective Attention (SAT), Finger Tapping (FT), and Symbol Digit (SD). Urine was collected at the end-of-shift to analyze urinary hippuric acid to assess exposure level to toluene. Based on the previous air toluene level, workers were divided into three groups: Low (21 workers, less than 10ppm), Moderate (13 workers, 20-30ppm) and High (20 workers, 70-80ppm) exposure status. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) adjusting for age, education and work duration as covariates, was performed to examine the relationship between the neurobehavioral performance and the exposure groups. Poorer performance of the High exposure group was found on FT-preferred (F=7.034, p=0.002) and SAT latency (F=11.710, p=0.000). Age showed a significant correlation with SD (r=0.417, p=0.002) and SAT number correct (r=-0.460, p=0.000). Years of education and work duration were not significantly correlated with any items. This study supports that toluene exposure below 100ppm is associated with neurobehavioral changes and that high-level toluene exposure could cause not only attention and concentration, but also motor performance deficits. PMID:21783537
Kang, Seong-Kyu; Rohlman, Diane S; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye-Sil; Chung, Soo-Young; Anger, W Kent
GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. The GLOBE Program is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and Colorado State University with funding from NASA, NSF, and the U.S. Department of State.
Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.
The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of the attacks. However, the symptoms express themselves within the form of the sleepwalking/night terror syndrome rather than as rapid eye movement sleep related nightmares. The main group of subjects with the syndrome and with no history of major psychological trauma show no clinical or DIS-Q evidence of dissociation during wakefulness. The proposition that, within the character structure of this group, the mechanism still operates but exclusively within sleep remains a possibility. PMID:11264487
Hartman, D; Crisp, A H; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S
We compared polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener profiles of embryos of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting in an urban-industrialized area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, with those of regurgitated food boluses from nestlings and their primary prey. Consistent with previous studies of piscivorous birds, the PCB burden of embryos was shifted towards more heavily chlorinated congeners (those with 6, 7, and 8
Jeffrey M. Levengood; David J. Schaeffer
The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…
Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina
From two different conferences, (1) presents conclusions and recommendations from an international forum on integrated rural development and workers' education, and (2) gives some idea of the problems of workers' education in a time of change, specifically in Ireland. The latter is from the author's paper at an international conference of workers'…
This is a report on the worker retaining program administered by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. The program provides job retraining to workers unable to find jobs in their current fields. Since 1993, the program has served more than 44,000 unemployed and displaced workers at 34 state community colleges and over…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.
The phase-alternated experiment in liquids, a multiple-pulse NMR experiment capable of scaling chemical shifts, is examined theoretically and experimentally. The theory of the experiment is worked out using both the average-Hamiltonian and classical magne...
J. D. Ellett J. S. Waugh
An analysis of historical storm data reveals that the average latitude at which tropical cyclones attain their maximum intensity has undergone a pronounced shift towards the poles over the past three decades. See Letter p.349
This research effort measured the spectral and temporal dynamics of human auditory attentional control, concentrating on the requirements for efficient shifting of auditory attention within the frequency spectrum of normal human hearing.
A. Reeves B. Scharf
Young people who leave school must have access to education to help them in their working life and in their life in the community. Young worker education is the link between school and the life-long process of education. (ABM)
In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)
Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid
In order to investigate loss of work from rheumatic diseases in the metal trades, employees in 10 foundries were questioned.Of 325 foundry workers aged 35 to 74 years, who had worked for at least 10 years on the foundry floor, 299 were examined clinically and radiologically for evidence of rheumatic disease. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and dorsal and lumbar
J. S. Lawrence; M. K. Molyneux; Ianthe Dingwall-Fordyce
THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…
Rimmer, Alan, Ed.
To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.
Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith
This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…
Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-...
J. C. Hedgecock
An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…
Deeb, William S.
This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…
Barker, Ellen; And Others
Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)
Being part of a “learning community” requires that knowledge workers keep themselves informed of developments in their area of expertise. However, as we all know, an information saturation problem exists, not least because of the Internet. Modes of informing are specific to each person’s concerns, as are the topics they want to be informed about. Libraries and information centers have
Paul Martin; Mike Metcalfe
This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
The Public Assistance Worker Job Trial was developed for use as a personnel selection tool for the position of Income Maintenance Worker Trainee within the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare. This report outlines the steps taken to develop and cons...
