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1

Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Night-shift work is associated with ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. It is not currently known whether it may be causally linked to metabolic syndrome (MS), a risk condition for ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. The syndrome presents with visceral obesity associated with mild alterations in glucidic and lipidic homeostasis, and in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess whether a causal

A Pietroiusti; A Neri; G Somma; L Coppeta; I Iavicoli; A Bergamaschi; A Magrini

2010-01-01

2

Circadian phase, sleepiness, and light exposure assessment in night workers with and without shift work disorder.  

PubMed

Most night workers are unable to adjust their circadian rhythms to the atypical hours of sleep and wake. Between 10% and 30% of shiftworkers report symptoms of excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia consistent with a diagnosis of shift work disorder (SWD). Difficulties in attaining appropriate shifts in circadian phase, in response to night work, may explain why some individuals develop SWD. In the present study, it was hypothesized that disturbances of sleep and wakefulness in shiftworkers are related to the degree of mismatch between their endogenous circadian rhythms and the night-work schedule of sleep during the day and wake activities at night. Five asymptomatic night workers (ANWs) (3 females; [mean ± SD] age: 39.2 ± 12.5 yrs; mean yrs on shift = 9.3) and five night workers meeting diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Sleep Disorders [ICSD]-2) for SWD (3 females; age: 35.6 ± 8.6 yrs; mean years on shift = 8.4) participated. All participants were admitted to the sleep center at 16:00 h, where they stayed in a dim light (<10 lux) private room for the study period of 25 consecutive hours. Saliva samples for melatonin assessment were collected at 30-min intervals. Circadian phase was determined from circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin onset (dim light melatonin onset, DLMO) calculated for each individual melatonin profile. Objective sleepiness was assessed using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT; 13 trials, 2-h intervals starting at 17:00 h). A Mann-Whitney U test was used for evaluation of differences between groups. The DLMO in ANW group was 04:42 ± 3.25 h, whereas in the SWD group it was 20:42 ± 2.21 h (z = 2.4; p night work time (01:00-09:00 h) was significantly shorter (3.6 ± .90 min: [M ± SEM]) in the SWD group compared with that in ANW group (6.8 ± .93 min). DLMO was significantly correlated with insomnia severity (r = -.68; p < .03), indicating that the workers with more severe insomnia symptoms had an earlier timing of DLMO. Finally, SWD subjects were exposed to more morning light (between 05:00 and 11:00 h) as than ANW ones (798 vs. 180 lux [M ± SD], respectively z =?-1.7; p night-shift workers. In contrast, individuals with SWD maintain a circadian phase position similar to day workers, leading to a mismatch/conflict between their endogenous rhythms and their sleep-wake schedule. PMID:22823876

Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

2012-08-01

3

[Diurnal blood pressure profiles in night shift workers with incipient changes of blood pressure level].  

PubMed

Aim. To study diurnal blood pressure profiles (DBPP) during work in different time of the day including nocturnal hours in persons with initial stages of blood pressure (BP) increase or decrease. Material and methods. The study cohort consisted of 995 locomotive drivers (46682 BP measurements) divided into groups with normal BP, higher normal BP, 1st stage arterial hypertension, and hypotension. DBPP was analyzed on the basis of the averaged curve for each group. Results. The averaged systolic DBPP in the normotonic group was of non-dipper type, while diastolic one was on the border between non-dipper and night-peaker. Patients with elevated BP and trend to BP elevation (beginning with higher normal BP) had reduced nocturnal BP lowering, particularly of diastolic BP. Its diurnal profile was clearly of night-peaker type. The main feature of DBPP in patients with hypotension was absence of evening BP rise characteristic for persons with normal BP and hypertension. PMID:23952951

Tsfasman, A Z; Alpaev, D V

2013-01-01

4

[Diurnal blood pressure rhythms in night shift workers in terms of age and work experience: issues of adaptation].  

PubMed

The circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) are studied in working persons within every hour of day and night by the means of multipoint measurements of BP in pre-shift period. The analysed cohort consists of 34 163 locomotive drivers (544 804 individual BP measurement points). Basing on these data the average diurnal BP profiles (DPBP) are plotted for different age and work experience groups. It is established that all DPBPs are of non-dipper type. This can be considered as a mechanism of adaptation being a compromise between work requirements and minimization of health hazard. This kind of adaptation develops approximately in one year period. PMID:24000723

Tsfasman, A Z; Alpaev, D V; Gorokhov, V D

2013-01-01

5

Night shift paralysis in air traffic control officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Folkard et al. 1984) we reported on the incidence of a temporary but incapacitating paralysis known as ‘night shift paralysis’. This appeared to be a special form of sleep paralysis that occurs when night workers manage to maintain a state of wakefulness despite considerable pressures to sleep. The incidence of this paralysis might thus be assumed

SIMON FOLKARD; RUTH CONDON

1987-01-01

6

Working Night Shift Slows Metabolism, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... daytime routines on their days off. So their biological clocks wouldn't have the chance to flip to a new norm. And where does this leave shift workers? Wright, the dietitian, said that people can do their best to eat healthy foods and fit time in for exercise when they' ...

7

Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker  

PubMed Central

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim

2009-01-01

8

Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.  

PubMed

The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24?h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor?=?50.26?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude?=?45.24?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13?h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

2015-02-01

9

[Work with night shift as a factor dysregulation of autonomic nervous system of locomotive drivers].  

PubMed

Work with night shift is an obligate necessity of modem industrial urban society. In developed countries in the work on the night shift use up to 20%. These categories of workers are definitely the locomotive drivers. The consequence of a regular work with night shifts is a violation of human circadian rhythms, which, through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, is reflected in a greater risk of disease and transport accidents. The need to find ways and criteria of preventive monitoring dysregulatory changes in the human body is an urgent and challenging issue in terms of the health of the working population, disease prevention, and transportation security. PMID:23805720

Merkulov, Y A; Pyatkov, A A; Merkulova, D M

2013-01-01

10

Night Shift May Boost Black Women's Diabetes Risk, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... Night Shift May Boost Black Women's Diabetes Risk, Study Finds Odds are highest for younger women and ... diabetes in black women, according to a new study. "In view of the high prevalence of shift ...

11

The dark side of night shifts.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence shows that night work can have a negative effect on health. With the NHS moving towards providing a seven-day, 24-hour service, more nurses may be required to work nights. Employers will have to take action to mitigate the potentially damaging effects. PMID:24734813

Duffin, Christian

12

Estimates of injury risks for healthcare personnel working night shifts and long hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Evidence suggests that working long hours or unconventional shifts (night, evening and rotating shifts) can induce fatigue and stress in healthcare employees that might jeopardise quality of care and patient safety.Methods:This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 13 years of occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, covering nearly 11 000 American workers. During the study

A E Dembe; R Delbos; J B Erickson

2009-01-01

13

Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bjørn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Ståle

2013-01-01

14

9/7/12 To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift 1/3www.voanews.com/content/to-avoid-humans-tigers-take-night-shift/1503593.html  

E-print Network

9/7/12 To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift 1/3www.voanews.com/content/to-avoid-humans-tigers & Technology To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift A tiger's eyes glow during the night on the same foot and Sustainability, Michigan State University) Rosanne Skirble September 07, 2012 Tigers don't have a reputation

15

NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training - a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction  

PubMed Central

Background NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model. A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. Results In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction. In addition to this main result – the NightShift framework itself – we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. Conclusion By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators. The framework can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/akdehof/nightshift. It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via https://ballaxy.bioinf.uni-sb.de/. PMID:23496927

2013-01-01

16

Hospital Workers Wash Hands Less At End of Shift  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Workers Wash Hands Less at End of Shift, Study Finds New ... HealthDay News) -- Health workers in hospitals wash their hands less often as they near the end of ...

17

Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

Lau, Chui Shan

2011-01-01

18

Sleep Strategies of Night-Shift Nurses on Days Off: Which Ones are Most Adaptive?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night-shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy. Methods: African-American and non-Hispanic White female, night-shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep–wake patterns (n?=?213). Participants completed the standard shiftwork index and the biological clocks questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night-shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. Most participants worked ~3 consecutive 12-h night-shifts followed by several days off. Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: (a) night stay, (b) nap proxy, (c) switch sleeper, (d) no sleep, and (e) incomplete switcher. Nap proxy and no sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night-shift work. The switch sleeper and incomplete switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems. Conclusion: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25566182

Petrov, Megan E.; Clark, C. Brendan; Molzof, Hylton E.; Johnson, Russell L.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Gamble, Karen L.

2014-01-01

19

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people -Indian Express 1/2www.indianexpress.com/news/tigers-in-nepal-take-the-night-shift-to-coexist-with-people/997714/  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people - Indian Express 1/2www.indianexpress.com/news/tigers-in-nepal-take-the-night-shift-to-coexist-with-people/997714/ Key Words | Unfashion | Talk Updated: Tue, 4 Sep 2012 14:24 IST Share | Tigers in Nepal take the night shift

20

Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?  

PubMed

Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift. PMID:25683536

Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

2015-05-01

21

Is there an optimum number of night shifts? Relationship between sleep, health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

By concentrating on the impact of a specific shift-system feature on the well-being of those concerned, rather than on the impact of the shift system as a whole, one might be able to offer more meaningful suggestions as to what constitutes a better form of shift system. The present study focused on the impact of the number of consecutive night

Jane Barton; Evelien Spelten; Peter Totterdell; Lawrence Smith; Simon Folkard

1995-01-01

22

Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload.  

PubMed

Shift work is associated with nutritional and health problems. In the present study, the food intake of garbage collectors of the city of Florianopolis (Brazil) was investigated using a dietary survey method based on meal recording during 24 h and adapted for the Brazilian food context. Three different shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) were compared (n=22 per shift). Age, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were similar for all groups. Daily energy expenditure was high in all three shifts, especially in morning shift workers. No difference in daily energy intake was found, in spite of differences in food choices and circadian ingestion rhythms. Energy intake was high and close to levels previously reported in athletes. Several factors not associated with shifts had significant impact on ingestion: hour of the day, time since the last meal, age, and BMI. Ingested foods were analyzed in groups based on nutrient content. Shifts significantly influenced intake of starches, alcoholic drinks, and sweets. In different periods of the day, food and nutrient intake were considerably affected by shifts. The analysis of circadian distribution of food choices and nutrient intake is important in shift workers, because total daily intake may not reveal shift-associated differences. PMID:12781167

de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; Kupek, Emil; Nahas, Markus Vinícius; Bellisle, France

2003-04-01

23

9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715 RSS Feeds » Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people posted on: september 3, 2012 7:30pm TweetTweet Tigers don't have a reputation for being

24

Disturbances in Hormonal Profiles of Night Workers during Their Usual Sleep and Work Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the authors reported that the 24-h rhythms of pituitary and adrenal hormones—that is, thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone, and cortisol—adapted only partially in a group of permanent night workers. However, the real impact of circadian rhythm alterations on the health and well-being of subjects is still unclear. In this study, the authors focus on an

L. Weibel; G. Brandenberger

1998-01-01

25

Evaluation of oxidative stress parameters and metabolic activities of nurses working day and night shifts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress and metabolic activities of nurses working day and night shifts. Intensive care unit (ICU) (n=70) and ordinary service (OS) nurses (n=70) were enrolled in the study. Just before and the end of the shifts, blood samples were obtained to measure the participants' oxidative stress parameters. Metabolic activities were analyzed using the SenseWear Armband. Oxidative stress parameters were increased at the end of the shifts for all OS and ICU nurses compared to the beginning of the shifts. Compared to the OS nurses, the ICU nurses' TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were not significantly different at the end of the day and night shifts. The metabolic activities of the OS and ICU nurses were found to be similar. As a result, the OS and ICU nurses' oxidative stress parameters and metabolic activities were not different, and all of the nurses experienced similar effects from both the day and night shifts. PMID:23743917

Ulas, Turgay; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Kirhan, Idris; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Ulas, Sevilay; Demir, Mehmet Emin; Eren, Mehmet Ali; Ucar, Mehmet; Hazar, Abdussamet; Kurkcuoglu, Ibrahim Can; Aksoy, Nurten

2013-04-01

26

Personality factors related to shift work tolerance in two- and three-shift workers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate whether different personality variables were associated with shift work tolerance, and whether these potential associations were moderated by various types of shift work. The sample comprised 1505 nurses who worked either two or three rotating shifts. Personality traits were measured in terms of morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness. Morningness reflects the tendency to be alert relatively early in the morning and sleepy relatively early in the evening. Flexibility denotes the ability to both work and sleep at odd times of the day, while languidity concerns the tendency to become tired/sleepy when cutting down on sleep. Hardiness relates to resilience to stressful life events. The dependent variables in this study comprised of measures of insomnia, sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses, which controlled for demographic variables and work load, revealed that Morningness was significantly and negatively related to insomnia. The Morningness by Shift type interaction was overall significant for depressive symptoms. Morningness was near significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in three-shift workers, but unrelated to depressive symptoms in two-shift workers. Flexibility was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Flexibility by Shift type interaction was significant for insomnia, indicating that flexibility was negatively associated with insomnia for three-shift workers and unrelated with insomnia for two-shift workers. Languidity was associated with higher levels of sleepiness, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Hardiness was associated with lower levels of all four dependent variables. PMID:21172694

Natvik, Sylvia; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Magerøy, Nils; Sivertsen, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle

2011-07-01

27

Configuring retroreflective markings to enhance the night-time conspicuity of road workers.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the night-time conspicuity of road workers can be enhanced by positioning retroreflective strips on the moveable joints in patterns that convey varying degrees of biological motion. Participants were 24 visually normal adults (12 young M=26.8 years; 12 older M=72.9 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were recorded for each participant. Experimenters acting as road workers walked in place on a closed road circuit within simulated road work sites, facing either the oncoming driver or the roadway (presenting sideways to the driver) and wearing one of four clothing conditions: (i) standard road worker vest; (ii) standard vest plus thigh-mounted retroreflective strips; (iii) standard vest plus retroreflective strips on ankles and knees; (iv) standard vest plus retroreflective strips positioned on the extremities in a configuration that conveyed biological motion ("biomotion"). As they drove along the closed road participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first recognized that a road worker was present. The results demonstrated that regardless of the direction of walking, road workers wearing biomotion clothing were recognized at significantly (p<0.05) longer distances (3×), relative to the standard vest alone. Response distances were significantly shorter for the older drivers. Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of the ability to recognize road workers than was visual acuity or glare sensitivity. We conclude that adding retroreflective strips in the biomotion configuration can significantly improve road worker conspicuity regardless of the road worker's orientation and the age of the driver. PMID:24816151

Wood, Joanne M; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Tyrrell, Richard A

2014-09-01

28

Circadian disturbances after night-shift work onboard a naval ship.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate how night duties can affect the circadian rhythms of military personnel working onboard a naval ship. Twenty individuals on a regular day-work schedule from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. (serving as controls) and 40 individuals on night-shift duties participated in the study. Salivary melatonin and cortisol profiles were established within two 24-hour periods from 2-hour saliva samplings. Under the condition of abrupt shift in work/rest schedule, the majority of the navy officers (52%) retained their normal melatonin profiles. Twelve percent displayed a right phase shift in melatonin rhythm after night work. Nineteen percent exhibited distortions in the form of abnormal peaks or troughs, and 17% showed signs of disrupted rhythm in the form of low daytime levels of melatonin throughout the sampling period. No consistent relationship was found between the melatonin changes and various work stations of the ship. Prominent changes in the cortisol profile included unexpected peaks or troughs that may be related to the conditions that individuals were exposed to, i.e., high noise level in the engine room, as well as to performing intense tracking operations. The findings of this study (1) show the possible detrimental effects of shift duties on circadian rhythms, (2) highlight a wide interindividual variation in the manner in which the circadian systems respond to an abrupt phase shift in work/rest schedules, and (3) form the basis for further investigations into effective strategies to help military personnel cope with shift work, thereby maintaining health and high working standards while on duty. PMID:10709369

Goh, V H; Tong, T Y; Lim, C L; Low, E C; Lee, L K

2000-02-01

29

The distribution of sleepiness, sleep and work hours during a long distance morning trip: a comparison between night- and non-night workers.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ?10) and sleep restriction (?5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ?5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (?4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety. PMID:23357032

Di Milia, Lee; Kecklund, Göran

2013-04-01

30

Perceived mastery of work among shift workers in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between individual and work-related factors and perceived mastery of work among offshore shift workers. 2,406 employees of a Norwegian petroleum company were invited to participate. A web-based survey was used and 1336 completed questionnaires were returned (56%). Mastery of work was assessed using QPS Nordic Mastery Scale and the results were compared with a sample from the QPS Nordic study. Individual factors adjusted for were age, gender, marital status and personality. The following work-related factors were included: demands, control, support, night work and shift work home interference. Female offshore shift workers reported higher levels of perceived mastery of work compared with women in the comparison sample. The following variables were independently associated with perceived mastery of work: female gender (?=0.10, p=0.008), decisional demands (?=0.13, p<0.001), control (?=0.05, p=0.009), social support (?=0.07, p<0.001), shift-work locus of control (?=0.04, p=0.005) and neuroticism (?=-0.29, p<0.001). Post hoc analyses showed no sex differences in perceived mastery in two separate work positions on the platforms. Work-related variables and personality explained 55% and 45% respectively of the total variance (R(2)=0.22) explained by the final model. Female petroleum offshore workers reported somewhat higher levels of mastery of work than their male colleagues, however, this may be due to different work positions. Work-related factors accounted for about half of the explained variance and decisional demands, control and support remained statistically significant after controlling for personality. PMID:23095327

Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

2013-01-01

31

Napping on the Night Shift: A Study of Sleep, Performance, and Learning in Physicians-in-Training  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians in training experience fatigue from sleep loss, high workload, and working at an adverse phase of the circadian rhythm, which collectively degrades task performance and the ability to learn and remember. To minimize fatigue and sustain performance, learning, and memory, humans generally need 7 to 8 hours of sleep in every 24-hour period. Methods In a naturalistic, within-subjects design, we studied 17 first- and second-year internal medicine residents working in a tertiary care medical center, rotating between day shift and night float every 4 weeks. We studied each resident for 2 weeks while he/she worked the day shift and for 2 weeks while he/she worked the night float, objectively measuring sleep by wrist actigraphy, vigilance by the Psychomotor Vigilance Task test, and visual-spatial and verbal learning and memory by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Results Residents, whether working day shift or night float, slept approximately 7 hours in every 24-hour period. Residents, when working day shift, consolidated their sleep into 1 main sleep period at night. Residents working night float split their sleep, supplementing their truncated daytime sleep with nighttime on-duty naps. There was no difference in vigilance or learning and memory, whether residents worked day shift or night float. Conclusions Off-duty sleep supplemented with naps while on duty appears to be an effective strategy for sustaining vigilance, learning, and memory when working night float. PMID:24455014

McDonald, Jennifer; Potyk, Darryl; Fischer, David; Parmenter, Brett; Lillis, Teresa; Tompkins, Lindsey; Bowen, Angela; Grant, Devon; Lamp, Amanda; Belenky, Gregory

2013-01-01

32

Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

2014-01-01

33

9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us...  

E-print Network

the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep the humans wh... 2/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep to avoid the humans wh... 3/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep

34

Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shift work is associated with nutritional and health problems. In the present study, the food intake of garbage collectors of the city of Florianopolis (Brazil) was investigated using a dietary survey method based on meal recording during 24 h and adapted for the Brazilian food context. Three different shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) were compared (n=22 per shift). Age, body

Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis; Emil Kupek; Markus Vin??cius Nahas; France Bellisle

2003-01-01

35

Circadian Adaptation to Night Shift Work Influences Sleep, Performance, Mood and the Autonomic Modulation of the Heart  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF?HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules. PMID:23923024

Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

2013-01-01

36

Arrhythmias and increased neuro-endocrine stress response during physicians' night shifts: a randomized cross-over trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of a 24 h (h) physicians on-call duty (OCD) ('night shift') on 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate variability, blood pressure (BP), and various biochemical serum and urine 'stress markers' compared with a 'regular' day at work. Methods and results The study was designed as a prospective randomized cross-over trial with each physician completing a 24

Markus Rauchenzauner; Florian Ernst; Florian Hintringer; Hanno Ulmer; Christoph F. Ebenbichler; Marie-Therese Kasseroler; Michael Joannidis

2009-01-01

37

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/ Tuesday, Sep > General News Email this Facebook Twitter 0 Print this Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist

38

Effect of LED light stimulation on sleep latency in night shift people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep problems are getting worse and worse in modern world. They have a severe impact on psychological and physical health, as well as social performances. From our previous study, the brainwave ? rhythm, ? wave and ? wave were affected by radiating the palm of the subjects with low-level laser array. In addition, from other study, the LED array stimulator (LEDAS) also has the similar effects. In the present study, LED light was used to radiate the left palm of the subjects too, and the effects were assessed with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis. The results revealed that it doesn't have significant meaning between these two groups. However, the tendency of the sleep latency (SL) in the LED group was shorter than that in the control group. In addition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) analysis showed that the sympathetic nervous system was getting larger in the LED group than that in the control group, and total ANS activity were mainly getting larger in the LED group. We infer that this LED stimulation could reduce SL and balance ANS activity of the night-shift people. In the future, the further study will be conducted on normal subjects.

Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Yang-Chyuan; Chiu, Hui-Ling; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chen, Ming-Jie; Chang, Yu-Ting

2014-05-01

39

The impact of rotating night shifts on the breast milk collection volume among employed breastfeeding mothers.  

PubMed

Objectives: The health benefits of breastfeeding are widely recognized. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months after birth and for two years or longer together with nutritionally adequate complementary foods. To respond to the needs of industry, employed breastfeeding mothers must adapt to the rotating night shift (RNS). However, the RNS is associated with a higher risk of health problems in career women. We investigated the relationship between the RNS and breast milk volume. Methods: Mothers who used a breastfeeding room while working at a technology company in Taiwan voluntarily participated in this study from March 1 through April 30, 2013. We compared two groups: breastfeeding mothers on (RNS(+)) and not on a RNS (RNS(-)) to determine independent predictors for breast milk volume. We analyzed data from 109 participants: RNS(+) group n = 56; RNS(-) group n = 53. Results: There was no significant difference in daily milk collection volume between the groups. Daily milk collection frequency and exclusive breastfeeding were independent predictors for a daily breast milk collection volume > 350 ml. Conclusions: The RNS may not affect the breast milk volume. This result may help the government and employers make policies more appropriate for supporting employed breastfeeding mothers. PMID:25410265

Huang, Chien-Cheng; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Lin, Shio-Jean; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Su, Shih-Bin; Hsu, Chien-Chin

2014-11-19

40

The Association between Shift Work and the Metabolic Syndrome in Female Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine identify any association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome by comparing the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome in shift work groups and daytime work groups for female workers. Methods Based on data from health examinations carried out from April to December of 2012, we selected as our subjects 254 female workers from the Daegu area Dyeing Industrial Complex. We diagnosed the metabolic syndrome using the examination results, and information about age, whether or not they did shift work, job type, smoking habits, drinking habits, exercise habits, and past medical history was collected through self-administered questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The variables found in a univariate analysis to be significant in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome - age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work - were included in a logistic regression analysis of the risk of the metabolic syndrome for female workers. Results The prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome for the total group of study subjects was 11.8%, for daytime workers was 2.8%, and for shift workers was 15.3%. A logistic regression analysis of the odds of the metabolic syndrome for female workers was conducted that included factors associated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome: age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work. The results revealed that the odds ratio of the metabolic syndrome in the shift work group, 6.30 (95% CI 1.24-32.15), was significantly higher when compared with the daytime work group. Conclusion Shift work appears to have an association with the metabolic syndrome in female workers. Accordingly, we believe that the attention of government agencies and business owners is needed together with the individual practice of health behaviors to manage the metabolic syndrome for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in female shift workers. PMID:24472469

2013-01-01

41

The Effectiveness of Light/Dark Exposure to Treat Insomnia in Female Nurses Undertaking Shift Work during the Evening/Night Shift  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized control study. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used to evaluate insomnia and anxiety/depression severity, respectively. Female hospital nurses on rotating shifts during the evening or night shift with an ISI score > 14 were enrolled. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 46) were exposed to bright light at 7,000-10,000 lux for ? 30 minutes. Exposure was continued for at least 10 days during 2 weeks, and the subjects avoided daytime outdoor sun exposure after work by wearing dark sunglasses. Subjects in the control group (n = 46) were not exposed to bright light, but also wore sunglasses after work. Statistical analyses were performed to examine group differences and differences across treatments. Results: After treatment, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the ISI score and the HADS total and subscale scores as compared with pre-treatment. The ISI, HADS, and subscales of the HADS scores were significantly improved across treatments in the treatment group as compared with the control group. Conclusions: The design of this study is easy to put into practice in the real world. This is the first study to document that a higher intensity and briefer duration of bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift with a daytime darkness procedure performed in rotating shift work female nurses suffering from clinical insomnia could improve their insomnia, anxiety, and depression severity. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 647. Citation: Huang LB; Tsai MC; Chen CY; Hsu SC. The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):641-646. PMID:23853555

Huang, Li-Bi; Tsai, Mei-Chu; Chen, Ching-Yen; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

2013-01-01

42

Twisting the night away: a review of the neurobiology, genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of shift work disorder.  