A. I. Fiks H. P. Bawden S. W. Davies J. D. Gaspari A. M. Meek
The author suggests that labor education, by its organization through trade unions, is clearly distinguished from general adult education activities, although workers obviously participate in adult education. He discusses various ILO workers' education programs around the world. (MF)
Whitehouse, John R. W.
... Work Zone In-house Fatality Investigation Reports Highway Work Zone State-based Fatality Investigation Reports Horse Racing - Safety and Health Immigrant Workers Challenges to Worker Safety and Health Organizations Publications and Reports Indoor Environmental Quality Dampness and ...
Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.
Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.
To investigate the breadth of visual illusions experienced by aviators flying with night vision devices (NVDs), an open-ended questionnaire was distributed to the military helicopter community. Of the 242 returned questionnaires, there were 221 image intensification (I2) reports and 21 thermal imaging system reports. Most sensory events occurred at night, during low illumination, good weather, and over varied terrain. Contributing factors included inexperience, division of attention, and fatigue. Frequently reported illusions were misjudgments of drift, clearance, height above the terrain, and attitude. Also reported were illusions due to external lights and disturbed depth perception caused by differences in brightness between I2 tubes. Other respondents cited hardware problems and physiological effects. There were no obvious differences between the experiences of I2 users and FLIR (forward-looking infrared) users. Although incidence rates cannot be inferred from these data, the variety of aviator reports will be useful to all those connected with the human factors and safety of NVDs.
Crowley, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.; Stephens, Robert L.
New telescopes, small and not that small, are nowadays often designed to be handled without anybody close to them at night. Why would you try to do the same with a big old observatory, definitely not designed with remote operation in mind? This talk will present the many advantages of moving toward remote operations, from the obvious reduction in staff needed at night or the more comfortable setting of the observers when the site is in a harsh environment (like Mauna Kea), to the more subtle collateral benefits like a constant monitoring of the health of the facility, the telescope, and its instrumentation, an automatic alert system, the ability to remotely diagnose problems, which all make the life of the staff much easier and failures a much rarer occurrence. At the end, less downtime, cheaper operation, and better observations for better science.
If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.
Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.
For night remote surveillance, we present a method, the range-gated laser stroboscopic imaging(RGLSI), which uses a new kind of time delay integration mode to integrate target signals so that night remote surveillance can be realized by a low-energy illuminated laser. The time delay integration in this method has no influence on the video frame rate. Compared with the traditional range-gated laser imaging, RGLSI can reduce scintillation and target speckle effects and significantly improve the image signal-to-noise ratio analyzed. Even under low light level and low visibility conditions, the RGLSI system can effectively work. In a preliminary experiment, we have detected and recognized a railway bridge one kilometer away under a visibility of six kilometers, when the effective illuminated energy is 29.5 ?J.
Wang, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Song-Tao; He, Jun; Liu, Yu-Liang
Employees' attitudes toward a proposed 4-day, 40-hour workweek were examined relative to job and worker variables, expectations about the new workweek schedule, and job-aspect satisfactions. Employees classified by their sex, work shifts, wage schedules, and sex and work shifts differed significantly in their attitudes toward the 4-day, 40-hour…
Dickinson, Terry L.; Wijting, Jan P.
This radio show explains why the night sky appears dark in spite of the fact that almost all of the space inside our solar system is filled with the light of the sun. The show describes how the shadow of the Earth touches the moon during a lunar eclipse and how to observe the shadow of the Earth during the evening. The clip lasts 1 minute, 34 seconds.
C3 plants dominate many landscapes and are critically important for ecosystem water cycling.At night,plant water losses can include transpiration (Enight) from the canopy and hydraulic redistribution (HR) from roots. We tested whether Enight limits the magnitude of HR in a greenhouse study using Artemisia tridentata, Helianthus anomalus and Quercus laevis. Plants were grown with their roots split between two compartments.
AVA R. HOWARD; MARC W. VAN IERSEL; JAMES H. RICHARDS; LISA A. DONOVAN
The paper presents night-time vehicle classification using an embedded vision system based on an optical transient sensor. This neuromorphic sensor features an array of 128times128 pixels that respond to relative light intensity changes with low latency and high dynamic range. The proposed algorithm exploits the temporal resolution and sparse representation of the data, delivered by the sensor in the data-driven
Gerhard Gritsch; Nikolaus Donath; Bernhard Kohn; Martin Litzenberger
This Classroom Connectors lesson plan teaches young students that day and night result from the rotation of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.
A mathematical model of atmospheric optics was developed to predict the nighttime sky-glow impacts of a proposed nuclear waste repository in a national park. The prediction performance of the Night-Sky-Glow Model was evaluated to the extent possible with existing data. The model was applied to the proposed facility from several viewpoints within the park and the potential for normal perception
Mark A. Yocke; Henry Hogo; Don Henderson
We bring together our general results in two figures. Figure 14 portrays the resolution of the light of the night sky into its three principal components based on a series of zenith observations extending over a year at the two stationse: Fritz Peak in Colorado, U.S.A., (latitude N 39°.9, longitude W 105°.5) and Haleakala in Hawaii, U.S.A. (latitude N 20°.7,
F. E. Roach
We bring together our general results in two figures. Figure 14 portrays the resolution of the light of the night sky into its three principal components based on a series of zenith observations extending over a year at the two stationse: Fritz Peak in Colorado, U.S.A., (latitude N 39°.9, longitude W 105°.5) and Haleakala in Hawaii, U.S.A. (latitude N 20°.7,
F. E. Roach
Results are presented for a measurement of the night sky background outside the planes of the Milky Way and the ecliptic, which was performed at a wavelength of 2.4 microns with a balloon-borne dry-ice-cooled IR telescope. The contribution due to airglow is taken into account, and an upper limit of 6 x 10 to the -11th power W\\/sq cm per
W. Hofmann; D. Lemke
Registration of thermal images is complicated by distinctive differences in the appearance of day and night features needed as control in the registration process. These changes are unlike those that occur between Landsat scenes and pose unique constraints. Experimentation with several potentially promising techniques has led to selection of a fairly simple scheme for registration of data from the experimental thermal satellite HCMM using an affine transformation. Two registration examples are provided.
Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L.
Aim:To analyse nystagmus characteristics in patients with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) for differentiation from other forms of early childhood nystagmus.Methods:Horizontal and vertical eye movements of 10 patients (6–46 years, mean 17.1 years, median 12.5 years) with CSNB (eight with CSNB1, two with CSNB2) were recorded with the scleral magnetic search coil technique or by electro-oculography. Nystagmus characteristics such as
C Pieh; B Simonsz-Toth; I Gottlob
The requirements to assess the compatibility of aircraft cockpit lighting with night vision goggles (NVGs) are defined in MIL-L-85762A, Lighting, Aircraft, Interior, Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Compatible. However, the procedures specified to evalu...
J. D. Reising J. C. Antonio B. Fields
...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...
...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...
Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) systems can be used to secure environments by sensing potential intruders and alerting security personnel to any security risks. To achieve this, the system compares the input from a camera to a reference image quantifying the level of change between the images, raising the alarm if this change is greater than a set triggering level. Morphological operators are than used to reduce the effect of any image change not related to a potential security risk; this includes noise and other minor changes thus decreasing the risk of false alarms. However in low light conditions MSCD systems can fail due to the reduced intensity differences between images containing security threats and reference images. This paper documents a proof of concept for a system that would use night vision images to address this problem. Here a low light scope camera attachment is used in place of a night vision camera and shows modifications to the previous MSCD system, which improves the performance when used with night vision images. The analysis of the modified system's performance in different low light environments, this includes analysis of appropriate binary threshold and alarm triggering levels for a range of environments. The latter includes indoors at a distance, indoors at close range, outdoors at a distance and outdoors at close range. The results shown demonstrate that MSCD systems operating in low light conditions have the potential to be used as a useful tool in a security system and are compared to the original to demonstrate the improvement.