PubMed

Although not all individuals who work outside of standard daytime hours develop physical and psychiatric issues, there is a substantial portion of shift workers who develop shift work disorder. Shift work disorder is due to a misalignment between an individual's endogenous circadian rhythms and environmental stimuli, and can have potentially serious consequences to an individual's health and quality of life. This article reviews the neurobiological and genetic underpinnings of shift work disorder, and describes how desynchronization of the molecular clock may lead to both physical and psychiatric illnesses. Diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines to address the circadian misalignment, excessive sleepiness, and insomnia experienced by patients with shift work disorder are also discussed. PMID:24345709

Morrissette, Debbi Ann

2013-12-01

43

Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV. PMID:17637921

Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

2007-01-01

44

Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

2014-01-01

45

Rotating Night Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study Research can't prove cause-and-effect, ... a 25 percent higher risk of death from lung cancer, according to the study. The findings are to ...

46

Patient severity matters for night-shift workload for internal medicine residents in Taiwan.  

PubMed

BackgroundAlthough work hour is an important factors for resident workload, other contributing factors, such as patient severity, with regards to resident workload have been scarcely studied.MethodsA prospective observational cohort study was conducted in a general medicine unit in an academic medical center in Taiwan. Every event for which the nurses needed to call the on-call residents was recorded. To quantify the workload, the responses of on-duty residents to calls were analyzed. To allow comparisons of patient factors to be made, we classified all patients by assigning them stable, unstable, or do-not-resuscitate (DNR) codes. The reasons for the calls were categorized to facilitate the comparisons across these three groups.ResultsFrom October 2009 to September 2011, a total of 2,518 patients were admitted to the general medicine unit. The nurses recorded a total of 847 calls from 730 call nights, ranging from 0 to 7 per night. Two peaks of calls, at 0-2 am and 6-7 am, were noted. Calls from stable, unstable, and DNR patients were 442 (52.2%), 95 (11.2%), and 298 (35.2%), respectively. For both unstable and DNR patients, the leading reason was abnormal vital signs (62.1% and 67.1%, respectively), while only 36.2% for stable patients. Both unstable and DNR patients required more bedside evaluation and management compared to stable patients.ConclusionBeyond work hours and patient census, patients with different clinical severity and palliative goal produce different workload for on-call residents. PMID:25467773

Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Yang, Ming-Chin; Chang, Ray-E; Ko, Wen-Je

2014-12-01

47

The Effects of Shift Work on Sleeping Quality, Hypertension and Diabetes in Retired Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ?20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers. PMID:23976988

Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

2013-01-01

48

Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (? 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain. PMID:24933325

Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

2014-10-01

49

Rotating Shift-Work as an Independent Risk Factor for Overweight Italian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N?=?229), rotating shift workers (N?=?110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels. PMID:23675472

Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

2013-01-01

50

Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers  

PubMed Central

Background Sleepiness leads to a deterioration in performance and attention, and is associated with an increased risk of injury. Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep disorders which result in sleepiness and can elevate injury risk. They create a need for individuals to operate at times which are different to those dictated by their circadian rhythms. Consequently there is also a need for interventions to help ensure that these persons can do so safely. Caffeine has a potential role in promoting alertness during times of desired wakefulness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder, however its effects on injury and error are unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of caffeine for preventing injuries caused by impaired alertness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, TRANSPORT (to July 2008); and PubMed databases (to April 2010). We also searched the Internet and checked reference lists of relevant papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of caffeine on injury, error or cognitive performance in people with jet lag or shift work disorder. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened search results and assessed full texts for inclusion. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Estimates of treatment effect (odds ratio and standardised mean difference (SMD)) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and pooled using the fixed-effect model. Main results Thirteen trials were included. None measured an injury outcome. Two trials measured error, and the remaining trials used neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive performance. The trials assessing the impact on errors found that caffeine significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo. The pooled effect estimates on performance by cognitive domain suggest that, when compared to placebo, caffeine improved concept formation and reasoning (SMD ?0.41; 95% CI ?1.04 to 0.23), memory (SMD ?1.08; 95% CI ?2.07 to ?0.09), orientation and attention (SMD ?0.55; 95% CI ?0.83 to ?0.27) and perception (SMD ?0.77; 95% CI ?1.73 to 0.20); although there was no beneficial effect on verbal functioning and language skills (SMD 0.18; 95% CI ?0.50 to 0.87). One trial comparing the effects of caffeine with a nap found that there were significantly less errors made in the caffeine group. Other trials comparing caffeine with other active interventions (for example nap, bright light, modafinil) found no significant differences. There is a high risk of bias for the adequacy of allocation concealment and presence of selective outcome reporting amongst the trials. Authors’ conclusions Caffeine may be an effective intervention for improving performance in shift workers however, there are no trials from which we can assess its effect on injuries. The results largely originate from studies involving young participants under simulated conditions, and the extent to which the findings are generalisable to older workers and real world shift work is unclear. Based on the current evidence, there is no reason for healthy individuals who already use caffeine within recommended levels to improve their alertness to stop doing so. The assessment of the relative effects of caffeine to other potential countermeasures should be a focus of future research. PMID:20464765

Ker, Katharine; Edwards, Philip James; Felix, Lambert M; Blackhall, Karen; Roberts, Ian

2014-01-01

51

Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time  

PubMed Central

Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

2013-01-01

52

Associations between Diurnal 24-Hour Rhythm in Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability and the Timing and Amount of Meals during the Day Shift in Rotating Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

It has not hitherto been clarified whether there is an association between dietary behavior and circadian variation in autonomic nervous system activity among shift workers. This study examines diurnal 24-h rhythm in heart rate variability (HRV) and dietary behavior among rotating shift workers, while taking into account the sleep-wake cycle and physical activity. The subjects were 11 female and 2 male nurses or caregivers working in a rotating 2-shift system at a health care facility. All the subjects were asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings, and to record the time of each meal and the amounts of each food and beverage consumed. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz) of the periodic components and the integrated power of periodic components in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges. Then the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu) and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF) were calculated to assess cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sympathovagal balance, respectively. Single cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h period variations in both variables of HRV. Acrophases of HF nu and LF/HF expressed in time since awakening were significantly (p<0.05) delayed for subjects having breakfast at a later time after awakening. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that the timing of breakfast, the ratio of energy intake at dinner to total energy intake, and total energy intake were correlated to the acrophases of HF nu and/or LF/HF. These results suggest that the phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle may be associated with dietary behavior in shift workers. PMID:25211024

Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Kohe; Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

2014-01-01

53

Night terror  

MedlinePLUS

Pavor nocturnus; Sleep terror disorder ... The cause is unknown, but night terrors may be triggered by: Fever Lack of sleep Periods of emotional tension , stress , or conflict Night terrors are most common in children ...

54

Neurobehavioral, health, and safety consequences associated with shift work in safety-sensitive professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 15% of the full-time workers in the United States are shift workers. We review the physiologic challenges inherent\\u000a not only in traditional night or rotating shifts but also in extended-duration shifts and other nonstandard hours. The challenging\\u000a schedules of those in particularly safety-sensitive professions such as police officers, firefighters, and health care providers\\u000a are highlighted. Recent findings describing the

Laura K. Barger; Steven W. Lockley; Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam; Christopher P. Landrigan

2009-01-01

55

Optimal Shift Duration and Sequence: Recommended Approach for Short-Term Emergency Response Activations for Public Health and Emergency Management  

PubMed Central

Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts. PMID:17413074

Burgess, Paula A.

2007-01-01

56

Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the "Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study." Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers. PMID:25424370

Silva-Costa, A; Griep, R H; Rotenberg, L

2015-02-01

57

Fragile nights :  

E-print Network

The night -- particularly its constitutive darkness -poses a formidable challenge to the human mind, which operates primarily on visual evidence. Indeed, the active channels connecting the cognitive and visual systems are ...

Courchesne, Luc, 1952-

1984-01-01

58

Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues. PMID:23459725

Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

2013-03-01

59

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

60

Technology Night.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Maryland elementary school enlightened parents and community members about school technology by hosting a technology night showcasing student work. Through staff and community members' cooperative efforts, the technology committee created a comprehensive program composed of several elements: student involvement, district vision,…

DuPont, Albert P.

1998-01-01

61

Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

BackgroundEmployees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses (2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association.ResultsThe association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [ß =0.036; CI95%¿=¿0.009¿0.063) and ß =0.071 (CI95%¿=¿0.012¿0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m2 [range, 25.0¿26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m2 [range, 25.6¿28.1].ConclusionsThese findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work. PMID:25432798

Griep, Rosane; Bastos, Leonardo S; Fonseca, Maria; Silva-Costa, Aline; Portela, Luciana; Toivanen, Susanna; Rotenberg, Lucia

2014-11-29

62

Night watch.  

PubMed

In many hospitals, the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) functions 24 hours per day. Nurses "on-call" often cover nights, weekends, and holidays. It has been a struggle for some facilities to meet the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) standard of care that recommends 2 nurses be present whenever an anesthetized patient recovers in Phase I PACU. Recent practice issues of "holding" patients for inpatient beds, not transferring ICU patients, and admission of patients from the ER to the PACU has complicated staff coverage for the overnight hours in PACU. ASPAN has crafted position statements in response to these issues to guide nurses. This author chronicles one hospital's use of a night nurse to provide staffing stability and care for PACU patients after hours. PMID:16387271

Carlson, Kathy

2005-12-01

63

Perceptions of health stakeholders on task shifting and motivation of community health workers in different socio demographic contexts in Kenya (nomadic, peri-urban and rural agrarian)  

PubMed Central

Background The shortage of health professionals in low income countries is recognized as a crisis. Community health workers are part of a “task-shift” strategy to address this crisis. Task shifting in this paper refers to the delegation of tasks from health professionals to lay, trained volunteers. In Kenya, there is a debate as to whether these volunteers should be compensated, and what motivation strategies would be effective in different socio-demographic contexts, based type of tasks shifted. The purpose of this study was to find out, from stakeholders’ perspectives, the type of tasks to be shifted to community health workers and the appropriate strategies to motivate and retain them. Methods This was an analytical comparative study employing qualitative methods: key informant interviews with health policy makers, managers, and service providers, and focus group discussions with community health workers and service consumers, to explore their perspectives on tasks to be shifted and appropriate motivation strategies. Results The study found that there were tasks to be shifted and motivation strategies that were common to all three contexts. Common tasks were promotive, preventive, and simple curative services. Common motivation strategies were supportive supervision, means of identification, equitable allocation of resources, training, compensation, recognition, and evidence based community dialogue. Further, in the nomadic and peri-urban sites, community health workers had assumed curative services beyond the range provided for in the Kenyan task shifting policy. This was explained to be influenced by lack of access to care due to distance to health facilities, population movement, and scarcity of health providers in the nomadic setting and the harsh economic realities in peri-urban set up. Therefore, their motivation strategies included training on curative skills, technical support, and resources for curative care. Data collection was viewed as an important task in the rural site, but was not recognized as priority in nomadic and peri-urban sites, where they sought monetary compensation for data collection. Conclusions The study concluded that inclusion of curative tasks for community health workers, particularly in nomadic contexts, is inevitable but raises the need for accreditation of their training and regulation of their tasks. PMID:25079588

2014-01-01

64

[Restrictions on night work: analysis of case studies in a large Lombardy Hospital].  

PubMed

A high percentage of the division's doctors and employees work at night to guarantee urgent assistance and diagnostic services to patients. Night work is not recommended for persons with rather serious case histories due to the disruption of circadian rhythms or the increased workload required of certain operators during nighttime hours. All of the evaluations of health operators with a limited capacity to work on the night shift in our hospital were analysed, except for female workers restricted from night work during pregnancy or puerperium, as provisioned by the regulation that protects working mothers. Forty-two cases were considered (six physicians and 36 operators in the division) out of a total of 2676 employees assigned to night work and the conditions that led to the formulation of the decision are divided as follows: 16 Mental disturbances currently subject to treatment (depression, post-traumatic anxiety disorder, primary insomnia...), 8 Tumours (breast, colon, Ewing Sarcoma), 7 Neurological disorders (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia), 6 Cardiovascular disease (previous IMA; arrhythmias, arterial hypertension not controlled by theraphy) and 5 others patologies (total 45). The cases will be analysed in detail with an analysis of the characteristics of the exempt group of workers and with reference to the temporary or indefinite nature of the exemption. PMID:23405636

Bacis, M; Cologni, L; Belotti, L; Mosconi, G

2012-01-01

65

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

66

Changes in frequency of premature complexes and heart rate variability related to shift work  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether an increased risk of cardiovascular disease might be caused by increased arrhythmogeneity and by unfavourable changes in autonomic cardiac control the changes in the occurrence of premature complexes (PVCs) and in heart rate variability (HRV) were studied in subjects who started to work in shifts.?METHODS—1 Year changes in frequency of PVCs and HRV were measured in 49 shift workers and 22 control subjects working in daytime. All respondents were starting in a new job in integrated circuit or waste incinerator plants.?RESULTS—The incidence of PVC increased significantly in shift workers over the 1 year follow up, compared with daytime workers. The frequency of ventricular extrasystoles increased in 48.9% of the shift workers, and in 27.3% of the daytime workers. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the number of nights worked and the change in PVCs was 0.33 (p=0.004). A small non-significant unfavourable change in HRV was found in both the shift and daytime workers.?CONCLUSIONS—A change in arrhythmogeneity, but not in cardiac autonomic control, might explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in shift workers.???Keywords: arrhythmia; heart rate; shift work PMID:11555690

van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Schouten, E; Maan, A; Swenne, C; Kok, F

2001-01-01

67

Nightmares and Night Terrors  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Nightmares and Night Terrors Overview What are nightmares? Nightmares are scary dreams. ... dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? Some children have a different kind of scary ...

68

[Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].  

PubMed

Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep. PMID:25213642

Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

2014-11-01

69

Shift work disorder case studies: applying management principles in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Shift work disorder (SWD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness. SWD, which is estimated to affect 10% of people who work night or rotating shifts, can have serious consequences such as accidents, loss of productivity, and depression. By enlisting the support of family, identifying and treating comorbid sleep disorders, and appropriately timing light and dark exposure (supplemented by melatonin), clinicians can help many shift workers improve their ability to sleep, maintain wakefulness, and possibly decrease other adverse effects of shift work. More aggressive treatment strategies and referral to a sleep specialist should be considered for patients who do not respond to these simple measures. PMID:22967784

Krystal, Andrew D; Roth, Thomas; Simon, Richard D

2012-08-01

70

Shift work disorder in a random population sample--prevalence and comorbidities.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the presence of shift work disorder (SWD) in the general community. We addressed many of the limitations in this literature and present new findings. SWD has been treated as an 'all or none' construct but we propose the need to consider the 'severity' of the disorder. Using random digit dialling, we randomly recruited 1163 participants. Participants completed an extensive battery of scales and questions concerning work, health and individual differences. Three questions based on the criteria from the International Classification for Sleep Disorders were used to categorise participants with SWD (n = 176). In addition, we asked participants whether SWD interfered with aspects of their life and high ratings were used to define severe shift work disorder (SSWD). The prevalence of SWD was 32.1% among night workers and 10.1% in day workers (p<.001). SSWD was present in 9.1% of night workers and 1.3% of day workers (p<.001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant associations between SWD and night work (OR = 3.35, CI 2.19-5.12), weekly work hours (OR = 1.02, CI 1.00-1.04), short sleep (? 6 h; OR = 2.93, CI 1.94-4.41), languidity (OR = 1.11, CI 1.06-1.16) and resilience (OR = 0.56, CI 0.43-0.81). Night work, short sleep, languidity, and hypertension were significantly associated with SSWD. Overall, participants with SSWD slept 0.80 h less than other participants (p<.001). Night work, short sleep and languidity were associated with both SWD and SSWD. Day workers with SWD symptoms reported significantly shorter sleep duration, higher levels of languidity and worked longer working hours compared to day workers without SWD. PMID:23372847

Di Milia, Lee; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

2013-01-01

71

Day and Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can you see in the day sky? What objects can you see in the night sky? Are there objects that can be seen in both the day and night sky? Can the sun be seen during the night, or only during the day? Students will encounter these questions as they explore the similarities and differences between the day and night sky. This lesson will help students identify what objects can be seen in the day and night sky, and objects are exclusively seen in the day sky and the night sky.

Demoranville, Lindsay

2012-07-10

72

Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Wright, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

73

Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)

Brady, Philip

1995-01-01

74

The start of the quiescent period of cortisol remains phase locked to the melatonin onset despite circadian phase alterations in humans working the night schedule.  

PubMed

Using a 10-min blood sampling procedure, we established 24-h plasma melatonin and cortisol rhythms in 11 night workers and determined whether the extent in the shift of the melatonin onset, highly variable among night workers, was reflected in the shift of the markers of the cortisol rhythm, i.e. the quiescent period of secretion and the acrophase. In all day-active subjects, the melatonin onset occurred during low cortisol secretion, with a time lag between the start of the quiescent period and the melatonin onset of 1 h 28+or-27 min. In night workers, whatever the shift of the melatonin surge, the start of the quiescent period of cortisol secretion remained phase locked to the melatonin onset with a similar time lag (1 h 25+or-27 min). There was a significant correlation between the timing of the melatonin onset and the timing of the start of the quiescent period (r=0.88; P=0.0072). No preserved time lag was found between the melatonin onset and the other cortisol phase markers, either with the end of the quiescent period or with the acrophase. These results settle the start of the quiescent period of cortisol and the melatonin onset as two coordinate markers, and suggest that each of them are reliable to assess circadian phase in humans. PMID:11796193

Weibel, L; Brandenberger, G

2002-01-25

75

The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

2012-01-01

76

Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.  

PubMed

Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24?h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6?±?4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00?h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00?h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50?lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2?h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8?h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00?h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00?h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24?h. This decrease was larger in women using oral contraceptives. There was no difference between the three groups, and the magnitude of the decrease in melatonin production for nighttime and for the 24?h was not associated with the magnitude of the absolute circadian phase shift. As light intensity was relatively low and because the decrease in melatonin production was progressive, direct suppression by nighttime light exposure was probably not a significant factor. However, according to previous experimental observations, the decrease in melatonin production most likely reflects the circadian disruption associated with the process of re-entrainment. It remains to be determined whether reduced melatonin production can be harmful by itself, but long-term and repeated circadian disruption most probably is. PMID:25222345

Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

2014-12-01

77

Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to perform a literature review on the health consequences of working rotating shifts and implications for structural design. A literature search was performed in June 2012 and a selection of the most relevant peer-review articles was included in the present review. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from a circadian sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness and insomnia. Shift work is associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life and adverse effects on health. Circadian disruption resulting from rotating shift work has also been associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This article summarizes the known health effects of shift work and discusses how light can be used as a countermeasure to minimize circadian disruption at night while maintaining alertness. In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed. PMID:23536025

Figueiro, M G; White, R D

2013-04-01

78

Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts) in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating). Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in rotating-shift nurses (81.9%) than in day-shift nurses (59.2%). Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01) and GI medications (p = 0.002) were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts. PMID:20929565

2010-01-01

79

Isotretinoin and night blindness.  

PubMed

Isotretinoin is an effective and increasingly popular treatment for acne vulgaris. There have been reports of night blindness as a side-effect of treatment although the evidence does not demonstrate a clear causal relationship between isotretinoin therapy and the risk of night blindness. Nevertheless, considering the lack of evidence in this area, it is important to educate patients about this potential consequence, which may become longstanding and even irreversible, and encourage them to promptly report changes in their night vision. PMID:25117163

Teo, Ken; Yazdabadi, Anousha

2014-08-01

80

Pinwheel Crater at Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 15 March 2004

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

This nighttime IR image was collected September 28, 2002 during the northern spring season. The 'pinwheel' pattern represents alternating warm and cool materials.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 60.3, Longitude 271.9 East (88.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

81

"Starry Night" on Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an exploration of depth in landscape painting using Vincent van Gogh's "Starry Night" as an example. Used computer drawing software for children to allow students to create their own interpretations of "Starry Night" while exploring means of portraying depth in two-dimensional art. (DSK)

Freifeld, Susan

1998-01-01

82

[A study on stressful life events of workers in Japan].  

PubMed

The experience rates of eighteen life events of Japanese workers were surveyed and the strength of each of the events was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. The fifteen professions surveyed included construction, transport, mailing, chemical production, banking, newspaper, TV services, commercial publishing, advertising, teaching and civil service. The number of workers who answered was 18,657 males and 4,443 females, aged 20 to 59 years. The male workers were divided and analysed in six job groups: clerical workers (n = 5,866), professionals (n = 3,696), blue collar day workers (n = 1,623), blue collar night or shift workers (n = 3,191), drivers (n = 1,663) and construction workers (n = 2,466). They were divided into groups and compared according to job, sex and five different age groups. The highest experience rate in each of the life events such as family trouble for both sexes, death of a family member, financial trouble and anxiety, death of a close friend, dissatisfactory transport to workplace or job, respectively. Comparing the experience rates between males and females we found no significant difference for five items. However, other items had higher experience rates for males than for females with the exception of family trouble. In regard to the age characteristics of each of the life events, as the age increased the experience rates of health-related life events such as the death of a spouse, child, family member or close friend and one's own illness or injury became higher. In contrast, the experience rates of items such as moving to a worse residence and failure in a school or training program became lower as the age increased for both sexes. Among job groups, construction workers had the highest experience rates of most life events except for the item of dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job. Among other job groups, drivers had higher experience rates in the following four items: re-employment, death of spouse, divorce and financial trouble and anxiety. Blue collar day workers had higher rates for failure in school or training program and family trouble. The blue collar night or shift workers had higher rates for failure in school or training program and dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job. The mean values of strength in six life events: re-employment, death of a family member, death of a close friend, serious physical illness, dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job and family trouble were stronger in females than in males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8041014

Tsuchiya, Y; Uehata, T; Sekiya, E; Abe, M; Ishihara, S; Oikawa, S; Chida, T; Yamazaki, Y; Sugisawa, A; Sakano, J

1994-06-01

83

GLOBE at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students and families are invited to participate in a worldwide campaign to observe and record the magnitude of visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. GLOBE at Night is an easy observation and reporting activity with a goal of collecting 5,000 observations. Information for parents, students and teachers details the data collection activity, and participants can subscribe to the GLOBE at Night mailing list to receive updates and results. The site includes background information and interactive simulations that show the effects of light pollution on the night sky, and finding the constellation Orion.

84

The Starry Night.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent Van Gogh's painting "The Starry Night" is discussed, and ways that an art teacher can use this painting as a resource for learning are suggested. Specific activities to use with elementary and secondary students are included. (RM)

Hausman, Jerome J.

1985-01-01

85

Globe at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Globe at Night program is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by inviting citizen-scientists to measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations from a computer or smart phone. Light pollution threatens not only our âright to starlightâ, but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. Nearly 100,000 measurements have been contributed from people in 115 countries during the campaigns each winter/spring over the last 8 years, making Globe at Night the most successful light pollution awareness campaign to date! Explore the last 8 years of data in our interactive data map, or see how your city did with our regional map generator. The Globe at Night website is easy to use, comprehensive and holds an abundance of background information. The database is usable for comparisons with a variety of other databases, like how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.

Observatory, National O.

86

Prevalence of depression and its relationship with work characteristics in a sample of public workers  

PubMed Central

Occupation is a fundamental right, enabling social interaction and financial support for the individual. However, it is an undeniable source of stress, with consequences for physical and mental health. The prevalence of depression and somatic complaints were assessed in 1,013 public workers using the Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire investigating for the presence of somatic problems designed by the research team. The results were related to demographic characteristics, history of previous depressive episodes, work schedule (day work, night and day rotating shift work, day rotating shift work), and duration of current work schedule. There were more cases of moderate depression in the day rotating shift workers (84%) than in those working at night (83%). More women had mild or moderate depression than men (22% and 4% versus 10% and 3%, respectively). Severe depression was found only in men. Nearly 10% of depressed individuals reported previous depressive episodes. A link between depression and somatic complaints was also found. In particular, 59% of depressed subjects reported gastrointestinal complaints and 41% did not (P<0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of depressive symptoms could be facilitated by occupation. A history of depressive symptoms should not be neglected, given the risk of recurrence. Somatic complaints could represent a “wake-up call” regarding depression. Global assessment and effective support are fundamental for promotion of a better quality of life in the at-risk category of workers. PMID:24707177

Luca, Maria; Bellia, Salvatore; Bellia, Marcello; Luca, Antonina; Calandra, Carmela

2014-01-01

87

Writing for Night Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a home video camera with a “night vision” mode to test how various inks appear outside the spectrum of visible light. In a darkened room, some messages will be legible with an infrared camera and others will seem to go invisible. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

88

"Twelfth Night" for Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with pictures, letters,…

Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

89

Earth at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence humans have had on their planet can be seen from space. Viewing Earth at night, we see the lights of countless villages, towns, and cities. Fires from slash-and-burn farming and the burn-off of natural gas in oil fields appear in red and yellow. This perspective unveils the breadth of human activity on Earth. It spans the globe.

Alex Kekesi

1999-01-21

90

Night Train's Dark Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that Martin Amis' contemporary novel, Night Train, is a remarkably effective tool for introducing postmodernist notions in general literature classrooms. Presents a definition for postmodernism and brings the reader through a detailed analysis of the language and structure of the novel. Concludes with students' reaction to the analytical…

Johnson, Robert.

2003-01-01

91

Vision - night blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a dark room, such as a movie theater. These problems are often worse just after a person is in a brightly lit environment. Milder cases may just have a harder time adapting to darkness.

92

Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

Beers, Thomas M.

2000-01-01

93

Advanced night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

Thacker, Clinton

2003-02-01

94

Jupiter Night and Day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

2001-01-01

95

Emergency/Night Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

1980-01-01

96

Ares Valles: Night and Day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

97

Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

98

Channel by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

99

Night Vision Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

1996-01-01

100

Earth at Night 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is what the Earth looks like at night. Can you find your favorite country or city? Surprisingly, city lights make this task quite possible. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The above image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) currently operates four satellites carrying the Operational Linescan System (OLS) in low-altitude polar orbits. Three of these satellites record nighttime data. The DMSP-OLS has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible-near infrared (VNIR) radiance at night. With the OLS VIS band data it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning-illuminated clouds. The Nighttime Lights of the World data set is compiled from the October 1994 - March 1995 DMSP nighttime data collected when moonlight was low. Using the OLS thermal infrared band, areas containing clouds were removed and the remaining area used in the time series. This animation is derived from an image created by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon from data provided by Christopher Elvidge of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Simmon, Robert; Mayhew, Craig; Imhoff, Marc; Elvidge, Christopher

2001-10-19

101

Night Side Jovian Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

1997-01-01

102

Twenty-four/seven: a mixed-method systematic review of the off-shift literature  

PubMed Central

Aim This article is a report of a review that aimed to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence of ‘off-shifts’ (nights, weekends and/or holidays) on quality and employee outcomes in hospitals. Background Healthcare workers provide 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week service. Quality and employee outcomes may differ on off-shifts as compared to regular hours. Data sources Searches for studies occurred between the years 1985–2011 using computerized databases including Business Source Complete, EconLit, ProQuest, PubMed and MEDLINE. Review design and methods Design was a mixed-method systematic review with quantitative and qualitative studies. To be included, studies met the following criteria: (1) the independent variable was an off-shift; (2) the article was a research study and peer-reviewed; (3) the article could be obtained in English; and (4) the article pertained to health care. Studies were not excluded on design. Results Sixty studies were included. There were 37 quality outcome, 19 employee outcome and four qualitative studies. In the quality outcome studies, researchers often used quantitative, longitudinal study designs with large sample sizes. Researchers found important differences between patients admitted on weekends and mortality. Important differences were also found between nighttime birth and mortality and rotating night work and fatigue, stress and low mental well-being. Most studies (9 of 12) did not find an important association between patients admitted at night and mortality. Conclusion Patient outcomes on weekends and employee outcomes at night are worse than during the day. It is important to further investigate why care on off-shifts differs from weekly day shifts. PMID:22905343

de Cordova, Pamela B.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Bartel, Ann P.; Stone, Patricia W.

2012-01-01

103

Dead of night.  

PubMed

Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience. PMID:20726184

Balter, Leon

2010-07-01

104

Using biological motion to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the conspicuity of road workers at night can be enhanced by distributing retroreflective strips across the body to present a pattern of biological motion (biomotion). Twenty visually normal drivers (mean age=40.3years) participated in an experiment conducted at two open-road work sites (one suburban and one freeway) at night-time. At each site, four road workers walked in

Joanne M. Wood; Richard A. Tyrrell; Ralph Marszalek; Philippe Lacherez; Alex Chaparro; Thomas W. Britt

2011-01-01

105

Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marked sleepiness occurs during typical night shift work hours and this reduced alertness is associated with marked performance deficits. The effect of caffeine (versus placebo) upon sleepiness at night was studied using objective measures of physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness. Both measures show caffeine to reduce sleepiness at a single dose roughly the equivalent of two to

James K. Walsh; Mark J. Muehlbach; Tina M. Humm; Q. Stokes Dickins; Jeffrey L. Sugerman; Paula K. Schweitzer

1990-01-01

106

MINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological,  

E-print Network

and circadian physiological and behavioral functions. Sources of light at night Light pollution by urban of the natural sky beyond background levels, called urban sky glow [15,16]. Light pollution has demonstrated at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting

Navara, Kristen

107

Re: Bracci M et al. "Rotating-shift nurses after a day off: peripheral clock gene expression, urinary melatonin, and serum 17-estradiol levels."  

PubMed

Bracci et al (1) conducted an important study of the expression of nine circadian genes and the levels of melatonin and estradiol among female nurses working a rotating shift schedule compared to nurses on a day-only shift. Rotating shift is perhaps the most disruptive to circadian physiology and sleep (2). The authors found elevated estradiol levels in the blood of rotating- compared to day-shift nurses, but no significant difference in the urinary melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. Their interpretation was that because there was a day off between last work shift and collection of overnight urine specimens, melatonin production in the night workers had rebounded from the last night shift worked, whereas the change in estradiol in blood was a longer lasting effect of chronic shift work and the circadian disruption that it entails. Elevated estradiol from exposure to light at night, via melatonin suppression, was the first mechanism offered for an elevated risk of breast cancer in women in the industrialized world (3). In addition, Bracci et al (1) found greater levels of expression of certain circadian genes and lower levels of others. A couple years ago, we published results from a small study of women working the night shift in Denmark compared to day-working women (4). We had hypothesized that expression of CLOCK would be higher and CRY2 would be lower in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of night-working women. Due to the type of samples available to us, we could not examine transcript levels and so rather we looked at the degree of promoter methylation with the inference that hypomethylation was consistent with increased gene expression and hypermethylation consistent with decreased gene expression. Our reasoning was that CLOCK acts a transcriptional activator within the circadian molecular machinery, whereas CRY2 acts as a transcriptional repressor; therefore CLOCK may be more generally an "oncogene" and CRY2 a "tumor suppressor". We had previously found that women with breast cancer showed hypomethylation of CLOCK (5) and hypermethylation of CRY2 (6) compared to population controls, consistent with our prediction. Since shift-working women have been reported to be at increased risk of breast cancer (7), we reasoned that shift workers in general would show these same changes systemically in CLOCK and CRY2 expression. Using a more direct approach, Bracci et al (1) also found evidence for elevated CLOCK gene expression in PBL of night-working women compared to day workers, and lower expression of CRY2 . Although each of the nine or so core circadian genes has a specific function within the circadian feedback loop, it is becoming clear that each also has many other functions in physiology systemically (eg, 8); as much as 10% of the entire genome is under direct circadian control (9). The other gene expression changes Bracci et al (1) found undoubtedly have implications far beyond the cellular clock itself. If the gene expression changes found by Bracci et al (1) and the DNA methylation changes we observed (4) are replicable, then they are quite important. These consistent changes should be examined in women and men working less disruptive non-day shifts such as permanent evening or night. In addition, even among day working people, greater exposure to light at night might also yield changes in gene expression pertinent to cancer risk. With these expression markers of circadian disruption, there may ultimately result a better understanding of the links among electric lighting, circadian disruption, and breast cancer and other diseases. The long-term goal is, of course, better use of lighting for work, play, and health (10). PMID:25153335

Stevens, Richard G; Zhu, Yong

2014-08-25

108

Ultraviolet night airglow of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The night airglow spectrum of Venus in the ultraviolet is dominated by the V-prime = 0 progressions of the gamma and delta bands of nitric oxide. The bands are produced by two-body radiative recombination of nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Since the source of these atoms is in the dayside thermosphere, the night airglow is a tracer of the day-to-night thermospheric circulation. The airglow is brightest at equatorial latitudes and at longitudes on the morning side of the antisolar meridian.

Stewart, A. I.; Barth, C. A.

1979-01-01

109

The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.  

PubMed

A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751

Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

2010-04-01

110

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: 'working the night shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a 'daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO2 for photosynthesis. Thus,

Clanton C. Black; C. Barry Osmond

2003-01-01

111

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis: `working the night shift'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common\\u000a house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a `daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent\\u000a work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated during the day to become the CO2 for photosynthesis. Thus,

Clanton C. Black; C. Barry Osmond

2003-01-01

112

>>NIGHT SHIFT >>FORMULA HYBRID RACING DARTMOUTH SPRING 2006  

E-print Network

the Gathering Storm," recently released by the National Academies, the message has been loud, clear&D and more scholar- ship aid for engineering students. In his recent State of the Union address, President CONTINUED ON PAGE 31 #12;Contents DEPARTMENTS 4 The Great Hall 26 Alumni/ae News 32 Inventions 33 Random

Lotko, William

113

Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

1994-01-01

114

TWAN: The World at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

Tafreshi, Babak A.

2011-06-01

115

Family Nights, Fairs, and Competitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. We think that math nights, fairs, and competitions can motivate students by answering not only cognitive needs but also social needs of the middle school student. This resource guide offers math content for family nights as well as investigations and activities for math fairs, including project ideas. For those students interested in testing their skills, we have included national math competitions created for middle school students.

Herrera, Terese A.

2010-01-01

116

Shedding Light on Night Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how darkness and night provide a potentially excellent arena for experiential learning opportunities. Recommends learning must be gradual, beginning with appreciation and allaying fear of the dark. Suggests sensory activities, hikes, games, aquatic activities, ecological simulations, historical presentations, and writing or reciting poetry.…

Horwood, Bert

1986-01-01

117

Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the nurses' sleep health project.  

PubMed

Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on a sample of shiftworking nurses. Responses were obtained from 1202 nurses working at university hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, including 727 two-shift workers and 315 three-shift workers. The questionnaire included items relevant to age, gender, family structure, work environment, health-related quality of life (QOL), diurnal type, depressive symptoms, and SWD. Participants who reported insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness for at least 1 mo that was subjectively relevant to their shiftwork schedules were categorized as having SWD. The prevalence of SWD in the sampled shiftworking nurses was 24.4%; shiftworking nurses with SWD showed lower health-related QOL and more severe depressive symptoms, with greater rates of both actual accidents/errors and near misses, than those without SWD. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that more time spent working at night, frequent missing of nap opportunities during night work, and having an eveningness-oriented chronotype were significantly associated with SWD. The present study indicated that SWD might be associated with reduced health-related QOL and decreased work performance in shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. The results also suggested that missing napping opportunities during night work, long nighttime working hours, and the delay of circadian rhythms are associated with the occurrence of SWD among shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. PMID:23445510

Asaoka, Shoichi; Aritake, Sayaka; Komada, Yoko; Ozaki, Akiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Inoue, Yuichi

2013-05-01

118

Dairy Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... were 94,327 workers in 6,813 dairy cattle and milk production establishments (NAICS code 11212) reported ... An additional 14,355 worked in 1,081 cattle feedlots during 2012 (NAICS code 112112). 3 ? A ...

119

Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®) Overview Key Points ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

120

Simplified night sky display system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

121

Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in

A H Crisp; B M Matthews; M Oakey; M Crutchfield

1990-01-01

122

The Night Sky in the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to satellite monitoring of artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility. Materials include a discussion of the study, which involves measurements of light pollution obtained from the Defense Metereological Satellite Program (DMSP) of the United States Air Force, and a collection of maps showing night sky brightness for the entire world, several regions and countries; artificial and total night sky brightness; stellar visibility, number of visible stars; and maps of the night sky in selected cities.

123

Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night  

PubMed Central

Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

2014-01-01

124

A physically-based night sky model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a physically-based model of the night sky for realistic image synthesis. We model both the direct appearance of the night sky and the illumination coming from the Moon, the stars, the zodiacal light, and the atmosphere. To accurately predict the appearance of night scenes we use physically-based astronomi- cal data, both for position and radiometry. The Moon

Henrik Wann Jensen; Frédo Durand; Julie O'b. Dorsey; Michael M. Stark; Peter Shirley; Simon Premoze

2001-01-01

125

Albor Tholus by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

126

Arsia Mons by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

127

Gusev Crater by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

128

Meridiani Crater in Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

129

Day And Night In Terra Meridiani  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

130

Noctus Labyrinthus by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

131

Crater Ejecta by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

132

Ius Chasma by Day and Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma.

Day/Night Infrared Pairs

The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

Infrared image interpretation

Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

133

Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?  

PubMed

Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact of these shift schedules compared to day work, to the extent that health can be measured by the WAI. PMID:20636221

Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

2010-07-01

134

Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD).  

PubMed

Nearly 20% of the labor force worldwide, work shifts that include work hours outside 07:00 h to 18:00 h. Shift work is common in many occupations that directly affect the health and safety of others (e.g., protective services, transportation, healthcare), whereas quality of life, health, and safety during shift work and the commute home can affect workers in any field. Increasing evidence indicates that shift-work schedules negatively influence worker physiology, health, and safety. Shift work disrupts circadian sleep and alerting cycles, resulting in disturbed daytime sleep and excessive sleepiness during the work shift. Moreover, shift workers are at risk for shift work disorder (SWD). This review focuses on shift work and the assessment and management of sleepiness and sleep disruption associated with shift work schedules and SWD. Management strategies include approaches to promote sleep, wakefulness, and adaptation of the circadian clock to the imposed work schedule. Additional studies are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the health risks of shift work, understanding which shift workers are at most risk of SWD, to investigate treatment options that address the health and safety burdens associated with shift work and SWD, and to further develop and assess the comparative effectiveness of countermeasures and treatment options. PMID:22560640

Wright, Kenneth P; Bogan, Richard K; Wyatt, James K

2013-02-01

135

Methyltestosterone-induced night blindness.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of night blindness and a 9-month history of steatorrhea. Both symptoms had appeared after he had begun taking methyltestosterone. Investigations revealed low serum levels of carotene (0.1 mmol/L) and vitamin A (0.4 to 0.7 mmol/L), anomalous colour perception, elevation of the rod threshold by 3.5 log units in dark adaptometry, and decreased b-wave amplitudes in photopic and scotopic electroretinograms. No biochemical evidence of cholestasis was elicited. The symptoms and the biochemical and electrophysiologic abnormalities resolved within 9 months of the discontinuation of methyltestosterone. PMID:3879195

Nisbett, S B; Parker, J A; Habal, F

1985-12-01

136

Workers' Page  

MedlinePLUS

... Program office nearest you, see the Regional and Area Offices map . State and Local Government Workers Employees who work for state and local ... safety and health programs and cover state and local government employees as well as ... for OSHA Area Offices, OSHA approved State Plans and OSHA Consultation ...

137

Changes in the age and education profile of displaced workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis of data from the Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between the periods 1983-87 and 1993-97, although the likelihood of involuntary job loss declined among most age groups, including older workers, it rose for middle-aged and older workers relative to younger workers. Three potential explanations for this shift the authors investigate are changes in educational attainment, changes in the

Daniel Rodriguez; Madeline Zavodny

2003-01-01

138

Melas Chasma, Day and Night.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

2002-01-01

139

Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings  

SciTech Connect

In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

2009-10-15

140

Simplified Night Sky Display System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

Castellano, Timothy P.

2010-01-01

141

Horror Nights Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

for Universal Studios' Halloween Horror Nights! Join us for roller coasters and rides at Islands of Adventure Horror Nights Have a scary time at Universal Studios! This weekend, we will be headed to Orlando will go to Islands of Adventure from 4pm- 7pm (see shows and ride roller coasters). After dinner we

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

142

[Cognitive disorders in elderly patients at night].  

PubMed

The feelings of nursing staff towards working nights in nursing homes are little known, both with regard to the difficulties encountered in their activity as well as to the effects on their own life and health. Their practice is often complicated by the existence of behavioural disorders accentuated at night and which affect numerous residents. PMID:21850875

Glévarec, Nadine

2011-01-01

143

Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

2012-01-01

144

78 FR 61390 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...workers' firm; and (3) The shift/acquisition contributed importantly to the workers...supplied by such agency; and (3) the acquisition of services contributed importantly...Enterprise Group, Enterprise Storage Servers and Networking, etc....

2013-10-03

145

Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.  

PubMed

This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. PMID:25151314

Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

2015-01-01

146

Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes  

PubMed Central

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate <0.20). Expression is greater at night in ?70%. These findings were supported by the results of radiochemical in situ hybridization histology and quantitative real time-PCR studies. We also found that the regulatory mechanism controlling the night/day changes in the expression of most genes involves norepinephrine-cyclic AMP signaling. Comparison of the pineal gene expression profile with that in other tissues identified 334 genes (496 probe sets) that are expressed greater than 8-fold higher in the pineal gland relative to other tissues. Of these genes, 17% are expressed at similar levels in the retina, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Functional categorization of the highly expressed and/or night/day differentially expressed genes identified clusters that are markers of specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, melatonin synthesis, photodetection, thyroid hormone signaling, and diverse aspects of cellular signaling and cell biology. These studies produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of the 24-h dynamics of the pineal gland from one focused on melatonin synthesis to one including many cellular processes. PMID:19103603

Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Klein, David C.

2009-01-01

147

Shifting Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

Ingram, Jenni

2014-01-01

148

Comparison of eight and 12 hour shifts: impacts on health, wellbeing, and alertness during the shift.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the duration of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health, wellbeing, and alertness during the shift of extending the shift from the traditional eight hours to 12. METHODS: Two groups of chemical workers, one working 12 hour shifts and the other working eight hour shifts, took part. All completed a modified version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ on most outcome measures, although the differences that did exist suggested advantages for the 12 hour shift workers over the eight hour shift workers; with the notable exception of rated alertness at certain times of day. CONCLUSIONS: The results are explained in terms of the design of the 12 hour shift system and the specific sequencing of shifts that seem to minimise the potential for the build up of fatigue. Although the current data moderately favour 12 hour shifts, a cautionary note is sounded with regard to the implications of the alertness ratings for performance and safety. PMID:9038802

Tucker, P; Barton, J; Folkard, S

1996-01-01

149

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system and beyond. From the Galilean moons of Jupiter, to the farthest reaches of our galaxy, space science intrigued learners of all ages and was the perfect theme for this family night event. Here the authors share their "stellar" experience, and include a detailed description of the activities from the Astronomy Night sessions.

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-11-01

150

Stick shift  

E-print Network

Stick Shift is a novel that has undergone several rounds of significant revision. Scott, the book's main character, is a sarcastic American who travels to England to move in with an ex-girlfriend. He experiences all of the ...

Parness, Aaron J. (Aaron Joseph), 1981-

2004-01-01

151

Association between shift working and musculoskeletal symptoms among nursing personnel  

PubMed Central

Background: Some health problems are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as one of the most common health-related problems that can cause disability among health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between shift working and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSs) among nursing personnel. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 454 health care workers including nurses and nurses’ aides in a general hospital in Iran. A Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of MSs. Logistic regression analysis with adjusting for confounding factors was performed to evaluate the associations between shift working and the prevalence of MSs. Results: Lower back, knees, and upper back symptoms with the prevalence of 57.4%, 48.4%, and 47%, respectively, were the most common MSs. The prevalence of MSs in eight regions of the body (lower back, neck, knees, upper back, shoulder, wrist, buttock, and ankle) was higher among shift workers than day workers. The differences were statistically significant only in the lower back and ankle regions (P < 0.05). Odds Ratio for lower back symptoms in shift workers was 1.94 compared to day workers (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that shift working could be associated with increased prevalence of lower back disorders among nursing personnel. This study emphasizes on the importance of proper work planning and regulating working hours for nursing personnel. PMID:24949072

Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid

2014-01-01

152

Is Transcriptomic Regulation of Berry Development More Important at Night than During the Day?  

PubMed Central

Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T.; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

2014-01-01

153

Shift rotation, overtime, age, and anxiety as predictors of offshore sleep patterns.  

PubMed

Shift work on offshore oil/gas installations necessitates 12 h shifts and rapid day/night shift changes. In the North Sea, both 'fixed-shift' (alternate day-shift and night-shift tours) and 'swing-shift' rotations (with a midtour shift change) are operated. The present study used survey data (n = 775) to examine sleep patterns over 3 'phases' of the offshore work cycle (day shifts, DS; night shifts, NS; and leave weeks, LS) in relation to shift roster, overtime, age, offshore shift work exposure, and anxiety. Specific predictions were tested in a mixed-model ANOVA in which DS, NS, and LS sleep were treated as repeated measures. Sleep duration and sleep quality were predicted by significant interactions of phase with roster, anxiety, age, and shift work exposure, but the patterns of findings differed across DS, NS and LS. Consistent with other published findings, personnel working 2-week nights-to-days swing shifts reported shorter DS and NS sleep duration than those working fixed shifts. Extended 3-week tours (7 nights/14 days) showed an advantage only for DS sleep. There was no evidence that LS sleep was impaired following night-shift work. Overtime was negatively related only to NS sleep duration. Anxiety predicted poor NS and DS sleep; the relationship between age and NS sleep quality was curvilinear with minimum values at 38-42 y. Shift work exposure negatively predicted NS (but not DS or LS) sleep. The results are discussed in relation to the initial predictions; more general implications of the findings, and methodological limitations of the work, are considered in a final section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347685

Parkes, Katharine R

2015-01-01

154

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

155

The contribution of alcohol to night time crash risk and other risks of night driving.  

PubMed

Many studies show that driving at night is more risky in terms of crash involvements per distance travelled than driving during the day. The reasons for this include the more prevalent use of alcohol by drivers at night, the effects of fatigue on the driving task and the risk associated with reduced visibility. Although the consumption of alcohol prior to driving occurs most commonly at night, drink-driving is not inherently a night time risk factor. This study decomposes the New Zealand risk of driving at night into risk associated with alcohol and risk associated with inherently night time factors. The overall risk associated with alcohol use by drivers was shown to decrease with increasing age for the most risky situation analysed (male drivers on weekend nights). Given the levels of drinking and driving on weekend nights, the overall effect of alcohol was shown to contribute almost half of weekend night time risk for drivers aged under 40 on lower volume roads, but to contribute little to overall risk on higher-volume roads, consistent with other research showing that higher-volume roads are not favoured by drinking drivers. Risk at night relative to risk during the day (excluding risk associated with drinking and driving) was shown to decrease with age. Roads with illumination at night are less risky at night relative to during the day than roads without illumination. The risks estimated in this paper reflect the behaviour of the road users studied and their prevalence on the roads under the conditions analysed. PMID:15878152

Keall, Michael D; Frith, William J; Patterson, Tui L

2005-09-01

156

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described, including novel hardware and countermeasures.

Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

2015-01-01

157

Liquid crystal modulated optical amplifier for night vision imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image intensifier tubes, as part of night vision devices, have been the primary devices for the detection and amplification of near infrared light for night vision operations. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel all-optical night vision amplifier device with a potential to replace the image intensifier tube in night vision goggles. This image amplifier is based on a novel

Alexander Parfenov; X. Winston Xia; Indra Tengara; Tin Win; Jason Holmstedt; Neven Rakuljic; Tin M. Aye; Mathew W. Swinney; Peter L. Marasco

2008-01-01

158

Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

2006-01-01

159

Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night  

SciTech Connect

Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1998-12-01

160

The contribution of alcohol to night time crash risk and other risks of night driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies show that driving at night is more risky in terms of crash involvements per distance travelled than driving during the day. The reasons for this include the more prevalent use of alcohol by drivers at night, the effects of fatigue on the driving task and the risk associated with reduced visibility. Although the consumption of alcohol prior to

Michael D. Keall; William J. Frith; Tui L. Patterson

2005-01-01

161

Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird  

PubMed Central

Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

2010-01-01

162

Solar power for the lunar night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1989-01-01

163

Intergalactic Dust and the Darkness of the Night Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at optical wavelengths is determined to order of magnitude by the age of the Universe, and reduced by a factor of two due to cosmic expansion. Observations have now attained sufficient precision that we can begin to assess the importance of other factors as well. One of these is absorption in the intergalactic medium, originally proposed by de Cheseaux and Olbers as the entire explanation for the darkness of the night sky. While this explanation fails in a bolometric sense, it does play a role in the spectral sense since dust shifts much of the light from distant galaxies into the infrared. We quantify this effect and show that it reduces the intensity of the optical EBL further by one or two percent. Thus, while Olbers and de Cheseaux had it wrong, they were not quite as wrong as commonly supposed.

Prins, Nathan; Overduin, J.; Strobach, E. J.

2014-01-01

164

A New Nightly Build System for LHCb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

2014-06-01

165

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

2014-01-01

166

Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

2009-07-01

167

HH-60D night hawk helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

Richardson, C. S.

1984-01-01

168

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-01-01

169

Excitation of the Venus night airglow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strongest spectral features in the Venus night airglow between 3000 and 8000 A are identified as the Herzberg II bands of molecular oxygen. These bands have been produced in a laboratory afterglow by the recombination of oxygen atoms in the presence of carbon dioxide molecules. It is hypothesized that the same mechanism produces this emission in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Lawrence, G. M.; Barth, C. A.; Argabright, V.

1977-01-01

170

Education in the Night: A Serious Separation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is one of the social institutions manipulated by New Zealand's European people to establish and perpetuate a painfully fragmented society. Po Ako is a community-based educational project where immigrant teachers, parents, and children from Tonga educate themselves at night about their own culture to better understand themselves and their…

Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Tangiwai Mere Appleton

171

Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

172

Community Based Health Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the use of various categories of Community Based Health Workers as first line health workers in dealing with important health and social issues, for example with Tuberculosis and HIV\\/AIDS. It attempts to answer certain key issues: Are Community Based Health Workers valuable and cost effective? What should be their role? To whom should they be accountable? In

Irwin Friedmana

173

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

Undrus, A.

2012-12-01

174

The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

Note: this THEMIS infrared image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in colla

2003-01-01

175

Immunological and respiratory changes in coffee workers.  

PubMed Central

Immunological status and respiratory function were studied in a group of 45 coffee workers. Skin tests with coffee allergens demonstrated the highest percentage of positive reactions to dust collected during emptying bags (40.0%), followed by dust of green (12%) and then roasted coffee (8.9%). Among 34 skin-tested control workers, 14.7% had positive skin reaction to dust collected during emptying bags, but none had positive skin reaction to green or roasted coffee. Serum levels of total IgE were increased in 24.4% of coffee workers and in 5.9% of control subjects. The prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee workers than in control subjects. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergen had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough (63.6%) and chronic phlegm (72.7%) than those with negative skin tests (32.4% and 23.5% respectively). There was a significant mean decrease over the Monday work shift in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50: -7.9%) and at 25% vital capacity (MEF25: -17.8%), suggesting an obstructive effect mostly in smaller airways. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergens had larger acute reductions in flow rates than those with negative skin tests but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:7292386

Zuskin, E; Vali?, F; Kanceljak, B

1981-01-01

176

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-print Network

A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01

177

The feast "STAR NIGHT 2009" in Shumen, Bulgaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the preparation and realization of the attractive program for the "Star Night" on September 25, 2009, in Shumen, is presented. Its goal is popularization of the European initiative "Research Night" in Bulgaria.

Kyurkchieva, Diana P.

178

Moonbase night power by laser illumination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1992-01-01

179

MONIM: the new Met Office Night Illumination Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new model developed by the Met Office to predict night-time light levels. The Met Office Night Illumination Model (MONIM) predicts light levels both in the visible (photopic) range and in the waveband to which night vision goggles (NVGs) are sensitive. The model will be used operationally for support of night-time flying operations. The model is described in detail and its light-level forecasts are compared with observations.

Revell, S. J.; Hignett, P.

2004-09-01

180

Night eating syndrome: Evaluation of two screening instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether night eating syndrome was associated with treatment outcomes during a brief weight loss intervention for self-identified night snackers, and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a screening question and the Night Eating Syndrome Questionnaire (NESQ) for the detection of night eating syndrome.Participants enrolled in a 4-week randomized clinical trial for

Jillon S. Vander Wal; Sandia M. Waller; David M. Klurfeld; Michael I. McBurney; Nikhil V. Dhurandhar

2005-01-01

181

"Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

Bueter, Chuck

2008-05-01

182

Calculation of day and night emittance values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.

Kahle, Anne B.

1986-01-01

183

2010 National Observe the Moon Night!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

2010-05-01

184

Light Source Halos in Night Vision Goggles: Psychophysical Assessments  

E-print Network

Light Source Halos in Night Vision Goggles: Psychophysical Assessments Greg Craiga , Todd Macudaa performance. Keywords: Night vision goggles, lighting, halo. 1. INTRODUCTION The safety of military night of light sources and can be land, vehicle or aircraft based. Casual observation suggests

Allison, Robert

185

Smoking during the night: prevalence and smoker characteristics.  

PubMed

We report on the smoking patterns and characteristics of individuals who smoke at night. We also explore the relationship between night smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation outcomes. Participants (N = 691) were heavy smokers enrolled in cessation research clinics. Data were from three studies. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants monitored their smoking (ad libitum, day and night) on electronic diaries (EDs) during a 2-week baseline period and for 4 weeks following a target quit day. A total of 41% of smokers recorded at least one episode of night smoking. Within this group, night smoking occurred on 26% of nights, averaging two episodes per night. ED data correlated with a single self-report item assessing the frequency of night smoking. Night smoking was associated with greater nicotine dependence and daily caffeine consumption. It also predicted risk for lapsing beyond traditional measures of nicotine dependence. Night smoking is common, is associated with nicotine dependence, and it represents additional risk for cessation failure. People who smoke at night may need nicotine replacement therapy overnight. Future research should determine whether treatments that improve sleep quality also improve cessation outcomes in night smokers. PMID:18188757

Scharf, Deborah M; Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul

2008-01-01

186

CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light  

E-print Network

and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to helpCIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing 1 CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light-time Light Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2008 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York

Columbia University

187

Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p ? 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p ? 0.01) and shift-work itself (p ? 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions. PMID:21910116

Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

2011-01-01

188

The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

1975-01-01

189

Organizing marginalized workers.  

PubMed

Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

Taylor, A K

1999-01-01

190

Advanced worker protection system  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

191

Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

192

Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

2013-01-01

193

Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-01-01

194

Shift rotation and age - interactions with sleep-wakefulness and inflammation.  

PubMed

The interaction of age with shift rotation in relation to sleep-wakefulness and inflammation were studied among male employees (n = 772). Cross-sectional analyses in day, two-shift and three-shift work with different shift rotations, as well as changes in leukocytes and hsCRP among three shift workers who changed their shift system during the 2.5- yr follow-up were completed. Shift work was associated with problems to fall asleep (p < 0.001) and feeling of the current working time being harmful to sleep and wakefulness (p < 0.001). Quickly forward-rotation shift workers considered their working time less harmful compared with slower backward-rotation shift workers. Age did not influence sleep in general, but older workers in the quickly forward-rotating three-shift system had less sleep complaints than their younger colleagues. The age differences in the inflammatory markers partly depended on the shift system. The results give some support that rapidly forward-rotating shift systems are more 'age-friendly' than backward-rotating shift systems. PMID:25323301

Viitasalo, Katriina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kuosma, Eeva; Lindström, Jaana; Härmä, Mikko

2015-01-01

195

Model for Artificial Night-Sky Illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model has been constructed to allow calculation of the night-sky brightness caused by a city at its center and outside the city, and at arbitrary zenith distances. A circular city of uniform brightness is assumed, with the total brightness proportional to the population. Molecular scattering and aerosol scattering are included, with the amount of aerosols being an adjustable parameter, and different scale heights being adopted for molecules and aerosols. The reflectivity of the ground and the fraction of light radiated above the horizontal are taken as parameters. Applications are given to several cities, to the general population-distance relations, to brightness-distance relations, and to the city center brightness-population relations.

Garstang, R. H.

1986-03-01

196

Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

2010-01-01

197

Protein Adaptive Plasticity and Night Vision  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized network criticality (SONC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently exponentially unlikely phenomena. Adaptive plasticity is a term which has become much more specific as a result of recent physiological and genetic studies. Here we show that the molecular properties of rhodopsin, the transmembrane protein associated with night vision, can be quantified species by species using the Moret-Zebende hydropathicity scale based on SONC. The results show that long-range adaptive plasticity optimizes proximate species molecular functionality far more effectively than one would infer using only standard amino acid sequence (local similarity) tools such as BLAST for multiple alignments. These results should be universal, and they suggest new paths for analyzing and predicting protein functionality from amino acid sequences alone.

J. C. Phillips

2011-01-14

198

Observation of Night OH in the Mesosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements from the Aura MLS instrument show a layer of OH near 82 km in the night. This layer confirms earlier measurements by ground-based LIDAR. The MLS and LIDAR observations measure OH in the lowest vibrational state and are distinct, but related chemically, from vibrationally-excited emission from the OH Meinel bands in the near infrared. The Caltech 1-D model has been extended to include vibrational dependence of OH reactions and shows good agreement with MLS OH data and with observations of the Meinel bands. The model shows a chemical lifetime of HO(x) that increases from less than a day at 80 km to over a month at 87 km. Above this altitude transport processes become an important part of HOx chemistry. The model predicts that ground state OH represents 99% of the total OH up to 84 km.

Pickett, H. M.; Read, W. G.; Lee, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.

2006-01-01

199

Recovery of cognitive performance from sleep debt: do a short rest pause and a single recovery night help?  

PubMed

We studied the recovery of multitask performance and sleepiness from acute partial sleep deprivation through rest pauses embedded in performance sessions and an 8 h recovery sleep opportunity the following night. Sixteen healthy men, aged 19-22 yrs, participated in normal sleep (two successive nights with 8 h sleep) and sleep debt (one 2 h night sleep followed by an 8 h sleep the following night) conditions. In both conditions, the participants performed four 70 min multitask sessions, with every other one containing a 10 min rest pause with light neck-shoulder exercise. The multitask consisted of four simultaneously active subtasks, with the level of difficulty set in relation to each participant's ability. Physiological sleepiness was assessed with continuous electroencephalography/electro-oculography recordings during themultitask sessions, and subjective sleepiness was self-rated with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Results showed that multitask performance and physiological and subjective sleepiness were impaired by the sleep debt ( p > .001). The rest pause improved performance and subjective sleepiness for about 15 min, regardless of the amount of prior sleep ( p > .01-.05). Following recovery sleep, all outcome measures showed marked improvement ( p < .001), but they failed to reach the levels observed in the control condition ( p < .001-.05). A correlation analysis showed the participants whose multitask performance deteriorated the most following the night of sleep loss tended to be the same persons whose performance was most impaired following the night of the recovery sleep ( p < .001). Taken together, our results suggest that a short rest pause with light exercise is not an effective countermeasure in itself for sleep debt-induced impairments when long-term effects are sought. In addition, it seems that shift arrangements that lead to at least a moderate sleep debt should be followed by more than one recovery night to ensure full recovery. Persons whose cognitive performance is most affected by sleep debt are likely to require the most sleep to recover. PMID:18533327

Sallinen, Mikael; Holm, Jaana; Hirvonen, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Koskelo, Jukka; Letonsaari, Mika; Luukkonen, Ritva; Virkkala, Jussi; Müller, Kiti

2008-04-01

200

The Characteristics of Sleepiness During Real Driving at Night—A Study of Driving Performance, Physiology and Subjective Experience  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving. Design: Participants drove 55 km (at 90km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design). Setting: Instrumented car on a real road in normal traffic. Participants: Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register. Interventions: Daytime and nighttime drives. Measurement and Results: The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving. Conclusion: Night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness. Citation: Sandberg D; Anund A; Fors C; Kecklund G; Karlsson JG; Wahde M; Åkerstedt T. The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night—a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1317-1325. PMID:21966063

Sandberg, David; Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, Johan G.; Wahde, Mattias; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

2011-01-01

201

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... to protect people during the occupational use of pesticides. The Current Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is the federal regulation designed to protect employees of farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses from occupational exposures to agricultural ...

202

Protecting Temporary Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... in a sorter. Reports of Fatalities and Catastrophes "Host employers need to treat temporary workers as they treat existing employees. Temporary staffing agencies and host employers share control over the employee, and are ...

203

Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors exploit administrative data combining workers' earnings histories with information about their firms to estimate the magnitude and temporal pattern of displaced workers' earnings losses. They find that high-tenure workers separating from distressed firms suffer long-term losses averaging 25 percent per year. In addition, the authors find that displaced workers' losses (1) begin mounting before their separations; (2) depend

Louis S. JACOBSON; ROBERT J. LALONDE; DANIEL G. SULLIVAN

1993-01-01

204

Food worker experiences with and beliefs about working while ill.  

PubMed

Transmission of foodborne pathogens from ill food workers to diners in restaurants is an important cause of foodborne illness outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that food workers with vomiting or diarrhea (symptoms of foodborne illness) be excluded from work. To understand the experiences and characteristics of workers who work while ill, workplace interviews were conducted with 491 food workers from 391 randomly selected restaurants in nine states that participated in the Environmental Health Specialists Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Almost 60% of workers recalled working while ill at some time. Twenty percent of workers said that they had worked while ill with vomiting or diarrhea for at least one shift in the previous year. Factors significantly related to workers having said that they had worked while ill with vomiting or diarrhea were worker sex, job responsibilities, years of work experience, concerns about leaving coworkers short staffed, and concerns about job loss. These findings suggest that the decision to work while ill with vomiting or diarrhea is complex and multifactorial. PMID:24290694

Carpenter, L Rand; Green, Alice L; Norton, Dawn M; Frick, Roberta; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Reimann, David W; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David C; Egan, Jessica S; Everstine, Karen; Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda

2013-12-01

205

Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

206

Tips for Employee Productivity Night Shift: Napping Your Way to Productivity  

E-print Network

this forward 30 minutes until you find the right time. Your body's natural sleep/wake cycle (also called important, reduce your risk of an accident on the job. Here are some tips to make every minute of your nap to go to sleep. Find the Right Time: Keep a log and begin experimenting with your naps. Before going

Kim, Duck O.

207

For Immediate Release --November 29, 2012 Links between night shift work and cancer: researchers at  

E-print Network

work and cancer: researchers at University of Lethbridge look for genetic could make cells vulnerable to cancer. "The disruption of circadian rhythms #12;cells -- which in turn would make them a target for cancer

Morris, Joy

208

Application of mixed models to assess exposures monitored by construction workers during hot processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate exposures were assessed among construction workers engaged in hot processes in four jobs (boilermakers, ironworkers, pipefitters and welder-fitters) at nine sites in the U.S. After being trained by occupational hygienists, the workers obtained shift-long personal samples at each site for total particulates (TP). Selected samples were also assayed for manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Workers provided information

S. M. Rappaport; M. WEAVER; D. TAYLOR; L. KUPPER

1999-01-01

209

Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents.  

PubMed

External zeitgebers synchronize the human circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Humans adapt their chronotype to the day-night cycle, the strongest external zeitgeber. The human circadian rhythm shifts to evening-type orientation when daylight is prolonged into the evening and night hours by artificial light sources. Data from a survey of 1507 German adolescents covering questions about chronotype and electronic screen media use combined with nocturnal satellite image data suggest a relationship between chronotype and artificial nocturnal light. Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. This result persisted when controlling for time use of electronic screen media, intake of stimulants, type of school, age, puberty status, time of sunrise, sex, and population density. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise. Adequate urban development design and parents limiting adolescents' electronic screen media use in the evening could help to adjust adolescents' zeitgeber to early school schedules when they provide appropriate lighting conditions for daytime and for nighttime. PMID:22214237

Vollmer, Christian; Michel, Ulrich; Randler, Christoph

2012-05-01

210

The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences.  

PubMed

Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result. PMID:17803517

Navara, Kristen J; Nelson, Randy J

2007-10-01

211

Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms\\/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard

F J Jongeneelen; F E van Leeuwen; S Oosterink; R B Anzion; F van der Loop; R P Bos; H G van Veen

1990-01-01

212

Occupational exposure to asbestos and mortality among asbestos removal workers: a Poisson regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping\\/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping\\/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient

G Frost; A-H Harding; A Darnton; D McElvenny; D Morgan

2008-01-01

213

Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work  

PubMed Central

A total of 13 to 14% of European and North American workers are involved in shift work. The present aim is to explore the relationships between coping strategies adopted by shift workers and their leisure-time energy expenditure. Twenty-four female and 71 male shift workers (mean ± SD age: 37 ± 9 years) completed an adapted version of the Standard Shift-work Index (SSI), together with a leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Predictors of age, time spent in shift work, gender, marital status and the various shift-work coping indices were explored with step-wise multiple regression. Leisure-time energy expenditure over a 14-d period was entered as the outcome variable. Gender (? = 7168.9 kJ/week, p = 0.023) and time spent in shift work (? = 26.36 kJ/week, p = 0.051) were found to be predictors of energy expenditure, with the most experienced, male shift workers expending the most energy during leisure-time. Overall ‘disengagement’ coping scores from the SSI were positively related to leisure-time energy expenditure (? = 956.27 kJ/week, p = 0.054). In males disengagement of sleep problems (? = ?1078.1 kJ/week, p = 0.086) was found to be negatively correlated to energy expenditure, whereas disengagement of domestic-related problems was found to be positively related to energy expenditure (? = 1961.92 kJ/week, p = 0.001). These relations were not found in female shift workers (p = 0.762). These data suggest that experienced male shift workers participate in the most leisure-time physical activity. These people ‘disengage’ more from their domestic-related problems, but less from their sleep-related problems. It is recommended that physical activity interventions for shift workers should be designed with careful consideration of individual domestic responsibilities and perceived disruption to sleep. PMID:19401896

Fullick, S.; Grindey, C.; Edwards, B.; Morris, C.; Reilly, T.; Richardson, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Atkinson, G.

2009-01-01

214

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment  

E-print Network

The Operational Strengths and Weaknesses of Military Night Vision Equipment Chris Johnson, Dept the strengths and weaknesses of night vision systems. It is argued that there is an urgent need to review their operational benefits. Good vision is essential for many military operations, such as driving over broken

Johnson, Chris

215

A Night Handline Fishery for Tunas in Hawaii  

E-print Network

A Night Handline Fishery for Tunas in Hawaii HEENY S. H. YUEN Introduction Modern commercial and gear. In contrast, the rapidly growing night handline fishery for tunas near the island of Hawaii. The fishery for tunas by this method in Hila, Hawaii, experienced a rapid growth when high prices on the fresh

216

New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory

Scott Theleman; Jennifer Hegarty; Richard Vollmerhausen; Courtney Scott; John Schroeder; Frank P. Colby; S. Napier

2006-01-01

217

Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

218

Night-time transpiration can decrease hydraulic redistribution.  

PubMed

C(3) plants dominate many landscapes and are critically important for ecosystem water cycling. At night, plant water losses can include transpiration (E(night)) from the canopy and hydraulic redistribution (HR) from roots. We tested whether E(night) limits the magnitude of HR in a greenhouse study using Artemisia tridentata, Helianthus anomalus and Quercus laevis. Plants were grown with their roots split between two compartments. HR was initiated by briefly withholding all water, followed by watering only one rooting compartment. Under study conditions, all species showed substantial E(night) and HR (highest minus lowest soil water potential [Psi(s)] during a specified diel period). Suppressing E(night) by canopy bagging increased HR during the nightly bagging period (HR(N)) for A. tridentata and H. anomalus by 73 and 33% respectively, but did not affect HR(N) by Q. laevis. Total daily HR (HR(T)) was positively correlated with the Psi(s) gradient between the rooting compartments, which was correlated with light and/or atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPDa) the prior day. For A. tridentata, HR(T) was negatively correlated with night-time VPDa. Ecological implications of the impact of E(night) on HR may include decreased plant productivity during dry seasons, altered ecosystem water flux patterns and reduced nutrient cycling in drying soils. PMID:19422615

Howard, Ava R; van Iersel, Marc W; Richards, James H; Donovan, Lisa A

2009-08-01

219

Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

Tapp, Kenneth L.

1985-01-01

220

Improving Habitat Injured by Spill Response: Restoring the Night Sky  

E-print Network

Horizon oil spill, such as heavy equipment operation and lighting the beaches at night, caused significant.Haubold@myfwc.com Improving habitat injured by spill response: Restoring the Night Sky project locations. Deepwater Horizon of light pollution controls: Before and after. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

221

Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

2009-01-01

222

Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds Henrik Mouritsen*  

E-print Network

the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we. We tested this hypothesis by using sensory-driven gene expression (17) to identify brain regions Subjects. We examined two distantly related species of wild-caught night-migratory songbirds [garden

Jarvis, Erich D.

223

Neural Image Enhancement Allows Honeybees to See at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical design of most insect apposition compound eyes should restrict activity to daylight because at night the tiny lenses of the isolated ommatidia cannot collect sufficient light. However, several bee species have adopted nocturnal activity, taking advantage of the benefits of night foraging. By measuring behavioural visual performance in honeybees, we show that insects can possess better spatial resolution

Eric Warrant; Thomas Porombka; Wolfgang H. Kirchner

1996-01-01

224

Stress and sleep in nurses employed in "3?×?8" and "2?×?12" fast rotating shift schedules.  

PubMed

We compared two "3?×?8" shift rotas with backward rotation and quick return (morning and night shift in the same day) in a 5- or 6-day shift cycle, and a "2?×?12" shift rota with forward rotation in a 5-d shift cycle. A total of 294 nurses (72.6% women, mean age 33.8) were examined in a survey on work-related stress, including the Standard Shiftwork Index. Ten nurses per each shift roster recorded their activity and rest periods by actigraphy, rated sleepiness and sleep quality, and collected salivary cortisol throughout the whole shift cycle. Nurses engaged in the "2?×?12" rota showed lower levels of sleep disturbances and, according to actigraphy, sleep duration was more balanced and less fragmented than in the "3?×?8" rosters. The counter-clockwise shift rotation and quick return of "3?×?8" schedules reduce possibility of sleep and recovery. The insertion of a morning shift before the day with quick return increases night sleep by about 1?h. Nurses who take a nap during the night shift require 40% less sleep in the morning after. The "2?×?12" clockwise roster, in spite of 50% increased length of shift, allows a better recovery and more satisfying leisure times, thanks to longer intervals between work periods. Sleepiness increased more during the night than day shifts in all rosters, but without significant difference between 8-h and 12-h rosters. However, the significantly higher level at the start of the night shift in the "3?×?8" rotas points out that the fast backward rotation with quick return puts the subjects in less efficient operational conditions. Some personal characteristics, such as morningness, lability to overcome drowsiness, flexibility of sleeping habits and age were significantly associated to sleep disturbances in nurses engaged in the "3?×?8" rotas, but not in the "2?×?12" schedule. PMID:25216205

Costa, Giovanni; Anelli, Matteo M; Castellini, Giovanna; Fustinoni, Silvia; Neri, Luca

2014-12-01

225

The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations.  

PubMed

A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven southeastern states. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24-hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the southeastern logging industry. PMID:19044168

Mitchell, D L; Gallagher, T V; Thomas, R E

2008-10-01

226

Night vision imaging system lighting evaluation methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for night vision goggles (NVGs) to be effective in aircraft operations, it is necessary for the cockpit lighting and displays to be NVG compatible. It has been assumed that the cockpit lighting is compatible with NVGs if the radiance values are compliant with the limits listed in Mil-L-85762A and Mil-Std-3009. However, these documents also describe a NVG-lighting compatibility field test procedure that is based on visual acuity. The objective of the study described in this paper was to determine how reliable and precise the visual acuity-based (VAB) field evaluation method is and compare it to a VAB method that employs less expensive equipment. In addition, an alternative, objective method of evaluating compatibility of the cockpit lighting was investigated. An inexpensive cockpit lighting simulator was devised to investigate two different interference conditions and six different radiance levels per condition. This paper describes the results, which indicate the objective method, based on light output of the NVGs, is more precise and reliable than the visual acuity-based method. Precision and reliability were assessed based on a probability of rejection (of the lighting system) function approach that was developed specifically for this study.

Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.; Barbato, Maryann H.; Hausmann, Martha A.

2005-05-01

227

VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 ?m. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

2013-12-01

228

Big Bangs in the Night Sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big bang theory of the universe holds that we exist amidst the remnants of a single huge explosion about 15 billion years ago. Absent acceleration, the recession velocity v between any two remnants (galaxies) is proportional to the present distance. This is the Hubble law, v=Hr, where H≈ 65 km\\/sec\\/megaparsec. For small velocities, one can use the red shift,

Russell L. Collins

2002-01-01

229

Night-to-night changes in the characteristics of gravity waves at stratospheric and lower-mesospheric heights  

E-print Network

Night-to-night changes in the characteristics of gravity waves at stratospheric and lower to investigate the changes in the vertical propagation of gravity waves during periods of 4 days in June 1995 Rayleigh lidar á MST radar systems á Radiosondes á Gravity waves 1 Introduction Early studies recognised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

231

Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.?METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.?RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.???Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

2000-01-01

232

Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

2009-05-01

233

Night illumination in the visible, NIR, and SWIR spectral bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a spectral night illumination model. The model provides spectral irradiance on a horizontal surface for wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.0 microns. These wavelengths encompass the visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared spectral bands. The primary significance of this model is that consistent estimates of spectral irradiance are now provided for the visible through SWIR spectral bands. The primary sources of night illumination are described. The paper also describes how the new model was derived from spectroscopic data gathered by astronomers. Model predictions are compared to standard references commonly used to predict night illuminations.

Vollmerhausen, Richard H.; Maurer, Tana

2003-08-01

234

Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be featured (www.darksky.org/int-l-dark-sky-week-main) and The World at Night will co-host the sixth annual International Earth and Sky Photo Contest (www.TWANight.org/contest).The poster will provide further updates.

Walker, Constance E.

2015-01-01

235

What Makes Day and Night? The Earth's Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about day and night as a result of the Earth's rotation. Learners will first identify what they already know about day, night, and rotation and will be asked to share any questions they may have. Then, a book is read out loud in class and students are asked to identify relevant and important vocabulary words. On day two of this activity, learners will act as the Earth in creating a kinesthetic model of the day and night rotation. Lastly, learners will identify what was learned and complete a worksheet. This is Activity 5 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

236

Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

2012-01-01

237

Geriatric Service Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum for training geriatric service workers is designed to incorporate additional communication and group skills along with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to work with older adults. The curriculum is organized in four modules. Each module is assigned a time frame and a credit unit base. The modules are divided into four major…

Seton Hill Coll., Greensburg, PA.

238

Dislocated Worker Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

1988

239

Food Service Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

Barker, Ellen; And Others

240

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

241

Talent Report: What Workers  

E-print Network

such as salary, job security, health benefits, having interesting work to do, job autonomy and responsibility of corporate social responsibility exists in the country as a whole among college- educated workers -- those experiences were the Civil Rights movement, Viet Nam, and Watergate, not to mention rock music, drugs

242

Doctoring the Knowledge Worker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

Tennant, Mark

2004-01-01

243

Doctoring the knowledge worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine the impact of the new ‘knowledge economy’ on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's ‘stock of knowledge’. The paper examines and then dismisses the proposition

Mark Tennant

2004-01-01

244

Worker-Directed Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

Wagner, Stacey

2001-01-01

245

Cuban Workers in Exile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports in part the result of an interview study of 50 Cuban workers newly arrived in Chicago; includes the attitudes of working-class whites, the attitudes of low-status blacks and mulattos, and the generalized attitudes towards discussion of race and class discrimination. (JM)

Fox, Geoffrey E.

1971-01-01

246

NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

247

Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers On this Page Published Recommendations State Immunization ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

248

Young Worker Safety and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir YOUNG WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH In 2013, there were approximately 18. ... U.S. and Canadian Series of Symposia Young Worker Safety and Health Reports and Publications Teacher Resources Charts ...

249

The Future of Older Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains seven chapters on work and older workers based on an international symposium held at the University of South Florida in 1989. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Corporate Sector's Stake in Older Workers" (Daniel Knowles); (2) "A Seller's Market for Older Workers" (Audrey Freedman); (3) "Retirees' Reentry into…

Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

250

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, unravels the riddle of the dark night sky, known as Olbers' Paradox. It walks students through the history of various proposed solutions from 1610 to the present.

251

A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

1993-01-01

252

Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

2005-02-01

253

Night Pass over Malaysia - Duration: 0:06.  

NASA Video Gallery

This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

254

Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.  

PubMed

During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dark at ?0?lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dim light at ?5?lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

2014-11-28

255

Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers February 2001 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... workers' bodies workers' earnings growers' profits Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers [PDF - 1,521 KB] Print ...

256

Factors associated with food workers working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the frequency with which food workers said they had worked while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea, and to identify restaurant and worker characteristics associated with this behavior. We conducted interviews with food workers (n=491) and their managers (n=387) in the nine states that participate in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network. Restaurant and worker characteristics associated with repeatedly working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea were analyzed via multivariable regression. Fifty-eight (11.9%) workers said they had worked while suffering vomiting or diarrhea on two or more shifts in the previous year. Factors associated with workers having worked while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea were (i) high volume of meals served, (ii) lack of policies requiring workers to report illness to managers, (iii) lack of on-call workers, (iv) lack of manager experience, and (v) workers of the male gender. Our findings suggest that policies that encourage workers to tell managers when they are ill and that help mitigate pressures to work while ill could reduce the number of food workers who work while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea. PMID:21333140

Sumner, Steven; Brown, Laura Green; Frick, Roberta; Stone, Carmily; Carpenter, L Rand; Bushnell, Lisa; Nicholas, Dave; Mack, James; Blade, Henry; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Everstine, Karen

2011-02-01

257

Glutaraldehyde exposures among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves.  

PubMed

Exposure to glutaraldehyde is a recognized cause of work-related asthma. An investigation was undertaken to describe exposure to glutaraldehyde among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves and to make recommendations for prevention. At the two largest heart valve manufacturing facilities in California, the work process was observed; employer representatives and glutaraldehyde-exposed workers were interviewed; and employer written records, including company-generated industrial hygiene data, were analyzed. Approximately 600 female workers had continuous airborne exposure to glutaraldehyde over the course of every work shift and the routine potential for skin and eye contact with glutaraldehyde while making heart valves. Employee short-term (15-min) glutaraldehyde exposures were all well below the current regulatory ceiling level (0.20 ppm). Overall, approximately 40% of the glutaraldehyde-related job tasks involved exposures above the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value ceiling of 0.05 ppm; the majority (71.4% and 83.3%, depending on the company) involved exposures greater than 0.015 ppm. At one company, two cases of physician-diagnosed asthma were recorded by the employer in the previous 5-year period; these reports met the surveillance case definition for new-onset, work-related asthma associated with a known asthma inducer. Factors that contributed to worker exposure included large exposed surface areas of glutaraldehyde under agitation; working with glutaraldehyde-treated tissue in proximity to workers' breathing zones; manual pouring and disposal of glutaraldehyde solutions without local exhaust ventilation, eye protection, and waste neutralization; and prolonged use of latex gloves. Workers making bioprosthetic heart valves are at risk for occupationally acquired asthma. Employers should implement additional engineering controls to minimize workers' exposures to at least below a level of 0.015 ppm, an appropriate glove to prevent workers' skin exposure to glutaraldehyde, consistent and universal use of eye protection, and a medical surveillance program for glutaraldehyde-exposed workers. PMID:17454500

Sutton, Patrice M; Quint, Julia; Prudhomme, Janice; Flattery, Jennifer; Materna, Barbara; Harrison, Robert

2007-05-01

258

Cancer screening in US workers.  

PubMed

Regular cancer screening can prevent the development of some cancers and increase patient survival for other cancers. We evaluated the reported cancer screening prevalence among a nationally representative sample of all US workers with data from the 2000 and 2005 Cancer Screening Supplements of the National Health Interview Survey. Overall, workers with the lowest rates of health insurance coverage (in particular, Hispanic workers, agricultural workers, and construction workers) reported the lowest cancer screening. There was no significant improvement from 2000 to 2005. PMID:19008502

Vidal, Liat; LeBlanc, William G; McCollister, Kathryn E; Arheart, Kristopher L; Chung-Bridges, Katherine; Christ, Sharon; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Lewis, John E; Lee, David J; Clark, John; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E

2009-01-01

259

Work-Related Pain and Injury and Barriers to Workers’ Compensation Among Las Vegas Hotel Room Cleaners  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. Methods. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. Results. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers’ compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included “It would be too much trouble” (43%), “I was afraid” (26%), and “I didn’t know how” (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. Conclusions. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed. PMID:15727981

Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

2005-01-01

260

An improved method for precise control of light exposure at a known circadian time during an animal's subjective night.  

PubMed

The paper describes an electronic device that improves the feedback lighting (LDFB) developed previously. LDFB links environmental lighting conditions to locomotor or other monitored behavior. Subjective Night Light (SNL) has the following advantages over LDFB: it eliminates the multiple transitions between light and dark; it allows for precise control over lighting so that a light signal of variable duration can be phase locked to any phase of the subjective night; it dissociates to a much greater extent any potential cognitive perception of the link between locomotor activity and lighting; and it can be programmed easily. Finally, SNL retains the significant advantage of LDFB in its ability to maintain phase relationship with the endogenous biologic rhythms even in circumstances of phase-shifting or free-running conditions. The SNL system is made from components that can be purchased at most electronics outlets for less than US$100. PMID:9523921

Ferraro, J S; Antonakos, J L; Hallam, J M

1998-02-15

261

Shift worked, quality of sleep, and elevated body mass index in pediatric nurses.  

PubMed

Using the Neuman Systems Model framework, the relationship between shift worked, quality of sleep, and body mass index (BMI) was explored in nurses working at least 8 hours per shift on units providing 24-hour care at a Magnet recognized, Midwestern free-standing pediatric hospital. Electronic surveys collected demographic data and the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI) measured sleep quality. Sleep quality was not significantly correlated to elevated BMI >30. Night shift participants' reported fairly bad to very bad sleep quality scores at higher rates than day shift participants. Study findings will inform nurses and organizations concerned with maintaining a healthy workforce. PMID:23545126

Huth, Jennifer J; Eliades, Aris; Handwork, Colleen; Englehart, Jennifer L; Messenger, Jennifer

2013-01-01

262

75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...subject firm. The workers produce power control modules, SDARS, and sensors...Systems, LLC, North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group. The Department has...affected by the shift in production of power control modules, SDARS, and...

2010-07-01

263

A Mutation in SLC24A1 Implicated in Autosomal-Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness  

PubMed Central

Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a nonprogressive retinal disorder that can be associated with impaired night vision. The last decade has witnessed huge progress in ophthalmic genetics, including the identification of three genes implicated in the pathogenicity of autosomal-recessive CSNB. However, not all patients studied could be associated with mutations in these genes and thus other genes certainly underlie this disorder. Here, we report a large multigeneration family with five affected individuals manifesting symptoms of night blindness. A genome-wide scan localized the disease interval to chromosome 15q, and recombination events in affected individuals refined the critical interval to a 10.41 cM (6.53 Mb) region that harbors SLC24A1, a member of the solute carrier protein superfamily. Sequencing of all the coding exons identified a 2 bp deletion in exon 2: c.1613_1614del, which is predicted to result in a frame shift that leads to premature termination of SLC24A1 (p.F538CfsX23) and segregates with the disorder under an autosomal-recessive model. Expression analysis using mouse ocular tissues shows that Slc24a1 is expressed in the retina around postnatal day 7. In situ and immunohistological studies localized both SLC24A1 and Slc24a1 to the inner segment, outer and inner nuclear layers, and ganglion cells of the retina, respectively. Our data expand the genetic basis of CSNB and highlight the indispensible function of SLC24A1 in retinal function and/or maintenance in humans. PMID:20850105

Riazuddin, S. Amer; Shahzadi, Amber; Zeitz, Christina; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Ayyagari, Radha; Chavali, Venkata R.M.; Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Audo, Isabelle; Michiels, Christelle; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Nasir, Idrees A.; Zafar, Ahmad U.; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Jiao, Xiaodong; MacDonald, Ian M.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Sieving, Paul A.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

2010-01-01

264

Multi-Wavelength Constraints on the Day-Night Circulation Patterns of HD 189733b  

E-print Network

We present new Spitzer observations of the phase variation of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b in the MIPS 24 micron bandpass, spanning the same part of the planet's orbit as our previous observations in the IRAC 8 micron bandpass (Knutson et al. 2007). We find that the minimum hemisphere-averaged flux from the planet in this bandpass is 76 +/- 3% of the maximum flux; this corresponds to minimum and maximum hemisphere-averaged brightness temperatures of 984 +/- 48 K and 1220 +/- 47 K, respectively. The planet reaches its maximum flux at an orbital phase of 0.396 +/- 0.022, corresponding to a hot region shifted 20-30 degrees east of the substellar point. Because tidally locked hot Jupiters would have enormous day-night temperature differences in the absence of winds, the small amplitude of the observed phase variation indicates that the planet's atmosphere efficiently transports thermal energy from the day side to the night side at the 24 micron photosphere, leading to modest day-night temperature differences. The similarities between the 8 and 24 micron phase curves for HD 189733b lead us to conclude that the circulation on this planet behaves in a fundamentally similar fashion across the range of pressures sensed by these two wavelengths. One-dimensional radiative transfer models indicate that the 8 micron band should probe pressures 2-3 times greater than at 24 micron, although the uncertain methane abundance complicates the interpretation. If these two bandpasses do probe different pressures, it would indicate that the temperature varies only weakly between the two sensed depths, and hence that the atmosphere is not convective at these altitudes. (abridged)

Heather A. Knutson; David Charbonneau; Nicolas B. Cowan; Jonathan J. Fortney; Adam P. Showman; Eric Agol; Gregory W. Henry; Mark E. Everett; Lori E. Allen

2008-09-09

265

Work and Nonwork Experiences of Employees on Fixed and Rotating Shifts: An Empirical Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between shift time and use of leisure time, nonwork satisfaction, and mental and physical health among rank-and-file workers and nurses. Found employees working on fixed shift had higher job performance, motivation, and patients' care skill, and probably enjoyed better physical and emotional health. (Author/JAC)

Jamal, Muhammad; Jamal, Saleha M.

1982-01-01

266

[Physiological bases for work and rest schedules during shift work in Arctic tundra].  

PubMed

Conditions of Far North determine use of shifted work mode for construction of railways. The studies proved that low-distance shifted work is the most acceptable due to preserved health and work performance, lower rate of ageing. This mode maintains adaptation to the region's conditions, high level of work performance, saves the qualified workers. PMID:8925232

Viktorov, V S; Kamenski?, Iu N; Kirpichnikov, A B

1996-01-01

267

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

2010-01-01

268

Home-based workers: Worker and work characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study reported here is to describe the worker and work characteristics of 899 home-based business owners and wage earners, using a definition that excludes farmers, hobbyists, and persons taking work home from a job located elsewhere. Contrary to predictions by futurists of an influx of white-collar workers from the office to home, the home-based workers in

Diane M. Masuo; Rosemary Walker; Marilyn M. Furry

1992-01-01

269

Accommodation and acuity under night-driving illumination levels.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments are described in which the monocular changes in the refractive error and acuity of six young, normal, adult subjects were measured as the field luminance was reduced from approximately 100 to 10(-3) cd/m2. It was found that, at luminance levels equal to those recommended for road lighting (about 1 cd/m2), acuity fell from its photopic value of > or = 6/6 to about 6/9, with little change in the measured refraction. Marked changes in refraction, i.e. night myopia, only started to become manifest when the luminance was further reduced to below about 0.03 cd/m2, much less than that applying under normal night-driving conditions. Direct experiments under street-lighting conditions confirmed the absence of any significant night myopia. It is concluded, therefore, that neural changes, rather than night myopia, normally are responsible for the acuity loss suffered by drivers at night. PMID:9390373

Arumi, P; Chauhan, K; Charman, W N

1997-07-01

270

New device for monitoring the colors of the night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

Spoelstra, Henk

2014-05-01

271

The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above. Results: A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97–1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01–1.47) with a statistically significant dose–response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant. Conclusion: We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose–response relationships. PMID:24022188

Fritschi, L; Erren, T C; Glass, D C; Girschik, J; Thomson, A K; Saunders, C; Boyle, T; El-Zaemey, S; Rogers, P; Peters, S; Slevin, T; D'Orsogna, A; de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Heyworth, J S

2013-01-01

272

Employment and diabetes: a survey of the prevalence of diabetic workers known by occupational physicians, and the restrictions placed on diabetic workers in employment.  

PubMed

A postal survey of occupational physicians identified a prevalence of known diabetes among workers of 7.5 per 1000. The prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes was 2.6 per 1000 and of other diabetes was 4.9 per 1000. The figure for insulin-treated diabetes is lower than expected from population studies. The restrictions placed on diabetic workers in employment include shift-work, heights, dangerous areas, driving, civil aviation, emergency teams, offshore oil work, and work overseas. Certain companies within the chemical, oil, steel, confectionery, and drinks industries had lower than expected numbers of diabetic workers and merit further detailed study. PMID:2522368

Waclawski, E R

1989-01-01

273

Radiological worker training  

SciTech Connect

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

NONE

1998-10-01

274

Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.  

PubMed

All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid. PMID:24787595

Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

2014-04-20

275

Night Sky Brightness and Atmospheric Extinction at Kottamia Observatory Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoelectric measurements have been carried out at Kottamia Observatory site to study night sky brightness and the atmospheric extinction at different wavelengths. The results show that the mean extinction coefficients are k = 0.41, k = 0.28< and k = 0.17 mag/air mass during autumn season. These values are almost the same as that obtained by Mikhail (1979) at the same site during the same season. Results of night sky brightness at different altitudes above the horizon have been obtained. Complete scan each five degrees step in azimuth have been done at altitudes 50°, 60° and 70° to complete the previous measurements given by Nawar et al. (1995). Far from the diffuse galactic light, slight variations in night sky brightness with azimuth have been detected.

Nawar, S.

1998-05-01

276

The Electronic Literature Foundation presents The Arabian Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A jug of wine, a loaf of bread-and thou" reads one of the enduring lines of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayya, as translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Translations of the entire Rubaiyat and the Arabian Nights can be found online here, courtesy of the Electronic Literature Foundation. The Rubaiyat is attributed to Omar Khayyam, the Persian philosopher and mathematician who lived in the 11th century. The site includes four versions translated by Fitzgerald, and a more substantial translation by E.H. Winfield. Users can also read Fitzgerald's notes on his own translations, along with searching through all of the verses by keywords. Several translations of the Arabian Nights are also available, including those by Andrew Lang and the explorer Sir Richard Burton. Additionally, there is an interpretive essay on the translation of the Arabian Nights available here, composed by Professor Daniel Beaumont of the University of Rochester.

1999-01-01

277

Considerations of circadian impact for defining ‘shift work’ in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human

Richard G Stevens; Johnni Hansen; Giovanni Costa; Erhard Haus; Timo Kauppinen; Kristan J Aronson; Gemma Castaño-Vinyals; Scott Davis; Monique H W Frings-Dresen; Lin Fritschi; Manolis Kogevinas; Kazutaka Kogi; Jenny-Anne Lie; Arne Lowden; Beata Peplonska; Beate Pesch; Eero Pukkala; Eva Schernhammer; Ruth C Travis; Roel Vermeulen; Tongzhang Zheng; Vincent Cogliano; Kurt Straif

2010-01-01

278

Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.  

PubMed

The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings. PMID:11109178

Sass, R

2000-01-01

279

Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

2012-01-01

280

Shifting scintillator neutron detector  

DOEpatents

Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

2014-03-04

281

Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets. PMID:19380369

Stevens, Richard G

2009-01-01

282

Registration of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission day and night images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither iterative registration, using drainage intersection maps for control, nor cross correlation techniques were satisfactory in registering day and night HCMM imagery. A procedure was developed which registers the image pairs by selecting control points and mapping the night thermal image to the daytime thermal and reflectance images using an affine transformation on a 1300 by 1100 pixel image. The resulting image registration is accurate to better than two pixels (RMS) and does not exhibit the significant misregistration that was noted in the temperature-difference and thermal-inertia products supplied by NASA. The affine transformation was determined using simple matrix arithmetic, a step that can be performed rapidly on a minicomputer.

Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

283

Cancer in furniture workers.  

PubMed

A follow-up study of 5371 men who had worked in 1 or more of 9 furniture factories in Buckinghamshire for an average of 19 years up to 1968 is reported. The incidence of nasal adenocarcinoma in furniture workers taken as a whole was found to be about one hundred times that expected in the local population, and a significant relationship was found between increasing incidence of the tumour and increasing dustiness of work within the cohort. Similar comparisons with the local population produced no evidence for an increased risk of cancer of any other site in the furniture workers including bronchial cancer and malignant disease of the reticulo endothelial system. However, when comparisons were made between men exposed to different amounts of dust within the industry the incidence and mortality of bronchial cancer increased with increasing dustiness of work the latter trend but not the former being statistically significant. This trend is not due to differences in smoking habits among the groups of men. No trends of increasing incidence or mortality of other sites of cancer with increasing dustiness of work were found. PMID:7287286

Rang, E H; Acheson, E D

1981-09-01

284

Do Rotational Shifts Affect Micturition Patterns in Real Practice? A Pilot Study in Healthy, Young Female Nurses  

PubMed Central

Purpose Healthy, young individuals are known to exhibit circadian variation in urinary functions. However, the effects of chronic circadian disturbance on voiding functions are largely unknown. The present work compared the effects of rotational shifts on the micturition patterns of female nurses to that in female nurses with routine daytime shifts. Methods A total of 19 nurses without lower urinary tract symptoms who worked rotational shifts for an average duration of 2 years were recruited. A voiding diary was kept for 9 consecutive days, and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire was completed three times, starting 3 days before their night duties until 3 days after completion of their night duties. For comparison, seven nurses with regular shifts completed a 3-day voiding diary and the OABSS questionnaire. Results Female nurses working rotational shifts had lower overall urine production and had decreased urination frequency and nocturia than female nurses working regular shifts, even when the nurses who worked rotational shifts had a regular night's sleep for at least 7 days. Upon reinitiation of night duty, overall urine production increased significantly, with no significant changes in urgency and frequency. When these nurses returned to daytime duty, the volume of urine decreased but nocturnal urine production remained high, and the incidence of nocturia also increased significantly. However, the effects on OABSS score were not significant under the study design used. Conclusions Long-term rotational shifts resulted in adaptive changes such as decreased urine production and frequency in healthy, young female nurses. In addition, their micturition patterns were significantly affected by abrupt changes in their work schedules. Although working in shifts did not increase urgency or frequency of urination in healthy, young female nurses working rotational shifts for an average 2 years, large-scale studies are needed to systematically analyze the influence of shift work timings on micturition in humans. PMID:25558418

Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, Chang Hee; Kwon, Boeun; Han, Deok Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Jin; Cho, Sehyung

2014-01-01

285

Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments  

PubMed Central

1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts. PMID:23335816

Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

2012-01-01

286

Social worker trauma: Building resilience in child protection social workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child protection social workers can experience psychological trauma effects as a result of their work. This article considers the utility of the trauma perspective in understanding and intervening when overwhelming events impact social workers. Psychological trauma theory enhances earlier contributions of the stress and burnout literatures in the effort to increase the efficacy and well?being of child protection staff. Resilience

Mark Horwitz

1998-01-01

287

Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612

Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

2012-01-01

288

Do hornets have zombie workers?  

PubMed

Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

2000-06-01

289

Ionization Patches on the Night Side of Mars  

E-print Network

Arbor 7th International Conference on Mars July 11, 2007 Pasadena, CA #12;Summary · The complex magnetic Magnetic Field and Cusps · Mars has no global magnetic field, but it does have strong crustal fieldsIonization Patches on the Night Side of Mars and Their Seasonal and Solar Cycle Variations M. O

Fillingim, Matthew

290

Polygraphic Study during Whole Night Sleep in Infantile Spasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole night EEG were polygraphically recorded and analyzed in 9 patients with infantile spasms prior to ACTH therapy. The subjects were divided into two groups, favorable and unfavorable, depending upon the response to the ACTH therapy. (1) Among the unfavorable group, the deep sleep stage was not observed; while the light sleep stage tended to dominate. (2) REM sleep

Yukio Fukuyama; Atsuko Shionaga; Yoko Iida

1979-01-01

291

Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

Connell, Shelley S.

2013-01-01

292

The sleepwalking\\/night terrors syndrome in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are

A. H. Crisp

1996-01-01

293

Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has

D Hartman; A H Crisp; P Sedgwick; S Borrow

2001-01-01

294

Nightly variation of disorder in a Canadian nightclub  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aims to study nightly disorder within a single bar over an extended period, in order to analyse variations across time (n = 258 nights). Methods The security staff of a large Canadian nightclub agreed to note detailed information on every intervention in which they were involved. Bouncers wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression and incivility that occurred in the bar. Environmental characteristics (e.g. number of admissions and alcohol sales) were collected by one of the co-authors. Results “Hot nights” were observed. The number of problem events was particularly high on Tuesday nights, which had the highest number of customers admitted and higher alcohol sales. The average alcohol sale per customer was also higher during long weekends, and alcohol sales were positively related to problem events. Finally, path analyses revealed that the presence of more bouncers was a deterrent. Conclusions The level of disorder in a bar varies greatly over time. Contrary to what is often postulated, bars are not always high- or low-risk. The results strongly support responsible alcohol-serving policies and highlight the benefits of adequate surveillance. PMID:24976790

Boivin, Rémi; Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frédéric; Felson, Marcus

2014-01-01

295

Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

Weltsek, Gustave

2005-01-01

296

Washington Post (Book World) Long Day's Journey into Night  

E-print Network

Washington Post (Book World) Long Day's Journey into Night How our restlessness is affecting other and fishing nets as they navigate the shipping lanes off our Northeast coast, already over-fished salmon blocked by dams, and wildebeests whose wild African territory has become no more than an oversized zoo

Bou-Zeid, Elie

297

Japanese tourists’ perceptions of shopping at Taiwan Night Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

From theoretical viewpoints, analyses of consumer motivation have been applied to the shopping and the tourism industry for decades. The objectives of this study are to understand tourists' motivations and their preferred leisure activities when they shop in tourist night markets. The unit of analysis is the Japanese tourist. According to the research results, novelty-seeking, experiencing local culture and customs

C. C. Tu; D. Y. Liou

2008-01-01

298

Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the

S. Henderson; K. Meymaris; D. Ward; C. Walker; R. Russell; S. Pompea; D. Salisbury

2006-01-01

299

The Hospital at Night (H@N) Wireless Communication System  

E-print Network

The Hospital at Night (H@N) Wireless Communication System: Evridiki (Evie) Fioratou1 [Evridiki of Technology Centre for Healthcare, University of Nottingham, 2 Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit A new wireless communication system implemented at Nottingham has been shown to enhance patient safety

Oakley, Jeremy

300

“When Golden Time Convents”: Twelfth Night and Shakespeare's Eastern Promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the British Museum's Shah Abbas exhibition quotations from Twelfth Night reassured visitors Shakespeare was as familiar with ‘the Sophy’ as with Elizabeth. One of four dedicated to empire and globalization, the show used Shakespeare's ‘universalism’ in the debate about ownership of cultural property, to illustrate director Neil MacGregor's idea of the museum as ‘the world under one roof’. But

Richard Wilson

2010-01-01

301

Hosting a Family Literacy Night at Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea for a family literacy event resulted because teachers wanted more time to share reading strategies with parents, and parents wanted more information on how they could support and encourage their children with reading at home. With great success, Holy Cross School, Kemptville, Ontario, hosted a Family Literacy Night that coincided with the…

McGahey, Michelle

2005-01-01

302

Spiritual "Dark Night" and Psychological Depression: Some Comparisons and Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that spiritual dark night and some forms of psychological depression share commonalties yet have distinctly different features that call for different responses from caregivers. Presents comparisons between the two phenomena; highlights differences between them to offer counselors guidelines for making informed responses to their clients'…

O'Connor, Michael

2002-01-01

303

TheCuriousIncidentoftheDog intheNight-time  

E-print Network

is Christopher's favorite book, but the curious title of Christopher's story comes from the Sherlock Holmes short incident," re- marked Sherlock Holmes. The Curious Incident is at once gripping, touch- ing, and funny,507." One night Christopher discovers that the neighbor's dog has been murdered with a garden fork. Sherlock

Aslaksen, Helmer

304

UVM Night at Vermont Lake Monsters Baseball Game & Barbecue  

E-print Network

UVM Night at Vermont Lake Monsters Baseball Game & Barbecue Thursday, August 2, 2012 Name Waterman Bldg., Burlington, VT 05405 THE VERMONT LAKE MONSTERS (MLB affiliate = Oakland A's) VS. MAHONING.Council@uvm.edu See Page 2 for the Vermont Lake Monsters' Rain Policy. Refunds will not be issued by Staff Council

Hayden, Nancy J.

305

Observing Nitric Oxide in the Polar Night by Stellar Occultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now understood that NO plays a key role in the coupling of the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere (SMLT) via energetic particle precipitation. A significant body of evidence suggests that NO created by energetic particles is transported to the lower atmosphere during polar night, where it participates in catalytic ozone destruction. To date, measurements of the highly variable

J. D. Lumpe; S. Bailey; B. McClintock; C. Randall

2007-01-01

306

Polar Patterns: Day, Night, and Seasons - Issue 3, May 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue of the free online magazine, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears, highlights ways to teach about the extremes in day and night and seasons in the Arctic and Antarctica. The targeted literacy skill is cause/effect relationships. Art and poetry are integrated through a study of the aurora.

University, The O.

307

"Smoky Night" and "Crack": Controversial Subjects in Current Children's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two children's picture books: "Smoky Night" and "The House that Crack Built." Notes that the books deal with the Los Angeles riots and the use and distribution of crack cocaine. Concludes that each book treats important issues with sensitivity and honesty and is engaging, even when dealing with controversial topics in a didactic…

Koehnecke, Dianne

2001-01-01

308

INCOMES OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…

METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.

309

Personal epistemologies and older workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types of reflection are appreciated by workplace managers and how these relate to

Stephen Billett; Marianne Van Woerkom

2008-01-01

310

Do hornets have zombie workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro , are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male . From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker- queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15

Kevin R. Foster; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Alan F. Raybould

2000-01-01

311

Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

2010-01-01

312

Neuromuscular function in pesticide workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jager, K. W., Roberts, D. V., and Wilson, Andrew (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 273-278. Neuromuscular function in pesticide workers. Electromyography (EMG) provides a sensitive, objective, and speedy method of detecting impairment of nerve and muscle function in pesticide workers who are apparently in good health. Exposure to two organophosphorus compounds (both were dimethyl phosphate esters) was associated with a high

K. W. Jager; D. V. Roberts; Andrew Wilson

1970-01-01

313

Social Workers Confront Terrorist Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with unremitting stress experienced by social workers dealing with terror victims.The article will describe the activity of social workers responsible for setting up a hospital information center. It will describe how they assist families searching for their loved ones and the process of identifying victims.The process in which the uncertainty is treated, the anxiety is contained, bad

Nelly Fraidlin; Barbara Rabin

2006-01-01

314

Silicosis in jade workers.  

PubMed Central

The recent finding of cases of silicosis among jade workers in Hong Kong points to this disease being an occupational hazard. The source was found to be the silica flour that was added in a polishing process. Five cases are described together with the results of environmental investigation in a workplace. In three cases the disease was of early onset, rapidly progressive, and presented the features of galloping silicosis noted in other occupational exposures to silica flour. One patient had massive fibrosis and severe glomerulonephropathy, an association that has also been previously noted. One case showed evidence of active tubercular infection in addition to silicosis and two had healed lesions. Silica concentrations in the workplace during the suepect process were well above accepted threshold limit values. Images PMID:2998434

Ng, T P; Allan, W G; Tsin, T W; O'Kelly, F J

1985-01-01

315

Improved feedback shift register  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of feedback shift register with three tap feedback decoding scheme is described. Application for obtaining sequence synchronization patterns is examined. Operation of the circuitry is described and drawings of the systems are included.

Perlman, M.

1972-01-01

316

Molecular Electronic Shift Registers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

1990-01-01

317

The night-sky at the Calar Alto Observatory  

E-print Network

We present a characterization of the main properties of the night-sky at the Calar Alto observatory for the time period between 2004 and 2007. We use optical spectrophotometric data, photometric calibrated images taken in moonless observing periods, together with the observing conditions regularly monitored at the observatory, such as atmospheric extinction and seeing. We derive, for the first time, the typical moonless night-sky optical spectrum for the observatory. The spectrum shows a strong contamination by different pollution lines, in particular from Mercury lines, which contribution to the sky-brightness in the different bands is of the order of ~0.09 mag, ~0.16 mag and ~0.10 mag in B, V and R respectively. The zenith-corrected values of the moonless night-sky surface brightness are 22.39, 22.86, 22.01, 21.36 and 19.25 mag arcsec^-2 in U, B, V, R and I, which indicates that Calar Alto is a particularly dark site for optical observations up to the I-band. The fraction of astronomical useful nights at the observatory is ~70%, with a ~30% of photometric nights. The typical extinction at the observatory is k_V~0.15 mag in the Winter season, with little dispersion. In summer the extinction has a wider range of values, although it does not reach the extreme peaks observed at other sites. The median seeing for the last two years (2005-6) was ~0.90", being smaller in the Summer (~0.87") than in the Winter (~0.96"). We conclude in general that after 26 years of operations Calar Alto is still a good astronomical site, being a natural candidate for future large aperture optical telescopes.

S. F. Sanchez; J. Aceituno; U. Thiele; D. Perez-Ramirez; J. Alves

2007-09-06

318

[Historical milestones in the treatment of night blindness].  

PubMed

Most cases of night-blindness (nyctalopia or hemeralopia) do occur without an apparent organic eye-disease. In the past one spoke of essential or epidemic night-blindness. It is caused by a vitamin deficiency, and is a result of failing dark adaptation; it may lead to xerophthalmia, and finally to a complete permanent blindness, if not treated in time with vitamin A or vitamin A containing food (butter, egg-yolk, fish-liver oil). From time immemorial the healing effects of the intake of liver from fish and various animals for night-blindness has been reported from countries all over the world. In medical literature it has been recommended in the Papyrus Ebers (ca. 1500 B.C.), by the old Greek writers, from Hippocrates to Galen, and later to Oribasius and others. In the early sixteenth century Jac. Bontius (1592-1631) learned this therapy from empiric folk-medicine and advocated shark-liver as a specific medicine. Notwithstanding scattered reports of the dramatic favourable result of liver-treatment in patients with night-blindness, it would last until experimental research with a fat-poor diet led to the discovery (1913) and identification of vitamin A in our century, and the high vitamin A content of liver was established. Thus recognizing the value of the old liver-treatment, finally vitamin A was introduced in official ophthalmology. So an age-old, nearly universal favourable experience of empiric medicine had been neglected to the detriment of countless sufferers of night-blindness. Today systematic administration in cases of impending blindness, especially in some Asiatic areas, has already prevented the development of lasting blindness on a large scale. PMID:6085992

Lindeboom, G A

1984-01-01

319

Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

2011-09-01

320

Some thoughts on the implementation of pilot night vision devices for helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.

Tucker, G. E.

1984-01-01

321

Medical Surveillance for Former Workers  

SciTech Connect

The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

Tim Takaro

2009-05-29

322

Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

Perry, Robin E.

2006-01-01

323

Phase-shifting response to light in older adults  

PubMed Central

Key points Ageing is characterized by changes in circadian rhythms. Reduced light exposure or reduced responsiveness to light in older adults may contribute to age-related circadian changes. We hypothesized that the aged circadian clock would exhibit a decreased response to light at a lower intensity (2000 lux) but not to light at a higher intensity (8000 lux). Here, we assessed phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at two different intensities in 29 healthy younger and 16 healthy older subjects. Older subjects had a significantly earlier phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared with younger subjects. There was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux; this indicates that the acute phase-shifting response to light is not significantly affected by age. Abstract?Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (?8), 3 h before (?3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age. PMID:24144880

Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

2014-01-01

324

Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling.  

PubMed

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate <0.20). Expression is greater at night in approximately 70%. These findings were supported by the results of radiochemical in situ hybridization histology and quantitative real time-PCR studies. We also found that the regulatory mechanism controlling the night/day changes in the expression of most genes involves norepinephrine-cyclic AMP signaling. Comparison of the pineal gene expression profile with that in other tissues identified 334 genes (496 probe sets) that are expressed greater than 8-fold higher in the pineal gland relative to other tissues. Of these genes, 17% are expressed at similar levels in the retina, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Functional categorization of the highly expressed and/or night/day differentially expressed genes identified clusters that are markers of specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, melatonin synthesis, photodetection, thyroid hormone signaling, and diverse aspects of cellular signaling and cell biology. These studies produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of the 24-h dynamics of the pineal gland from one focused on melatonin synthesis to one including many cellular processes. PMID:19103603

Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L; Carter, David A; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-So; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B; Weller, Joan L; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G; Munson, Peter J; Klein, David C

2009-03-20

325

Chinese Workers: Under Threat or a Threat to American Workers?  

E-print Network

This paper provides a multi-dimensional analysis of the condition of workers in China in the wake of the adoption of new labor laws in China 2007 and 2008. From an economic perspective, wages have risen substantially during ...

Harper Ho, Virginia E.; Zhang, Lu

2010-07-01

326

Protein Chemical Shift Prediction  

E-print Network

The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

Larsen, Anders S

2014-01-01

327

Asian women workers in Kuwait.  

PubMed

The author examines trends in the roles of immigrant Asian women workers in Kuwait, using data from published censuses and reports and from three national-level surveys conducted in 1977-1979, 1983, and 1986-1987. "The study deals separately with the two major types of migrants: the domestic servants and the clerical and professional (or semiprofessional) workers.... The policies of sending countries and of Kuwait are discussed to reach some conclusions about the likely future patterns of migration of Asian women workers to Kuwait." PMID:12284362

Shah, N M; Al-qudsi, S S; Shah, M A

1991-01-01

328

Shifts In Relative U.S. Wages: The Role Of Trade, Technology, And Factor Endowments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic relationship of the standard general equilibrium trade model relating product-price changes to factor-price changes is used - together with other economic relationships based on this model - to investigate empirically the importance of changes in trade, technology, and factor endowments in accounting for the shifts in relative wages of less-educated workers compared to more-educated workers from 1967 to

Robert E. Baldwin; Glen G. Cain

2000-01-01

329

Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

2007-01-01

330

Range-Gated Laser Stroboscopic Imaging for Night Remote Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For night remote surveillance, we present a method, the range-gated laser stroboscopic imaging(RGLSI), which uses a new kind of time delay integration mode to integrate target signals so that night remote surveillance can be realized by a low-energy illuminated laser. The time delay integration in this method has no influence on the video frame rate. Compared with the traditional range-gated laser imaging, RGLSI can reduce scintillation and target speckle effects and significantly improve the image signal-to-noise ratio analyzed. Even under low light level and low visibility conditions, the RGLSI system can effectively work. In a preliminary experiment, we have detected and recognized a railway bridge one kilometer away under a visibility of six kilometers, when the effective illuminated energy is 29.5 ?J.

Wang, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Song-Tao; He, Jun; Liu, Yu-Liang

2010-09-01

331

On the Internet: Turbulence and 1001 Nights of Networked Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue, Art Beat looks at networked performance, featuring Turbulence, a net art portal. Turbulence's Helen Thorington and Jo-Ann Green discuss their blog, Networked_Performance, which provides an extensive archive of networked performances. We also profile performance artist Barbara Campbell's 1,001 Nights Cast, a durational networked performance project. Multimedia researchers interested in Web 2.0 might want to help develop a

Maria Miranda; Norie Neumark

2007-01-01

332

A Potts Model for Night Light and Human Population  

E-print Network

The Potts model was one of the most popular physics models of the twentieth century in an interdisciplinary context. It has been applied to a large variety of problems. Many generalizations exists and a whole range of models were inspired by this statistical physics tool. Here we present how a generic Potts model can be used to study complex data. As a demonstration, we engage our model in the analysis of night light patterns of human settlements observed on space photographs.

Máté, Gabriell

2015-01-01

333

Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured\\u000a and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning\\u000a in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all

Chun Shing Jason Pun; Chu Wing So

334

NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE <90%), as well as projected low noise (<2h+) readout. Power consumption is minimized in the camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

2014-06-01

335

Flower scent composition in night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral scent of 13 night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) was collected by headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Benzenoids together with isoprenoids dominated the scent in all species. Among the benzenoids, benzaldehyde (Silene subconica 35.5%, Silene succulenta 23.1%, Silene sericea 15.6%, Silene vulgaris 12.2%, and Silene nutans 9.9%), methylbenzoate (Silene saxifraga 96.1%, S. succulenta 15.2%), benzyl acetate

A. Jürgens; T. Witt; G. Gottsberger

2002-01-01

336

Night sky brightness at sites from satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to evaluate the artificial night sky brightness across the entire sky at any site of the World for given atmospheric conditions and accounting for mountain screening, elevation and Earth curvature. The method is an extension of the modelling technique developed by Roy Garstang and extended by Cinzano, Falchi, Elvidge & Baugh and Cinzano, Falchi & Elvidge with the use of satellite radiance measurements at visible wavelength.

Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C. D.

337

Night-time Brightness of Clouds over a City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have started a program to calculate the brightness of a layer of clouds over a city at night (in spite of the fact that astronomers do not observe on cloudy nights!). There seems to be a lack of information on the subject in the literature. I am combining the scattering properties of clouds with my light pollution model of a city. I have adapted my light pollution model to work for an observer situated near the center of a city and observing near the zenith. For simplicity I have used my original flat Earth model (Garstang 1986), and I treat the cloud as if it were a reflecting layer at the height of the cloud base. There are a number of models of radiative transfer in clouds that can be used to give approximate downward radiative intensities in any direction from a patch of a cloud layer when light shines in many directions from a large city onto the patch of the cloud layer. I have used the simple Eddington radiative transfer approximation as developed by Shettle and Weinman (1970), and I have also used the scattering matrices given by Twomey, Jacobowitz and Howell (1976). I hope soon to try two other models. Preliminary results suggest that for a city with the population of metropolitan Denver, treated as a circle of radius 12 km, the zenith night sky brightness when there is no snow on the ground is about V=14.3 mag/sec2, equivalent to 0.2 cd/m2, roughly 1000 times the natural night sky brightness near sunspot minimum. When the ground is snow covered the brightness may be as much as V=12.3 mag/sec2, equivalent to 1.2 cd/m2.

Garstang, R. H.

2001-05-01

338

Host a Family Math Night in Your School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article (part 1 of 3) offers rationale and goals for hosting a Family Math Night. It discusses scheduling and preliminary planning issues. Parts 2 and 3 are linked below as Related Resources. Part 2, How to Organize a Family Math Event: Questions to Ask Yourself, addresses planning details; part 3, What to Do at Your Family Math Event: Activities and Schedules, discusses what takes place during the event.

Giganti Jr., Paul

2007-12-01

339

Air concentrations and urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving and remixing workers.  

PubMed

The exposure of paving workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing was evaluated. The effects on the workers' PAH exposure were also evaluated during the use of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash (CFA), instead of limestone as the filler in the SMA. The PAH exposure was measured by personal air sampling and by analysing the levels of urinary naphthols, phenanthrols and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the workers' pre- and post-shift urine samples. The respiratory PAH exposure of the paving workers (geometric mean (GM) 5.7 microg m(-3)) was about ten-fold that of the traffic controllers (GM 0.43 microg m(-3)). The levels of PAH metabolites were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the post-shift urine samples than in the pre-shift urine samples, and the levels of metabolites in the post-shift urine of paving workers were significantly higher than in that of the controls (p < 0.01). Urinary 1-naphthol correlated well with the airborne concentrations of the two- to three-ring PAHs (r = 0.544, p = 0.003) and naphthalene (r = 0.655, p < 0.001), when non-smoking paving workers were tested. A good correlation was observed between urinary 1-OHP and the airborne concentrations of the four- to six-ring PAHs (r = 0.524, p = 0.003) as well as total PAHs (r = 0.575, p = 0.001). The concentrations of 1-OHP and phenanthrols in the urine of the pavers were significantly higher (p < 0.01) during remixing than during SMA paving. The CFA in the asphalt had no effect on the airborne PAH exposure or on the concentrations of the PAH metabolites in the paving workers' urine. PMID:14587843

Väänänen, Virpi; Hämeilä, Mervi; Kontsas, Helena; Peltonen, Kimmo; Heikkilä, Pirjo

2003-10-01

340

Statistical Training for Social Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of statistical training for social workers is addressed, along with current levels of training and general educational principles for statistical training. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral statistical curricula are proposed. (Author/MH)

Glisson, Charles; Fischer, Joel

1987-01-01

341

REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN WORKER REENTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 25 years ago workers recognized the adverse potential of fieldworker exposure to pesticide residues. Subsequent fieldworker acute organophosphate intoxications and resulting political pressure led to regulations by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration and the En...

342

Diode laser illuminators for night-vision applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a prototype night vision system for automotive applications that uses a high power near-infrared (NIR) diode laser, compact optics, and a CCD camera. Because NIR radiation is invisible to the human eye, a high-beam illumination pattern can be formed permitting a clear view of objects on both sides of the roadway, even in the presence of oncoming traffic. A narrow band-pass filter in front of the camera passes only the laser wavelength and prevents blooming of the image due to the headlights of other vehicles. This system permits drivers to see objects at night (such as debris or pedestrians) that are in close proximity to oncoming vehicles. The diode laser operates at 810 nm and emits 5 - 10 W. The illuminator distributes the laser light using a combination of refractive, reflective, and holographic optics in a manner that meets the standards for Maximum Permissible Exposure. We discuss the performance of our prototype system as a function of laser power and camera field-of-view and sensitivity, and we provide comparisons with a commercially available automotive night-vision system that uses a thermal-imaging camera.

Remillard, Jeffrey T.; Weber, Willes H.; Fohl, Timothy

2001-05-01

343

Flight test of monocular day/night HMD systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crew Systems Group at QinetiQ Farnborough, formerly part of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), have recently conducted development and flight evaluations of two monocular display systems that provided dynamic symbology for the pilot. The systems were the Pilkington Optronics (now Thales) Guardian monocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) used for daytime operations and the QinetiQ Display Night Vision Goggles (DNVGs) used at night. Test flights of the two systems were performed in a modified Jaguar T2B combat aircraft, that was based at the QinetiQ Boscombe Down research facility. Good performance was obtained from each system with both producing clear, legible symbology. During day and night Air to Ground (A-G) sorties both the Guardian and the DNVGs were used for simulated attacks and reconnaissance tasks on a variety of operationally realistic targets. In addition the Guardian HMD was used with an ASRAAM in the day Air to Air (A-A) environment to provide high off-boresight capability. The results from the test program have validated a range of significant capability enhancements offered by either a HMD or a DNVG, and have provided a significant increase in the technical and operational understanding of fast-jet helmet display systems.

Hudson, Craig; Longman, Peter J.; Makepeace, Nat R.

2002-08-01

344

Day-night and depth differences in haemolymph melatonin of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few studies have been conducted to quantify and understand the role of melatonin in invertebrates, and particularly in crustaceans and in deep-sea animals. In this study, we examined day-night differences in haemolymph melatonin of the burrowing decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (L.) during exposure to cycles of monochromatic blue light (480 nm) and darkness cycles of 10 and 0.1 lx. These differential intensity conditions simulate illumination at the depth of the shelf (80-100 m) and of the slope (300-400 m), where these lobster populations are chiefly found in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Our objectives were: (a) to verify the presence of melatonin in the haemolymph of this species using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and fluorescence HPLC (HPLC); and (b) to study the relationship between diel variations in melatonin concentration and locomotor rhythms, in order to examine whether the former influences behaviour. Melatonin was identified in LC-MS/MS by Q1 and Q3 mass peaks at an elution time of 3.7 min, and it was also detected by HPLC. Melatonin concentration was found to be two orders of magnitude higher at 10 lx (4.8±5.3 ng ml -1) than at 0.1 lx (0.06±0.03 ng ml -1). Also, the increase at daytime in 10 lx was absent in 0.1 lx. When the locomotor rhythm of animals exposed to both photoperiod regimes was compared, the diel periodicity was found to be preserved, but the timing of activity shifted from night to day. Extrapolating these data to the field, we interpret our results to mean that locomotor activity preserves its diel character, but not its phase and amplitude, in a bathymetric range where haemolymph melatonin reduces its concentration and rhythmic fluctuation.

Aguzzi, J.; Sanchez-Pardo, J.; García, J. A.; Sardà, F.

2009-10-01

345

Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with night waking in 9-month-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between infant night waking and both daytime behaviors reflective of poor behavioral and emotional regulation (intrinsic factors) and parent behaviors that may contribute to infant night waking (extrinsic factors) in 41 infants. Mothers completed questionnaires and an infant sleep and crying diary. More time awake at night was related to separation distress, frequent daytime crying, dysregulation,

Cheryl W. DeLeon; Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker

2007-01-01

346

Factors responsible for performance on the day-night task: response set or semantics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent study Diamond, Kirkham and Amso (2002) obtained evidence consistent with the claim that the day-night task requires inhibition because the picture and its corresponding conflicting response are semantically related. In their study children responded more accurately in a dog-pig condition (see \\/day picture\\/ say 'dog'; see \\/night picture\\/ say 'pig') than the standard day- night condition (see

Andrew Simpson; Kevin J. Riggs

2005-01-01

347

RMU NIGHT AT PNC PARK SATURDAY, JULY 13 | PIRATES VS. METS  

E-print Network

to Pittsburgh Pirates, RMU Night, 115 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 Questions? Call Kevin Roach at 412-325-4797 or email KevinP.Roach@pirates.com Join alumni, friends, and students Saturday, July 13, for RMU Night.edu/rmunight or contact Kevin Roach (Pittsburgh Pirates, RMU Night, 115 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15219) or contact

VanDieren, Monica

348

Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision Monday, January 17, 2011  

E-print Network

Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision Monday, January 17, 2011 Researchers from night-vision surveillance, robotic vision, endoscopic imaging, and consumer electronics. "We were on this article! 0 COMMENTS Page 1 of 1Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision | R&D Mag 1/19/2011http

Rogers, John A.

349

Chronic Citalopram Treatment Ameliorates Depressive Behavior Associated With Light at Night  

E-print Network

: light pollution, hippocampus, Phodopus sungorus, SSRI, circadian Exposure to light at night (LAN% of individuals living in the U.S. or Europe experience nightly light pollution (Navara & Nelson, 2007) and aboutChronic Citalopram Treatment Ameliorates Depressive Behavior Associated With Light at Night Tracy A

Nelson, Randy J.

350

Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

2005-01-01

351

Interference Control in Preschoolers: Factors Influencing Performance on the Day-Night Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated preschoolers' interference control in variants of the day-night task. The day-night task involves instructing children across 16 trials to say the word "day" when viewing a card depicting a nighttime sky and to say "night" when shown a picture of the daytime sky. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate…

Montgomery, Derek E.; Anderson, Maren; Uhl, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

352

Beautiful Black: A Bibliography about the Night for Young Readers from Preschool through Junior High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography offers a "magical adventure into the dark and dreamy world of the night." It contains annotations for 146 books, available for free to the blind and disabled, that cover various things associated with the night: dreams, monsters and ghosts, overcoming fear of the dark, nights in other countries that are six months long, and more.…

Sumner, Mary Ann, Comp.

353

Effect of Night Temperature on Pollen Characteristics, Growth, and Fruit Set in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Laura' plants were grown in the North Carolina State Univ. phytotron at 26C day temperature and 18, 22, 24, or 26C night temperatures to determine the effects of night temperature on pollen characteristics, growth, fruit set, and early fruit growth. Total and percentage normal pollen grains were higher in plants grown at night temperatures of 18 and

Mary M. Peet

1996-01-01

354

Continuous White Noise to Reduce Resistance Going to Sleep and Night Wakings in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White noise generators were turned on at 75 dB at bedtime and kept on all night to treat resistance going to sleep and night wakings in one-year-old toddlers. In a multiple baseline design four sets of parents recorded duration of resistance going to sleep, number of night wakings, completed surveys of their child's feeding and sleeping patterns…

Forquer, LeAnne M.; Johnson, C. Merle

2005-01-01

355

Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3) followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3) and the guards (0.4 mg/m3). The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85%) followed by shortness of breath (47%) and "sneezing" (45%). PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended. PMID:20398255

2010-01-01

356

HIV and female sex workers.  

PubMed Central

In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

1993-01-01

357

Venus night side measurements of winds at 115 km altitude from Nitric Oxide bright patches tracking.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N and O atoms produced by photo-dissociation of CO2 and N2 on the day side of Venus are transported to the night side in the thermospheric circulation. When the air parcel is descending, the recombination N+O-> NO produces the famous gamma and delta bands of NO emission. Pioneer Venus (1978) suggested that the statistical center of the emission is off from the anti-solar point, about one- two hours in Local time after midnight. This is confirmed from SPICAV/VEX results, and the explanation generally accepted is the influence of retrograde super rotation. However, the emission takes place at 115 km, while VIRTIS/VEX, with maps of O2 emission (peak altitude 95 km) in the night side of Venus (recombination of O+O coming from the day side), has shown that the maximum of emission is statistically centered on the antisolar point. Therefore, there is no influence of super-rotation at 95 km. One way to explain this paradox is that the cause of the super rotation is different at 115 km and in the lower atmosphere. Alternately, some gravity waves could propagate from below, crossing the altitude 95 km with minimal interaction, and breaking around 115 km, depositing their momentum. Another consideration is that the altitude of N2 photo-dissociation is higher in the thermosphere than CO2, therefore the thermospheric circulation pattern may be different for the transport of N atoms, and O atoms. We have started building maps of the NO emission by moving around the spacecraft along its orbit on the night side. The idea is that NO emission is concentrated generally in rather well defined patches of light. Therefore, by comparing maps taken at 1 hour or 24 hr interval, we can make a “bright patch tracking”, and derive directly the velocity of the moving air parcel containing N and O (we are aware that a part of the motion could be due to a phase shift of a gravity wave, if it has some influence on the NO emission). Preliminary results from this exercise with Venus Express will be presented and discussed.

Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Marcq, Emmanuel

358

Proton Chemical Shifts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Hans Reich, professor of organic chemistry at the Uiversity of Wisconsin-Madison, this site contains a compilation of proton chemical shifts and coupling constants. This is an excellent resource for providing students familiarity with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Data.

Reich, Hans J.

2007-11-16

359

Quantum Shift Register  

E-print Network

We consider a quantum circuit in which shift and rotation operations on qubits are performed by swap gates and controlled swap gates. These operations can be useful for quantum computers performing elementary arithmetic operations such as multiplication and a bit-wise comparison of qubits.

Jae-weon Lee; Eok Kyun Lee; Jaewan Kim; Soonchil Lee

2001-12-19

360

[Effect of night medical guard on following day vigilance. Influence of hypnotic drug on recovery night and on the vigilance during the following day].  

PubMed

The consequences of sleep deprivation on vigilance and mood were evaluated in six healthy medical students the day after being on night duty and the following day, after recovering from a full night's sleep. Diurnal vigilance was studied using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and mood was assessed on an anxiety self-evaluation scale. The study was conducted by means of a double-blind randomized trial to measure the effects of benzodiazepine (lormetazepam, 2 mg) compared to a placebo administered before the night recovery/full night's sleep. Sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in vigilance the day following the night duty. Sleep latencies were shortened during the morning following the night of recovery/full night's sleep. The values obtained after administering the lormetazepam did not differ significantly from those obtained after administering the placebo. There were no considerable differences in the anxiety evaluation scores before and after the night of recovery/full night's sleep between the two sequences of the trial. This study suggests that a significant lack of sleep (a 36-hour sleep deficit) modifies diurnal vigilance over two nyctohemeral periods. Administration of benzodiazepine with a short half-life after occasional sleep deprivation does not change the reorganization of the sleep-waking cycle. PMID:7817332

Kantelip, J P; Patay, M; Levy, P; Mougin, F; Didier, J M

1994-01-01

361

Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

2013-01-01

362

Whole Genome Expression in Peripheral-Blood Samples of Workers Professionally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

This study aims to examine global gene expression profiles before and after the work-shift among coke-oven workers (COW). COW work six consecutive days and then take two days off. Two blood and urine samples in each worker were collected before starting to work after two-days off and end-of-shift in the sixth-day work in 2009. Altered gene expressions (ratio of gene expression levels between end-of-shift and pre-shift work) were performed by Human OneArray expression system which probes ?30,000-transcription expression profiling of human genes. Sixteen workers, all men, were enrolled in this study. Median urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) levels (?mole/mole creatinine) in end-of-shift work were significantly higher than those in pre-shift work (2.58 vs. 0.29, p = 0.0002). Among the 20,341 genes which passed experimental quality control, 26 gene expression changes, 7 positive and 19 negative, were highly correlated with across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels (end-of-shift – pre-shift 1OHP) (p-value < 0.001). The high and low exposure groups of across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels dichotomized in ?2.00 ?mole/mole creatinine were able to be distinguished by these 26 genes. Some of them are known to be involved in apoptosis, chromosome stability/DNA repair, cell cycle control/tumor suppressor, cell adhesion, development/spermatogenesis, immune function, and neuronal cell function. These findings in COW will be an ideal model to study the relationship of PAHs exposure with acute changes of gene expressions. PMID:21854004

Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Su, Hung-Ju; Huang, Jie-Len; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Weihsin; Chou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Pan, Chih-Hong; Ho, Chi-Kung

2011-01-01

363

Office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A study of office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The main purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess ELF MF exposures. A secondary objective was to determine whether or not exposures to ELF MF can be reduced by implementing administrative controls and educating workers on the sources of such fields. EMDEX dosimeters were used to determine full shift personal exposures for 12 volunteers from two personnel sections and one training section. In addition, using the EMDEX meter in survey mode, office area evaluations were conducted. Administrative controls and training were implemented in an attempt to reduce exposures. Post control monitoring was conducted to determine if a reduction in ELF MF occurred among the workers. On average, baseline office worker exposures to ELF MF were 2.3 mG, ranging from 0.6 to 9.7 mG. The post control exposures averaged 1.1 mG with a range from 0.5 to 2.2 mG. A reduction of 53% overall was seen after implementation of administrative controls and training. The office area survey indicated that many sources of ELF MF influence exposure and that magnetic field strengths vary not only from one type of equipment to another, but also vary between two similar pieces of equipment.

Hiebert, D.G.

1994-05-01

364

Exposure-excretion relationship of styrene and acetone in factory workers: A comparison of a lipophilic solvent and a hydrophilic solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factory survey was conducted in the second half of a working week on 41 exposed male workers, who were engaged in fiber-reinforced plastics work and exposed to the mixed vapors of styrene and acetone. Nonexposed workers, 20 men, were recruited from the same factory. Styrene and acetone in respiratory zone air were monitored for a 8-h shift with carbon

Kazunori Mizunuma; Tomojiro Yasugi; Toshio Kawai; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Masayuki Ikeda

1993-01-01

365

Respiratory morbidity in wollastonite workers.  

PubMed Central

Medical and environmental surveys were conducted at a wollastonite mine and mill in 1976 and in 1982. Health testing included chest radiography, spirometry, and a questionnaire. Workers at a nearby electronics plant were also examined in 1982 for a comparison of lung function and respiratory symptoms. Both wollastonite and control workers showed significant smoking effects for chronic respiratory symptoms, but differences between the groups were not detected. Pneumoconiosis was found in 3% (3/108) of the wollastonite workers in 1982, but none showed a significant progression from their 1976 radiographs. The lung function tests of the 108 wollastonite workers examined in 1982 showed dust related changes in FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak flow rate which were independent of age, height, and smoking habit (p less than 0.01). For non-smokers alone, only the FEV1/FVC ratio declined significantly with dust-years of exposure (p less than 0.01). The comparison of lung function in 1982 between a high dust exposed subgroup of wollastonite workers and the control population showed a significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate in the study group (p less than 0.05). Analysis of 1976-82 changes in pulmonary function showed that wollastonite workers with higher dust exposure had a significantly greater decline in peak flow over the period than workers with lower exposures (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that long term cumulative exposure to wollastonite may impair ventilatory capacity as reflected by changes in the FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate. PMID:6093849

Hanke, W; Sepulveda, M J; Watson, A; Jankovic, J

1984-01-01

366

Night-to-Night Variability of Automatic Quantitative Parameters of the Chin EMG Amplitude (Atonia Index) in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To analyze the night-to-night variability of REM sleep electromyographic (EMG) features of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) by using the automatic quantitative method known as atonia index (AI), and to evaluate the improvement in sensitivity and specificity of AI for the diagnosis of RBD when a second recording night is available. Setting: Sleep research center. Interventions: N/A. Methods: A group of 17 idiopathic RBD patients was recruited for whom 2 all-night polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were available. Thirty normal controls were also recruited and subgrouped into Young (< 45 years of age) or Aged (> 45 years). Chin EMG analysis was run on all recordings; night-to-night variability of both AI and number of chin EMG activations/h during REM sleep was additionally quantified as the absolute difference between the 2 nights standardized as the percentage of their mean. Measurements and Results: Night-to-night variability of AI was higher in RBD patients (19.7%) than in the 2 groups of controls (Young 1.8% and Aged 2.8%). The values of variability of chin EMG activations were much higher than those of AI, especially in the Aged controls. Sensitivity of AI ? 0.9 for RBD was always higher than 82% and reached 88.9% for the combined-night analysis; specificity was also high, with a value of 92.3% for the combined-value analysis. Conclusion: The night-to-night variability of AI seems to be very low in normal controls and remains under 20% in RBD patients; that of the number of EMG activations is higher. However, even a single PSG recording provides high values of sensitivity and specificity when a threshold value of AI ? 0.9 is used to define abnormal chin EMG levels during REM sleep that increase only moderately when a second night recording is available. Citation: Ferri R; Marelli S; Cosentino FII; Rundo F; Ferini-Strambi L; Zucconi M. Night-to-night variability of automatic quantitative parameters of the chin EMG amplitude (atonia index) in REM sleep behavior disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):253-258. PMID:23493642

Ferri, Raffaele; Marelli, Sara; Cosentino, Filomena I.I.; Rundo, Francesco; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

2013-01-01

367

Ambiguous red shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bia?ynicki-Birula.

Wulfman, Carl E.

2010-12-01

368

Water Gas Shift Catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in water gas shift (WGS) catalysis, especially during the last decade, are reviewed. Recent developments include the development of 1 chromium?free catalysts that can operate at lower steam to gas ratios and 2 more active catalysts that can operate at gas hourly space velocities above 40,000 h. A current challenge is to develop catalysts for use in fuel cell applications.

Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner

2009-01-01

369

Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMR 0.93) or of lung cancer (SMR 1.02). Workers routinely exposed to TCE, PCE, or a mixture of solvents also were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMRs 0.86, 1.07, and 0.89, respectively), and the numbers of deaths for specific cancer sites were close to expected values. Slight to moderately increased rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were found among workers exposed to TCE or PCE, but none was significant. A significant increase in testicular cancer was found among those with exposure to mixed solvents, but the excess was based on only six deaths and could not be linked to any particular solvent or job activity. Internal cohort analyses showed no significant trends of increased risk for any cancer with increasing years of exposure to chromate or solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases. Our findings support previous studies of aircraft workers in which cancer risks were generally at or below expected levels.   PMID:10615290

Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

1999-01-01

370

From Worker Health To Citizen Health: Moving Upstream  

PubMed Central

New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises and “big data” are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities which are systems of systems and which require different skills, data, tools and partnerships. PMID:24284749

Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

2014-01-01

371

The effect of SAS shoes on standing fatigue in light fabrication workers  

E-print Network

A field study was conducted on light fabrication workers who worked 12-hour shifts to determine the effect of a high quality shoe, such as a SAS shoe, on standing fatigue. Nine participants (five male, four female) were utilized for statistical...

Bradley, Lee Norman

1996-01-01

372

Trade Liberalization and the Relative Wages for More-Skilled Workers in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent argument regarding the effects of trade liberalization on the dispersion of wages in LDCs is that trade liberalization should lower the relative demand for more-skilled workers by inducing between-sector shifts towards sectors intensive in unskilled labor. Based on a disaggregating, nonparametric approach that imposes little structure on the data, the paper presents evidence that trade liberalization in Costa

Donald Robbins; T. H. Gindling

1999-01-01

373

New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. This paper describes work that is being performed for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG-WDT (Weather Dipiction Technology) system. NVG-WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5); and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) is being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs.

Theleman, Scott; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Scott, Courtney; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.; Napier, S.

2006-08-01

374

Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001.  

PubMed

In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes' paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are necessary. PMID:12396917

Dewan, Puneet K; Fry, Alicia M; Laserson, Kayla; Tierney, Bruce C; Quinn, Conrad P; Hayslett, James A; Broyles, Laura N; Shane, Andi; Winthrop, Kevin L; Walks, Ivan; Siegel, Larry; Hales, Thomas; Semenova, Vera A; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Elie, Cheryl; Khabbaz, Rima; Khan, Ali S; Hajjeh, Rana A; Schuchat, Anne

2002-10-01

375

Low response in white blood cell DNA adducts among workers in a highly polluted cokery environment.  

PubMed

Coke oven workers are often heavily exposed to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); this exposure has been associated with higher cancer rates among these workers. We assessed the exposure of cokery workers in an oil shale processing plant. Personal hygienic monitoring, measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBCs) were performed. The 32P-postlabeling method was used for adduct measurement. The mean adduct value, 1.6 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, did not differ significantly from the control value (P = 0.098). Smokers had significantly higher adduct levels than non-smoking workers (P = 0.002). 1-OHP levels measured in post-shift samples correlated with DNA adducts found in white blood cells (WBCs). We conclude that hygienic monitoring and measurement of urinary metabolites are essential background exposure data when the biologically effective dose of chemical carcinogens is assessed. PMID:9636933

Kuljukka, T; Savela, K; Vaaranrinta, R; Mutanen, P; Veidebaum, T; Sorsa, M; Peltonen, K

1998-06-01

376

The EC night-time repressor plays a crucial role in modulating circadian clock transcriptional circuitry by conservatively double-checking both warm-night and night-time-light signals in a synergistic manner in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

During the last decade, significant research progress has been made in Arabidopsis thaliana in defining the molecular mechanisms behind the plant circadian clock. The circadian clock must have the ability to integrate both external light and ambient temperature signals into its transcriptional circuitry to regulate its function properly. We previously showed that transcription of a set of clock genes including LUX (LUX ARRHYTHMO), GI (GIGANTEA), LNK1 (NIGHT LIGHT-INDUCIBLE AND CLOCK-REGULATED GENE 1), PRR9 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9) and PRR7 is commonly regulated through the evening complex (EC) night-time repressor in response to both moderate changes in temperature (?6°C) and differences in steady-state growth-compatible temperature (16-28°C). Here, we further show that a night-time-light signal also feeds into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry through the EC night-time repressor, so that the same set of EC target genes is up-regulated in response to a night-time-light pulse. This light-induced event is dependent on phytochromes, but not cryptochromes. Interestingly, both the warm-night and night-time-light signals negatively modulate the activity of the EC night-time repressor in a synergistic manner. In other words, an exponential burst of transcription of the EC target genes is observed only when these signals are simultaneously fed into the repressor. Taken together, we propose that the EC night-time repressor plays a crucial role in modulating the clock transcriptional circuitry to keep track properly of seasonal changes in photo- and thermal cycles by conservatively double-checking the external light and ambient temperature signals. PMID:25332490

Mizuno, Takeshi; Kitayama, Miki; Oka, Haruka; Tsubouchi, Mayuka; Takayama, Chieko; Nomoto, Yuji; Yamashino, Takafumi

2014-12-01

377

Dermal exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among asphalt roofing workers  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to identify significant determinants of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt roofing workers and use urinary 1-hydroxyprene (1-OHP) measurements to evaluate the effect of dermal exposure on total absorbed dose. The study population included 26 asphalt roofing workers who performed three primary tasks: tearing off old roofs, putting down new roofs, and operating the kettle at ground level. During multiple consecutive work shifts, dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrists and were analyzed for PACs, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BAP). During the same work week, urine samples were collected at pre-shift, post-shift, and bedtime each day and were analyzed for 1-OHP (205 urine samples). Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the dermal measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of exposure, and to evaluate urinary 1-OHP measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of total absorbed dose. Dermal exposures to PAC, pyrene, and BAP were found to vary significantly by roofing task and by the presence of an old coal tar pitch roof. For each of the three analytes, the adjusted mean dermal exposures associated with tear-off were approximately four times higher than exposures associated with operating the kettle. Exposure to coal tar pitch was associated with a 6-fold increase in PAC exposure, an 8-fold increase in pyrene exposure and a 35-fold increase in BAP exposure. The presence of coal tar pitch was the primary determinant of dermal exposure, particularly for exposure to BAP. However, the task-based differences that were observed while controlling for pitch suggest that exposure to asphalt also contributes to dermal exposures.

McClean, M.D.; Rinehart, R.D.; Sapkota, A.; Cavallari, J.M.; Herrick, R.F. [Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

2007-07-01

378

PM2.5 metal exposures and nocturnal heart rate variability: a panel study of boilermaker construction workers  

PubMed Central

Background To better understand the mechanism(s) of particulate matter (PM) associated cardiovascular effects, research priorities include identifying the responsible PM characteristics. Evidence suggests that metals play a role in the cardiotoxicity of fine PM (PM2.5) and in exposure-related decreases in heart rate variability (HRV). We examined the association between daytime exposure to the metal content of PM2.5 and night HRV in a panel study of boilermaker construction workers exposed to metal-rich welding fumes. Methods Twenty-six male workers were monitored by ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) on a workday while exposed to welding fume and a non-workday (baseline). From the ECG, rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals) was summarized over the night (0:00–7:00). Workday, gravimetric PM2.5 samples were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence to determine metal content. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations between night rMSSD and PM2.5 metal exposures both with and without adjustment for total PM2.5. Matched ECG measurements from the non-workday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors and models were also adjusted for smoking status. To address collinearity between PM2.5 and metal content, we used a two-step approach that treated the residuals from linear regression models of each metal on PM2.5 as surrogates for the differential effects of metal exposures in models for night rMSSD. Results The median PM2.5 exposure was 650 ?g/m3; median metal exposures for iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, and nickel ranged from 226 ?g/m3 to non-detectable. We found inverse linear associations in exposure-response models with increased metal exposures associated with decreased night rMSSD. A statistically significant association for manganese was observed, with a decline of 0.130 msec (95% CI: -0.162, -0.098) in night rMSSD for every 1 ?g/m3 increase in manganese. However, even after adjusting for individual metals, increases in total PM2.5 exposures were associated with declines in night rMSSD. Conclusion These results support the cardiotoxicity of PM2.5 metal exposures, specifically manganese. However the metal component alone did not account for the observed declines in night HRV. Therefore, results suggest the importance of other PM elemental components. PMID:18613971

Cavallari, Jennifer M; Eisen, Ellen A; Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

2008-01-01

379

Arabidopsis plants perform arithmetic division to prevent starvation at night  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic starch reserves that accumulate in Arabidopsis leaves during the day decrease approximately linearly with time at night to support metabolism and growth. We find that the rate of decrease is adjusted to accommodate variation in the time of onset of darkness and starch content, such that reserves last almost precisely until dawn. Generation of these dynamics therefore requires an arithmetic division computation between the starch content and expected time to dawn. We introduce two novel chemical kinetic models capable of implementing analog arithmetic division. Predictions from the models are successfully tested in plants perturbed by a night-time light period or by mutations in starch degradation pathways. Our experiments indicate which components of the starch degradation apparatus may be important for appropriate arithmetic division. Our results are potentially relevant for any biological system dependent on a food reserve for survival over a predictable time period. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00669.001 PMID:23805380

Scialdone, Antonio; Mugford, Sam T; Feike, Doreen; Skeffington, Alastair; Borrill, Philippa; Graf, Alexander; Smith, Alison M; Howard, Martin

2013-01-01

380

Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

1989-01-01

381

STEM Colorado: Doppler Shift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the Doppler shift. The user can control the frequency of the sound source and the sound speed. The chart recorder at the bottom displays the wave crests as detected by the receiver and their frequency. It also displays the instantaneous wavelength if the ear is at rest. The user can drag the source or the receiver to any location in the display and choose the velocity of each. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.

Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew

2008-08-30

382

Supporting Skills for Care Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing skill requirements for the occupations of childcare worker and eldercare provider in Great Britain were examined. Data were collected from the following: review of existing literature; preliminary exploratory interviews with representatives of voluntary organizations, professional bodies, training providers, organizations involved in…

Dench, S.; La Valle, I.; Evans, C.

383

How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the main cause of the deteriorating economic position of unskilled workers in the United States and other developed countries has been expansion of trade with developing countries. In the framework of a Heckscher-Ohlin model, it outlines the evidence in support of this view, responds to criticisms of this evidence, and challenges the evidence for the alternative

Adrian Wood

1995-01-01

384

Young Worker Safety in Restaurants  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking businesses employ 11.6 million people in the United States. Nearly 30% of these employees are under 20 years of age. Many young workers' first work experience is in the restaurant industry. OSHA is providing this eTool to ...

385

Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

Simons, J. W.; And Others

386

Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

Barker, Don

1979-01-01

387

South African Public Workers Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, hundreds of thousands of South African public workers held a one-day strike, demanding wage increases. The strike left many public offices and schools with minimal staffing and forced others to close. Participating in the largest labor protest in South Africa since the end of apartheid, workers marched in cities across the country including Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg. Twelve unions, representing over one million teachers, police and prison workers, hospital personnel, and other public workers, held the strike after seven months of negotiations between the unions and government led to no agreement on pay increases. The unions had demanded a 7.3 percent increase in wages, in line with inflation. Due to difficulties in the economy, however, the government was only able to offer an increase of 6.3 percent. The unions consider the strike successful because the government promised to return to the negotiating table within the next several days. This week's In the News looks at the strike and the economy of South Africa under the leadership of President Thabo Mbeki, who was inaugurated just two months ago. The following ten sources provide background on the South African government as well as news and information about the strike.

Missner, Emily D.

388

Young Agricultural Workers in California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

389

Biological Hazards in Tannery Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 431 workers from 14 leather factories located in the Tuzla Organized Industry Region, Istanbul were involved in the study. Subjects were interviewed and examined individually with regard to asthma symptoms. Physical examinations were undertaken and respiratory function measured by spirometer. Moreover, the atmosphere of the working areas in the factories was assessed microbiologically. The fungal genera most

Kür?at Özdilli; Halim I?sever; Bedia Ayhan Özyildirim; Bilge Hapçioglu; Nurhan Ince; Haluk Ince; Yildiz Ye?eno?lu; Serdar Susever; Mustafa Erelel; Erol I?ik; Gündüz Gediko?lu

2007-01-01

390

Biometeorological effects on worker absenteeism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of six biometeorological variables (temperature, precipitation, air pressure, humidity, wind speed, and snow) on plant-wide worker absenteeism rates were investigated using 4 years of daily absence data (n=889). After holding constant temporal variables (years, season, and day of week), and then other biometeorological variables, all but one of the variables under consideration were uniquely and significantly related to

Steven E. Markham; Ina S. Markham

2005-01-01

391

Immigrant Workers and the Thirteenth Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the treatment of immigrant workers through the lens of the Thirteenth Amendment. It examines how the intersection of labor and immigration laws impact immigrant workers in general, \\

Maria L. Ontiveros

2010-01-01

392

Tips to Protect Workers in Cold Environments  

MedlinePLUS

... Anti-Retaliation Tips To Protect Workers In Cold Environments Prolonged exposure to freezing or cold temperatures may ... Tips include: How to Protect Workers Recognize the environmental and workplace conditions that may be dangerous. Learn ...

393

Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Construction Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers October 2006 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... the needs of the human body. Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers [PDF 9.6MB] Print page ...

394

Circadian and melatonin disruption by exposure to light at night drives intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to antiestrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of estrogen receptor (ER?(+)) MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speed the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characteristics were not observed in animals in which the circadian melatonin rhythm was not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

2014-08-01

395

Shifts in U.S. Relative Wages: The Role of Trade, Technology and Factor Endowments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates three hypotheses to account for the observed shifts in U.S. relative wages of less educated compared to more educated workers between 1967 and 1992: increased import competition, changes in the relative supplies of labor of different education levels and changes in technology. Our analysis relies on a basic relation of the standard general equilibrium trade model that

Robert E. Baldwin; Glen G. Cain

1997-01-01

396

Health, well-being and burnout of ICU nurses on 12- and 8-h shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally agreed that some features of shift systems can influence the extent of well-being and health problems experienced by the workers involved. Extended working days (9-12 h) have been found to aggravate some problems associated with shiftwork, especially when the work is mentally and emotionally demanding. The aim of the study was to compare measures of health, sleep,

Irena Iskera-golec; Simon Folkard; Tadeusz Marek; Czeslaw Noworol

1996-01-01

397

Lead exposure in stained glass workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate lead exposure in stained glass workers, we measured blood lead levels in 12 professional glass workers, in 5 hobbyists, and in 4 workers' family members. Professional workers lead levels (mean 20.7 micrograms\\/dl) were higher than hobbyists' (11.6 micrograms\\/dl) (P . 0.02) or family members' (11.3 micrograms\\/dl). Levels increased with years worked, hours worked per week, and percentage of

Philip J. Landrigan; Peter B. Tamblyn; Mark Nelson; Peter Kerndt; Kenneth J. Kronoveter; Matthew M. Zack

1980-01-01

398

Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance.  

PubMed

The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the "First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness" are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate. PMID:23677222

Kyba, Christopher C M; Wagner, Janna M; Kuechly, Helga U; Walker, Constance E; Elvidge, Christopher D; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

2013-01-01

399

Citizen Science Provides Valuable Data for Monitoring Global Night Sky Luminance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the ``First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness'' are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.

Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Wagner, Janna M.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Walker, Constance E.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

2013-05-01

400

Citizen Science Provides Valuable Data for Monitoring Global Night Sky Luminance  

PubMed Central

The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate. PMID:23677222

Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Wagner, Janna M.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Walker, Constance E.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

2013-01-01

401

Daytime noise stress and subsequent night sleep: interference with sleep patterns, endocrine and neurocrine functions.  

PubMed

The effects of strong daytime noise stress on subsequent undisturbed night sleep were studied in six male volunteers. They slept for seven consecutive nights in the laboratory, two nights being preceded by an 8 h exposure to 83 dB (A) pink noise. Continuously during all nights EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG and respiration were recorded. Additionally, during five nights, blood samples were taken every 30 min by an indwelling venous catheter for the determination of ACTH, hGH, PRL, TRP, 5-HT and 5-HIAA. After daytime noise load, increased sleep stage 4 stability, partly elevated hGH and PRL levels and decreased levels of the metabolites of the serotonergic system were found. This result may be explained by the assumption that high daytime noise stress is an additional load for the CNS which demands an intensification of recovery processes during the sleep of the subsequent night. PMID:2410388

Fruhstorfer, B; Fruhstorfer, H; Grass, P; Milerski, H G; Sturm, G; Wesemann, W; Wiesel, D

1985-05-01

402

Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian rhythms in patients with NES were evaluated. Fifteen women with NES (mean age +/- SD, 40.8 +/- 8.7 y) and 14 control subjects (38.6 +/- 9.5 y) were studied in the laboratory for 3 nights, with food intake measured daily. Blood also was collected for 25 h (every 2 h from 0800 to 2000 h, and then hourly from 2100 to 0900 h) and assayed for glucose and 7 hormones (insulin, ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and prolactin). Statistical analyses utilized linear mixed-effects cosinor analysis. Control subjects displayed normal phases and amplitudes for all circadian rhythms. In contrast, patients with NES showed a phase delay in the timing of meals, and delayed circadian rhythms for total caloric, fat, and carbohydrate intake. In addition, phase delays of 1.0 to 2.8 h were found in 2 food-regulatory rhythms-leptin and insulin-and in the circadian melatonin rhythm (with a trend for a delay in the circadian cortisol rhythm). In contrast, circulating levels of ghrelin, the primary hormone that stimulates food intake, were phase advanced by 5.2 h. The glucose rhythm showed an inverted circadian pattern. Patients with NES also showed reduced amplitudes in the circadian rhythms of food intake, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin, but increased TSH amplitude. Thus, patients with NES demonstrated significant changes in the timing and amplitude of various behavioral and physiological circadian markers involved in appetite and neuroendocrine regulation. As such, NES may result from dissociations between central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) timing mechanisms and putative oscillators elsewhere in the central nervous system or periphery, such as the stomach or liver. Considering these results, chronobiologic treatments for NES such as bright light therapy may be useful. Indeed, bright light therapy has shown efficacy in reducing night eating in case studies and should be evaluated in controlled clinical trials. PMID:19150931

Goel, Namni; Stunkard, Albert J; Rogers, Naomi L; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Allison, Kelly C; O'Reardon, John P; Ahima, Rexford S; Cummings, David E; Heo, Moonseong; Dinges, David F

2009-02-01

403

Increase in interleukin-6 and fibrinogen after exposure to dust in tunnel construction workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To see if there is any change in blood concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen during a working shift in tunnel construction workers. Methods: 12 Tunnel construction workers were followed up during a 24 hours period after returning from a 9 day work free period. The first blood sample was taken on Monday afternoon before starting the shift. Another was taken around midnight after 8 hours of work, and another the next afternoon after about 12 hours of rest. Exposure to respirable dust was measured by personal samplers. Results: The exposure of the workers to respirable dust, in terms of an 8 hour time weighted average, varied between 0.3 and 1.9 mg/m3. For IL-6, there was an increase in the median serum concentration from 1.14 ng/l before starting the shift to 4.86 ng/l after 8 hours of work (p=0.002). For fibrinogen, there was an increase in the median concentration from 3.40 g/l before entering the shift to 3.70 g/l 24 hours later (p=0.044). There was a positive correlation between values of IL-6 at the end of the working shift and the fibrinogen concentrations the next afternoon (Pearson's R=0.73, p=0.007). The observed increase in IL-6 was significant for both smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: The study shows an increase in both IL-6 and fibrinogen concentrations during a working shift for both smoking and non-smoking tunnel construction workers. PMID:11836462

Hilt, B; Qvenild, T; Holme, J; Svendsen, K; Ulvestad, B

2002-01-01

404

Worker Dissatisfaction: A Look at the Causes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles, one by George Strauss and the second by Peter Henle, examine worker dissatisfaction in the United States. The first article explores the causes of worker dissatisfaction. The second article looks at the economic situation for workers today and its effect on job satisfaction. (EJT)

Strauss, George

1975-01-01

405

Health Needs of Migrant Workers in Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of Wisconsin's migrant workers was conducted to obtain demographic information, to determine unmet health care needs, and to make recommendations for migrant health services based on those needs. A stratified random sample of 408 workers was selected, representing about 10% of the migrant workers in Wisconsin in the 1978 season; 262 of…

Slesinger, Doris P.

406

THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS SURVEY (NAWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Department of Labor is the only national information source on the demographics, and working and living conditions of U.S. farm workers. Since the NAWS began surveying farm workers in 1988, it has collected information from over 25,000 workers. The survey samples all cro...

407

Elderly Service Workers' Training Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Elderly Service Workers' Training Project (ESWTP) was designed to identify the problems encountered by human service workers in their daily contact with older adults. A needs assessment (mail survey and structured personal interview) was conducted throughout Manitoba to identify and document the scope of human service workers' on-the-job…

Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

408

School Social Workers' Intent to Stay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents findings from a survey that examined school social workers' intent to stay in the field of school social work. Forty-eight school social workers from a midwestern state participated in the study. Effect size estimates were used to examine the relationship between social workers' intent to stay and years of experience,…

Caselman, Tonia D.; Brandt, Mary D.

2007-01-01

409

High technology workers and total rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review suggests that the Total Rewards approach has some promise in the management of high technology workers primarily because of its broad definition of rewards. It also suggests that the rewards preference profile of high technology workers is different from that of other occupational categories and rewards programs for high technology workers should therefore be different. Research directions

John W. Medcof; Steven Rumpel

2007-01-01

410

Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. METHODS--Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers, for whom two radiographs taken after the end

K Jakobsson; U Strömberg; M Albin; H Welinder; L Hagmar

1995-01-01

411

Social Worker Hope and Perceived Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national sample of 1,200 social workers, categorized by the National Association of Social Workers as being in clinical practice, participated in a study to find out whether social work clinicians decline in hope or have increasing burnout over the course of their careers. In the final sample of 676 respondents, social workers' self-reported burnout was negatively associated with social

Robert H. Schwartz; Mojisola F. Tiamiyu; Dale J. Dwyer

2007-01-01

412

Cooling-energy reduction in air-conditioned offices by using night ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night ventilation has been applied successfully to many passively-cooled or low-energy office buildings. This paper investigates the applicability of night ventilation in air-conditioned office buildings. A thermal and ventilation simulation model, together with suitable weather data were used to examine the potential for energy savings and\\/or improved internal comfort conditions by applying night ventilation cooling. It was found that natural

M. Kolokotroni; A. Aronis

1999-01-01

413

Referenceless PRF shift thermometry.  

PubMed

The proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift provides a means of measuring temperature changes during minimally invasive thermotherapy. However, conventional PRF thermometry relies on the subtraction of baseline images, which makes it sensitive to tissue motion and frequency drift during the course of treatment. In this study, a new method is presented that eliminates these problems by estimating the background phase from each acquired image phase. In this referenceless method, a polynomial is fit to the background phase outside the heated region in a weighted least-squares fit. Extrapolation of the polynomial to the heated region serves as the background phase estimate, which is then subtracted from the actual phase. The referenceless method is demonstrated on a phantom during laser heating, 0 degrees temperature rise images of in vivo human liver, interstitial laser ablation of porcine liver, and transurethral ultrasound ablation of canine prostate. A good correlation between temperature maps reconstructed with the referenceless and subtraction methods was found. PMID:15170843

Rieke, Viola; Vigen, Karl K; Sommer, Graham; Daniel, Bruce L; Pauly, John M; Butts, Kim

2004-06-01

414

Phase shifting diffraction interferometer  

DOEpatents

An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

Sommargren, G.E.

1996-08-29

415

Phase shifting interferometer  

DOEpatents

An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

Sommargren, G.E.

1999-08-03

416

Phase shifting interferometer  

DOEpatents

An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

1999-01-01

417

Phase shifting diffraction interferometer  

DOEpatents

An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

1996-01-01

418

Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

Roth, B.A.

1992-10-20

419

Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions  

PubMed Central

The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

2010-01-01

420

The Healthy Worker Effect and Nuclear Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

The linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-effect relationship has been consistently used by most radiation epidemiologists to estimate cancer mortality risk. The large scattering of data by International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC (Vrijheid et al. 2007; Therry-Chef et al. 2007; Cardis et al. 2007), interpreted in accordance with LNT, has been previously demonstrated (Fornalski and Dobrzy?ski 2009). Using conventional and Bayesian methods the present paper demonstrates that the standard mortality ratios (SMRs), lower in the IARC cohort of exposed nuclear workers than in the non exposed group, should be considered as a hormetic effect, rather than a healthy worker effect (HWE) as claimed by the IARC group. PMID:20585442

Fornalski, Krzysztof W.; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik

2010-01-01

421

Night-time observations of snow using visible imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to the possibility of increasing the frequency of satellite snow cover observations in the visible range by using the light reflected off the moon as an illumination source for nighttime observations. Images obtained at night by DMSP satellites orbiting in the noon-midnight plane are presented which were obtained at various phases of the moon. It is concluded that DMSP visible imagery can be used to detect snow cover during those periods when the moon is over the local horizon and is between the first quarter phase and the last quarter phase, which amounts to around five additional days a month allowing for cloud cover. The high frequency of observation of a given area provided by a light-sensitivity imager would be an important feature of a dedicated water-resources satellite.

Foster, J. L.

1983-01-01

422

The sleepwalking/night terrors syndrome in adults.  

PubMed Central

A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are inconvenienced or threatened. The constitutional basis of the disorder is beyond doubt, although the actual expression may be related to stressful life-events resulting from an individual's personality, relationships and circumstances. Treatment may include the provision of a secure environment, counselling, and the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. PMID:8977941

Crisp, A. H.

1996-01-01

423

Aurora and airglow on the night side of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latitude-longitude distribution of emissions detected by the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer on the dark hemisphere of Neptune have been examined. The emissions have two significant geographic features: (1) a broad peak near longitude 60 deg W that extends rather uniformly over the entire range of observed latitudes (55 deg S to 50 deg N); and (2) a brighter, narrower peak near the south pole and 240 deg W. The first peak is interpreted as due to excitation of the night side atmosphere by photoelectrons from the magnetically conjugate, sunlit atmosphere. The second peak can plausibly be attributed to a southern aurora; the field geometry would then seem to require a conjugate (and probably brighter) northern aurora that escaped detection poleward of the latitude range sampled by the UVS data. The power for such an aurora could be extracted from Neptune's rotation by the injection of plasma at Triton's orbit at a rate dm/dt of about 1 kg/s.

Sandel, B. R.; Herbert, F.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

1990-01-01

424

Night eating syndrome and winter seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) share some features such as snacking for high-carbohydrate/high-fat food with increased weight, emotional distress, circadian disturbances, good response to serotoninergic antidepressants (SSRIs) and bright-light therapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographical and clinical correlates of the NES in a sample of 62 consecutive depressed outpatients with winter seasonal features (DSM-IV criteria). Depression was assessed with the 29 item-HDRS and Sigh-SAD version and with the 7-item depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The prevalence of NES was low (4.8%). Patients suffering from NES were significantly older with a greater duration of the illness. NES was not related to depression and to Body Mass Index. NES and winter SAD are not overlapping disorders. PMID:16632073

Friedman, Serge; Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Rouillon, Frédéric; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel

2006-07-01

425

Carbon Dioxide Snow Storms During the Polar Night on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) detected clouds associated with topographic features during the polar night on Mars. While uplift generated from flow over mountains initiates clouds on both Earth and Mars, we suggest that the Martian clouds differ greatly from terrestrial mountain wave clouds. Terrestrial wave clouds are generally compact features with sharp edges due to the relatively small particles in them. However, we find that the large mass of condensible carbon dioxide on Mars leads to clouds with snow tails that may extend many kilometers down wind from the mountain and even reach the surface. Both the observations and the simulations suggest substantial carbon dioxide snow precipitation in association with the underlying topography. This precipitation deposits CO2, dust and water ice to the polar caps, and may lead to propagating geologic features in the Martian polar regions.

Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony

2001-01-01

426

GLOBE At Night: Mobilizing The Citizen-scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLOBE at Night is an annual international citizen-science event encouraging everyone to measure local levels of light pollution in February and March and contribute their observations online to a world map. (See www.globeatnight.org.) The campaign is hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in partnership with ESRI. In the last three years citizen-scientists from around the world contributed more than 50,000 observations, with nearly 18,000 data points from the 2010 campaign. During the same time, millions of touch-based, GPS-enabled smartphones and tablets have been sold worldwide. Each year NOAO staff has to discard data points due to inaccurate reporting of the location (latitude and longitude). Despite the use of innovative mapping tools on the data reporting web page, it is too easy to mistype numbers or forget a negative sign, spuriously relocating data points. Additionally, there is a time lag between when the data is collected at night and when it is reported later that can allow for additional error. One approach to address these problems would be to create a way to submit the data when it is observed and have a more automated GPS capability for reporting an accurate location. The rise in popularity of GPS-enabled mobile devices provides such a solution. These phones include state-of-the-art browsers that have access to the GPS and other data (date, time). These devices can potentially be used to show an appropriate magnitude/sky chart to the citizen-scientist and submit the data in real time, as the observation is made. NOAO staff is building a web application for mobile devices that will help realize these possibilities and potentially enable the accurate reporting of many more observations this year. Our poster will discuss this effort and describe what we hope to accomplish.

Walker, Constance E.; Newhouse, M.

2011-01-01

427

Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

2013-06-01

428

Industrial screening programs for workers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening is attractive on cost and effectiveness grounds. It offers the firm an inexpensive alternative to reducing further workplace emissions. It may provide the only acceptable solution where no level of exposure is deemed acceptable for some workers. Screening has, however, already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately, the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values. 38 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Lavine, M.P.

1982-06-01

429

Size and shape in the evolution of ant worker morphology  

PubMed Central

Morphological evolution in ants has been traditionally thought as being strongly influenced by selection for colony ergonomic efficiency. Although many studies have focused on the evolution of social characteristics in ants, little is known about the evolution of worker morphology at a macroevolutionary scale. In this study, we investigate the tempo and mode of the evolution of worker morphology, focusing on changes in size and shape. Our datasets included a large sample of species from different ant genera, as well as variation within the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, for a total of 1650 measurements. The rate of size evolution was at least five times faster than the rate of shape evolution. The fit of alternative models of morphological evolution indicated statistically significant phylogenetic signal in both size and shape and in all datasets. Finally, tests of rate heterogeneity in phenotypic evolution among lineages identified several shifts in rates of evolution in both datasets, although the timing of shifts in size and shape was usually not concordant. PMID:24255818

Tschá, Marcel K.

2013-01-01

430

Life tables for worker honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Life tables for worker honeybees covering all life span, and those for adults, were prepared for three seasonal cohorts,June bees, July bees andwintering bees. Survivorship curves forJune andJuly bees show a convex type being exceptional for insects, with relatively high mortality at egg and feeding larval stages and at\\u000a later adult stage after most bees became potential foragers. Adult longevity

Shôichi F. Sakagami; Hiromi Fukuda

1968-01-01

431

Worker brood survival in honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The brood survival in honeybee workers was measured in order to obtain the data basic to the preparation of life tables. Under\\u000a normal condition, that is, at the center of brood area, the survival is high. The survival\\/stage function runs 100.0 eggs,\\u000a 94.2 unsealed brood (=feeding larvae), 86.4 sealed brood (=post-feeding larvae and pupae) and 85.1 adults. The total duration

Hiromi Fukuda; Shôichi F. Sakagami

1968-01-01

432

Testicular function among epichlorohydrin workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epichlorohydrin (1,2-epoxy-3-chloropropane) (ECH) is a colourless liquid used in the production of insecticides, agricultural chemicals, epoxy resins, and many other productions. It is highly reactive and an alkylating agent suspected of possessing carcinogenic properties in man. The results of a clinical-epidemiological investigation to ascertain whether exposure to ECH may be associated with sperm count suppression among ECH production workers at

T H Milby; M D Whorton; H A Stubbs; C E Ross; R E Joyner; L I Lipshultz

1981-01-01

433

Shift work and pathological conditions  

PubMed Central

Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body. These are primarily mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms since most body functions are circadian rhythmic. Next to the disturbances caused by changes in the circadian system, shift work has also been suggested to be related to a number of other health disorders. The present study summarizes recently published data on the potential relationship between disorders and shift working. PMID:17156476

van Mark, Anke; Spallek, Michael; Kessel, Richard; Brinkmann, Elke

2006-01-01

434

Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.  

PubMed

This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand. PMID:12346198

Kazi, S

1994-01-01

435

Heart rate variability: sleep stage, time of night, and arousal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability in consecutive 5-min epochs during the night in 12 normal adults. Simultaneous time coding of EEG and digitized EKG allowed examination of heart rate variability as a function of sleep stage, time of night and presence of EEG arousal. The results replicated previous studies in showing increases in high frequency components

M. H. Bonnet; D. L. Arand

1997-01-01

436

The relative impacts of daytime and night-time warming on photosynthetic capacity in Populus deltoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the relative impacts of increases in day and night temperature on tree carbon relations, we measured night-time respiration and daytime photosynthe- sis of leaves in canopies of 4-m-tall cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh) trees experiencing three daytime temperatures (25, 28 or 31 ? ? ? ? C) and either (i) a constant nocturnal temperature

M. H. TURNBULL; R. MURTHY; K. L. GRIFFIN

2002-01-01

437

Establishing Mobility Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Night Vision Devices: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to their restricted peripheral fields, persons with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) report significant problems seeing in low levels of illumination, which causes difficulty with night travel. Several devices have been developed to support the visual needs of persons who have night blindness. These devices include wide-angle flashlights,…

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Bowers, Alex R.; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

2005-01-01

438

Fault Evolution in Photovoltaic Array During Night-to-Day Transition  

E-print Network

Fault Evolution in Photovoltaic Array During Night-to-Day Transition Ye Zhao, Brad Lehman Abstract-- This paper focuses on fault evolution in a photovoltaic array during night-to-day transition. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is first discussed. When a PV fault occurs

Lehman, Brad

439

Safety qualification and operational assessment of a night vision cueing and display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Air Force and US Navy are cooperatively developing and demonstrating a wide field of view, night vision, helmet mounted cueing system called Night Vision Cueing and Display. This paper addresses the USAF path to safety of flight qualification of the device to include assessment of the display quality, aircraft compatibility, environmental tolerance, and ejection safety. The variety of

James M. Barnaba; Cary W. Wilson; Melina Baez-Vazquez

2008-01-01

440

Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

441

Using reflective clothing to enhance the conspicuity of bicyclists at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicycling at night is more dangerous than in the daytime and poor conspicuity is likely to be a contributing factor. The use of reflective markings on a pedestrian's major joints to facilitate the perception of biological motion has been shown to greatly enhance pedestrian conspicuity at night, but few corresponding data exist for bicyclists. Twelve younger and twelve older participants

Joanne M. Wood; Richard A. Tyrrell; Ralph Marszalek; Philippe Lacherez; Trent Carberry; Byoung Sun Chu

442

Factors Responsible for Performance on the Day-Night Task: Response Set or Semantics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent study Diamond, Kirkham and Amso (2002) obtained evidence consistent with the claim that the day-night task requires inhibition because the picture and its corresponding conflicting response are semantically related. In their study children responded more accurately in a dog-pig condition (see /day picture/ say "dog"; see /night

Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

2005-01-01

443

75 FR 19248 - Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, Mission Bay...waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks. This safety zone...public's safety. Background and Purpose Sea World is sponsoring the Sea World Summer...

2010-04-14

444

Battle of the Brains: Election-Night Forecasting at the Dawn of the Computer Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines journalists' early encounters with computers as tools for news reporting, focusing on election-night forecasting in 1952. Although election night 1952 is frequently mentioned in histories of computing and journalism as a quirky but seminal episode, it has received little scholarly attention. This dissertation asks how…

Chinoy, Ira

2010-01-01

445

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like  

E-print Network

.96; published online 24 July 2012 Keywords: BDNF; cytokine; hamster; hippocampus; light pollution; Phodopus in the United States and Europe experience nightly light pollution.8 Such unnatural conditions almost certainlyORIGINAL ARTICLE Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible

Nelson, Randy J.

446

MINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and  

E-print Network

and circadian physiological and behavioral functions. Sources of light at night Light pollution by urban of the natural sky beyond background levels, called urban sky glow [15,16]. Light pollution has demonstratedMINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological

Bruno, John P.

447

Dim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Tomoko Ikeno  

E-print Network

Light pollution Pelage Immune function a b s t r a c t Photoperiodic regulation of physiologyDim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Tomoko Ikeno , Zachary M of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. How- ever, artificial light at night caused by recent

Nelson, Randy J.

448

Increased grain yield and biomass allocation in rice under cool night temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different night temperatures on grain yield were examined in rice (Oryza sativa L. Akita-63) during the ripening period. Plants were grown under two different night temperatures (22 and 27°C) from anthesis to harvesting. The day temperature was maintained at 27°C in both treatments. Although the final biomass at harvest did not differ between the treatments, the dry

Keiichi Kanno; Amane Makino

2010-01-01

449

Effect of high night temperatures on cotton respiration, ATP levels and carbohydrate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

High night temperatures are considered to be one of the main environmental factors contributing to lowered yields in cotton and this has been attributed to a negative effect on respiration and carbohydrate accumulation, but the evidence for this is lacking. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of high night temperatures on cotton respiration, adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) levels and carbohydrates

D. A. Loka; D. M. Oosterhuis

2010-01-01

450

Fault evolution in photovoltaic array during night-to-day transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on fault evolution in a photovoltaic array during night-to-day transition. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is first discussed. When a PV fault occurs in daylight, overcurrent protection devices work properly. However, when the same fault occurs at night, our results demonstrate that the fault current is difficult to detect. As a

Ye Zhao; Brad Lehman; Jean-Francois DePalma; Jerry Mosesian; Robert Lyons

2010-01-01

451
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