Jarvis, Benjamin; Tickle, Andrew J.
The Museum of Modern Art's online exhibition "Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night" is the first exhibit to organize his paintings around the theme of night and twilight paintings. Since Van Gogh could not work solely from memory or imagination, he created these paintings in the dark or near dark. Some of his paintings, however, were of indoor light at night, so he didn't always face the obstacle of complete darkness. This exhibit is very straightforward and well organized, and includes audio clips, drawings, pages from his journal, and extremely high quality images that let you see those thick swathes of paint he so successfully employed. The exhibit also clues you in as to his relationship with his brother and sister, to whom he sometimes sent drawings of his work, or descriptions of the colors he was planning on using in a piece. Visitors shouldn't leave without contrasting his traditional and somber "Early Landscapes" of the Netherlands, where he was born, to his later landscapes of France, that have strong uses of vibrant color. The "Sowers and Wheatfields" section has some good examples of this use of color.
Temperatures of exposed horizontal and vertical soybean leaves (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Chippewa) were measured on calm, clear nights with temperatures near freezing. Average leaf-air temperature differences for 5 nights were -1.5 C and -1.0 C for horizontal and vertical leaves respectively. The horizontal leaves were cooler than the vertical leaves. The mean of all observed horizontal-vertical leaf temperature differences was -0.5 C with a maximum average for 1 night of -0.8 C, while maximum differences theoretically attainable in similar leaves were calculated to be -1.7 C. No differences were observed in the extent of frost damage in horizontal and vertical leaves. The apparent reduction in frost damage in vertical leaves observed by Charles Darwin was probably caused by his method of using corks to hold the horizontal leaves and not by leaf orientation. Theoretical considerations and the experimental results indicate that nyctinastic leaf movements probably do not provide significant protection from frost for any plants. PMID:16657763
Schwintzer, C R
This book contains seven chapters on work and older workers based on an international symposium held at the University of South Florida in 1989. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Corporate Sector's Stake in Older Workers" (Daniel Knowles); (2) "A Seller's Market for Older Workers" (Audrey Freedman); (3) "Retirees' Reentry into…
Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public
Tim Takaro; Jordan Firestone
Contingent workers constitute a vital component of the workforce for many companies. A recent estimate has placed the number of contingent workers in the United States at 3 million, with about half, or one and one half million, performing the same services for the same company for six months or longer. However, the vast majority of companies using contingent workers
Bob Lanza; Michael R. Maryn; Robert J. Elders
This article evaluates the quality of workers' information regarding pension offerings using both administrative records and worker repor ts of pension provisions. Missing and incorrect information is widesp read. Unionized employees, higher income workers, better educated wor kers, and those with seniority are better informed about their pensio ns. There are also demographic differences: minorities have less pens ion knowledge
Olivia S. Mitchell
A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…
North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.
Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…
Nisbet, Michael K.
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387
Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin
Night blindness is the most common ocular condition representing moderate-to-severe vitamin A deficiency in children. Very little, however, is known about maternal night blindness, which has recently been reported to occur frequently during pregnancy in parts of south-east Asia. In Nepal, the prevalence of night blindness is reported to be 16%. We carried out an ethnographic study of night blindness
Parul Christian; Margaret E. Bentley; Rajendra Pradhan; Keith P. West
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
An 8 h\\/5-7 day shift schedule was compared with a newly instituted 12 h\\/2-4 day schedule in this, our second worksite study of extended workshifts. Workers completed a performance\\/alertness test battery, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits, 2-4 times a week on all shifts. After 10 months adaptation to the 12 h shift schedule, there were
ROGER R. ROSA; MICHAEL H. BONNET
Two experiments investigated preschoolers' interference control in variants of the day-night task. The day-night task involves instructing children across 16 trials to say the word "day" when viewing a card depicting a nighttime sky and to say "night" when shown a picture of the daytime sky. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate…
Montgomery, Derek E.; Anderson, Maren; Uhl, Elizabeth
For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…
Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie