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1

Effects of Napping on Sleepiness and Sleep-Related Performance Deficits in Night-Shift Workers: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation. PMID:23411360

Ruggiero, Jeanne S.; Redeker, Nancy S.

2014-01-01

2

Effects of napping on sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits in night-shift workers: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation. PMID:23411360

Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S

2014-04-01

3

Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014;37(3):545-556. PMID:24587577

Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

2014-01-01

4

Night shift paralysis in air traffic control officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Folkard et al. 1984) we reported on the incidence of a temporary but incapacitating paralysis known as ‘night shift paralysis’. This appeared to be a special form of sleep paralysis that occurs when night workers manage to maintain a state of wakefulness despite considerable pressures to sleep. The incidence of this paralysis might thus be assumed

SIMON FOLKARD; RUTH CONDON

1987-01-01

5

How fast should the night shift rotate? A rejoinder.  

PubMed

The argument for greater use of permanent night shift does not match the three times greater use of rotating three-shift systems in Britain. Studies of industrial production show very slight differences between output on different shifts, unlike laboratory studies, suggesting that it is almost impossible to reproduce the practice, motivation, and real consequences of work in laboratory settings. People who prefer permanent night shift often prefer to avoid management, and few managements welcome this; or have important tasks to perform at home in the day-time. Some studies of adaptation have defined inversion of temperature curves poorly, and most night-workers never completely adapt. Social flexibility, which has been the main attraction of rapidly rotating shifts, can be reproduced on permanent night shifts, but then loses the possibility of adaptation. PMID:1490438

Wedderburn, A A

1992-12-01

6

Racial differences in the association between night shift work and melatonin levels among women.  

PubMed

Reduced suppression of melatonin in response to working the night shift among people of Asian ancestry has been suggested as a possible explanation for the null results observed in a recent analysis of shift work and breast cancer risk in a Chinese cohort. The authors analyzed the impact of Asian versus white race on previously reported differences in urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels in a 2003-2008 study in Seattle, Washington, of female health-care workers that exclusively worked night or day shifts. A total of 225 white and 51 Asian participants were included in the analysis. Although 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were affected by night shift work in both racial groups, Asian night shift workers consistently showed 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels that were closer to levels in day shift workers than did white night shift workers. Furthermore, differences in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels between white and Asian night shift workers relative to day shift workers were statistically significant in every instance (P < 0.05). These results suggest that Asians may be better able to maintain a "normal" circadian pattern of melatonin production compared with whites and suggest a biological mechanism by which Asian night shift workers may be at a reduced risk of cancer. PMID:23380044

Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott

2013-03-01

7

[Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].  

PubMed

Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies. PMID:23829069

Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pep?o?ska, Beata

2013-01-01

8

Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker  

PubMed Central

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim

2009-01-01

9

Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.  

PubMed

The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24?h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor?=?50.26?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude?=?45.24?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13?h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

2015-02-01

10

Does Exogenous Melatonin Improve Day Sleep or Night Alertness in Emergency Physicians Working Night Shifts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To determine whether exogenous melatonin improves day sleep or night alertness in emergency physicians working night shifts. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, emergency physicians were given 10 mg sublingual melatonin or placebo each morning during one string of nights and the other substance during another string of nights of equal duration. During day-sleep periods, subjective sleep

K. Michael Jorgensen; Michael D Witting

1998-01-01

11

Self-reported health and sleep complaints among nursing personnel working under 12 h night and day shifts.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional exploratory study involved health care workers of various skill types and levels. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of diseases, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities (family, leisure, and rest) are higher among night than day workers. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals using questionnaires and other forms. Night work was explored as a risk factor, considering a night worker as one who had at least one night job on the occasion of the research. Data were assessed by a univariate analysis. The association between work schedule and the dependent variables--health conditions, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities--was evaluated through the estimation of the prevalence ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%. Two hundred and fifty-eight female nursing personnel participated; 41.5% were moonlighters, and only 20 worked a shift of less than 12h in length. Reports of migraine and need of medical care the 2 weeks before the survey were more prevalent among day than night workers (PR=0.71; CI=0.55-0.92 and PR=0.71; CI=0.52-0.95, respectively). Migraine headaches occurred less frequently among night than day workers as confirmed by comparing the reports of the night workers and day workers whose work history was always day shifts (PR = 0.74; CI = 0.57-0.96). Reports of mild emotional disorders (mild depression, tension, anxiety, or insomnia) were less frequent among night (PR=0.76; CI=0.59-0.98) and ex-night workers (PR=0.68; CI=0.50-0.91) than day workers who never had worked a night job. The healthy worker effect does not seem to explain the results of the comparisons between day and night workers. The possible role of exposure by day workers to some risk factors, such as stress, was suggested as an explanation for these results. No significant difference was observed between night and day workers as to sleep complaints, a result that may have been influenced by the nature of the shift-work schedule (no successive night shifts) and possibly nap taking during the night shift. Moreover, the long work hours and moonlighting of the healthcare workers, which is common in Brazil, may have masked other possible differences between the day and night workers. Among night workers, a significant relation was found between years working nights (more than 10 yrs) and high cholesterol values (PR = 2.58; CI = 1.07-6.27), a result that deserves additional study. Working nights more than four times per 2-week span was related to complaints about insufficient time for children (PR= 1.96; CI = 1.38-2.78) and rest/leisure (PR= 1.54; CI = 1.20-1.99). These results can be related to the "social value of time," as evenings and nights are when families usually spend time together. The complexity of the professional life and the consequent heterogeneity of the group of workers under shift-work schemes confound the results. More in-depth study of the questions raised here demands a more sophisticated epidemiological treatment and larger sample size. PMID:15646233

Portela, Luciana F; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Waissmann, William

2004-01-01

12

Acute hospital medical staffing during the night shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little or no attempt to define the need for 24-hour medical cover, nor its appropriateness in acute hospitals, despite the great cost implications and the question of the quality of that care. This study examined the medical activity during the 'night shift' in an acute hospital. There were an average of 2.59 calls per night, most from

Ken Hillman; Sean Beehan

1998-01-01

13

Night Shift May Boost Black Women's Diabetes Risk, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Night Shift May Boost Black Women's Diabetes Risk, Study Finds Odds are highest ... Preidt Monday, January 12, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Diabetes Women's Health MONDAY, Jan. 12, 2015 ( ...

14

Relationship between napping during night shift work and household obligations of female nursing personnel.  

PubMed

Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep-wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework. PMID:23596355

Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

2013-01-01

15

Estimates of injury risks for healthcare personnel working night shifts and long hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Evidence suggests that working long hours or unconventional shifts (night, evening and rotating shifts) can induce fatigue and stress in healthcare employees that might jeopardise quality of care and patient safety.Methods:This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 13 years of occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, covering nearly 11 000 American workers. During the study

A E Dembe; R Delbos; J B Erickson

2009-01-01

16

The impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shifts.  

PubMed

The median incidence of adverse events that may result in patient injury is a total of 9% of all in-hospital admissions. In order to reduce this high incidence initiatives are continuously worked on that can reduce the risk of patient harm during admission by strengthening hospital systems. However, the influence of physicians' shift work on the risk on adverse events in patients remains controversial. In the studies included in this PhD thesis we wished to examine the impact of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances on surgeons' during night shifts. Further we wished to examine the impact sleep deprivation had on surgeons' performance as a measure of how patient safety would be affected. We found that sleep deprivation subjectively had an impact on the surgeons and that they were aware of the effect fatigue had on their work performance. As a result they applied different mechanisms to cope with fatigue. Attending surgeons felt that they had a better overview now, due to more experience and better skills, than when they were residents, despite the fatigue on night shifts. We monitored surgeons' performance during night shifts by laparoscopic simulation and cognitive tests in order to assess their performance; no deterioration was found when pre call values were compared to on call values. The surgeons were monitored prospectively for 4 days across a night shift in order to assess the circadian rhythm and sleep. We found that surgeons' circadian rhythm was affected by working night shifts and their sleep pattern altered, resembling that of shift workers on the post call day. We assessed the quality of admission in medical records as a measure of surgeons' performance, during day, evening and night hours and found no deterioration in the quality of night time medical records. However, consistent high errors were found in several categories. These findings should be followed up in the future with respect of clarifying mechanism and consequences for patient safety. In conclusion the assessment of the impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shift is complex and multi-faceted. Surgeons do feel an impact of sleep deprivation during night shifts, and their circadian rhythm is affected. Despite this, it appears that the surgeons are able to compensate for the effects of sleep loss. We did not find any results to support that sleep loss results in psychomotor or cognitive deterioration during a 17-hour night shift or that sleep deprivation during a night shift results in reduced patient safety. PMID:25186549

Amirian, Ilda

2014-09-01

17

Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?  

PubMed

The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter? PMID:24087803

Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

2013-01-01

18

Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bjørn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Ståle

2013-01-01

19

Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

20

Sleep on the job partially compensates for sleep loss in night-shift nurses.  

PubMed

Nursing personnel in Brazil are usually submitted to fixed 12 h shifts with no consecutive working days or nights. Moonlighting is common in this group, with a consequent increase in the number of working hours. The possibility of sleeping on the job during the night shift in the studied hospitals had already been described. The present study aims to analyze whether the time devoted to daily activities (sleep, rest, leisure, housework, commuting, personal needs, care of children or other people, non-paid work, and study) is related to the number of worked hours and to nap-taking during the night shift. The field study took place at two public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Workers filled out a structured form on time devoted to the above-mentioned activities for at least four consecutive days. The time devoted to sleep was analyzed according to its occurrence at home or on the job. Workers were classified according to the number of jobs (one job/two jobs) and the time dedicated to work according to the median of the whole series (below the median/above the median). All workers who had at least one working night were analyzed as to nap-taking on the job. They were classified according to the sleep occurrence during the night shift-the sleep group and the non-sleep group, both of which were compared to daytime workers. Statistical treatment of data included non-parametrical procedures. The study group comprised 144 workers (mean age: 35.7+/-10.5 years old; 91% women; 78% nurse assistants, the remainder registered nurses). They recorded their daily activities for 4-11 days; 829 cumulative days were analyzed for the whole group. A total of 165 working nights were analyzed; sleep or rest occurred during 112 (68%) of them, with mean sleep/rest duration of 141+/-86 min. Time devoted to sleep and leisure varied according to the number of working hours, being significantly reduced in those submitted to longer work hours (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Results close to significance point to a reduction in the time dedicated to housework among workers with long work hours (p = 0.053). The time spent on sleep/rest per working night did not differ according to the number of worked hours (p = 0.490). A tendency was observed for those who have two jobs to devote more time to sleep/rest on the job (p = 0.058). The time of personal needs was significantly lower among those who did not sleep on the job as compared to day workers (p = 0.036). The total sleep time was significantly lower among those who did not sleep on the job, as compared to day workers and to those who slept on the job (p = 0.004 and p = 0.05, respectively). As to home sleep length, workers who slept and those who did not sleep on the job were similar and slept significantly less than exclusively daytime workers (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Sleeping on the job during the night shift seems to partially compensate for the shorter sleep at home among night workers and may play a beneficial effect in coping with two jobs. PMID:17190721

Ribeiro-Silva, Flaviany; Rotenberg, Lucia; Soares, Renata Elisa; Pessanha, Joseane; Ferreira, Flavia Leticia; Oliveira, Paula; Silva-Costa, Aline; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia

2006-01-01

21

Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

2014-01-01

22

Is there an optimum number of night shifts? Relationship between sleep, health and well-being.  

PubMed

By concentrating on the impact of a specific shift-system feature on the well-being of those concerned, rather than on the impact of the shift system as a whole, one might be able to offer more meaningful suggestions as to what constitutes a better form of shift system. The present study focused on the impact of the number of consecutive night shifts worked on the health and well-being of two groups of nurses (permanent night and rotating shift). All nurses completed a copy of the Standard Shiftwork Index, which is a set of questionnaires designed for comparing the effects of different types of shift system on large groups of workers. It includes measurements of psychological ill-health, physical ill-health, chronic fatigue, social and domestic disruption, attitudes towards shiftwork, sleep quality and sleep habits. Results showed clearly the impact of the number of consecutive nights worked on health and well-being, not directly, but indirectly through the impact on sleep duration and sleep quality. Sleep duration was shown to increase with more consecutive nights worked. This in turn was found to predict sleep quality, which in turn was found to be the stronger direct predictor of psychological and physical ill-health i.e. better health was associated with longer and better quality sleeps. Explanations in terms of circadian adaptation are discussed. PMID:11539389

Barton, J; Spelten, E; Totterdell, P; Smith, L; Folkard, S

1995-01-01

23

Rotating Night-Shift Work and Lung Cancer Risk Among Female Nurses in the United States  

PubMed Central

The risk of lung cancer among night-shift workers is unknown. Over 20 years of follow-up (1988–2008), we documented 1,455 incident lung cancers among 78,612 women in the Nurses' Health Study. To examine the relationship between rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for detailed smoking characteristics and other risk factors. We observed a 28% increased risk of lung cancer among women with 15 or more years spent working rotating night shifts (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.03) compared with women who did not work any night shifts. This association was strongest for small-cell lung carcinomas (multivariate RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47; Ptrend = 0.03) and was not observed for adenocarcinomas of the lung (multivariate RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.24; Ptrend = 0.40). Further, the increased risk associated with 15 or more years of rotating night-shift work was limited to current smokers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13; Ptrend < 0.001), with no association seen in nonsmokers (Pinteraction = 0.03). These results suggest that there are modestly increased risks of lung cancer associated with extended periods of night-shift work among smokers but not among nonsmokers. Though it is possible that this observation was residually confounded by smoking, our findings could also provide evidence of circadian disruption as a “second hit” in the etiology of smoking-related lung tumors. PMID:24049158

Schernhammer, Eva S.; Feskanich, Diane; Liang, Geyu; Han, Jiali

2013-01-01

24

Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns. PMID:14564879

Manuaba, A

2001-12-01

25

Napping during the night shift and recovery after work among hospital nurses1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the length of napping during the night shift and the recovery after work among nurses. METHOD: Cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 1940 nurses from 18 public hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. A multidimensional and self-applied questionnaire was used with information about health, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, health-related behaviors and housework. Multiple logistic regression was applied to identify the association, adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: The gross analyses showed 44%, 127% and 66% higher chances of a high level of recovery after work for nurses who sleep up to two hours, between 2.1 and 3 hours and 3.1 hours or more, respectively, when compared to the nurses who do not sleep. After adjusting for confounding variables, the association only continues significant for the group that sleeps 2.1 to 3 hours during the night shift (OR=1.79; 95%CI=1.33-2.41). CONCLUSION: The association between the length of napping and the high level of recovery after work, confirmed in the present results, can be included in the studies that aim to support more appropriate policies aimed at improving the workers' work, life and health conditions, not only in nursing, but night-shift workers in general. PMID:25806639

Palermo, Thaís Aparecida de Castro; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Silva-Costa, Aline; Souto, Ester Paiva; Griep, Rosane Härter

2015-01-01

26

Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.  

PubMed

To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p?=?0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p?=?0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p?=?0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval. These observations demonstrate that persistent day-and-night RSW pose a vigorous obstacle to the normalization of e-ALT among workers with preexisting abnormal liver function. We suggest that workers and managers approach with caution the consideration of assigning or accepting long-term day-and-night RSW when an employee health screening shows evidence of abnormal liver function. PMID:24354767

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

2014-05-01

27

Influence of night-shift and napping at work on urinary melatonin, 17-?-estradiol and clock gene expression in pre-menopausal nurses.  

PubMed

Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses? ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect. PMID:23489707

Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L

2013-01-01

28

Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.  

PubMed

This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems. PMID:23606613

Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-04-01

29

Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?  

PubMed

Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

2014-12-01

30

Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts  

PubMed Central

Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons’ HRV. Methods Surgeons were monitored prospectively with an ambulatory electrocardiography device for 48 consecutive hours, beginning on a precall day and continuing through an on-call (17-h shift) day. We measured HRV by frequency domain parameters. Results We included 29 surgeons in our analysis. The median pulse rate was decreased precall (median 64, interquartile range [IQR] 56–70 beats per minute [bpm]) compared with on call (median 81, IQR 70–91 bpm, p < 0.001). Increased high-frequency (HF) activity was found precall (median 199, IQR 75–365 ms2) compared with on call (median 99, IQR 48–177 ms2, p < 0.001). The low-frequency:high-frequency (LF:HF) ratio was lower precall (median 2.7, IQR 1.9–3.9) than on call (median 4.9, IQR 3.7–6.5, p < 0.001). We found no correlation between the LF:HF ratio and performance in laparoscopic simulation. Conclusion Surgeons working night shifts had a significant decrease in HRV and a significant increase in pulse rate, representing sympathetic dominance in the autonomic nervous system. Trial registration NCT01623674 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25265102

Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

2014-01-01

31

NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training - a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction  

PubMed Central

Background NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model. A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. Results In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction. In addition to this main result – the NightShift framework itself – we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. Conclusion By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators. The framework can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/akdehof/nightshift. It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via https://ballaxy.bioinf.uni-sb.de/. PMID:23496927

2013-01-01

32

Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p < 0.01). The depression tendency score of the male back-to-back shift workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p < 0.05). Among the women, no notable difference in depression tendency score was observed between the regular day worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p < 0.05). We conclude that the mental health of men is easily affected by back-to-back shift work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman. PMID:15536885

Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

2004-06-01

33

Sleep Strategies of Night-Shift Nurses on Days Off: Which Ones are Most Adaptive?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night-shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy. Methods: African-American and non-Hispanic White female, night-shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep–wake patterns (n?=?213). Participants completed the standard shiftwork index and the biological clocks questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night-shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. Most participants worked ~3 consecutive 12-h night-shifts followed by several days off. Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: (a) night stay, (b) nap proxy, (c) switch sleeper, (d) no sleep, and (e) incomplete switcher. Nap proxy and no sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night-shift work. The switch sleeper and incomplete switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems. Conclusion: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25566182

Petrov, Megan E.; Clark, C. Brendan; Molzof, Hylton E.; Johnson, Russell L.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Gamble, Karen L.

2014-01-01

34

Safety during night shifts: a cross-sectional survey of junior doctors’ preparation and practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives We aimed to determine whether junior doctors and trusts in the region make use of published evidence relating to best practice during night shift work that can safeguard alertness, reduce fatigue and limit mistakes. We surveyed junior doctors’ preparation for and practice during night shifts, and the working and living conditions offered by hospitals for junior doctors carrying out night duties. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to junior doctors training within Health Education North West from 13 December 2012 to 14 February 2013. Participants 32% (16/42) of trusts within Health Education North West sent the survey to 2139 junior doctor email addresses; 24.5% (524/2139) entered data into the survey. Results 91.6% of surveyed junior doctors worked night shifts. Prior to starting night shifts, 65% do not have a ‘prophylactic’ afternoon nap. At work, half (49%) can access a room with a reclining chair while 24% have a room with a bed. 37% ‘never’ achieve a ‘natural break’ on night shift; 53% ‘never’ achieve the recommended 20–45?min nap. 91% of respondents were unaware of the duration of sleep inertia that can affect alertness upon waking. When converting between day/night shifts, 2% use light lamps and 6% use non-benzodiazepine sedatives. Principal themes from free text analysis were feeling lethargic or unwell during night shifts, concern for patient and personal safety and inability to rest or take breaks. Conclusions The trainees surveyed find night shifts difficult, yet do not/are unable to implement evidence-based recommendations to limit fatigue. Results suggest those surveyed experience a lack of rest facilities within their place of work and a demanding workload. The results may indicate the need to increase awareness of the potential benefits associated with different interventions that can help mitigate the fatigue associated with rotating shift work. PMID:24056488

Jackson, Emma J; Moreton, Adam

2013-01-01

35

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people -Indian Express 1/2www.indianexpress.com/news/tigers-in-nepal-take-the-night-shift-to-coexist-with-people/997714/  

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9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people - Indian Express 1/2www.indianexpress.com/news/tigers-in-nepal-take-the-night-shift-to-coexist-with-people/997714/ Key Words | Unfashion | Talk Updated: Tue, 4 Sep 2012 14:24 IST Share | Tigers in Nepal take the night shift

36

Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary  

PubMed Central

Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women) were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2%) or in public services (23.9%). Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years) were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years), men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p < 0.05). In women, weight (73.6 ± 15.5 vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p < 0.001), body mass index (27.5 ± 5.7 vs 25.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2; p<0.001) and the prevalence rate of hypertension in the past medical history (24.4 vs 13.4%; p < 0.01) were higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers. In addition, the proportion of current smokers was higher (37.7 vs 21.7%; p < 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol level was lower (1.56 ± 0.32 vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p < 0.01) in female shift workers than in female daytime workers. Both in men and in women, rotating shift workers spent less time sleeping both on working days and on non-working days, spent less time with sport activity, drank more coffee and they spent less time working per day, especially in light physical work, compared to daytime workers. In addition, low and middle educational levels were most frequently found among rotating shift workers as opposed to the daytime workers where high educational level was more common. Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers. PMID:22296806

2012-01-01

37

Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. PMID:23137527

Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

2013-08-01

38

Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?  

PubMed

Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift. PMID:25683536

Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

2015-05-01

39

A 14-h night-shift in the control room of a fire brigade.  

PubMed

All 29 operators in the control room of a fire brigade performed test sessions during work and leisure time at 2-h intervals on a day with a 14-h night-shift, a day off and a day with a 10-h morning shift. The test sessions consisted of a visual search choice reaction time test and two Sternberg memory search tests (1 or 5 letters had to be memorized). Furthermore, the operators recorded their oral temperature and their subjective alertness before each test session. The subject also kept a diary of work and sleep times for 14 days. The circadian rhythm of body temperature was hardly changed by a single night-shift. Parallel to the body temperature, the subjective alertness fell significantly during the night-shift reaching a minimum value at 06:00 h. The mean reaction times increased non-significantly at the end of the night-shift and the results of the two Sternberg memory search tests showed no significant trends. The sleep of the operators after the night-shift was on average reduced to 5 hs 34 min. The results of subjective rating of alertness and reaction time test are interpreted as effects of the combined influences of circadian rhythmicity, sleep loss and time on professional task. Most results support the conclusion that a 14-h night-shift without extensive breaks is not acceptable. PMID:11539390

Knauth, P; Keller, J; Schindele, G; Totterdell, P

1995-01-01

40

Effects of Changing Shift Schedules from a Full-day to a Half-day Shift before a Night Shift on Physical Activities and Sleep Patterns of Single Nurses and Married Nurses with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after

Misuzu WATANABE; Yasuhiro AKAMATSU; Hikari FURUI; Teruyuki TOMITA; Takemasa WATANABE; Fumio KOBAYASHI

2004-01-01

41

9/7/12 To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift 1/3www.voanews.com/content/to-avoid-humans-tigers-take-night-shift/1503593.html  

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42

Recommendations for the prevention of breast cancer in shift workers.  

PubMed

The functioning of the human body is regulated by the rhythmical change between rest and activity. The SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) is responsible for the central control of the biorhythm and the genetic prediction of the individual chronotype, whereas peripheral time cues such as light, social contacts and times of meals modulate the rhythmical activity of the body. Shift workers suffer from a disruption of the sleep-wake rhythm, insomnia and a lack of melatonin. These factors might trigger the development of breast cancer in female shift workers. The growing amount of data which indicate the high risk of breast cancer in female shift workers demonstrates the need for the implementation of prevention strategies against insomnia in shift workers. These strategies include regular sleep education courses on the prevention of sleep disorders in companies. The individual chronotype could be an important predictor for the adaptability to shift work. PMID:23199173

Richter, Kneginja; Acker, Jens; Kamcev, Nikola; Bajraktarov, Stojan; Piehl, Anja; Niklewski, Guenter

2011-12-01

43

Serotonin and Serotonin Transporter Gene Variant in Rotating Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Because serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter associated with circadian rhythm regulation, we explored a possible relation among 5-HT, serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and the functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter with rotating shift work. Design and Participants: 683 men were included in this study: 437 day workers were compared with 246 rotating shift workers. Results: Platelet 5-HT content differed significantly (P = 0.002) between day workers (41.28±1.99 pg/mg) and rotating shift workers (37.91±4.16 pg/mg); 5-HIAA content was also significantly (P = 0.00004) higher in day workers (11.40±0.82 pg/mg) than in rotating shift workers (9.33±1.02 pg/mg). We looked for further differences in SLC6A4 promoter (5-HTTLPR, 44 bp insertion: long (L)/deletion: short (S) alleles). We found a significant (P = 0.016) difference in genotype distribution between day workers LL: 126 (28.8%), LS: 202 (46.2%), and SS: 109 (24.9%), and rotating shift workers LL: 47 (19.1%), LS: 124 (50.4%), and SS: 75 (30.5%). When we divided the subjects between workers with less and more than 60 month rotating shift-work exposure, the difference in SLC6A4 genotypes frequency was only significant in the group with ?60 months (P = 0.011). In addition, there was a significantly lower content of platelet 5-HIM in S allele carriers in comparison with the other genotypes (SS: 9.2±1.0 pg/mg vs. SL/LL: 11.0±0.8 pg/mg, P <0.02). Conclusions: Platelet 5-HT and 5-HIM contents were significantly lower in rotating shift workers than day workers, and there was a significant association between the S variant of SLC6A4 promoter and shift work. These findings may be important for targeting effective therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the associated comorbidities and behavioral problems in rotating shift workers. Citation: Sookoian S; Gemma C; Gianotti TF; Burgueño A; Alvarez A; Gonzalez CD; Pirola CJ. Serotonin and serotonin transporter gene variant in rotating shift workers. SLEEP 2007;30(8):1049-1053. PMID:17702275

Sookoian, Silvia; Gemma, Carolina; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana; Alvarez, Azucena; González, Claudio Daniel; Pirola, Carlos Jose

2007-01-01

44

Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.  

PubMed

The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p?night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin. PMID:25364814

Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata

2015-04-01

45

Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers.  

PubMed

Shift work is commonly associated with disturbed life rhythms, resulting in chronic exposure to circadian desynchronization and sleep restriction. Epidemiological data have shown that shift workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. In this review, we will explore how observed increases in neuroendocrine stress, non-specific immune responses and pro-oxidative status could act as biological mediators for these damaging health risks in shift workers. To explain these risks, compelling evidence from laboratory studies links circadian misalignment but also sleep restriction to disruptions in the neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress systems. Assessment of neuroendocrine, oxidative and immune stress in the shift worker population is still a limited and novel field, which may have considerable clinical relevance. Finally, we will consider the potential benefits of a countermeasure, such as napping, in minimizing the neuroendocrine and immune stress and cardiovascular risk imposed by shift work. PMID:23618533

Faraut, Brice; Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien

2013-12-01

46

Low bone mineral density in rotating-shift workers.  

PubMed

Shift workers have been reported to have an increased bone resorption. However, no existing evidence indicates lower bone mineral density (BMD) in this group. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a rotating-shift work schedule is associated with low BMD and osteoporosis. We evaluated 70 postmenopausal nurses from the Naval Hospital in Concepcion, Chile. The participants were categorized according to the type of work schedule: 39 had a rotating shift and 31 were daytime workers. Medical history, a health examination, a questionnaire on health-related behaviors and biochemical determinations, and BMD examination were obtained for all participants. When comparing the 2 groups, the rotating-shift workers had lower BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4: 0.957 ± 0.15 vs 1.104 ± 0.13; p<0.05) and lower bone density in both femoral neck bones (right: 0.936 ± 0.17 vs 1.06 ± 0.12; p<0.05 and left: 0.956 ± 0.19 vs 1.05 ± 0.12; p<0.05). Additionally, the T-scores for 10 (25.6%) of the rotating-shift workers indicated osteoporosis at lumbar spine (T-score>-2.5). No evidence of osteoporosis was found for daytime workers. When comparing the 2 groups, the rotating-shift workers had a higher prevalence of osteopenia (T-score=-1.0 to -2.5) than the daytime workers: 46.2% vs 35.5%, respectively. We found significant evidence that rotating-shift workers have lower BMD in the trabecular and cortical bones, thus suggesting that this type of work may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. Because this is the first time that this osteoporosis risk factor has been reported, the association needs to be replicated and confirmed in other settings. PMID:21029978

Quevedo, Ivan; Zuniga, Ana M

2010-01-01

47

9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715  

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9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715 RSS Feeds » Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people posted on: september 3, 2012 7:30pm TweetTweet Tigers don't have a reputation for being

48

Paradoxical post-exercise responses of acylated ghrelin and leptin during a simulated night-shift  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of employees undertake night-work which is a significant predictor of weight-gain, possibly because responses to activity and eating are altered at night. It is known that the appetite-related hormone, acylated ghrelin is suppressed after an acute bout of exercise during the day, but no researcher has explored whether evening exercise alters acylated ghrelin and other appetite-related outcomes during a subsequent night-shift. Six healthy men (mean±SD: age 30±8 yrs, body mass index 23.1±1.1 kg/m2) completed two crossover trials (control and exercise) in a random order. Participants fasted from 10:00 h, consumed a test meal at 18:00 h and then cycled at 50% peak oxygen uptake or rested between 19:00-20:00 h. Participants then completed light activities during a simulated night-shift which ended at 05:00 h. Two small isocaloric meals were consumed at 22:00 and 02:00 h. Venous blood samples were drawn via cannulation at 1-h intervals between 19:00-05:00 h for the determination of acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations. Perceived hunger and wrist actimetry were also recorded. During the night-shift, mean±SD acylated ghrelin concentration was 86.5±40.8 pg/ml following exercise compared with 71.7±37.7 pg/ml without prior exercise (P=0.015). Throughout the night-shift, leptin concentration was 263±242 pg/ml following exercise compared with 187±221 pg/ml without prior exercise (P=0.017). Mean levels of insulin, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids and wrist actimetry were also higher during the night-shift that followed exercise (P<0.05). These data indicate that prior exercise increases acylated ghrelin and leptin concentrations during a subsequent simulated night-shift. These findings differ from the known effects of exercise on acylated ghrelin and leptin during the day, and therefore have implications for energy balance during night-work. PMID:20524803

Morris, Chris; Fullick, Sarah; Gregson, Warren; Clarke, Neil; Doran, Dominic; MacLaren, Don; Atkinson, Greg

2009-01-01

49

Rotating Night Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... Rotating Night Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study Research can't prove cause- ... Tuesday, January 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Heart Diseases Occupational Health MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

50

Tips for Employee Productivity Night Shift: Napping Your Way to Productivity  

E-print Network

Tips for Employee Productivity Night Shift: Napping Your Way to Productivity Sleep problems can such an experience. Taking a nap before you go to work can help you stay awake, improve your effectiveness, and, more important, reduce your risk of an accident on the job. Here are some tips to make every minute of your nap

Kim, Duck O.

51

Adaptation rate of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cognitive performance in offshore fleet shift workers: a field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the total phase delay and adaptation rate of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) on subjective and objective sleep quality\\u000a and cognitive performance after 7 days of working night shifts (1800–0600 hours). The subjects studied were offshore fleet\\u000a workers (N = 7).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seven days of urine samples were collected to determine the total phase delay and adaptation rate of aMT6s. Subjective and\\u000a objective sleep quality was

Jakob H. Hansen; Ingunn H. Geving; Randi E. Reinertsen

2010-01-01

52

Configuring retroreflective markings to enhance the night-time conspicuity of road workers.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the night-time conspicuity of road workers can be enhanced by positioning retroreflective strips on the moveable joints in patterns that convey varying degrees of biological motion. Participants were 24 visually normal adults (12 young M=26.8 years; 12 older M=72.9 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were recorded for each participant. Experimenters acting as road workers walked in place on a closed road circuit within simulated road work sites, facing either the oncoming driver or the roadway (presenting sideways to the driver) and wearing one of four clothing conditions: (i) standard road worker vest; (ii) standard vest plus thigh-mounted retroreflective strips; (iii) standard vest plus retroreflective strips on ankles and knees; (iv) standard vest plus retroreflective strips positioned on the extremities in a configuration that conveyed biological motion ("biomotion"). As they drove along the closed road participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first recognized that a road worker was present. The results demonstrated that regardless of the direction of walking, road workers wearing biomotion clothing were recognized at significantly (p<0.05) longer distances (3×), relative to the standard vest alone. Response distances were significantly shorter for the older drivers. Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of the ability to recognize road workers than was visual acuity or glare sensitivity. We conclude that adding retroreflective strips in the biomotion configuration can significantly improve road worker conspicuity regardless of the road worker's orientation and the age of the driver. PMID:24816151

Wood, Joanne M; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Tyrrell, Richard A

2014-09-01

53

Circadian type, chronic fatigue, and serum IgM in the shift workers of an industrial organization  

PubMed Central

Background: Night shift workers are more vulnerable to immune-related diseases. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a potent activator of complement, and complement has a crucial role in defense against bacterial infections. Circadian type is known as an effective agent on vulnerability and adaptation with shift work due to non-compliance with shift stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of circadian type and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM in a group of shift workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in an industrial organization in Isfahan, Iran. The study population consisted of 221 male employees working at night shifts who were selected by random cluster sampling. The following questionnaires were used: composite morningness (Torsvall and Akerstedt), circadian type (Folkard), and chronic fatigue (Barton and colleagues). The serum concentration of IgM was measured by the nephelometric method. The data were analyzed with the Pearson coefficient correlation and the path analysis for finding the pattern of the structural equations to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between variables, using the SPSS 15 and LISREL 8.5 statistical software. Results: Significant correlation was documented between morningness, flexibility, languidness, and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results showed that the shift workers with morningness and languidness experienced more problems during the working hours due to more tiredness, and had decreased serum concentration of IgM. Correct management of shift work may attenuate fatigue in workers and also improve many health issues experienced by the shift workers.

Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

2015-01-01

54

Shift work and diabetes mellitus among male workers in Japan: does the intensity of shift work matter?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between shift work and diabetes mellitus by separating shift workers according to the intensity of their shift work (seasonal shift work and continuous shift work). Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%, men/women = 1,314/287). Diabetes mellitus was defined as hemoglobin A1c ? 6.5% and fasting blood sugar ? 126 mg/dl. After exclusions, which included all the women and clerical workers because they did not work in shifts, we analyzed 475 skilled male workers. After adjusting for age, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabitation status, odds ratios for diabetes mellitus were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-4.81) and 2.10 (95% CI: 0.77-5.71) among seasonal shift workers and continuous shift workers, respectively, compared with non-shift workers. In an age-stratified analysis (<45 years vs. ?45 years), the association between continuous shift work and diabetes mellitus was more pronounced among older participants. Compared with non-shift workers, the risk of diabetes mellitus was increased among continuous shift workers, whereas its effect is limited among seasonal shift workers. PMID:23439506

Ika, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

55

How do the timing and length of a night-shift nap affect sleep inertia?  

PubMed

Napping is one strategy that may assist night shiftworkers to cope with sleepiness and fatigue. However, one potential disadvantage of napping is that awakening from naps is disturbed by sleep inertia, which has also been found to impair performance and/or mood, transiently. The authors examined the effects of the timing and length of a night-shift nap on sleep inertia in a laboratory setting. Twelve male university students (mean +/- SD: 21.6 +/- 2.8 yrs) participated in this 3-day experiment, during which included a simulated night shift (22:00-08:00 h) and subsequent day (11:30-17:30 h) and night sleep (00:00-07:00 h). The simulated night shift was designed to include one of five (four nap/one no-nap) conditions. The napping conditions differed by their timing and duration: 00:00-01:00 h (Early 60 min; E60), 00:00-02:00 h (Early 120 min; E120), 04:00-05:00 h (Late 60 min; L60), 04:00-06:00 h (Late 120 min; L120). Participants completed all the experimental conditions in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature (R(T)) was recorded throughout the simulated shift and polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during the nap period. Immediately before and after each nap, participants were required to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess sleepiness and a visual vigilance test (VVT). During the simulated night shift, a set of tasks (an English transcription task, a performance test battery, and a break) was repeated hourly, except during the periods of napping. For each nap condition, the VAS and VVT (reaction time [RT]; lapses >5 s) results were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (nap [nap versus no-nap] x time point [pre-nap versus post-nap]). PSG and R(T) data were analyzed with one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Marginally significant interactions were observed for RTs and lapses in VVT for the L60 nap condition (p = .071 and p = .070, respectively). However, those effect sizes were moderate (partial eta(2) = 0.266, 0.268, respectively). Post hoc analyses showed significantly longer RTs (p < .05) and more lapses (p < .05) following the L60 nap compared with no nap. In contrast, there was no significant difference in sleepiness between the L60, or any of the other nap conditions, and the no-nap condition. Our findings suggest the effect of sleep inertia on VVT performance was profound in the L60 condition, although no significant effects on sleepiness were self-reported by VAS. The dissociation between performance and sleepiness might reflect an unstable state where participants cannot perceive decline in their performance. The present findings are significant in terms of occupational safety; the practical implication is that great care is needed when taking a 1-h nap between 04:00 and 05:00 h on the night shift. PMID:20636214

Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Matsumoto, Shun; Ebara, Takeshi; Murata, Kensaburo; Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru

2010-07-01

56

Napping on the Night Shift: A Study of Sleep, Performance, and Learning in Physicians-in-Training  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians in training experience fatigue from sleep loss, high workload, and working at an adverse phase of the circadian rhythm, which collectively degrades task performance and the ability to learn and remember. To minimize fatigue and sustain performance, learning, and memory, humans generally need 7 to 8 hours of sleep in every 24-hour period. Methods In a naturalistic, within-subjects design, we studied 17 first- and second-year internal medicine residents working in a tertiary care medical center, rotating between day shift and night float every 4 weeks. We studied each resident for 2 weeks while he/she worked the day shift and for 2 weeks while he/she worked the night float, objectively measuring sleep by wrist actigraphy, vigilance by the Psychomotor Vigilance Task test, and visual-spatial and verbal learning and memory by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Results Residents, whether working day shift or night float, slept approximately 7 hours in every 24-hour period. Residents, when working day shift, consolidated their sleep into 1 main sleep period at night. Residents working night float split their sleep, supplementing their truncated daytime sleep with nighttime on-duty naps. There was no difference in vigilance or learning and memory, whether residents worked day shift or night float. Conclusions Off-duty sleep supplemented with naps while on duty appears to be an effective strategy for sustaining vigilance, learning, and memory when working night float. PMID:24455014

McDonald, Jennifer; Potyk, Darryl; Fischer, David; Parmenter, Brett; Lillis, Teresa; Tompkins, Lindsey; Bowen, Angela; Grant, Devon; Lamp, Amanda; Belenky, Gregory

2013-01-01

57

A Combined Field and Laboratory Design for Assessing the Impact of Night Shift Work on Police Officer Operational Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. Design: For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Setting: Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants: N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Results: Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. Conclusions: This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance. Citation: Waggoner LB; Grant DA; Van Dongen HPA; Belenky G; Vila B. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1575-1577. PMID:23115407

Waggoner, Lauren B.; Grant, Devon A.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

2012-01-01

58

Washington State's late night retail worker crime protection regulation. Relationships with employer practices.  

PubMed

Washington's late night retail worker crime protection regulation, enforced by the state Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program, was intended to prevent injuries by deterring violent crimes. We investigated whether the regulation was associated with businesses' violence prevention activities. We surveyed 1,516 employers at high risk of robbery, including gas stations, groceries, hotels, restaurants, and taverns, in 1995 to determine whether they had violence prevention training programs for their employees (a requirement of the standard). Awareness of the regulation was low (4.4%). Employers covered by the regulation were more likely to have programs (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.4), as were those aware of a regulation (OR = 3.4). State OSHA plan contact (an inspection or consultation) was also associated with having a program (OR = 1.9). Despite low awareness of the standard, results suggested that regulatory efforts to protect high-risk employees were associated with employers' robbery and crime prevention activities. PMID:9429178

Nelson, N A; Mendoza, C T; Silverstein, B A; Kaufman, J D

1997-12-01

59

Rescheduling a three shift system at a steel rolling mill: effects of a one hour delay of shift starting times on sleep and alertness in younger and older workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new work schedule at a Finnish steel mill with special attention to effects on older workers. The schedule was designed to improve sleep before the morning shift, and alertness during the morning shift, by delaying shift start and end times. METHODS: Evaluation was by a shiftwork health and safety questionnaire, recordings of work-rest-sleep cycles with activity monitors worn on the wrist, daily diaries, and on site computerised testing of fatigue and alertness by the NIOSH fatigue test battery. RESULTS: The one hour delay in shift starting times improved sleep before the morning shift, and improved waking fatigue, sleepiness, and performance during the morning shift. Evening and night shift sleep and fatigue or sleepiness, however, were affected negatively by the new work schedule, but the results for those shifts were less consistent across the various measures. Despite the improvements, most workers were not satisfied with the new schedule because of social concerns. Few interactions of age with the new work schedule were found, suggesting that the effects of the work schedule were uniform across age groups. CONCLUSION: A change of as little as one hour in shift starting times can improve morning shift sleep and alertness, but there are trade offs from these improvements in terms of night shift effects and social considerations. It seems, then, that optimal shift start and end times for an entire organisation are difficult to institute on a wide scale. Tailoring shift schedules to subgroups within an organisation is suggested. PMID:8943832

Rosa, R R; Härmä, M; Pulli, K; Mulder, M; Näsman, O

1996-01-01

60

Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

2014-01-01

61

Elevated Blood Pressure, Decreased Heart Rate Variability and Incomplete Blood Pressure Recovery after a 12-hour Night Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Elevated Blood Pressure, Decreased Heart Rate Variability and ,Incomplete Blood Pressure Recovery after a 12-hour Night Shift Work: Ta-Chen SU, et al. Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan—Shift work has been ,associated ,with increased ,risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the hemodynamic,effects of 12-hour (12-h) shifts, and changes in blood pressure (BP)

Ta-Chen Su; Lian-Yu Lin; Dean Baker; Peter L. Schnall; Ming-Fong Chen; Wen-Chang Hwang; Chen-Fang Chen; Jung-Der Wang

2008-01-01

62

9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us...  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us... Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans who

63

Analysis of polymorphisms in the circadian-related genes and breast cancer risk in Norwegian nurses working night shifts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Some studies have suggested that night work may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in nurses. We aimed to explore the role of circadian gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to night work-related breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of Norwegian nurses comprising 563 breast cancer cases and 619 controls within a cohort of 49,402 Norwegian nurses ages 35 to 74 years. We studied 60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm in cases and controls. The data were analyzed in relation to the two exposure variables "maximum number of consecutive night shifts ever worked" and "maximum number of consecutive night shifts worked for at least 5 years." The odds of breast cancer associated with each SNP was calculated in the main effects analysis and in relation to night shift work. The statistically significant odds ratios were tested for noteworthiness using two Bayesian tests: false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). Results In the main effects analysis, CC carriers of rs4238989 and GG carriers of rs3760138 in the AANAT gene had increased risk of breast cancer, whereas TT carriers of BMAL1 rs2278749 and TT carriers of CLOCK rs3749474 had reduced risk. The associations were found to be noteworthy using both the FPRP and BFDP tests. With regard to the effect of polymorphisms and night work, several significant associations were observed. After applying FPRP and BFDP in women with at least four night shifts, an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with variant alleles of SNPs in the genes AANAT (rs3760138, rs4238989), BMAL1 (rs2290035, rs2278749, rs969485) and ROR-b (rs3750420). In women with three consecutive night shifts, a reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with carriage of variant alleles of SNPs in CLOCK (rs3749474), BMAL1 (rs2278749), BMAL2 (rs2306074), CSNK1E (rs5757037), NPAS2 (rs17024926), ROR-b (rs3903529, rs3750420), MTNR1A (rs131113549) and PER3 (rs1012477). Conclusions Significant and noteworthy associations between several polymorphisms in circadian genes, night work and breast cancer risk were found among nurses who had worked at least three consecutive night shifts. PMID:23822714

2013-01-01

64

Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Depressive Rotational Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Shift work is associated with sleep deprivation, occupational stress, and increased risk of depression. Depressed patients show increased oxidative stress. During excessive oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) increases and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreases in body. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the serum level of TAC and MDA among depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondooyan Tehran Oil Refinery. 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression level. The level of TAC and MDA was measured by 8 mL fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the ABTS. Results of this study showed that TAC mean and standard deviation concentration was 2.451 (±0.536)?mg/dL and MDA was 3.725 (±1.098)?mic·mol/L, and mean and standard deviation of depression score and BMI were 14.07 (±3.84) and 24.92 (±3.65)?kg/m2, respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r = 0.218 and r = 0.212), respectively, (P < 0.05). PMID:23690799

Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hashemi, Hassan

2013-01-01

65

Short-term night-shift working mimics the pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a short period (5 days) of night-shift work affected the pituitary-adrenal responses to CRH. Ten nurses (8 female and 2 male; age 28.1 +/- 1.7 yr: mean +/- SEM) working at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, and who regularly undertook periods of night and day shift work were enrolled. Measurements were made of basal ACTH and cortisol concentrations, and their responses to iv ovine CRH (1 microgram.kg-1). Basal ACTH concentrations were higher during the night shift than during the day shift (12.9 +/- 5.1 pmol.L-1 vs. 4.7 +/- 1.2 pmol.L-1, P < 0.01) whereas cortisol concentrations were lower (551 +/- 48 nmol.L - 1 vs. 871 +/- 132 nmol.L - 1, P < 0.01). After CRH injection, ACTH concentrations remained consistently higher during the night shift, but the integrated increase in ACTH concentration was lower (P < 0.05) than during the day shift. Conversely, the increase in cortisol concentration was greater during the night shift than the day shift (283 +/- 53 nmol.L-1 vs. 134 +/- 41 nmol.L-1, P < 0.05). We conclude that the pituitary-adrenal responses to CRH are markedly disrupted after only 5 days of nighttime work. These abnormalities mimic those previously observed in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuroendocrine abnormalities reported to be characteristic of chronic fatigue syndrome may be merely the consequence of disrupted sleep and social routine. PMID:8626849

Leese, G; Chattington, P; Fraser, W; Vora, J; Edwards, R; Williams, G

1996-05-01

66

Circadian Adaptation to Night Shift Work Influences Sleep, Performance, Mood and the Autonomic Modulation of the Heart  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF?HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules. PMID:23923024

Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

2013-01-01

67

Late night workers keep University facilities Robert Soto uses a golf cart provided by the University to get to and from destinations around  

E-print Network

Late night workers keep University facilities operating Robert Soto uses a golf cart provided, a walkie-talkie so people at the office can contact him -- and loads it all into his University-issued golf

Texas at Austin, University of

68

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/  

E-print Network

9/4/12 Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist with people | Business Standard 1/3www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/tigers-in-nepal-takenight-shift-to-coexistpeople/52135/ Tuesday, Sep > General News Email this Facebook Twitter 0 Print this Tigers in Nepal take the night shift to coexist

69

Sleep Complaints and Polysomnographic Findings: A Study of Nuclear Power Plant Shift Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature widely recognizes that shift workers have more health complaints than the general population. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of sleep complaints and verify the polysomnographic (PSG) variables of shift workers in two Brazilian nuclear power plants. We carried out a subjective evaluation with a sleep questionnaire. Based on these results, the interviewees that

Samantha L. Paim; Maria Laura N. Pires; Lia Rita A. Bittencourt; Rogério S. Silva; Ruth F. Santos; Andrea M. Esteves; Amaury T. Barreto; Sergio Tufik; Marco Túlio de Mello

2008-01-01

70

Effect of LED light stimulation on sleep latency in night shift people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep problems are getting worse and worse in modern world. They have a severe impact on psychological and physical health, as well as social performances. From our previous study, the brainwave ? rhythm, ? wave and ? wave were affected by radiating the palm of the subjects with low-level laser array. In addition, from other study, the LED array stimulator (LEDAS) also has the similar effects. In the present study, LED light was used to radiate the left palm of the subjects too, and the effects were assessed with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis. The results revealed that it doesn't have significant meaning between these two groups. However, the tendency of the sleep latency (SL) in the LED group was shorter than that in the control group. In addition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) analysis showed that the sympathetic nervous system was getting larger in the LED group than that in the control group, and total ANS activity were mainly getting larger in the LED group. We infer that this LED stimulation could reduce SL and balance ANS activity of the night-shift people. In the future, the further study will be conducted on normal subjects.

Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Yang-Chyuan; Chiu, Hui-Ling; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chen, Ming-Jie; Chang, Yu-Ting

2014-05-01

71

Structural relations of late night snacking choice attributes and health promotion behaviors according to dietary style of industrial workers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research was conducted to develop a construct model regarding the dietary style, late night snacking choice attributes and health promotion behaviors of industrial workers. SUBJECTS/METHODS The surveys were collected during the period between January and February 2013. A statistical analysis of 888 industrial workers was conducted using SPSS 12.0 for Windows and SEM (Structural Equation Model) using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure) 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The results of the correlations between all variables showed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05). Results of factors analysis on dietary styles were categorized into five factors and health promotion behaviors were categorized into four. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all other factors. After obtaining the factors from processing an exploratory factor analysis and the end results supported the validity. In an attempt to study the late night snacking choice attributes in accordance to dietary styles and the health promotion behaviors of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests proved the model satisfied the recommended levels of the goodness on fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proved to be appropriate. PMID:25110564

Park, Young Il

2014-01-01

72

HMOs, moral hazard and cost shifting in workers' compensation.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that workers respond to the economic incentives provided in workers' compensation. In particular, claim frequency rises with increased benefits, and claim duration, on net, seems to increase. Here we provide additional evidence of another incidence of behavioral responses to incentives. We find that doctors in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have a greater tendency to classify claims as compensable under workers' compensation than do other physicians. Our evidence suggests that the rapid expansion of HMOs over the 1980-1990 period resulted in a significant increase in workers' compensation claim frequency. PMID:10169094

Butler, R J; Hartwig, R P; Gardner, H

1997-04-01

73

The Association of Sleep Deprivation on the Occurrence of Errors by Nurses Who Work the Night Shift  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the influence of sleep deprivation on the occurrence of errors by registered nurses working in night shift in intensive care departments. Methods: The study utilized a multi-part questionnaire which included items about demographic characteristics, reported medical errors, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 300 questionnaires were distributed to registered nurses working in intensive care departments. 138 of the 153 (51% response rate) collected questionnaires were analyzed using correlation and stepwise logistic multiple regression. Results: Registered nurses who were sleep deprived had worse sleep quality in terms of high PSQI than those who were not. None of the demographic variables was statistically significant, not providing evidence that these variables may explain odds for being sleep deprived in the population. Conclusions: Work schedule changes, offering shorter periods of time on night shift and less working hours in the week may lead to better sleep quality and less sleep deprivation. PMID:25729589

RAMADAN, MOHAMED ZAKI; AL-SALEH, KHALID SAAD

2014-01-01

74

Shift Work and the Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Aged Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Shift work is indicated to be associated with adverse metabolic disorders. However, potential effects of shift work on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components have not been well established. Methods In total, 26,382 workers from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort were included in this study. Information on shift work history was gathered through questionnaires and metabolic traits were measured. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for long-term shift work related with MetS and each component, respectively. Further stratification analysis was performed to detect the differences on MetS between female and male shift workers. Results Long-term shift work was associated with MetS without adjusting for any confounders. Compared with the group of non-shift work, the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95%CI) of MetS associated with 1–10, 11?20, and ?20y of shift work were 1.05 (0.95?1.16), 1.14 (1.03?1.26), 1.16 (1.01?1.31), respectively. In female workers, we found a dose-response relationship that every 10 years increase in shift work was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%?20%) elevated OR of MetS, while no significant dose-response trend was found among male workers. Furthermore, shift work duration was significantly associated with ORs of high blood pressure (1.07, 1.01?1.13), long waist circumference (1.10, 1.01?1.20) and high glucose levels (1.09, 1.04?1.15). No significant association was observed between shift work and low HDL cholesterol) and raised triglyceride levels. Conclusions Long-term shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome and the association might differ by gender in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of metabolic disorders for shift workers. PMID:25761114

Guo, Yanjun; Rong, Yi; Huang, Xiji; Lai, Hanpeng; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Yuewei; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

2015-01-01

75

Effects of Two 15-min Naps on the Subjective Sleepiness, Fatigue and Heart Rate Variability of Night Shift Nurses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two 15-min naps on nurses who work at night in a three-shift system. Of the 15 nurses who were included as study subjects on a night shift, eight took two short naps (the Nap condition), and seven worked without taking a nap (the No-nap condition) during the night shift. We measured sublingual temperature and the bispectral index (BIS), obtained heart rate and heart rate variability measures from an electrocardiogram (ECG), and evaluated sleepiness and fatigue levels every hour using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Both subjective sleepiness and fatigue increased between 4:00 and 5:00, with no significant differences observed between the two groups. However, the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF) in the Nap condition group was found to be significantly lower than in the No-nap condition group. Furthermore, a sudden, brief increase in HF values was observed in the No-nap condition group in the morning. The results of this study suggest that taking two short naps may effectively reduce tension and prevent a brief increase in HF values by suppressing sympathetic nervous activity in the morning. PMID:24292879

ORIYAMA, Sanae; MIYAKOSHI, Yukiko; KOBAYASHI, Toshio

2013-01-01

76

The Association between Shift Work and the Metabolic Syndrome in Female Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine identify any association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome by comparing the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome in shift work groups and daytime work groups for female workers. Methods Based on data from health examinations carried out from April to December of 2012, we selected as our subjects 254 female workers from the Daegu area Dyeing Industrial Complex. We diagnosed the metabolic syndrome using the examination results, and information about age, whether or not they did shift work, job type, smoking habits, drinking habits, exercise habits, and past medical history was collected through self-administered questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The variables found in a univariate analysis to be significant in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome - age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work - were included in a logistic regression analysis of the risk of the metabolic syndrome for female workers. Results The prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome for the total group of study subjects was 11.8%, for daytime workers was 2.8%, and for shift workers was 15.3%. A logistic regression analysis of the odds of the metabolic syndrome for female workers was conducted that included factors associated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome: age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work. The results revealed that the odds ratio of the metabolic syndrome in the shift work group, 6.30 (95% CI 1.24-32.15), was significantly higher when compared with the daytime work group. Conclusion Shift work appears to have an association with the metabolic syndrome in female workers. Accordingly, we believe that the attention of government agencies and business owners is needed together with the individual practice of health behaviors to manage the metabolic syndrome for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in female shift workers. PMID:24472469

2013-01-01

77

Burning the EMS candle. EMS shifts and worker fatigue.  

PubMed

Has coffee become your best friend? Do you sleep only in your dreams? Is your bed merely an illusion? If so, you are not alone; sleep deprivation is a fact of life for many EMS personnel. Though widely accepted, isn't it time that we question the effects of those long days and nights? PMID:10116022

McCallion, R; Fazackerley, J

1991-10-01

78

Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV. PMID:17637921

Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

2007-01-01

79

Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

2014-01-01

80

Task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada: does it help personal support workers' intention to stay?  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of task shifting policy on personal support workers' (PSWs) intention to stay in home care. Data were collected through interviews with 46 home care staff of a large home care organization in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and a thematic analysis was conducted using a qualitative software package. Half of the study participants mentioned that task shifting increases PSWs' intention to stay in home care, while less than a quarter commented that task shifting increases PSWs intention to leave. Results show that the implementation of task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada may contribute to personal support workers' intention to stay; however, inadequate compensation may negatively affect intention to stay and should be addressed. We recommend policy-makers consider appropriate compensation to assist PSWs in effectively executing shifted tasks. PMID:24461719

Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Plenderleith, Jennifer

2014-08-01

81

Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.  

PubMed

Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

2015-03-30

82

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff) and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management. PMID:22985229

2012-01-01

83

Psychophysical conditions and hormonal secretion in nurses on a rapidly rotating shift schedule and exposed to bright light during night work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychophysical conditions of 15 young female nurses, working in a rapidly-rotating shift system (2-2-2-2), modified according to some psychophysiological criteria, and exposed to short period (4 × 20 min) of bright light (2350 Lux) during their night duty, were studied in order to evaluate their adaptation to night work and to test a possible positive effect on it of

Giovanni Costa; Edoardo Gaffuri; Giovanna Ghirlanda; David S. Minors; James M. Waterhouse

1995-01-01

84

Fluid losses and hydration status of industrial workers under thermal stress working extended shifts  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess whether workers under significant thermal stress necessarily dehydrated during their exposure and whether "involuntary dehydration" was inevitable, as supported by ISO 9866 and other authorities. Other objectives were to quantify sweat rates against recommended occupational limits, to develop a dehydration protocol to assist with managing heat exposures, and to understand the role of meal breaks on extended shifts in terms of fluid replacement. Methods: A field investigation to examine the fluid consumption, sweat rates, and changes in the hydration state of industrial workers on extended (10, 12, and 12.5 hour) shifts under significant levels of thermal stress (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) >28°C) was conducted on 39 male underground miners. Urinary specific gravity was measured before, during, and at the completion of the working shift. Environmental conditions were measured hourly during the shift. Fluid replacement was measured during the working periods and during the meal breaks. Results: Average environmental conditions were severe (WBGT 30.9°C (SD 2.0°C), range 25.7–35.2°C). Fluid intake averaged 0.8 l/h during exposure (SD 0.3 l/h, range 0.3–1.5 l/h). Average urinary specific gravity at start, mid, and end of shift was 1.0251, 1.0248, and 1.0254 respectively; the differences between start and mid shift, mid and end shift, and start and end shift were not significant. However, a majority of workers were coming to work in a moderately hypohydrated state (average urinary specific gravity 1.024 (SD 0.0059)). A combined dehydration and heat illness protocol was developed. Urinary specific gravity limits of 1.022 for start of shift and 1.030 for end of shift were selected; workers exceeding these values were not allowed into the workplace (if the start of shift limit was exceeded) or were retested prior to their next working shift (if the end of shift limit was exceeded). A target of 1.015 as a euhydrated state for start of shift was adopted for workforce education. Conclusions: This study found that "involuntary dehydration" did not occur in well informed workers, which has implications for heat stress standards that do not make provision for full fluid replacement during heat exposure. Fluid replacement during meal breaks was not significantly increased above fluid replacement rates during work time, with implications for the duration and spacing of meal breaks on long shifts. Testing of urinary specific gravity was found to be a good indication of hydration status and a practical method of improving workforce awareness and understanding of this important risk factor. Approximately 10 000 dehydration tests have been conducted under the dehydration protocol in a workforce of 2000 persons exposed to thermal stress and has proved practical and reliable. PMID:12554834

Brake, D; Bates, G

2003-01-01

85

Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting  

SciTech Connect

A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

Baker, T.L. [Institute for Circadian Physiology, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-04-01

86

Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time  

PubMed Central

Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

2013-01-01

87

The effect of shift-work on food intake and eating habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work on food intake and eating patterns in order to assess the impact of this on health. A total of 36 shift workers were measured anthropometrically and were asked to complete food diaries for six consecutive days, and a lifestyle questionnaire. The results revealed night workers did not

S. L. Reeves; E. Newling-Ward; C. Gissane

2004-01-01

88

Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers  

PubMed Central

Background Sleepiness leads to a deterioration in performance and attention, and is associated with an increased risk of injury. Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep disorders which result in sleepiness and can elevate injury risk. They create a need for individuals to operate at times which are different to those dictated by their circadian rhythms. Consequently there is also a need for interventions to help ensure that these persons can do so safely. Caffeine has a potential role in promoting alertness during times of desired wakefulness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder, however its effects on injury and error are unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of caffeine for preventing injuries caused by impaired alertness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, TRANSPORT (to July 2008); and PubMed databases (to April 2010). We also searched the Internet and checked reference lists of relevant papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of caffeine on injury, error or cognitive performance in people with jet lag or shift work disorder. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened search results and assessed full texts for inclusion. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Estimates of treatment effect (odds ratio and standardised mean difference (SMD)) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and pooled using the fixed-effect model. Main results Thirteen trials were included. None measured an injury outcome. Two trials measured error, and the remaining trials used neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive performance. The trials assessing the impact on errors found that caffeine significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo. The pooled effect estimates on performance by cognitive domain suggest that, when compared to placebo, caffeine improved concept formation and reasoning (SMD ?0.41; 95% CI ?1.04 to 0.23), memory (SMD ?1.08; 95% CI ?2.07 to ?0.09), orientation and attention (SMD ?0.55; 95% CI ?0.83 to ?0.27) and perception (SMD ?0.77; 95% CI ?1.73 to 0.20); although there was no beneficial effect on verbal functioning and language skills (SMD 0.18; 95% CI ?0.50 to 0.87). One trial comparing the effects of caffeine with a nap found that there were significantly less errors made in the caffeine group. Other trials comparing caffeine with other active interventions (for example nap, bright light, modafinil) found no significant differences. There is a high risk of bias for the adequacy of allocation concealment and presence of selective outcome reporting amongst the trials. Authors’ conclusions Caffeine may be an effective intervention for improving performance in shift workers however, there are no trials from which we can assess its effect on injuries. The results largely originate from studies involving young participants under simulated conditions, and the extent to which the findings are generalisable to older workers and real world shift work is unclear. Based on the current evidence, there is no reason for healthy individuals who already use caffeine within recommended levels to improve their alertness to stop doing so. The assessment of the relative effects of caffeine to other potential countermeasures should be a focus of future research. PMID:20464765

Ker, Katharine; Edwards, Philip James; Felix, Lambert M; Blackhall, Karen; Roberts, Ian

2014-01-01

89

After-effects of night work on physical performance capacity and sleep quality in relation to age.  

PubMed

The after-effects of night work on physical performance capacity and sleep quality were studied. Ten younger (age < or = 34 years) and eight older (age > 34 years) experienced shift workers were examined. Subjects performed cycle ergometer tests at an exercise intensity requiring 70% of the individual maximal oxygen uptake. Two conditions were studied: a baseline condition, i.e. the last day of a 4 days-off period, and a recovery condition after a period of seven consecutive night shifts, i.e. the second day-off after the night-shift period (32 h after leaving the night-shift period). Sleep quality of the sleep period preceding the test was also measured for both conditions. During the recovery condition the endurance time (i.e. time to exhaustion) was reduced by an average of 20% (-160s, P < 0.05) for the older shift workers only. In both age groups exercise ventilation, heart rate, oxygen uptake, perceived exertion and sleep quality remained unaffected. These findings support the hypothesis that the aging shift worker is faced with increasing complaints, even after the night-shift period. However, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for these after-effects of night work, further extensive studies must be designed. PMID:8144237

de Zwart, B C; Bras, V M; van Dormolen, M; Frings-Dresen, M H; Meijman, T F

1993-01-01

90

Assessing internet survey data collection methods with ethnic nurse shift workers.  

PubMed

An increasing number of ethnic minorities are expected to enter the United States workforce based on projected demographic changes. This includes American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) nurses. Sociocultural influences on sleep disturbances, sleepiness, and other aspects related to shift-work tolerance are of unrecognized importance. More minority nurses are needed to provide culturally congruent care; however, AI/AN nurses represent less than 1% of nurses located throughout the American workforce. This article aims to verify the feasibility of Internet data collection (Web-based survey) methods and instrument stability as the first part of a two-phase study comparing individual differences and shift-work-related sleep disturbances between AI/AN and White non-Hispanic (WNH) nurses. In the first phase, an Internet survey was used to reach a cross-section of AI/AN and WNH nurses. The on-line survey was composed of accepted shift-work-related instruments. Items estimating sleep disturbances, sociocultural choices, time awareness, polychronicity, morningness/ eveningness, ethnic identity, and demographic questions were asked. The survey was linked to a series of Web pages describing the study purpose, inclusion and exclusion criteria, consent form, Web survey, and the second phase of the study in which subjects were invited to participate in actigraphy measurements. The survey was pilot-tested for error codes, item confusion, length, and completion time. Forced-answer questions were added asking ethnicity, age group, license type, state where licensed, and legal name on nursing license before accessing the survey. Data were saved periodically, cued by the word "continue." The database was located on a secure server and password protected. Nurses were recruited using published articles and printed advertisements, hospital e-mail systems, national nursing organization Web sites (minoritynurse.com; NANAINA.org), nursing Web site discussion groups, snow-balling, and word of mouth. The site was accessed 656 times with the Internet survey being completed by 138 WNH and 56 AI/AN nurses meeting the inclusion criteria. Except for the polychronicity measure (PAI3), instruments measuring time awareness, chronotype, and situational sleepiness achieved acceptable reliability coefficients with Internet data collection. Using pull-down menus would improve questions asking specific times. Internet data collection with different ethnic groups is possible; however, accessing the target population may be difficult. Despite extensive recruitment efforts, few AI/AN nurses participated. Computer literacy and failing to relate to the study's purpose may have limited the interest of the AI/AN nurses. It is possible to recruit nurse shift workers and collect individual difference and sleep disturbance data through the Internet; however, the researcher must remain vigilant throughout the process. PMID:15646245

Hobbs, Barbara Betz; Farr, Lynne A

2004-01-01

91

Associations between Diurnal 24-Hour Rhythm in Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability and the Timing and Amount of Meals during the Day Shift in Rotating Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

It has not hitherto been clarified whether there is an association between dietary behavior and circadian variation in autonomic nervous system activity among shift workers. This study examines diurnal 24-h rhythm in heart rate variability (HRV) and dietary behavior among rotating shift workers, while taking into account the sleep-wake cycle and physical activity. The subjects were 11 female and 2 male nurses or caregivers working in a rotating 2-shift system at a health care facility. All the subjects were asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings, and to record the time of each meal and the amounts of each food and beverage consumed. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz) of the periodic components and the integrated power of periodic components in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges. Then the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu) and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF) were calculated to assess cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sympathovagal balance, respectively. Single cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h period variations in both variables of HRV. Acrophases of HF nu and LF/HF expressed in time since awakening were significantly (p<0.05) delayed for subjects having breakfast at a later time after awakening. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that the timing of breakfast, the ratio of energy intake at dinner to total energy intake, and total energy intake were correlated to the acrophases of HF nu and/or LF/HF. These results suggest that the phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle may be associated with dietary behavior in shift workers. PMID:25211024

Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Kohe; Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

2014-01-01

92

Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.  

PubMed

Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health. PMID:25332463

Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

2014-10-20

93

Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.  

PubMed

Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. PMID:25448057

Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

2014-10-01

94

Training Child Welfare Workers from an Intersectional Cultural Humility Perspective: A Paradigm Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby…

Ortega, Robert M.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

2011-01-01

95

Night Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create night lights using a plastic cup, programmable PICO Cricket, tri-color LED, and sensor. Learners can decorate the outside of the night light using a permanent marker or with paper cut-outs to resemble a skyline at night, for instance. Use this activity to help learners explore PICO Crickets, sensors, and LEDs.

2012-06-04

96

Night Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of realistically rendering naturally illuminated scenes at night are examined. This requires accurate models for moonlight, night skylight, and starlight. In addition, several issues in tone re- production are discussed: eliminatiing high frequency information invisible to scotopic (night vision) observers; representing the flare lines around stars; determining the dominant hue for the displayed image. The lighting and tone

Henrik Wann Jensen; Peter Shirley; William B. Thompson; James A. Ferwerda; Michael M. Stark

2000-01-01

97

Training child welfare workers from an intersectional cultural humility perspective: a paradigm shift.  

PubMed

The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby exacerbating the power imbalance between them. This article promotes cultural humility in child welfare service delivery as a compliment to cultural competence, to liberate workers from expectations of cultural expertise about others, and to actively engage the clients, inclusive of their cultural differences, in the service delivery process. Skills and practice principles are discussed. PMID:22533053

Ortega, Robert M; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

2011-01-01

98

The vulnerability of nursing workers to tuberculosis in a teaching hospital.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify aspects that potentially increase the vulnerability of nursing workers to tuberculosis, through the verification of personal life, work and disease knowledge indexes. The sample is composed of 81 nursing workers involved with assistance in the night and day shifts at USP Teaching Hospital, who answered a questionnaire about life and work habits. The sample aggregated the indexes that increase vulnerability to tuberculosis: long professional experience in hospitals and work load longer than 12 hours. Data show that nursing auxiliaries and workers from the night shift in general have a higher number of vulnerability indexes. PMID:17546358

de Souza, Juliana Nery; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

2007-01-01

99

Evaluation of the sleep pattern in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units Avaliação do padrão de sono dos profissionais de Enfermagem dos plantões noturnos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to assess the quality of sleep and verify the presence of excessive daytime somnolence in Nursing professionals working night shifts at the Intensive Care Units of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Methods: Seventy-five Nursing professionals were evaluated: 33% were registered nurses and 66% were licensed

Juliana Inhauser; Acioli Barboza; Edvaldo Leal de Moraes; Eloísa Aparecida Pereira; Rubens Nelson; Amaral de Assis

100

Neurobehavioral, health, and safety consequences associated with shift work in safety-sensitive professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 15% of the full-time workers in the United States are shift workers. We review the physiologic challenges inherent\\u000a not only in traditional night or rotating shifts but also in extended-duration shifts and other nonstandard hours. The challenging\\u000a schedules of those in particularly safety-sensitive professions such as police officers, firefighters, and health care providers\\u000a are highlighted. Recent findings describing the

Laura K. Barger; Steven W. Lockley; Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam; Christopher P. Landrigan

2009-01-01

101

Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: a study.  

PubMed

Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data were presented as mean value (SD). Over 90% of workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, is the most feasible method for the protection of industrial workers from prevailing noise in workplace environments in the developing countries. PMID:22718110

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore

2012-01-01

102

Effectiveness of the hearing conservation program: Change in hearing threshold shift incidence among industrial workers, 1978 to 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hearing conservation programs (HCP) are widely employed in preventing noise-induced hearing loss, but studies of their effectiveness have been rare. The impact of the implementation of hearing conservation programs was assessed in a large group of highly noise-exposed blue-collar workers by investigating time-trends in hearing-threshold shift incidence. Serial annual audiograms for employees of 14 British Columbia lumber mills for the period 1978 to 2003 were obtained from local regulatory-agency archives. Audiograms and concomitant otological medical histories were linked to subjects' work histories and noise exposure data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the incidence of hearing threshold shift while controlling for age, baseline level of hearing loss, and other potential confounders. A total of 109257 audiograms were associated with 10590 subjects. Mean noise exposure in this group was 91.4 dBA(A). Mean interval between hearing tests was 566 days and mean age at first threshold shift was 44. Forty-six percent of subjects had at least one OSHA significant threshold shift during follow up. Preliminary analyses indicated a trend toward lower incidence of threshold shifts over the study period, with incidence in 5 approximately equal 5-year periods from 1978 to 2003 being 3.2%, 6.6%, 4.9%, 4.3% and 2.4%, respectively.

Davies, Hugh

2005-04-01

103

Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions.  

PubMed

In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26-27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations for prevention of the effects of night work on breast cancer. Among those studies that quantified duration of shift work, there were statistically significant elevations in risk only after about 20 years working night shift. It is unclear from these studies whether or not there is a modest but real elevated risk for shorter durations. Hence, restriction of the total number of years working night shift could be one future preventive recommendation for shift workers. The diurnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland with peak in secretory activity during the night is a good biochemical marker of the circadian rhythm. Disruption of the diurnal melatonin secretion pattern can be diminished by restricting the number of consecutive night shifts. Reddish light and reduced light intensity during work at night could potentially help diminish the inhibitory activity of light with strong intensity on the melatonin secretion, but further mechanistic insight is needed before definite recommendations can be made. Earlier or more intensive mammography screening among female night shift worker is not recommended because the harm-benefit ratio in this age group may not be beneficial. Preventive effects of melatonin supplementation on breast cancer risk have not been clearly documented, but may be a promising avenue if a lack of side effects can be shown even after long-term ingestion. Women with previous or current breast cancer should be advised not to work night shifts because of strong experimental evidence demonstrating accelerated tumor growth by suppression of melatonin secretion. Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted in real work environments. PMID:22349009

Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Olsen, Jørgen H; Blask, David E; Härmä, Mikko; Kjuus, Helge; de Koning, Harry J; Olsen, Jørn; Møller, Morten; Schernhammer, Eva S; Stevens, Richard G; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

2012-07-01

104

Why things go bump in the night  

SciTech Connect

Visual processing leads to false security. Professor Emeritus Herschel W. Leibowitz of Pennsylvania State University pointed out some important facts about night-time navigation-vehicular or other - in a 1995 Distinguished Scientific Award Address, printed last spring in American Psychologist. People are often more tired at night. If they are working overtime or doing shift work, their systems are probably off-kilter. Unquestionably, they cannot see as well at night-night myopia has been investigated since the 18th century. The problem is this: with those factors so obvious, why do people fail to compensate for them by changing their driving habits enough to balance out the risks? First, researchers poking around in, among other places, the brains of hamsters, discovered that there are two functionally separate visual processing systems. The orientation and guidance system is much less sensitive to the amount of light than is the focal systems; the latter is the system with which we recognize objects. That means a worker can securely find his or her way to the substation entrance form the parking lot, despite low light, but can easily stumble in an unexpected pot-hole on the way. Or a driver can stick to his lane, with the familiar help of feedback from the steering wheel, but be too slow to identify objects in the road.

Shapiro, D.E.

1996-09-01

105

Quality of life in shift work syndrome.  

PubMed

Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients. PMID:9119269

Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

1996-01-01

106

THE IMPENDING SHIFT TO AN OLDER MIX OF WORKERS: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS LITERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds a new dimension to the debate in the management literature about the merits or otherwise of employing older workers. Given the reality that we face an older workforce in the coming decades, the paper first reviews the management literature on the implications of an older workforce. This literature points to a range of benefits, and some costs,

Ross Guest; Kate Shacklock

2005-01-01

107

Optimal Shift Duration and Sequence: Recommended Approach for Short-Term Emergency Response Activations for Public Health and Emergency Management  

PubMed Central

Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts. PMID:17413074

Burgess, Paula A.

2007-01-01

108

Can workers with chronic back pain shift from pain elimination to function restore at work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Workers with chronic low back pain (LBP) mean a heavy human and social-economic burden. Their medical histories often include different treatments without attention to work-relatedness or communication with occupational health providers, leaving them passive and medicalized in (outpatient) health care. So we developed and implemented an innovative, patient-activating alternative: the multidisciplinary outpatient care (MOC) programme, including work(place) intervention and

P. C. Buijs; L. C. Lambeek; V. Koppenrade; W. E. Hooftman; J. R. Anema

2009-01-01

109

Evidence of circadian and extended shift effects on reactor transient frequency  

SciTech Connect

An extensive body of knowledge exists documenting the significant swings in error rates, perception, judgment, and overall alertness levels in the course of a day. The literature also demonstrates pronounced differences in performance levels whereby night workers routinely underperform day workers in any set of tasks. The performance split widens with task complexity. Rotating shift workers, such as nuclear power plant operators, have been shown to experience performance problems comparable to straight night workers. Finally, sleep research also documents that extended hours, such as the so-called 4-day work week, can undermine alertness levels, particularly in the last 2 to 3 h of a daily shift. These issues suggest that cyclical performance by shift workers may be evident in nuclear plant operators. This paper seeks evidence of such cyclical performance by examining operating transients at nuclear power plants involving human error.

Maloney, S. (Devonrue, Ltd., Boston, MA (United States))

1992-01-01

110

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

111

Fragile nights :  

E-print Network

The night -- particularly its constitutive darkness -poses a formidable challenge to the human mind, which operates primarily on visual evidence. Indeed, the active channels connecting the cognitive and visual systems are ...

Courchesne, Luc, 1952-

1984-01-01

112

The role of experience in night work: Lessons from two ergonomic studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to analyze some connections between experience, health and work, especially in the field of night work. As a result of the baby boom, the proportion of elderly workers is steadily increasing, while at the same time many workers are reaching retirement age and being replaced by younger people. And, in the same time, there is an overall gradual increase in shift work and night work. To our knowledge, worker experience has not been extensively studied in this context. This was our focus in studying work activity in two very different situations, in a hospital and in a steel industry. In these two studies we observed that the experienced workers endeavor to plan ahead, especially at night. They do this to limit fatigue and to avoid emergencies and ensure that work is stress-free and as far as possible under control. But experience not only brings workers to plan ahead, it also enables them to do so, thanks to the resources it confers: gaining familiarity with tasks and acquiring the ability to identify critical situations, gaining knowledge about themselves and awareness of situations that cause difficulty; and gaining a better overview of the collective aspects of their work and of ways to share tasks or obtain assistance. They are able to undertake these strategies thanks to specific skills and capacities they have built along their professional career, which notably leads them to find the best trade-off between several goals, possibly contradictory. Such experience is especially valuable at night, when the worker is tired, and when there are fewer supervisors present. This experience can only be gained, however, if the work environment fosters its acquisition and provides an opportunity to make use of it, especially during the night shift and especially with respect to planning tasks ahead of time. PMID:20673571

Pueyo, Valérie; Toupin, Cathy; Volkoff, Serge

2011-01-01

113

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

114

Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues. PMID:23459725

Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

2013-03-01

115

Night Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts have long touted the importance of good outdoor lighting as a deterrent to crime -- hence, parking lots that are lit as bright as day and glaring store marquees that are on all night. But lights that are too bright only waste electricity without increasing safety. And in this Science Update, you'll hear why bright nighttime lights could also be bad for women's health.

Science Update

2003-05-05

116

Perceptions of health stakeholders on task shifting and motivation of community health workers in different socio demographic contexts in Kenya (nomadic, peri-urban and rural agrarian)  

PubMed Central

Background The shortage of health professionals in low income countries is recognized as a crisis. Community health workers are part of a “task-shift” strategy to address this crisis. Task shifting in this paper refers to the delegation of tasks from health professionals to lay, trained volunteers. In Kenya, there is a debate as to whether these volunteers should be compensated, and what motivation strategies would be effective in different socio-demographic contexts, based type of tasks shifted. The purpose of this study was to find out, from stakeholders’ perspectives, the type of tasks to be shifted to community health workers and the appropriate strategies to motivate and retain them. Methods This was an analytical comparative study employing qualitative methods: key informant interviews with health policy makers, managers, and service providers, and focus group discussions with community health workers and service consumers, to explore their perspectives on tasks to be shifted and appropriate motivation strategies. Results The study found that there were tasks to be shifted and motivation strategies that were common to all three contexts. Common tasks were promotive, preventive, and simple curative services. Common motivation strategies were supportive supervision, means of identification, equitable allocation of resources, training, compensation, recognition, and evidence based community dialogue. Further, in the nomadic and peri-urban sites, community health workers had assumed curative services beyond the range provided for in the Kenyan task shifting policy. This was explained to be influenced by lack of access to care due to distance to health facilities, population movement, and scarcity of health providers in the nomadic setting and the harsh economic realities in peri-urban set up. Therefore, their motivation strategies included training on curative skills, technical support, and resources for curative care. Data collection was viewed as an important task in the rural site, but was not recognized as priority in nomadic and peri-urban sites, where they sought monetary compensation for data collection. Conclusions The study concluded that inclusion of curative tasks for community health workers, particularly in nomadic contexts, is inevitable but raises the need for accreditation of their training and regulation of their tasks. PMID:25079588

2014-01-01

117

Occupational injuries for consecutive and cumulative shifts among hospital registered nurses and patient care associates: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies. PMID:22998692

Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian

2012-10-01

118

Interaction of age with shift-related sleep-wakefulness, sleepiness, performance, and social life.  

PubMed

It is not clear how the age-related changes in sleep are related to performance and subjective sleepiness at different time of the day. The aim of the present study was to study work shift related interactions of age with sleep-wakefulness, performance, and social life. A representative sample of aircraft maintenance workers in a continuous three-shift system was studied by a questionnaire (n = 275) and an on-site field (n = 49) study. In the field study, sleep length and quality and different ratings of social and other activities were studied with an actigraphy and a Pocket PC diary during 15 consecutive days. Subjective sleepiness (KSS) and vigilance performance (PVT) were registered at work. Although the shift type influenced the sleep, subjective sleepiness, performance, and social life, age was distinctly related only to shift-related changes in the amount of sleep, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance. Night shifts were related with shorter sleep, decreased performance, and increased sleepiness. Although subjective sleepiness was greatest among the youngest (25-34 years) age group during the morning and the night shifts, the increase of performance lapses was higher among the middle-aged (35-49 years) and senior (50-58 years) groups during the night shifts compared to the youngest age group. According to the questionnaire, older shiftworkers also tended to perceive more frequently that subjective sleepiness decreases their work performance during the morning and night shifts. The results indicate of no direct link between age-related differences in subjective sleepiness and performance at night work. The shorter day sleep after the night shifts and higher deterioration of subjective and objective performance according to age urge on development of shift schedules aiming at lower fatigue levels during the night shifts. PMID:16531360

Bonnefond, A; Härmä, M; Hakola, T; Sallinen, M; Kandolin, I; Virkkala, J

2006-01-01

119

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

120

Leveraging Workforce Development and Postsecondary Education for Low-Skilled, Low-Income Workers: Lessons from the Shifting Gears Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifting Gears was launched in 2007 by the Joyce Foundation, a Chicago-based organization focused on improving the quality of life of citizens residing in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The primary goal of Shifting Gears is to increase the number of low-skilled, low-income Midwestern adults who obtain college-level occupational…

Bragg, Debra; Dresser, Laura; Smith, Whitney

2012-01-01

121

A Case-Control Study of Occupational Injuries for Consecutive and Cumulative Shifts Among Hospital Registered Nurses and Patient Care Associates  

PubMed Central

Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies. PMID:22998692

Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian

2013-01-01

122

Shift Work and Occupational Stress in Police Officers  

PubMed Central

Background Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. Methods The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27–66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. Results During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Conclusion Non–day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered.

Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K.; Hartley, Tara A.; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

2014-01-01

123

Metabolic responses on the early shift.  

PubMed

Shiftwork has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of metabolic disorders and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and insulin among fixed night workers (n = 9), fixed early morning workers (n = 6), and day workers (n = 7). Food intake was recorded for 7 days using a diary. Blood samples were collected every 4 h over the course of 24 h, yielding six samples. Total carbohydrate intake was lowest (p < .0005), whereas fat (p = .03) and protein (p < .0005) were highest on the early morning shifts. Early morning workers also had overall elevated cortisol levels relative to the other two groups. Cortisol levels appeared to be more influenced by time since waking prior to the shift than by time-of-day. Cortisol was highest for the early morning group than the day group 12 h after waking, and both the early morning and night groups had higher levels than the day group 16 h after waking (p < .05 in all cases). In contrast, the homesostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) appeared to be more influenced by time-of-day than by time since waking prior to the shift. The early morning group had higher levels of HOMA-IR at 08:00 h than the other groups (p < .05). In conclusion, the early morning group had the highest overall concentrations of cortisol and tended to have higher levels of HOMA-IR, indicating that more attention should be given to these workers. Moreover, all three groups showed pronounced cortisol levels on awakening, suggesting that they may have adjusted to their awaking time. (Author: heloguarita@rgnutri.com.br ). PMID:20636217

Padilha, Heloisa Guarita; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Folkard, Simon; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

2010-07-01

124

Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels  

PubMed Central

Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

2015-01-01

125

The adaptation of night nurses to different work schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine full-time permanent night nurses, 94 part-time permanent night nurses, and 44 nurses working in a weekly rotating two-shift system but doing some night work from time to time answered questionnaires on morningness, rigidity of sleeping habits, aspects and effects of night work, subjective health, etc. For one month they also carefully registered their sleeping times. The full-time nurses displayed

PAUL VERHAEGEN; RAF COBER; MONIQUE DE SMEDT; JAN DIRKX; JAN KERSTENS; DIRK RYVERS; PATRICK VAN DAELE

1987-01-01

126

Day and Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can you see in the day sky? What objects can you see in the night sky? Are there objects that can be seen in both the day and night sky? Can the sun be seen during the night, or only during the day? Students will encounter these questions as they explore the similarities and differences between the day and night sky. This lesson will help students identify what objects can be seen in the day and night sky, and objects are exclusively seen in the day sky and the night sky.

Lindsay Demoranville

2012-07-10

127

Shifting Meanings in a Blue-Collar Worker Philanthropy Program: Emergent Tension in Traditional and Feminist Organizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an innovative philanthropic program instituted by a Midwestern United States manufacturing company during organizational downtimes. Examines the tensions that emerged when a traditionally structured company instituted a program indicative of incremental shifts toward feminist organizing principles. Explores the pragmatic and far-reaching…

Gibson, Melissa K.; Schullery, Nancy M.

2000-01-01

128

Shift Work Disorder in a Random Population Sample – Prevalence and Comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated the presence of shift work disorder (SWD) in the general community. We addressed many of the limitations in this literature and present new findings. SWD has been treated as an ‘all or none’ construct but we propose the need to consider the ‘severity’ of the disorder. Using random digit dialling, we randomly recruited 1163 participants. Participants completed an extensive battery of scales and questions concerning work, health and individual differences. Three questions based on the criteria from the International Classification for Sleep Disorders were used to categorise participants with SWD (n?=?176). In addition, we asked participants whether SWD interfered with aspects of their life and high ratings were used to define severe shift work disorder (SSWD). The prevalence of SWD was 32.1% among night workers and 10.1% in day workers (p<.001). SSWD was present in 9.1% of night workers and 1.3% of day workers (p<.001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant associations between SWD and night work (OR ?=?3.35, CI 2.19-5.12), weekly work hours (OR ?=?1.02, CI 1.00–1.04), short sleep (?6 h; OR ?=?2.93, CI 1.94–4.41), languidity (OR ?=?1.11, CI 1.06–1.16) and resilience (OR ?=?0.56, CI 0.43–0.81). Night work, short sleep, languidity, and hypertension were significantly associated with SSWD. Overall, participants with SSWD slept 0.80 h less than other participants (p<.001). Night work, short sleep and languidity were associated with both SWD and SSWD. Day workers with SWD symptoms reported significantly shorter sleep duration, higher levels of languidity and worked longer working hours compared to day workers without SWD. PMID:23372847

Di Milia, Lee; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

2013-01-01

129

Nutritional status and eating habits of bus drivers during the day and night.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5?±?10.7?cm in day workers versus 103.2?±?9.7?cm in night workers; p?=?0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI???25?kg/m(2)) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p?=?0.004) and increased WC (>94?cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p?=?0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings ±0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings ±0.7 day workers, p?=?0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings ±0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers ±0.5; p?=?0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p?=?0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p?=?0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR?=?2.94, 95% IC: 1.14-7.66, p?=?0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR?=?2.82, 95% IC: 1.20-6.69, p?=?0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers. Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these workers. PMID:25231504

Balieiro, Laura Cristina Tibiletti; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Waterhouse, Jim; Paim, Samantha Lemos; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

2014-12-01

130

Darkness at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this probe is to elicit students' ideas about the day/night cycle. The probe is designed to find out if students recognize that the Earth's rotation is responsible for the day/night cycle.

Francis Eberle

2007-01-01

131

The feasibility of adapted group-based interpersonal therapy (IPT) for the treatment of depression by community health workers within the context of task shifting in South Africa.  

PubMed

Within the context of a large treatment gap for depression and a scarcity of specialist resources, there is a need for task shifting to scale up mental health services to address this gap in South Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of an adapted manualized version of grouped based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) for use by supervised community health workers through a pilot study on 60 primary health care clinic users screened as having moderate to severe depression. Retention was good and participants in the group-based IPT intervention showed significant reduction in depressive symptoms on completion of the 12-week intervention as well as 24 weeks post baseline compared to the control group. Qualitative process evaluation suggests that improved social support, individual coping skills and improved personal agency assisted in the reduction of depressive symptoms. PMID:21687982

Petersen, I; Bhana, A; Baillie, K

2012-06-01

132

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

133

Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders  

PubMed Central

The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes. PMID:25892993

Ulhôa, M. A.; Marqueze, E. C.; Burgos, L. G. A.; Moreno, C. R. C.

2015-01-01

134

Shift work in a security environment  

SciTech Connect

Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

Longhouser, G.A. Jr. [Florida Power Corp., Crystal River, FL (United States)

1993-12-31

135

Career shift phenomenon among doctors in tacloban city, philippines: lessons for retention of health workers in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background At the height of the global demand for nurses in the 1990s, a phenomenon of grave concern arose. A significant number of medical doctors in the Philippines shifted careers in order to seek work as nurses overseas. The obvious implications of such a trend require inquiry as to the reasons for it; hence, this cross-sectional study. The data in the study compared factors such as personal circumstances, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, perceived benefits versus costs of the alternative job, and the role of social networks/linkages among doctors classified as career shifters and non-shifters. Methodology A combined qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in the study. Data gathered came from sixty medical doctors practicing in three major hospitals in Tacloban City, Philippines, and from a special nursing school also located in the same city. Respondents were chosen through a non-probability sampling, specifically through a chain referral sampling owing to the controversial nature of the research. A set of pre-set criteria was used to qualify doctors as shifters and non-shifters. Cross-tabulation was carried out to highlight the differences between the two groups. Finally, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess if these differences were significant. Results Among the different factors investigated, results of the study indicated that the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and certain socio-demographic factors such as age, length of medical practice, and having children to support, were significantly different among shifters and non-shifters at p ? 0.05. This suggested that such factors had a bearing on the intention to shift to a nursing career among physicians. Conclusion Taken in the context of the medical profession, it was the level of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction that was the immediate antecedent in the intention to shift careers among medical doctors. Personal factors, specifically age, support of children, and the length of medical practice gained explanatory power when they were linked to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. On the other hand, factors such as perceived benefits and costs of the alternative job and the impact of social networks did not differ between shifters and non-shifters. It would then indicate that efforts to address the issue of physician retention need to go beyond economic incentives and deal with other sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among practicing physicians. Since this was an exploratory study in a particular locale in central Philippines, similar studies in other parts of the country need to be done to gain better understanding of this phenomenon at a national level. PMID:21977902

2011-01-01

136

The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

2012-01-01

137

Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.  

PubMed

Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24?h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6?±?4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00?h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00?h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50?lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2?h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8?h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00?h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00?h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24?h. This decrease was larger in women using oral contraceptives. There was no difference between the three groups, and the magnitude of the decrease in melatonin production for nighttime and for the 24?h was not associated with the magnitude of the absolute circadian phase shift. As light intensity was relatively low and because the decrease in melatonin production was progressive, direct suppression by nighttime light exposure was probably not a significant factor. However, according to previous experimental observations, the decrease in melatonin production most likely reflects the circadian disruption associated with the process of re-entrainment. It remains to be determined whether reduced melatonin production can be harmful by itself, but long-term and repeated circadian disruption most probably is. PMID:25222345

Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

2014-12-01

138

Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to perform a literature review on the health consequences of working rotating shifts and implications for structural design. A literature search was performed in June 2012 and a selection of the most relevant peer-review articles was included in the present review. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from a circadian sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness and insomnia. Shift work is associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life and adverse effects on health. Circadian disruption resulting from rotating shift work has also been associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This article summarizes the known health effects of shift work and discusses how light can be used as a countermeasure to minimize circadian disruption at night while maintaining alertness. In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed. PMID:23536025

Figueiro, M G; White, R D

2013-04-01

139

Isotretinoin and night blindness.  

PubMed

Isotretinoin is an effective and increasingly popular treatment for acne vulgaris. There have been reports of night blindness as a side-effect of treatment although the evidence does not demonstrate a clear causal relationship between isotretinoin therapy and the risk of night blindness. Nevertheless, considering the lack of evidence in this area, it is important to educate patients about this potential consequence, which may become longstanding and even irreversible, and encourage them to promptly report changes in their night vision. PMID:25117163

Teo, Ken; Yazdabadi, Anousha

2014-08-01

140

Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.  

PubMed

Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate this lead to frustration. When asked as to whether they would could shift job if they get regular one more than 50 % said yes this means that there need to be come training and intervention for the shift workers and their family so that the problems faced and their impact on personal health of the female nurses could be reduced. PMID:22317381

Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

2012-01-01

141

"Starry Night" on Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an exploration of depth in landscape painting using Vincent van Gogh's "Starry Night" as an example. Used computer drawing software for children to allow students to create their own interpretations of "Starry Night" while exploring means of portraying depth in two-dimensional art. (DSK)

Freifeld, Susan

1998-01-01

142

City Night Lights Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster shows a global view of Earth at night, compiled from over 400 satellite images collected during the nighttime phase of the orbit. Much of Earth is illuminated at night by city lights. The poster includes elementary-secondary activities on the backside from Mission Geography (http://missiongeography.org/).

2002-01-01

143

Armodafinil for Treatment of Excessive Sleepiness Associated With Shift Work Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (?3 months) shift work disorder (SWD) of moderate or greater severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-week, randomized controlled study was conducted at 42 sleep research facilities in North America from April 2 through December 23, 2004, and enrolled 254 permanent or rotating night shift workers with SWD. Entry criteria included excessive sleepiness during usual night shifts for 3 months or longer (corroborated by mean sleep latency of ?6 minutes on a Multiple Sleep Latency Test), insomnia (sleep efficiency ?87.5% during daytime sleep), and SWD that was judged clinically to be of moderate or greater severity. Patients received armodafinil, 150 mg, or placebo 30 to 60 minutes before each night shift. Physiologic sleep propensity during night shift hours, clinical impression of severity, patient-reported sleepiness, and cognitive function were assessed during laboratory night shifts at weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Armodafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency from 2.3 (1.6) minutes at baseline to 5.3 (5.0) minutes at final visit, compared with a change from 2.4 (1.6) minutes to 2.8 (2.9) minutes in the placebo group (P<.001). Clinical condition ratings improved in more patients receiving armodafinil (79%) vs placebo (59%) (P=.001). As reported by patients' diaries, armodafinil significantly reduced sleepiness during laboratory nights (P<.001), night shifts at work (P<.001), and the commute home (P=.003). Armodafinil improved performance on standardized memory (P<.001) and attention (power, P=.001; continuity, P<.001) tests compared with placebo. Armodafinil was well tolerated and did not affect daytime sleep, as measured by polysomnography. CONCLUSION: In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic SWD of moderate or greater severity, armodafinil significantly improved wakefulness during scheduled night work, raising mean nighttime sleep latency above the level considered to indicate severe sleepiness during the daytime. Armodafinil also significantly improved measures of overall clinical condition, long-term memory, and attention. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00080288 PMID:19880686

Czeisler, Charles A.; Walsh, James K.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas

2009-01-01

144

GLOBE at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students and families are invited to participate in a worldwide campaign to observe and record the magnitude of visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. GLOBE at Night is an easy observation and reporting activity with a goal of collecting 5,000 observations. Information for parents, students and teachers details the data collection activity, and participants can subscribe to the GLOBE at Night mailing list to receive updates and results. The site includes background information and interactive simulations that show the effects of light pollution on the night sky, and finding the constellation Orion.

145

Task-shifting to community health workers: evaluation of the performance of a peer-led model in an antiretroviral program in Uganda.  

PubMed

Task shifting to community health workers (CHW) has received recognition. We examined the performance of community antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment supporters (CATTS) in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Reach Out, a community-based ART program in Uganda. Retrospective data on home visits made by CATTS were analyzed to examine the CATTS ability to perform home visits to patients based on the model's standard procedures. Qualitative interviews conducted with 347 randomly selected patients and 47 CATTS explored their satisfaction with the model. The CATTS ability to follow-up with patients worsened from patients requiring daily, weekly, monthly, to three-monthly home visits. Only 26% and 15% of them correctly home visited patients with drug side effects and a missed clinic appointment, respectively. Additionally, 83% visited stable pre-ART and ART patients (96%) more frequently than required. Six hundred eighty of the 3650 (18%) patients were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during the study period. The mean number of patients LTFU per CATTS was 40.5. Male (p = 0.005), worked for longer durations (p = 0.02), and had lower education (p = 0.005). An increased number of patients (p = 0.01) were associated with increased LTFU. Ninety-two percent of the CATTS felt the model could be improved by reducing the workload. CATTS who were HIV positive, female, not residing in the same village as their patients, more educated, married, on ART, and spent less time with the patients were rated better by their patients. The Reach-Out CHW model is labor-intensive. Triaged home visits could improve performance and allow CATTS time to focus on patients requiring more intensive follow-up. PMID:22224411

Alamo, Stella; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kenneth, Ekoru; Sunday, Pamella; Laga, Marie; Colebunders, Robert Leon

2012-02-01

146

The Starry Night.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent Van Gogh's painting "The Starry Night" is discussed, and ways that an art teacher can use this painting as a resource for learning are suggested. Specific activities to use with elementary and secondary students are included. (RM)

Hausman, Jerome J.

1985-01-01

147

Globe at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Globe at Night program is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by inviting citizen-scientists to measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations from a computer or smart phone. Light pollution threatens not only our “right to starlight”, but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. Nearly 100,000 measurements have been contributed from people in 115 countries during the campaigns each winter/spring over the last 8 years, making Globe at Night the most successful light pollution awareness campaign to date! Explore the last 8 years of data in our interactive data map, or see how your city did with our regional map generator. The Globe at Night website is easy to use, comprehensive and holds an abundance of background information. The database is usable for comparisons with a variety of other databases, like how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.

2014-04-01

148

The effects of chronic photoperiod shifting on the physiology of female Long-Evans rats.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of shift work is increasing, it is important to elucidate the impact that shift work has on health. Because of the alternating work schedules present in rotating shift work and working at night, shift workers are in a chronic state of circadian disruption. Animal models of circadian disruption are useful because they offer more experimental control than the largely correlational human shift work studies. The effects of chronic circadian disruption on food preference, glucose tolerance, corticosterone secretion, and performance in a stress-inducing task were investigated in female Long-Evans rats. A 64-day photoperiod shifting paradigm was used to induce circadian disruption. Surprisingly, neither the photoperiod shifted animals, nor the control animals demonstrated a preference for either an unhealthy or healthy diet. Nor was there a difference between the groups in weight gained during photoperiod shifting. However, the photoperiod shifted rats gained significantly more weight than control animals, without eating more food during discriminative fear conditioning to context (DFCTC). Surprisingly, chronic photoperiod shifting appeared to facilitate retention in the DFCTC task. The photoperiod shifted animals also had increased serum glucose values during fasting and after a glucose challenge test. The photoperiod shifted animals only had elevated corticosterone during the final two phases of photoperiod shifting. This study demonstrates that chronic photoperiod shifting elicits weight gain when exposed to a stressful event and impairs glucose tolerance in the same individual. PMID:24631903

Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; Himmler, Stephanie M; McDonald, Robert J

2014-04-01

149

Working at night and work ability among nursing personnel: when precarious employment makes the difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the association between night work and work ability, and verify whether the type of contractual employment has any\\u000a influence over this association.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Permanent workers (N = 642) and workers with precarious jobs (temporary contract or outsourced; N = 552) were interviewed and filled out questionnaires concerning work hours and work ability index. They were classified\\u000a into: never worked at night, ex-night workers,

Lucia Rotenberg; Rosane Harter Griep; Frida Marina Fischer; Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca; Paul Landsbergis

2009-01-01

150

Night work and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between occupations that involve night shift work (a surrogate for exposure to light at night with subsequent melatonin suppression) and breast cancer risk is uncertain. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the effects of night work on breast cancer risk.Data sources were MEDLINE from January 1960 to January 2005, experts in

Sarah P. Megdal; Candyce H. Kroenke; Francine Laden; Eero Pukkala; Eva S. Schernhammer

2005-01-01

151

Understanding and diagnosing shift work disorder.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of the workforce in industrialized countries (16%) are employed as shift workers. These workers may be susceptible to shift work disorder (SWD), a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, particularly those who work at night or on early-morning shifts. Shift work disorder remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated problem among this population. Patients with SWD have difficulty initiating sleep and waking up. Often, these patients have excessive sleepiness during their work shift. Shift work disorder has been associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life, and adverse effects on health. Several tools have been validated to assess excessive daytime sleepiness and are often used to assess excessive nighttime sleepiness, such as that experienced in patients with SWD, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The criteria for diagnosing SWD as established by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and published in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Second Edition (ICSD-2) were most recently updated in 2005 and thus do not contain newer agents approved for use in patients with SWD. The symptoms of SWD can be treated using behavioral, prescription, and nonprescription therapies. Current treatment guidelines suggest nonpharmacologic interventions, such as exercise and exposure to light. In addition, medications that contain melatonin or caffeine may have clinical benefits in some patients with SWD. However, modafinil and armodafinil are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to improve wakefulness in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with SWD, and recent data suggest a clinical benefit. The use of these therapies can significantly improve sleep, performance, and quality of life for patients with SWD. PMID:21904091

Thorpy, Michael

2011-09-01

152

Modeling Day and Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners make a "mini-globe" to investigate the causes of day and night on our planet. This is an introductory activity in a guide related to the science of sleep and daily rhythms. This lesson guide includes background information, information about cooperative learning, setup and management tips, extensions and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

153

The Night Captive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of a short story from Senzenjani Lukhele of Manzini, Swaziland was a further reminder that news of our competition is now being dispersed more widely across Africa and no longer being confined to those writers who live in the major urban centers. Mr. Lukhele's tale The Night Captive is not only strangely fascinating in its material, but the

Senzenjani Lukhele

1971-01-01

154

Earth at Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The influence humans have had on their planet can be seen from space. Viewing Earth at night, we see the lights of countless villages, towns, and cities. Fires from slash-and-burn farming and the burn-off of natural gas in oil fields appear in red and yellow. This perspective unveils the breadth of human activity on Earth. It spans the globe.

Alex Kekesi

1999-01-21

155

Night Train's Dark Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that Martin Amis' contemporary novel, Night Train, is a remarkably effective tool for introducing postmodernist notions in general literature classrooms. Presents a definition for postmodernism and brings the reader through a detailed analysis of the language and structure of the novel. Concludes with students' reaction to the analytical…

Johnson, Robert.

2003-01-01

156

2005 Disability Awareness Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Disability Awareness Night is to expand awareness of the 54 million Americans with disabilities, by highlighting their extraordinary achievements and the perseverance and dedication of the families, caregivers, physicians, nurses, therapists and teachers involved in their care and development. The presentation of the EP Maxwell…

Exceptional Parent, 2005

2005-01-01

157

Writing for Night Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a home video camera with a “night vision” mode to test how various inks appear outside the spectrum of visible light. In a darkened room, some messages will be legible with an infrared camera and others will seem to go invisible. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

158

Prevalence of depression and its relationship with work characteristics in a sample of public workers  

PubMed Central

Occupation is a fundamental right, enabling social interaction and financial support for the individual. However, it is an undeniable source of stress, with consequences for physical and mental health. The prevalence of depression and somatic complaints were assessed in 1,013 public workers using the Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire investigating for the presence of somatic problems designed by the research team. The results were related to demographic characteristics, history of previous depressive episodes, work schedule (day work, night and day rotating shift work, day rotating shift work), and duration of current work schedule. There were more cases of moderate depression in the day rotating shift workers (84%) than in those working at night (83%). More women had mild or moderate depression than men (22% and 4% versus 10% and 3%, respectively). Severe depression was found only in men. Nearly 10% of depressed individuals reported previous depressive episodes. A link between depression and somatic complaints was also found. In particular, 59% of depressed subjects reported gastrointestinal complaints and 41% did not (P<0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of depressive symptoms could be facilitated by occupation. A history of depressive symptoms should not be neglected, given the risk of recurrence. Somatic complaints could represent a “wake-up call” regarding depression. Global assessment and effective support are fundamental for promotion of a better quality of life in the at-risk category of workers. PMID:24707177

Luca, Maria; Bellia, Salvatore; Bellia, Marcello; Luca, Antonina; Calandra, Carmela

2014-01-01

159

Travelers In The Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

Grauer, Albert D.

2014-11-01

160

Emergency/Night Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

1980-01-01

161

Effect of omega-3 and ascorbic acid on inflammation markers in depressed shift workers in Shahid Tondgoyan Oil Refinery, Iran: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation of omega-3 and/or vitamin C on serum interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration and depression scores among shift workers in Shahid Tondgoyan oil refinery. The study design was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Totally 136 shift workers with a depression score ?10 in 21-item Beck Depression Rating Scale were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 (180 mg eicosapentaenoate acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or/and vitamin C 250 mg or placebo twice daily (with the same taste and shape as omega-3 and vitamin C) for 60 days in four groups. Depression score, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and after 60 days. This study showed that supplementation of omega-3 plus vitamin C is associated with a decrease in depression score (p<0.05). Supplementation of omega-3 without vitamin C, is associated with a reduction in depression score (p<0.0001) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (p<0.01). Therefore omega-3 supplementation showed a better effect on reducing depression score and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but supplementation of vitamin C along with omega-3 did not have significant effect on change in C-reactive protein level compared to omega-3 alone. (Registration number: IRCT201202189056N1) PMID:23874068

Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2013-01-01

162

[Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases.  

PubMed

Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch

2014-01-20

163

Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.  

PubMed

Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems may help to achieve greater transparency and fairness in the distribution of unfavorable working-time arrangements within a team, and even reduce the unnecessary unfavorable aspects of shift systems. PMID:17190712

Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

2006-01-01

164

Soul's Night Out  

E-print Network

, that a taxidermist would boast at a taxidermy convention, “We can do your grandma and put a dog in her lap.” The poems that at first seemed impossible to categorize I have classified as poems of surprise and revelation. This group, entitled “Not Me... Waking to Sirens 40 S. A. D. 41, 42 The Most Depressing Day of the Year 43, 44 Empty Nest 45, 46 Decomposition 47, 48 Soul’s Night Out 49, 50 The Taxidermy Convention 51, 52 The Last Day 53, 54 12 Midway between...

Rogers, Nedra Diane

2008-07-28

165

Night Vision Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

1996-01-01

166

Earth at Night 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is what the Earth looks like at night. Can you find your favorite country or city? Surprisingly, city lights make this task quite possible. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The above image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) currently operates four satellites carrying the Operational Linescan System (OLS) in low-altitude polar orbits. Three of these satellites record nighttime data. The DMSP-OLS has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible-near infrared (VNIR) radiance at night. With the OLS VIS band data it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning-illuminated clouds. The Nighttime Lights of the World data set is compiled from the October 1994 - March 1995 DMSP nighttime data collected when moonlight was low. Using the OLS thermal infrared band, areas containing clouds were removed and the remaining area used in the time series. This animation is derived from an image created by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon from data provided by Christopher Elvidge of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.

Stuart Snodgrass

2001-10-19

167

Night Side Jovian Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

1997-01-01

168

Review of night vision technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.

Chrzanowski, K.

2013-06-01

169

Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among primary aluminium workers.  

PubMed

Large amounts of PAH's are released in the electrode production departments of pre-bake cell aluminium reduction plants. Emission sources are mixing, shaping and baking of the anode (paste plant and bake oven) and pot relining operations. A study was performed to quantify the importance of dermal uptake of PAH's among exposed workers. Twenty workers in the anode production departments (paste plant (N = 8) and bake oven (N = 5)) and the pot relining department (N = 7) volunteered for the study. Monitoring was performed over a period of 5 consecutive days using personal air sampling, dermal contamination sampling and biological monitoring. Pyrene concentrations measured in the respirable air samples, ranged up to 320 micrograms/m3. Dermal contamination of pyrene was monitored at three skin sites (wrist, jaw/neck and groin) using exposure pads as pseudo-skin. The skin contamination with pyrene ranged up to 375 ng/cm2. Contamination of the groin skin site, although covered by work clothes ranged up to 106 ng/cm2. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in pre and post-shift urine ranged up to 27 mumol/mol creatinine and showed an increase during the day and a decrease during the night. Pyrene in air and pyrene on the skin were tested for significance of correlation with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples taken at several moments: end-of-shift, pre-shift next morning and weekly increase. The correlation coefficients between dermal contamination and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene were equal or higher than the correlation coefficient between pyrene air concentration and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. The total skin contamination in exposed workers is estimated to be more than three times higher than the intake via the respiratory tract. The contribution of dermal exposure to the total PAH body burden of exposed workers therefore appears to be significant. PMID:1297067

Vanrooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; De Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P; Jongeneelen, F J

1992-01-01

170

Family Science Night Facilitators Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 9-session NASA Family Science Night program invites middle school children and their families to discover the wide variety of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics being performed at NASA and in everyday life. Family Science Night programs explore various themes on the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and the Universe through fun, hands-on activities, including at-home experiments. Information about Family Science Night implementation and support resources, including the facilitator's guide, are available by registering on the Family Science Night Facilitators website (see Related & Supplemental Resources for link).

171

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

172

Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marked sleepiness occurs during typical night shift work hours and this reduced alertness is associated with marked performance deficits. The effect of caffeine (versus placebo) upon sleepiness at night was studied using objective measures of physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness. Both measures show caffeine to reduce sleepiness at a single dose roughly the equivalent of two to

James K. Walsh; Mark J. Muehlbach; Tina M. Humm; Q. Stokes Dickins; Jeffrey L. Sugerman; Paula K. Schweitzer

1990-01-01

173

Circadian rhythms in deep body temperature, urinary excretion and alertness in nurses on night work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen volunteer nurses who worked on the night shift at a local hospital recorded their times of sleep, mealtimes and any illness or complaints for 12 consecutive days which included at least one spell of night work and rest days. Whilst awake they made regular assessments of their alertness and collected frequent urine samples for analysis of the rate of

D. S. MINORS; J. M. WATERHOUSE

1985-01-01

174

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with flying robots)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven flying robot “fairies” joined human actors in the Texas A&M production of William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The production was a collaboration between the departments of Computer Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer\\u000a Engineering, and Theater Arts. The collaboration was motivated by two assertions. First, that the performing arts have principles\\u000a for creating believable agents that will transfer

Robin Murphy; Dylan Shell; Amy Guerin; Brittany Duncan; Benjamin Fine; Kevin Pratt; Takis Zourntos

2011-01-01

175

Night-to-night variability in sleep in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The impact of night-to-night variability (NNV) on polysomnography (PSG) has been reported mainly in normal subjects, the elderly and patients with obstructive sleep apnea with focus on changes in the apnea\\/hypopnea index, rather than measures of nocturnal oxygenation. There is very limited data on NNV in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to assess

Maree A Milross; Amanda J Piper; Mark Norman; Grant N Willson; Ronald R Grunstein; Colin E Sullivan; Peter T. P Bye

2002-01-01

176

Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.  

PubMed

Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

2011-02-01

177

Acute Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment Associated with Transition onto the First Night of Work Impairs Visual Selective Attention  

PubMed Central

Background Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p?=?.04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). Conclusions/Significance These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work. PMID:18043740

Santhi, Nayantara; Horowitz, Todd S.; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

2007-01-01

178

A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S BOLLYWOOD DREAM  

E-print Network

"A Midsummer's Night Bollywood Dream" An Indian Theatrical interpretation Of A Western Classic Author: Madison Elizabeth Spencer The Indian film industry makes as many if not more films than any other country in the world. However, films produced...

Spencer, Madison Elizabeth

2009-12-30

179

Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.  

PubMed

As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms. PMID:22926058

Rössler, Wulf

2012-11-01

180

Mothers’ Night Work and Children’s Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9–5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. The present paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3–5) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children’s behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers’ night shift work. We employ three analytic strategies that take various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provide an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children’s behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious/depressed behavior in children compared to mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. PMID:23294148

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle; Su, Jessica Houston

2013-01-01

181

GLOBE at Night in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE at Night citizen-science campaign was introduced in China in 2010. Observations and works made by students are presented. The students were guided to participate in this meaningful international activity by 1) taking light pollution observations of the night sky at different locations, 2) becoming aware of the severity of the effects of light pollution, and 3) making the whole society aware of the importance to save energy by reducing light pollution.

Guo, Hongfeng

2015-03-01

182

Productivity on a weekly rotating shift system: circadian adjustment and sleep deprivation effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little doubt that productivity and safety can be impaired on the night shift. Two main factors have been identified that may be responsible for this. On the one hand, the circadian rhythm in performance on at least simple tasks is at a low ebb at night, and adjusts only slowly over a span of night shifts. On the

STJEPAN VIDA?EK; LJILJANA KALITERNA; BISERKA RADOŠEVI?-VIDA?EK; SIMON FOLKARD

1986-01-01

183

How Minnesota Adopted Workers' Compensation ——————  

Microsoft Academic Search

he adoption of workers' compensation in the 1910s represents a significant event in the economic, legal, and political history of the United States. Work- ers' compensation legislation is one of the major tort reforms of this century, shifting liability for workplace accidents from negligence liability to a form of shared strict liability. The legislation marked a radical shift in how

SHAWN EVERETT KANTOR; PRICE V. FISHBACK

184

The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.  

PubMed

A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751

Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

2010-04-01

185

"Antigone" on the Night Shift: Classics in the Contemporary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines community college students' choices of favorite works after a one-year composition and literature course. Finds "Antigone" was the favorite. Claims Greek classical works put students in contact with a distant culture that they find intriguing. Suggests juxtaposing a classical work with one from another time and culture to avoid assuming…

Devenish, Alan

2000-01-01

186

Air Quality at Night Markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, there are more than 300 night markets and they have attracted more and more visitors in recent years. Air quality in night markets has become a public concern. To characterize the current air quality in night markets, four major night markets in Kaohsiung were selected for this study. The results of this study showed that the mean carbon

Ping Zhao; Chi-Chi Lin; Adriana Gutierrez; Jennifer Logue; Mitchell Small; Darrell Stern; Jason Maranche; Allen Robinson; Krish Vijayaraghavan; Christian Seigneur; Rochelle Bronson; Shu-Yun Chen; Prakash Karamchandani; Justin Walters; John Jansen; Jo Brandmeyer; Eladio Knipping; John Kominsky; Jonathan Thornburg; Glenn Shaul; William Barrett; Fred Hall; James Konz; Jozef Pacyna; Kyrre Sundseth; Elisabeth Pacyna; Wojciech Jozewicz; John Munthe; Mohammed Belhaj; Stefan Astrom; Shannon Capps; Yongtao Hu; Armistead Russell; Gayle Hagler; Eben Thoma; Richard Baldauf; Yu-Kuang Zhao; Wen-Pei Sung; Tzai-Tang Tsai; Hsien-Jung Wang; Jaron Hansen; Woods III; Brittney Bates; Jared Clark; Roman Kuprov; Puspak Mukherjee; Jacolin Murray; Michael Simmons; Mark Waite; Norman Eatough; Delbert Eatough; Russell Long; Brett Grover; Patricia Krecl; Christer Johansson; Johan Strom

2010-01-01

187

Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

1994-01-01

188

Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

2014-01-01

189

Family Nights, Fairs, and Competitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. We think that math nights, fairs, and competitions can motivate students by answering not only cognitive needs but also social needs of the middle school student. This resource guide offers math content for family nights as well as investigations and activities for math fairs, including project ideas. For those students interested in testing their skills, we have included national math competitions created for middle school students.

Terese A Herrera

190

Night blindness and ancient remedy.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

Al Binali, H A Hajar

2014-01-01

191

New technologies for night vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Light Technology Institute conducted an investigation among more than 300 car drivers, 60 truck drivers and 40 bus drivers. We found out that more than 60 percent feel that the greatest problem in driving at night is glare. In theory, a car of today does not cause glare problems. However, in practice, most people feel glared. Consequently, technological improvements have to be made regarding the development of headlamps that will not glare. Another approach is to introduce more and better night vision systems to enhance drivers' sight with today's headlamps.

Klinger, Karsten D.; Schellinger, Sven; Kooss, Dieter; Manz, Karl; Lemmer, Uli

2006-04-01

192

Workers' Page  

MedlinePLUS

... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation For ...

193

A classification of nursing and midwifery shift systems.  

PubMed

A classification of 122 shift systems worked by nurses and midwives in the larger general hospitals (400+ beds) in England and Wales was made. The systems were classified along two main dimensions: the degree of flexibility for shift rostering (either regular, irregular or flexible); and the speed of rotation between night and day work (either a permanent night shift or systems of fast or slow internal rotation). This resulted in nine possible categories of shift systems. The most common shift system was a flexible day shift with a permanent night shift. Other features of the systems are discussed, e.g. the start times and durations of shifts, and the relative influence of flexible rostering on these features. This classification is a prerequisite for a further research project aimed at identifying those features of shift systems which are likely to cause the least detrimental effects for the individual nurses concerned. PMID:8449659

Barton, J; Spelten, E R; Smith, L R; Totterdell, P A; Folkard, S

1993-02-01

194

Night blindness and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Signs of malnutrition are common clinical features in Crohn's disease; and bowel resection, commonly needed in these cases, can aggravate malnutrition. These patients are at risk of developing vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to night blindness. We present a 60-year-old male, with history of Crohn's disease and multiple resections for strictures and fistulas leading to short bowel syndrome, with progressive bilateral loss of night vision (nyctalopia). Serum vitamin A level was markedly depleted (11 µg/dL, reference 20-120 µg/dL), and full-field electroretinogram testing demonstrated extinguished scotopic (rod function) responses and decreased amplitudes of photopic responses on 30 Hz flicker (cone function). He was started on vitamin A supplementation (initially intramuscular). His vitamin A level was back to normal (78 µg/dL), and night vision problems subjectively improved. Patients with Crohn's disease should be inquired about night vision problems. The presence of nyctalopia should prompt vitamin A level measurement and ophthalmology referral for further evaluation. PMID:24715231

da Rocha Lima, Breno; Pichi, Francesco; Lowder, Careen Y

2014-10-01

195

Shedding Light on Night Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how darkness and night provide a potentially excellent arena for experiential learning opportunities. Recommends learning must be gradual, beginning with appreciation and allaying fear of the dark. Suggests sensory activities, hikes, games, aquatic activities, ecological simulations, historical presentations, and writing or reciting poetry.…

Horwood, Bert

1986-01-01

196

Dancing in the Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights. Learners will plot the Auroral Oval in the northern hemisphere and determine the height of the northern lights using Carl Stormer's triangulation method. This activity corresponds to the NASA CONNECT video, titled Dancing in the Night Sky, and has supplemental questions to support the video viewing.

2012-08-03

197

Recovery from work shifts: how long does it take?  

PubMed

Although regulations on work hours usually include a minimum weekly rest period, there is little empirical evidence concerning recovery from work. Shift-working nurses (N = 61) used a handheld computer for 28 days to complete self-ratings, cognitive-performance tasks, and a sleep diary. Many measures were worse on rest days that followed a night shift rather than a day shift and tended to be worse on first rest days compared with subsequent rest days. Alertness was lowest on the 1st rest day following a night shift. Social satisfaction was better on workdays that were preceded by 2 rather than 1 rest day. Reaction time decreased over consecutive night shifts and tended to increase over rest days following night shifts. The results are interpreted as being consistent with the combined adaptive costs of fatigue and adjustment to and from a nocturnal routine. The practical implications for scheduling rest days are considered. PMID:7706194

Totterdell, P; Spelten, E; Smith, L; Barton, J; Folkard, S

1995-02-01

198

Calling Time: Managing Activities in Space and Time in the Evening\\/Night-time Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen the emergence of two policy objectives and associated development trends in UK city centres relating to urban vitality and to the urban renaissance policy agenda. These involve a shift towards more city centre residential development and, associated with the 24-Hour City agenda, a shift towards the development of evening\\/night-time economies (ENTEs). Mixed land uses are seen

Steven Tiesdell; Anne-Michelle Slater

2006-01-01

199

Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the nurses' sleep health project.  

PubMed

Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on a sample of shiftworking nurses. Responses were obtained from 1202 nurses working at university hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, including 727 two-shift workers and 315 three-shift workers. The questionnaire included items relevant to age, gender, family structure, work environment, health-related quality of life (QOL), diurnal type, depressive symptoms, and SWD. Participants who reported insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness for at least 1 mo that was subjectively relevant to their shiftwork schedules were categorized as having SWD. The prevalence of SWD in the sampled shiftworking nurses was 24.4%; shiftworking nurses with SWD showed lower health-related QOL and more severe depressive symptoms, with greater rates of both actual accidents/errors and near misses, than those without SWD. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that more time spent working at night, frequent missing of nap opportunities during night work, and having an eveningness-oriented chronotype were significantly associated with SWD. The present study indicated that SWD might be associated with reduced health-related QOL and decreased work performance in shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. The results also suggested that missing napping opportunities during night work, long nighttime working hours, and the delay of circadian rhythms are associated with the occurrence of SWD among shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. PMID:23445510

Asaoka, Shoichi; Aritake, Sayaka; Komada, Yoko; Ozaki, Akiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Inoue, Yuichi

2013-05-01

200

Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®) Overview Key Points ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

201

Hot Flashes, Night Sweats and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Hot Flashes, Night Sweats and Menopause HealthDay February 18, ... years old at the start and reported frequent hot flashes and night sweats. The participants were followed ...

202

The Night Sky in the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to satellite monitoring of artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility. Materials include a discussion of the study, which involves measurements of light pollution obtained from the Defense Metereological Satellite Program (DMSP) of the United States Air Force, and a collection of maps showing night sky brightness for the entire world, several regions and countries; artificial and total night sky brightness; stellar visibility, number of visible stars; and maps of the night sky in selected cities.

203

Adaptable night camouflage by cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night. PMID:17427123

Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy

2007-04-01

204

Older workers.  

PubMed

As the population ages, there is increasing attention to the occupational health of older workers and the relationship between work and aging. There are both positive and negative factors that characterize differences between older and younger workers. Some of these are well documented, but many are based on stereotypes about competence, knowledge, and work capacity. Workers meet the demands of work through the use of a combination of resources, including physical, mental, and social capacities as well as motivation and experience. While older workers do have decreased physical capacities and somewhat slower mental processing, motivation and expertise can provide important balance. Factors that make advancing age into a handicap are mostly related to working conditions that impose constraints that outstrip actual human capabilities and work organization that denies employees growth in their jobs. PMID:10378975

Wegman, D H

1999-01-01

205

Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate of the effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems. Although several studies have examined the effects of compressing work schedules by comparing 8 and 12 hour shift systems, there is little published research examining the various forms of 12 hour shift system. METHODS: An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of > 24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. For the purposes of the analysis, each of these two groups were further subdivided into those who started their morning shift at 0600 and those who started at 0700. RESULTS: Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, along with longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. These effects of changeover time were broadly in agreement with previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. It is conceded that the design of the study may have obscured some subtle differences between the shift systems. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the impact of distribution of rest days seems to be minor relative to previously found effects of other features of shift systems--for example, shift duration.   PMID:10448331

Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

1999-01-01

206

Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night  

PubMed Central

Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

2014-01-01

207

A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended. PMID:24754917

2014-01-01

208

Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801

Simuni?, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

2012-06-01

209

Who is too old for shift work? Developing better criteria.  

PubMed

Demographic and social trends in industrialized countries are expected to lead to increasing numbers of older shift workers, raising concerns about possible health and safety risks. For older night workers, the International Labour Organization has recommended options for transferring to day work or early retirement, but few States have adopted these measures. For commercial air transport pilots, the International Civil Aviation Organization has implemented a series of regulatory measures that could manage the risks associated with aging, including a mandatory retirement age, regular medical assessments for fitness to fly, and limits on the duration of duty and rest. Each of these approaches has strengths and weaknesses. The mandatory retirement age is effectively arbitrary, has been controversial, and was recently increased from 60 to 65 yrs for one member of a two-person cockpit crew. Medical assessments offer a more individualized approach, but to improve safety, they must address aspects of health and physical or mental function that affect work performance and safety outcomes. The traditional focus has been on cardiovascular risk factors, although cardiac incapacitation is not a cause of accidents in a two-person cockpit aircraft. On the other hand, while pilot fatigue is an acknowledged cause of accidents, there is currently no requirement to consider issues associated with fatigue or sleep problems in fitness-to-fly medical assessments. Older long-haul pilots show greater sleep fragmentation than their younger colleagues and those in the general population. Sleep becomes more fragmented with increasing age, but the functional significance of this remains unclear. Among younger adults, experimental sleep fragmentation leads to increased sleepiness and degradation of performance and mood. Greater sleep loss is reported by older long-haul pilots, as well as other older shift workers, compared to younger people working similar duty patterns. Experimental sleep restriction causes a degradation of performance and mood that is cumulative and dose-dependent. In addition, a recent large-scale flight simulation study indicates that the duration of sleep obtained by individual pilots is an independent predictor of crew performance in a two-person cockpit. Based on these considerations, we propose that fatigue and sleep-related issues should become a standard part of fitness-for-work medical assessments, particularly for older shift workers. A multi-layered approach is proposed, with a routine structured sleep history leading to referral to specialist sleep services where appropriate. Criteria for specialist referral and medical retirement should be related to the workplace risk represented by an older worker. Additional research is needed to develop and validate sleep-related criteria for assessing fitness for work. For example, a better understanding of the effects of sleep fragmentation on the waking function of older workers might lead to a fragmentation threshold for fitness for work. The potential negative effects of unemployment and early retirement also need to be taken into account when considering the options for managing the occupational health and safety needs of older shift workers. PMID:18484361

Gander, Philippa; Signal, Leigh

2008-04-01

210

The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.  

PubMed

The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the detection of non-added value work. It is essential to evaluate the various domains of worker-work environment interface to uncover the root causes that tend to sub-optimise the physical/cognitive/emotional health of the workforce. The WCIF was used to uncover the non-value added effort in the work process. These findings will have major implications for developing and implementing customised design interventions with the aim to maximise the benefit and reduce the cost of employees in a manufacturing enterprise. The study findings suggest that the WCIF should be pursued as a potential strategic tool for optimising human performance in an enterprise to create healthy workplaces. PMID:18608471

Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

2008-08-01

211

Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings  

SciTech Connect

In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

2009-10-15

212

Antitank missiles night firing from Aerospatiale helicopters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A day/night firing system for HOT antitank missiles was developed and mounted on a HAC/PAH2 helicopter, equipped with a suitably adapted sight. Night fighting requirements for a helicopter that is armed with antitank missiles are recalled. The selection of a sensor is discussed. The design of a platform in order to fulfill the observation and firing mission is described. Night antitank action is analyzed. Characteristics of a thermal imager which solves the identified problems of night firing are given.

Dewinter, G.

213

Simplified Night Sky Display System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

Castellano, Timothy P.

2010-01-01

214

Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2014-01-01

215

A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives Investigating the potential pathways linking shift work and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), this study aimed to identify whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of CVD risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary-level, acute care teaching hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Participants Female hospital employees working a shift schedule of two 12?h days, two 12?h nights, followed by 5?days off (n=121) were compared with female day-only workers (n=150). Primary and secondary outcome measures Each of the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was measured. Of these, PSQI global score, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were examined as potential mediators in the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Results Shift work status was associated with poor (>5) PSQI global score (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.65), poor (?2) sleep latency (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.87) and poor (?2) sleep efficiency (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.84). Although shift work was associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.70), the measured components of sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Women working in a rapid forward rotating shift pattern have poorer sleep quality according to self-reported indicators of the validated PSQI and they have a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with women who work during the day only. However, sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that there are other psychophysiological pathways linking shift work to increased risk for CVD. PMID:25757950

Aronson, K J; Day, A; Tranmer, J

2015-01-01

216

Nabokov's Ada and The 1001 Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of 1001 Nights on Vladimir Nabokov's Ada is explored. Although the narrator's evocation of the erotic and magical ambiance of the Nights reveals his intention to display himself as the Shahrazad of his memoir, his promiscuous behavior and violent conduct recall his congruity with Shahriyar. Moreover, Van and Ada's narcissistic love makes them morally blind to their half-sister,

Seyed Gholamreza Shafiee-Sabet; Farideh Pourgiv

2012-01-01

217

How to Do a Poetry Night Hike.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the experiences of two different night hikes by junior high students in central Ohio which focused on writing a group poem and exploring the mysteries of the "unlit" world. Discusses imagery and features excerpts from "night" poetry, both that written by the students and readings from published poets. (PA)

Hermsen, Terry

1997-01-01

218

Using biological motion to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the conspicuity of road workers at night can be enhanced by distributing retroreflective strips across the body to present a pattern of biological motion (biomotion). Twenty visually normal drivers (mean age = 40.3 years) participated in an experiment conducted at two open-road work sites (one suburban and one freeway) at night-time. At each site, four road workers walked in place wearing a standard road worker night vest either (a) alone, (b) with additional retroreflective strips on thighs, (c) with additional retroreflective strips on ankles and knees, or (d) with additional retroreflective strips on eight moveable joints (full biomotion). Participants, seated in stationary vehicles at three different distances (80 m, 160 m, 240 m), rated the relative conspicuity of the four road workers. Road worker conspicuity was maximized by the full biomotion configuration at all distances and at both sites. The addition of ankle and knee markings also provided significant benefits relative to the standard vest alone. The effects of clothing configuration were more evident at the freeway site and at shorter distances. Overall, the full biomotion configuration was ranked to be most conspicuous and the vest least conspicuous. These data provide the first evidence that biomotion effectively enhances conspicuity of road workers at open-road work sites. PMID:21376898

Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Chaparro, Alex; Britt, Thomas W

2011-05-01

219

Progress in color night vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2012-01-01

220

Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

2012-01-01

221

Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes  

PubMed Central

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate <0.20). Expression is greater at night in ?70%. These findings were supported by the results of radiochemical in situ hybridization histology and quantitative real time-PCR studies. We also found that the regulatory mechanism controlling the night/day changes in the expression of most genes involves norepinephrine-cyclic AMP signaling. Comparison of the pineal gene expression profile with that in other tissues identified 334 genes (496 probe sets) that are expressed greater than 8-fold higher in the pineal gland relative to other tissues. Of these genes, 17% are expressed at similar levels in the retina, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Functional categorization of the highly expressed and/or night/day differentially expressed genes identified clusters that are markers of specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, melatonin synthesis, photodetection, thyroid hormone signaling, and diverse aspects of cellular signaling and cell biology. These studies produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of the 24-h dynamics of the pineal gland from one focused on melatonin synthesis to one including many cellular processes. PMID:19103603

Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Klein, David C.

2009-01-01

222

Does neonatal pain management in intensive care units differ between night and day? An observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether analgesic use for painful procedures performed in neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs during nights and days and during each of the 6?h period of the day. Design Conducted as part of the prospective observational Epidemiology of Painful Procedures in Neonates study which was designed to collect in real time and around-the-clock bedside data on all painful or stressful procedures. Setting 13 NICUs and paediatric intensive care units in the Paris Region, France. Participants All 430 neonates admitted to the participating units during a 6-week period between September 2005 and January 2006. Data collection During the first 14?days of admission, data were collected on all painful procedures and analgesic therapy. The five most frequent procedures representing 38?012 of all 42?413 (90%) painful procedures were analysed. Intervention Observational study. Main outcome assessment We compared the use of specific analgesic for procedures performed during each of the 6?h period of a day: morning (7:00 to 12:59), afternoon, early night and late night and during daytime (morning+afternoon) and night-time (early night+late night). Results 7724 of 38?012 (20.3%) painful procedures were carried out with a specific analgesic treatment. For morning, afternoon, early night and late night, respectively, the use of analgesic was 25.8%, 18.9%, 18.3% and 18%. The relative reduction of analgesia was 18.3%, p<0.01, between daytime and night-time and 28.8%, p<0.001, between morning and the rest of the day. Parental presence, nurses on 8?h shifts and written protocols for analgesia were associated with a decrease in this difference. Conclusions The substantial differences in the use of analgesics around-the-clock may be questioned on quality of care grounds. PMID:24556241

Guedj, Romain; Danan, Claude; Daoud, Patrick; Zupan, Véronique; Renolleau, Sylvain; Zana, Elodie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Lapillonne, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Granier, Michèle; Durand, Philippe; Castela, Florence; Coursol, Anne; Hubert, Philippe; Cimerman, Patricia; Anand, K J S; Khoshnood, Babak; Carbajal, Ricardo

2014-01-01

223

Shifting Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

Ingram, Jenni

2014-01-01

224

Comparison of eight and 12 hour shifts: impacts on health, wellbeing, and alertness during the shift.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the duration of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health, wellbeing, and alertness during the shift of extending the shift from the traditional eight hours to 12. METHODS: Two groups of chemical workers, one working 12 hour shifts and the other working eight hour shifts, took part. All completed a modified version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ on most outcome measures, although the differences that did exist suggested advantages for the 12 hour shift workers over the eight hour shift workers; with the notable exception of rated alertness at certain times of day. CONCLUSIONS: The results are explained in terms of the design of the 12 hour shift system and the specific sequencing of shifts that seem to minimise the potential for the build up of fatigue. Although the current data moderately favour 12 hour shifts, a cautionary note is sounded with regard to the implications of the alertness ratings for performance and safety. PMID:9038802

Tucker, P; Barton, J; Folkard, S

1996-01-01

225

Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.  

PubMed

Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936

Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

2010-12-01

226

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system and beyond. From the Galilean moons of Jupiter, to the farthest reaches of our galaxy, space science intrigued learners of all ages and was the perfect theme for this family night event. Here the authors share their "stellar" experience, and include a detailed description of the activities from the Astronomy Night sessions.

Donna Governor

2007-11-01

227

Stick shift  

E-print Network

Stick Shift is a novel that has undergone several rounds of significant revision. Scott, the book's main character, is a sarcastic American who travels to England to move in with an ex-girlfriend. He experiences all of the ...

Parness, Aaron J. (Aaron Joseph), 1981-

2004-01-01

228

Is Transcriptomic Regulation of Berry Development More Important at Night than During the Day?  

PubMed Central

Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T.; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

2014-01-01

229

Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

230

Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, an

Joan Sullivan

2011-01-01

231

Protecting Temporary Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... en español Protecting Temporary Workers 10/23/2014 Illinois: Temporary worker killed in fall from third floor ... killed in fall from rooftop. 12/7/2013 Illinois: Temporary worker died after forklift he was operating ...

232

The Morning after the Night Before  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benefits to females of short-term mating have recently been identified, and it has been suggested that women have evolved\\u000a adaptations for this strategy. One piece of evidence supporting such a female adaptation would be that women find the experience\\u000a of a one-night stand as affectively positive as men. Individuals (N?=?1,743) who had experienced a one-night stand were asked to rate

Anne Campbell

2008-01-01

233

Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to

Zhaojun Wang; Lingli Yi; Fusheng Gao

2009-01-01

234

Nature's Late-Night Light Shows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

Peterson, Carolyn Collins

2002-09-01

235

Differences in medical error risk among nurses working two- and three-shift systems at teaching hospitals: a six-month prospective study.  

PubMed

Shift work, including night work, has been regarded as a risk factor for medical safety. However, few studies have investigated the difference in medical error risk between two- and three-shift systems. A total of 1,506 registered nurses working shifts at teaching hospitals participated in this study to evaluate the difference in medical error risk between two- and three-shift systems. After adjustment for potential confounding factors using a log Poisson generalized estimating equation model, the results showed significantly higher frequencies of perceived adverse events over 6 months in the three-shift than in the two-shift system, with estimated mean numbers of adverse events of 1.05 and 0.74, respectively. Shorter intervals after night shifts and greater frequency of night shifts in three-shift systems, which reduce the recovery time from night shift work, may be linked to increased medical errors by nurses. PMID:20562512

Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Hiro, Hisanori; Kakinuma, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Mika; Kamata, Naoki; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

2010-01-01

236

[Effect of shift work on blood pressure].  

PubMed

The widespread adoption of 24-hour continuous operations in a number of industries has resulted in an increase in the size of the population engaged in shift work. The health effects of shift work have been studied comprehensively. For ischemic heart disease, the reported relative risk of shift workers has ranged from 1.3 to 2.0. In terms of blood pressure, shift work has been clarified to be a significant risk factor for the onset of hypertension and increased blood pressure. Potential mechanisms of these health effects have been associated with disturbed circadian rhythms, sleep and lifestyle problems, increased stress and biochemical changes. Efficient health screening and support to control unhealthy lifestyle factors would be of considerable benefit for maintaining the health of shift workers. PMID:25167759

Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro

2014-08-01

237

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described, including novel hardware and countermeasures.

Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

2015-01-01

238

Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

2006-01-01

239

Management of Knowledge Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how complementarities and intellectual property rights affect the management of knowledge workers. The main results relay when a firm will wish to sue workers that leave with innovative ideas, and the effects of complementary assets on wages and on worker initiative. We argue that firms strongly protected by property rights may not sue leaving workers in order to

Hans K. Hvide; Eirik Gaard Kristiansen

2007-01-01

240

Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird  

PubMed Central

Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

2010-01-01

241

Recovery From Work Shifts: How Long Does It Take?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although regulations on work hours usually include a minimum weekly rest period, there is little empirical evidence concerning recovery from work. Shift-working nurses (N = 61) used a handheld computer for 28 days to complete self-ratings, cognitive-performance tasks, and a sleep diary. Many measures were worse on rest days that followed a night shift rather than a day shift and

Peter Totterdell; Evelien Spelten; Lawrence Smith; Jane Barton; Simon Folkard

1995-01-01

242

Solar power for the lunar night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1989-01-01

243

Choice Reaction Time in Workers Exposed to Styrene Vapour  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Behavioural effects of occupational exposure to vapour from styrene-based resin were investigated in 10 female workers with a portable test of choice reaction time. Testing was carried out both at the beginning and end of the day's shift.2 Uptake and metabolism of styrene were assessed by monitoring post-shift urinary mandelic acid excretion rates. By using these data workers were

C. J. Mackay; G. R. Kelman

1986-01-01

244

A New Nightly Build System for LHCb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

2014-06-01

245

Light at Night - The Latest Science  

SciTech Connect

Discussions about possible health implications of exposure to light at night run the gamut, but given the available research, should any changes be made to currently recommended lighting practices? A panel of leading experts was assembled to explore what today's science can tell us about light at night. While it remains unproven that typical exposures to outdoor lighting have negative health impacts, this cannot be ruled out without more data and a standard metric for quantifying the relevant light exposures. LED technology holds tremendous potential for energy savings, but it is not yet clear whether its spectral characteristics will offer advantages over other light sources in terms of vision and circadian entrainment.

Tuenge, Jason R.

2010-10-04

246

75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...workers of HAVI Logistics, North America...La Salle Network, Bloomingdale...supply of food distribution services...that HAVI Logistics, North America...shift of food distribution services...workers of HAVI Logistics, North America...La Salle Network,...

2010-12-07

247

Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

2014-01-01

248

Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

2009-07-01

249

Cellular Phone Use While Driving at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has

Jonathon M. Vivoda; David W. Eby; Renée M. St. Louis; Lidia P. Kostyniuk

2008-01-01

250

Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

251

Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

2007-01-01

252

Radiation cooling of buildings at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooling of small buildings at night by radiation loss to the sky has been investigated by monitoring the thermal performance of two huts: one roofed with galvanised steel decking painted white, which acts as a [`]black body' for wavelengths greater than 3 [mu]m; the other with aluminium decking to which aluminised [`]Tedlar' sheet had been glued, the [`]Tedlar' acting

D. Michell; K. L. Biggs

1979-01-01

253

‘One night’ sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus can be up- or downregulated in response to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Among these, dysregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, in animal models of depression, a variety of antidepressant treatments reverse that condition by increasing neurogenesis. As one night sleep deprivation is known

Gigliola Grassi Zucconi; Sabrina Cipriani; Ioanna Balgkouranidou; Roberto Scattoni

2006-01-01

254

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE  

E-print Network

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $3,299 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY MAY 9, 2013 PAPEETE · MOOREA · RAIATEA · BORA BORA NUKU HIVA · HIVA OA · RANGIROA · PAPEETE 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE to paradise. Cruise the balmy South Seas and discover some of the finest and most scenic Polynesian jewels

Raina, Ramesh

255

SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE  

E-print Network

SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $6,499 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JUNE 20, 2013 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE $3,000 BONUS SAVINGS PER STATEROOM FEBRUARY 21­ MARCH 11, 2014 ALUMNI AND FRIENDS, Journey down under as you cruise through a world of exotic wildlife, geological

Shapiro, Benjamin

256

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE  

E-print Network

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $3,299 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY MAY 9, 2013 PAPEETE · MOOREA · RAIATEA · BORA BORA NUKU HIVA · HIVA OA · RANGIROA · PAPEETE 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE-clear turquoise waters. Welcome to paradise. Cruise the balmy South Seas and discover some of the finest and most

Shapiro, Benjamin

257

SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE  

E-print Network

SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $6,499 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JUNE 20, 2013 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE $3,000 BONUS SAVINGS PER STATEROOM FEBRUARY 21­ MARCH 11, 2014 cruise through a world of exotic wildlife, geological wonders, historic cities and rugged beauty

Liu, Taosheng

258

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE  

E-print Network

TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $3,299 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JULY 17, 2013 PAPEETE · MOOREA · RAIATEA · BORA BORA NUKU HIVA · HIVA OA · RANGIROA · PAPEETE 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE waters. Welcome to paradise. Cruise the balmy South Seas and discover some of the finest and most scenic

Liu, Taosheng

259

Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

2011-01-01

260

Family Math Night: Math Standards in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why should your school have a Family Math Night?: (1) Help students learn essential math concepts; (2) Give parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence; and (3) Promote math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry…

Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

2005-01-01

261

The Political Content of Late Night Comedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2000 national election season, there was unprecedented attention paid by the media, and by presidential campaigns, to the political content of late night comedy shows such as the Tonight Show with Jay Leno and the Late Show with David Letterman. Focusing on the more than thirteen thousand jokes about U.S. political figures from 1996 to 2000 on late

David Niven; S. Robert Lichter; Daniel Amundson

2003-01-01

262

Bazaars of the Thousand and One Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

A re-reading of the Thousand and One Nights in light of economic thought is attempted here. These stories characterize a bazaar economy as the dark side of medieval economics. The process-view of the bazaar is discussed in relation to Smith, Walras and the Austrian School. The tacit notions of 'market price' and 'natural price' are touched upon. Auctions are then

Eyup Ozveren

2007-01-01

263

The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

Berkowitz, Monroe

1975-01-01

264

Reproductive health services for populations at high risk of HIV: Performance of a night clinic in Tete province, Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different models exist to provide HIV\\/STI services for most-at-risk populations (MARP). Along the Tete traffic corridor in Mozambique, linking Malawi and Zimbabwe, a night clinic opening between 4 and 10 PM was established targeting female sex workers (FSW) and long-distance truck drivers (LDD). The clinic offers free individual education and counselling, condoms, STI care, HIV testing, contraceptive services and

Yves Lafort; Diederike Geelhoed; Luisa Cumba; Carla das Dores Mosse Lázaro; Wim Delva; Marleen Temmerman

2010-01-01

265

The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

Note: this THEMIS infrared image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in colla

2003-01-01

266

Heat Stress Resources for Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... hot environments such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and ... Fire Line During a Wildland Fire in California Construction Laborer Dies from Heat Stroke at End of ...

267

Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn’t find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group. Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers’ respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job. PMID:25664289

Salmani Nodoushan, Mojahede; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Rahimian, Masoud; Ghove Nodoushan, Mohamad ali; Jafari Nodoushan, Reza

2014-01-01

268

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-print Network

A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01

269

Cormorants dive through the Polar night  

PubMed Central

Most seabirds are visual hunters and are thus strongly affected by light levels. Dependence on vision should be problematic for species wintering at high latitudes, as they face very low light levels for extended periods during the Polar night. We examined the foraging rhythms of male great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) wintering north of the Polar circle in West Greenland, conducting the first year-round recordings of the diving activity in a seabird wintering at high latitudes. Dive depth data revealed that birds dived every day during the Arctic winter and did not adjust their foraging rhythms to varying day length. Therefore, a significant proportion of the dive bouts were conducted in the dark (less than 1?lux) during the Polar night. Our study underlines the stunning adaptability of great cormorants and raises questions about the capacity of diving birds to use non-visual cues to target fish. PMID:17148235

Grémillet, David; Kuntz, Grégoire; Gilbert, Caroline; Woakes, Antony J; Butler, Patrick J; le Maho, Yvon

2005-01-01

270

Low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of Phalaenopsis to acclimate its photosynthetic capacity and metabolic activity to cool night temperature conditions is crucial for improving\\u000a orchid production in terms of efficient greenhouse heating. The extent to which Phalaenopsis possesses acclimation potential and the mechanistic background of the metabolic processes involved, have, however, not been\\u000a studied before. Plants were subjected to a direct and gradual

Bruno Pollet; Lynn Vanhaecke; Pieter Dambre; Peter Lootens; Kathy Steppe

2011-01-01

271

Moonbase night power by laser illumination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1992-01-01

272

Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twice each year, millions of night-migratory songbirds migrate thousands of kilometers. To find their way, they must process and integrate spatiotemporal information from a variety of cues including the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we discovered that night-migratory songbirds possess a tight cluster of brain regions highly active only during night vision.

Henrik Mouritsen; Gesa Feenders; Miriam Liedvogel; Kazuhiro Wada; Erich D. Jarvis

2005-01-01

273

2010 National Observe the Moon Night!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

2010-05-01

274

Day and Night, Sunrise and Sunset  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students progressively add to their Earth-Moon-Sun (EMS) model as they employ it to account for more complex phenomena. They begin building an EMS model by determining what bodies interact to cause day and night. They then elaborate on the model and determine how it relates to sunrise and sunset. Students use props such as globes and light sources to represent the Earth and Sun while they demonstrate how the Earth's rotation results in day/night and sunrise/sunset phenomena. They will complete a Phenomena/Objects/Motions (POM) chart in reference to day and night. They will include the phenomena observed, the objects and motions involved, a written explanation, and a diagram of their model. They will do the same in reference to the sun rising in the east and setting in the west. The site includes links to instructional notes for the teacher, student activities instructions and worksheets, student work examples, ideas for assessment, and other resources.

Wisconsin Center for Education Research, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison

275

"Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

Bueter, Chuck

2008-05-01

276

Agomelatine efficacy in the night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (-5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

2013-01-01

277

How much wrapping do babies need at night?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C

R E Wigfield; P J Fleming; Y E Azaz; T E Howell; D E Jacobs; P S Nadin; R McCabe; A J Stewart

1993-01-01

278

Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.  

PubMed

No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

Siegal, Mark L

2015-02-01

279

Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms  

PubMed Central

No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

Siegal, Mark L.

2015-01-01

280

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored.  

PubMed

Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

Nkonki, Lungiswa; Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-12-01

281

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals’ policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-01-01

282

Isotope Shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three parameter formula (3P) for isotope shifts r^2(n)= n C +n)n-1)/2A+[n/2]B is related to he staggering parameter G= 2 [r^2(n+1)-r^2(n)]/[r^(n+2)-r^2(n)] If A+B=0 then G=1 (no staggering). If A=0 there is no n dependence to the staggering.One can get G to almost be plus or minus infinity for certain n,but this does not necessarily mean that there are major changes in the nuclear structure. We consider Potassium and Argon isotopes. We also consider quadrupole and monopole core polarization with a delta interaction. We vary the oscillator length parameter of the valence particle but keep the core values fixed. We find for both modes the amount of core polarization decreases as we increase the radius of the valence particle relative to that of the core (for small deviations from the case where the core and valence length parameters are the same).

Zamick, Larry

2010-11-01

283

POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th  

E-print Network

POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th 2006 1 #12;POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses, we ought always to talk and not to sleep at mid-day...! #12;POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses, the most handsome among the immortal gods, dissolver of flesh, who overcomes the reason and purpose

284

CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light  

E-print Network

and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to helpCIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing 1 CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light-time Light Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2008 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York

Columbia University

285

Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

2012-01-01

286

Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

2002-01-01

287

SYDONI: An intensified system for night observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An onboard observation device for small satellites is proposed. Called SYDONI, it uses image intensification techniques. Advantages of the night imagery, photometric magnitudes, intensifier characteristics parameters and performance, and signal to noise ratio are discussed. Possible applications are listed. A meteorological mission is selected as a qualification mission; it uses microsatellites and allows demonstration of intensified observation interest and possible use in space. Performances required for the instruments, the camera, the attitude control, and the signal processing as well as platform characteristics are discussed. Possible improvements concern higher signal to noise ratio, larger observation field and higher resolution, improved attitude control, and higher shooting frequency; possible solutions are outlined.

Colmon, A.; Tissot, M.; Turon, P.

1993-01-01

288

Using ``Earth at Night" images in education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Earth at Night" is a mosaic image of the nighttime earth using data from the weather satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Original data are chosen to be cloud-free and near new moon in order best to reveal city and highway lights, fires (manmade and natural), gas flares in oil fields, and fishing boats using lights. The resultant mosaic illustrates many of the resource and environmental issues that affect our planet, including of course light pollution. This talk will be illustrated with the latest of these data, and relate my experiences in using these images for education, both within the classroom and for the general public.

Sullivan, W. T.

2001-12-01

289

Health of workers exposed to electric fields.  

PubMed Central

The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

1985-01-01

290

Impact of Shift Work and Race\\/Ethnicity on the Diurnal Rhythm of Blood Pressure and Catecholamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—To evaluate the effects of shift work,and race\\/ethnicity on the diurnal rhythm of blood pressure and urinary catecholamine excretion of healthy female nurses, 37 African American women and 62 women of other races underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitor and urine collection for 24 hours that included a full work shift: day shift (n 561), evening shift (n511), and night shift

Fumiyasu Yamasaki; Joseph E. Schwartz; Linda M. Gerber; Katherine Warren; Thomas G. Pickering

2010-01-01

291

Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

2013-01-01

292

Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology.  

PubMed

Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

2013-04-01

293

Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

2003-01-01

294

Advanced worker protection system  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

295

Symptoms and Pulmonary Function in Western Red Cedar Workers Related to Duration of Employment and Dust Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of total dust concentration were made in a western red cedar sawmill that employed 701 workers. Both area sampling and personal sampling of total dust were done over an 8-hr shift corresponding to job descriptions and locations to assign each worker an exposure level. A total of 652 (93%) of the workers completed a respiratory-occupational questionnaire and performed spirometry,

Sverre Vedal; Moira Chan-Yeung; Donald Enarson; Tharwat Fera; Lonia MacLean; Kam S. Tse; Ronald Langille

1986-01-01

296

Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

1995-01-01

297

Migrant Farm Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

298

Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

299

Workers self-pacing in hot conditions: a case study.  

PubMed

It is not always possible in hot environments, to determine safe work-rest regimens based upon heat stress criteria. Is it then a good health policy to rely upon the self-pacing of the workers? To address this question, we observed the spontaneous work-rest cycles of seven masonry workers allocated to the maintenance of a float-glass furnace and the workers' heart rate and rectal temperature were continuously monitored. Results showed that the regimens adopted by the workers were poorly related to physiological parameters. The duration of each heat exposure was significantly related to the worker aerobic capacity, but not to the heart rate level reached at the end of the working period. Due to self-pacing of the task, heart rates and rectal temperatures remained within acceptable limits for all workers but one, even though these workers were rather old and had a rather low physical capacity. These favourable results may be ascribed to a spontaneous limitation of the effective working time to about 25% of the shift duration and to the fact that subjects worked, in pairs alternately, to perform the task. It is concluded that self-regulation of the work-rest cycles can be an effective means to protect the workers exposed to hot conditions from an excessive physiological strain, providing that the task has no urgent character and does not involve productivity incentives, and that the workers are well trained to their job. PMID:15676536

Mairiaux, P; Malchaire, J

1985-06-01

300

Mortality of flax workers.  

PubMed Central

A total of 2528 workers in flax mills in Northern Ireland were followed up for 16 years. Follow-up was 97% complete. Deaths were identified and date and cause ascertained. Expected deaths were calculated on the basis of age and sex specific rates for Northern Ireland. Both male and female workers had fewer deaths than expected, and mortality showed no clear relationship with type of work. There was a small excess in the mortality of the workers who had had byssinosis at the time of the original survey, but there was no evidence that the more severe grades of byssinosis were associated with higher mortality than the less severe grades. Workers who smoke are known to have an increased risk of developing byssinosis, and cigarette smoking may be responsible for most of the excess deaths in the workers with byssinosis. PMID:7066216

Elwood, P C; Thomas, H F; Sweetnam, P M; Elwood, J H

1982-01-01

301

Night-time continence care in Australian residential aged care facilities: Findings from a Grounded theory study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Continence care commonly disrupts sleep in residential aged care facilities, however, little is known about what staff do when providing continence care, and the factors that inform their practice. Aims: To describe nurses' and personal care workers' beliefs and experiences of providing continence care at night in residential aged care facilities. Methods/design: Eighteen nurses and personal care workers were interviewed about continence care, and 24 hours of observations were conducted at night in two facilities. Results/Findings: Most residents were checked overnight. This practice was underpinned by staffs' concern that residents were intractably incontinent and at risk of pressure injuries. Staff believed pads protected and dignified residents. Decisions were also influenced by beliefs about limited staff-to-resident ratios. Conclusion: Night-time continence care should be audited to ensure decisions are based on residents' preferences, skin health, sleep/wake status, ability to move in bed, and the frequency, severity and type of residents' actual incontinence. PMID:25178401

Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

2014-09-01

302

[Optimizing visual work of pilot wearing night vision glasses].  

PubMed

The article deals with results of experimental studies on optimizing visual work conditions of pilot in night vision glasses. Prevention of visual fatigue during work in night vision glasses was proved to be contributed mostly by the image brightness (in range of 0.7-1.8 candle/m2) adjustable by the pilot, precise individual settings of optic system in night vision glasses (by viewer's eye base) and regulation of the work duration. PMID:21770334

Davydov, V V; Golosov, S Iu; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Riabinin, V A

2011-01-01

303

Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

2010-01-01

304

Protein Adaptive Plasticity and Night Vision  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized network criticality (SONC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently exponentially unlikely phenomena. Adaptive plasticity is a term which has become much more specific as a result of recent physiological and genetic studies. Here we show that the molecular properties of rhodopsin, the transmembrane protein associated with night vision, can be quantified species by species using the Moret-Zebende hydropathicity scale based on SONC. The results show that long-range adaptive plasticity optimizes proximate species molecular functionality far more effectively than one would infer using only standard amino acid sequence (local similarity) tools such as BLAST for multiple alignments. These results should be universal, and they suggest new paths for analyzing and predicting protein functionality from amino acid sequences alone.

J. C. Phillips

2011-01-14

305

Workplace bullying among healthcare workers.  

PubMed

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-08-01

306

Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

2013-01-01

307

Occupational Disease and Workers’ Compensation: Coverage, Costs, and Consequences  

PubMed Central

Most of the costs of occupational disease are not covered by workers’ compensation. First, the authors estimated the deaths and costs for all occupational disease in 1999, using epidemiological studies. Among the greatest contributors were job-related cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and circulatory disease. Second, the authors estimated the number of workers’ compensation cases, costs, and deaths for 1999, using data from up to 16 states representing all regions of the country. Unlike the epidemiological studies that emphasized fatal diseases, the workers’ compensation estimates emphasized nonfatal diseases and conditions like tendonitis and hernia. Comparisons of the epidemiological and workers’ compensation estimates suggest that in 1999, workers’ compensation missed roughly 46,000 to 93,000 deaths and $8 billion to $23 billion in medical costs. These deaths and costs represented substantial cost shifting from workers’ compensation systems to individual workers, their families, private medical insurance, and taxpayers (through Medicare and Medicaid). Designing policies to reduce the cost shifting and its associated inefficiency will be challenging. PMID:15595947

Leigh, J Paul; Robbins, John A

2004-01-01

308

Invited commentary: Shift work and cancer.  

PubMed

In this issue of the Journal, Parent et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(9):751-759) report significant associations between night-shift work and risk of cancer at several sites among men. These findings not only address the need for shift-work studies that evaluate cancers other than breast and prostate cancer but also support the increasing concern that the negative effects of shift work may be broadly applicable to risk of many cancers via the direct oncostatic properties of melatonin. Studies of shift work have been limited by a lack of detailed data for determining which aspects of this multifaceted exposure may be associated with increased cancer risk. Additionally, the influence of individual-level characteristics, such as preference for daytime activity versus nighttime activity or chronotype, has not been considered. In moving forward, launching new cohort studies of shift work and cancer risk is the most tenable approach, though it will be limited by the years of follow-up required in order to accrue adequate numbers of cancer cases. Studies incorporating biomarkers of effect are useful for providing immediate information that can aid not only in identifying the underlying mechanisms of the shift-work-cancer association but also in interpreting existing epidemiologic data and informing the design of future epidemiologic studies of cancer risk. PMID:23035018

Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott

2012-11-01

309

Arithmetic shift operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Verilog-1995 provides two simple shift operators: The >> token represents a bitwise shift-right operation. The << token represents\\u000a a bitwise shift-left operation. Both shift operators will shift the bits in the first operand the number of times indicated\\u000a by the value in the second operand. The bits which are vacated by the shift are always zero filled.

Stuart Sutherland

310

Night Shift: Expansion of Temporal Niche Use Following Reductions in Predator Density  

PubMed Central

Predation shapes many fundamental aspects of ecology. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether predators can influence patterns of temporal niche construction at ecologically relevant timescales. Partitioning of time is an important mechanism by which prey avoid interactions with predators. However, the traits that control a prey organism's capacity to operate during a particular portion of the diel cycle are diverse and complex. Thus, diel prey niches are often assumed to be relatively unlikely to respond to changes in predation risk at short timescales. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We report results that suggest that the anthropogenic depletion of daytime active predators (species that are either diurnal or cathemeral) in a coral reef ecosystem is associated with rapid temporal niche expansions in a multi-species assemblage of nocturnal prey fishes. Diurnal comparisons of nocturnal prey fish abundance in predator rich and predator depleted reefs at two atolls revealed that nocturnal fish were approximately six (biomass) and eight (density) times more common during the day on predator depleted reefs. Amongst these, the prey species that likely were the most specialized for nocturnal living, and thus the most vulnerable to predation (i.e. those with greatest eye size to body length ratio), showed the strongest diurnal increases at sites where daytime active predators were rare. While we were unable to determine whether these observed increases in diurnal abundance by nocturnal prey were the result of a numerical or behavioral response, either effect could be ecologically significant. These results raise the possibility that predation may play an important role in regulating the partitioning of time by prey and that anthropogenic depletions of predators may be capable of causing rapid changes to key properties of temporal community architecture. PMID:22719970

Micheli, Fiorenza

2012-01-01

311

Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night.  

PubMed

This review article discusses recent work on the melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and integration of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and the consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LAN). The antiproliferative effects of the circadian melatonin signal are mediated through a major mechanism involving the activation of MT(1) melatonin receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. In estrogen receptor (ER?+) human breast cancer cells, melatonin suppresses both ER? mRNA expression and estrogen-induced transcriptional activity of the ER? via MT(1) -induced activation of G(?i2) signaling and reduction of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of additional members of the steroid hormone/nuclear receptor super-family, enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, expression/activation of telomerase, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. The anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions of melatonin involve the blockade of p38 phosphorylation and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of human breast cancer xenografts via another critical pathway involving MT(1) -mediated suppression of cAMP leading to blockade of linoleic acid uptake and its metabolism to the mitogenic signaling molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). Down-regulation of 13-HODE reduces the activation of growth factor pathways supporting cell proliferation and survival. Experimental evidence in rats and humans indicating that LAN-induced circadian disruption of the nocturnal melatonin signal activates human breast cancer growth, metabolism, and signaling provides the strongest mechanistic support, thus far, for population and ecological studies demonstrating elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LAN. PMID:21605163

Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Duplessis, Tamika; Mao, Lulu; Dauchy, Erin; Sauer, Leonard A

2011-10-01

312

The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences.  

PubMed

Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result. PMID:17803517

Navara, Kristen J; Nelson, Randy J

2007-10-01

313

Contents of day and night dreams of emotionally disturbed adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Content analysis of “night,” “day,” and “repetitive” day dreams of three groups of adolescents has been attempted for the purpose of (a) empirical data collection, (b) classification, (c) achievement of quantitative measures useful for dream studies, and (d) correlation studies. There seem to be significant differences between the contents of day and night dreams in the patient and control

Ebrahim Amanat

1974-01-01

314

Thermal mass and night ventilation as passive cooling design strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculated the influence of thermal mass and night ventilation on the maximum indoor temperature in summer. The results for different locations in the hot humid climate of Israel are presented and analyzed. The maximum indoor temperature depends linearly on the temperature difference between day and night at the site. The fit can be applied as a tool to predict

Edna Shaviv; Abraham Yezioro; Isaac G Capeluto

2001-01-01

315

Night-time transpiration can decrease hydraulic redistribution.  

PubMed

C(3) plants dominate many landscapes and are critically important for ecosystem water cycling. At night, plant water losses can include transpiration (E(night)) from the canopy and hydraulic redistribution (HR) from roots. We tested whether E(night) limits the magnitude of HR in a greenhouse study using Artemisia tridentata, Helianthus anomalus and Quercus laevis. Plants were grown with their roots split between two compartments. HR was initiated by briefly withholding all water, followed by watering only one rooting compartment. Under study conditions, all species showed substantial E(night) and HR (highest minus lowest soil water potential [Psi(s)] during a specified diel period). Suppressing E(night) by canopy bagging increased HR during the nightly bagging period (HR(N)) for A. tridentata and H. anomalus by 73 and 33% respectively, but did not affect HR(N) by Q. laevis. Total daily HR (HR(T)) was positively correlated with the Psi(s) gradient between the rooting compartments, which was correlated with light and/or atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPDa) the prior day. For A. tridentata, HR(T) was negatively correlated with night-time VPDa. Ecological implications of the impact of E(night) on HR may include decreased plant productivity during dry seasons, altered ecosystem water flux patterns and reduced nutrient cycling in drying soils. PMID:19422615

Howard, Ava R; van Iersel, Marc W; Richards, James H; Donovan, Lisa A

2009-08-01

316

Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

317

Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

Exceptional Parent, 2006

2006-01-01

318

Circadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome  

E-print Network

this fact. *Weight and Eating Disorder Program, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep MedicineCircadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome John P. O'Reardon,* Brenda L, NICOLE S. MARTINO, ALBERT J. STUNKARD. Circadian eating and sleeping patterns in the night eating

Pennsylvania, University of

319

Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

2007-01-01

320

Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) processing and viewing tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has developed software tools for processing, viewing, and analyzing hyperspectral data. The tools were specifically developed for use with the U.S. Army's NVESD Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS), but they can also be used to process hyperspectral data in a variety of other formats. The first of these tools is

Christopher G. Simi; Roberta Dixon; Michael J. Schlangen; Edwin M. Winter; Christopher LaSota

2001-01-01

321

Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

2009-01-01

322

A Night Handline Fishery for Tunas in Hawaii  

E-print Network

A Night Handline Fishery for Tunas in Hawaii HEENY S. H. YUEN Introduction Modern commercial and gear. In contrast, the rapidly growing night handline fishery for tunas near the island of Hawaii. The fishery for tunas by this method in Hila, Hawaii, experienced a rapid growth when high prices on the fresh

323

Sensing your Social Net at Night Martin Pielot, Niels Henze  

E-print Network

interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): User Interfaces, Haptic I/O INTRODUCTION City fests, music festivals the visual appeal and no clumsy computer equipment should affect the user's appearance, since nightly events. We started collecting data about the behavior of people attending nightly events that will be used

Boll, Susanne

324

Walmart Workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcript of the comments given by Anita Chan on September 29, 2008 at a discussion on Walmart workers sponsored by the ILRF and the National Labor College. Ms. Chan is a scholar at the Australian National University.

Anita Chan

2008-01-01

325

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... assessment Risk management Worker safety program Related information Risk Assessment The first step in the process of EPA’s pesticide product registration is the development of a risk assessment based on the proposed product uses. Pesticide producers ...

326

Workers, Wages, and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how plant-level wages, occupational mix, workforce education, and productivity vary with the adoption and use of new factory automation technologies, such as programmable controllers, computer-automated design, and numerically controlled machines. The authors' cross-sectional results show that plants that use a large number of new technologies employ more educated workers; employ relatively more managers, professionals, and precision-craft workers;

Mark Doms; Timothy Dunne; Kenneth R. Troske

1997-01-01

327

Stress and sleep in nurses employed in "3?×?8" and "2?×?12" fast rotating shift schedules.  

PubMed

We compared two "3?×?8" shift rotas with backward rotation and quick return (morning and night shift in the same day) in a 5- or 6-day shift cycle, and a "2?×?12" shift rota with forward rotation in a 5-d shift cycle. A total of 294 nurses (72.6% women, mean age 33.8) were examined in a survey on work-related stress, including the Standard Shiftwork Index. Ten nurses per each shift roster recorded their activity and rest periods by actigraphy, rated sleepiness and sleep quality, and collected salivary cortisol throughout the whole shift cycle. Nurses engaged in the "2?×?12" rota showed lower levels of sleep disturbances and, according to actigraphy, sleep duration was more balanced and less fragmented than in the "3?×?8" rosters. The counter-clockwise shift rotation and quick return of "3?×?8" schedules reduce possibility of sleep and recovery. The insertion of a morning shift before the day with quick return increases night sleep by about 1?h. Nurses who take a nap during the night shift require 40% less sleep in the morning after. The "2?×?12" clockwise roster, in spite of 50% increased length of shift, allows a better recovery and more satisfying leisure times, thanks to longer intervals between work periods. Sleepiness increased more during the night than day shifts in all rosters, but without significant difference between 8-h and 12-h rosters. However, the significantly higher level at the start of the night shift in the "3?×?8" rotas points out that the fast backward rotation with quick return puts the subjects in less efficient operational conditions. Some personal characteristics, such as morningness, lability to overcome drowsiness, flexibility of sleeping habits and age were significantly associated to sleep disturbances in nurses engaged in the "3?×?8" rotas, but not in the "2?×?12" schedule. PMID:25216205

Costa, Giovanni; Anelli, Matteo M; Castellini, Giovanna; Fustinoni, Silvia; Neri, Luca

2014-12-01

328

Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

2003-09-01

329

Spatial navigation using night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While anecdotal reports suggest that Night Vision Goggles influence spatial navigation and wayfinding (Braithwaite, Douglass, Durnford, and Lucas, 1998), few studies have systematically characterized the nature of these effects. To address this issue, the current study examined the impact of NVGs on navigation and wayfinding performance. One group of participants were required to navigate a walking maze and retrieve target objects while wearing NVGs (experimental condition), while a second control group navigated the maze without NVGs. We measured several performance metrics of navigation and wayfinding. Our results show that navigation and wayfinding with NVGs (experimental group) appeared to be harder, with longer navigation durations and more navigational errors compared to not using NVGs (control group). However, a significant decrease in navigation duration over the course of the wayfinding trials occurred earlier with NVGs, in addition to significant decreases in navigational steps compared to the control group. These results support the notion that NVGs directly affect spatial navigation and wayfinding performance. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning and NVG training programs. Further research is necessary to expand our understanding of the impact of NVGs on spatial cognition.

Gauthier, Michelle; Parush, Avi; Macuda, Todd; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

2006-05-01

330

Big Bangs in the Night Sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big bang theory of the universe holds that we exist amidst the remnants of a single huge explosion about 15 billion years ago. Absent acceleration, the recession velocity v between any two remnants (galaxies) is proportional to the present distance. This is the Hubble law, v=Hr, where H≈ 65 km\\/sec\\/megaparsec. For small velocities, one can use the red shift,

Russell L. Collins

2002-01-01

331

Occupational exposure to asbestos and mortality among asbestos removal workers: a Poisson regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping\\/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping\\/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient

G Frost; A-H Harding; A Darnton; D McElvenny; D Morgan

2008-01-01

332

Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood  

PubMed Central

This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night shifts, as opposed to day shifts, was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms. For mothers only, working rotating shifts predicted relationship conflict. Increases in role overload were positively related to both depression and conflict; working a nonday shift explained variance in depression and conflict above and beyond role overload. Results suggest that for new parents, working nonday shifts may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms and relationship conflict. PMID:20216932

Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

2010-01-01

333

Gear shift control mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

Janson, D.A.

1987-03-10

334

BAD: undertaker by night, candyman by day.  

PubMed

The BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins are upstream sensors of cellular damage that selectively respond to specific, proximal death and survival signals. Genetic models and biochemical studies indicate that these molecules are latent killers until activated through transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms in a tissue-restricted and signal-specific manner. The large number of BH3-only proteins, their unique subcellular localization, protein-interaction network and diverse modes of activation suggest specialization of their damage-sensing function, ensuring that the core apoptotic machinery is poised to receive input from a wide range of cellular stress signals. The apoptotic response initiated by the activation of BH3-only proteins ultimately culminates in allosteric activation of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK, the gateway proteins to the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. From activation of BH3-only proteins to oligomerization of BAX and BAK and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, an intricate network of interactions between the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family orchestrates the decision to undergo apoptosis. Beyond regulation of apoptosis, multiple BCL-2 proteins have recently emerged as active components of select homeostatic pathways carrying other cellular functions. This review focuses on BAD, which was the first BH3-only protein linked to proximal survival signals through phosphorylation by survival kinases. In addition to findings that delineated the physiological role of BAD in apoptosis and its dynamic regulation by phosphorylation, studies pointing to new roles for this protein in other physiological pathways, such as glucose metabolism, are highlighted. By executing its 'day' and 'night' jobs in metabolism and apoptosis, respectively, BAD helps coordinate mitochondrial fuel metabolism and the apoptotic machinery. PMID:19641507

Danial, N N

2008-12-01

335

Death, Grief, and the Home Health Worker: A Systems Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the burden of long-term care shifts from nursing homes to home-based care, home health workers are increasingly likely to serve an older clientele susceptible to chronic disease and death. A significant occupational stressor in such cases is a lack of knowledge about what constitutes professionally appropriate interaction with dying patients and their families. Utilizing social systems theory and findings

Stan C. Weeber

2005-01-01

336

Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

2009-05-01

337

Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be featured (www.darksky.org/int-l-dark-sky-week-main) and The World at Night will co-host the sixth annual International Earth and Sky Photo Contest (www.TWANight.org/contest).The poster will provide further updates.

Walker, Constance E.

2015-01-01

338

Analysis of Seven Years of Globe at Night Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Globe at Night (GaN) project website contains seven years of night-sky brightness data contributed by citizen scientists. We perform a statistical analysis of naked-eye limiting magnitudes (NELMs) and find that over the period from 2006 to 2012 global averages of NELMs have remained essentially constant. Observations in which participants reported both NELM and Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements are compared to a theoretical expression relating night sky surface brightness and NELM: the overall agreement between observed and predicted NELM values based on the reported SQM measurements supports the reliability of GaN data.

Birriel, J. J.; Walker, C. E.; Thornsberry, C. R.

2014-05-01

339

What Makes Day and Night? The Earth's Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about day and night as a result of the Earth's rotation. Learners will first identify what they already know about day, night, and rotation and will be asked to share any questions they may have. Then, a book is read out loud in class and students are asked to identify relevant and important vocabulary words. On day two of this activity, learners will act as the Earth in creating a kinesthetic model of the day and night rotation. Lastly, learners will identify what was learned and complete a worksheet. This is Activity 5 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

340

Shift Work and Circadian Dysregulation of Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans), the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work) or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep-wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift work-induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization. PMID:23966978

Gamble, Karen L.; Resuehr, David; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

2013-01-01

341

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

342

MSFC Catches Geminids In The Night Sky - Duration: 15 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

This video shows meteors captured by a wide-field camera at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the night of December 12. There are 141 events; at least 77 of these are Geminids, based on thei...

343

Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.  

PubMed

During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dark at ?0?lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dim light at ?5?lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

2014-11-28

344

Effects of street traffic noise in the night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.

Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.

1980-01-01

345

Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night - Duration: 82 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

346

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, unravels the riddle of the dark night sky, known as Olbers' Paradox. It walks students through the history of various proposed solutions from 1610 to the present.

347

Night Pass over Malaysia - Duration: 0:06.  

NASA Video Gallery

This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

348

Effects on Sleep-Related Problems and Self-Reported Health After a Change of Shift Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study prospectively examined the effects of a change of shift schedule from a fast forward-rotating schedule to a slowly backward-rotating one. The initial schedule had a forward rotation from mornings to afternoons to nights over 6 consecutive days, with 2 days on each shift followed by 4 days off before the next iteration of the cycle, whereas the new

Björn Karlson; Frida Eek; Palle Ørbæk; Kai Österberg

2009-01-01

349

Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the American Museum of Natural History provides a description of Olbersâ?? Paradox which poses the question of why the sky is dark at night. The site presents an explanation for why a bright night sky would be expected but is not present and also describes the development of the paradox. Implications about the age of the Universe and its expansion are included.

Soter, Steven

350

Monitoring of workers exposed to a mixture of toluene, styrene and methanol vapours by means of diffusive air sampling, blood analysis and urinalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exposure of 34 male workers to combined toluene, styrene and methanol was monitored by personal diffusive sampling of solvent vapours in breathing zone air, analysis of shift-end blood for the 3 solvents and analysis of shift-end urine for hippuric, mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids and methanol. The exposure of most of the workers was below current occupational exposure limits. Regression

Toshio Kawai; Tomojiro Yasugi; Kazunori Mizunuma; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Ikuharu Morioka; Kazuhisa Miyashita; Yoko Uchida; Masayuki Ikeda

1992-01-01

351

What makes wild chimpanzees wake up at night?  

PubMed

I examined the possible cause of night awakening among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Chimpanzee vocalizations and activity-related sounds (CVSs) were used to indicate awakening because I was unable to visually observe them. Over a 5-night observation period, CVSs (n = 128) were heard every night, and most (n = 91) were observed within 5 min of previous CVSs. Chimpanzees use CVSs as social communication to maintain spatial contact with other chimpanzees who occasionally travel at night. The first sound in a sequence of CVSs (CVS bout) was heard immediately following the vocalization or sound of another animal (n = 11), defecation or urination by a chimpanzee (n = 7), or unknown (n = 19). CVS bouts were longer when preceded by defecation or urination than when preceded by the vocalization or sound of other animals or an unknown factor. This suggests that the degree of wakefulness varies according to the possible cause of the disturbance. CVSs at night may be provoked by various factors, and awakening during the night is probably common among diurnal primates. PMID:23817693

Zamma, Koichiro

2014-01-01

352

Training ‘expendable’ workers: temporary foreign workers in nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007–2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines. However, the Association of RNs required them

Alison Taylor; Jason Foster; Carolina Cambre

2012-01-01

353

Workers not maids – organising household workers in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic service continues to be one of the principal means for poor women and girls to earn a living. Yet, household workers do not have the same legal protection and employment rights enjoyed by other workers. This article examines changes in the sector in Mexico over the past 20 years. During this time, organisations supporting household workers have struggled to

Marilyn Thomson

2009-01-01

354

Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

2012-01-01

355

Liability for Student Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines liability issues for academic libraries=FE student workers. Discussion includes staff training; hiring practices; supervision; negligence; emergency procedures; the use of reasonable care; and knowledge of library rules. Specific nonlibrary liability cases are cited as examples of the importance of employee screening, training, and danger…

Tryon, Jonathan S.

1994-01-01

356

Leukemia in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort.

Robert A. Rinsky; Ronald J. Young; Alexander B. Smith

1981-01-01

357

Worker-Directed Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

Wagner, Stacey

2001-01-01

358

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

359

Dislocated Worker Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

1988

360

Food Service Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

Barker, Ellen; And Others

361

Talent Report: What Workers  

E-print Network

such as salary, job security, health benefits, having interesting work to do, job autonomy and responsibility of corporate social responsibility exists in the country as a whole among college- educated workers -- those description of each age cohort follows. 1 We are grateful to Edelman for their support with media outreach. 2

362

The Tree Worker's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

Smithyman, S. J.

363

Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers On this Page Published Recommendations State Immunization ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

364

How To Train Older Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

365

The Future of Older Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains seven chapters on work and older workers based on an international symposium held at the University of South Florida in 1989. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Corporate Sector's Stake in Older Workers" (Daniel Knowles); (2) "A Seller's Market for Older Workers" (Audrey Freedman); (3) "Retirees' Reentry into…

Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

366

Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do Russians work without wages? This paper investigates the extent to which job satisfaction and attitude toward work in general may account for the observed behavior of Russian workers. To analyze the level and determinants of job satisfaction among Russian workers, this paper utilizes survey data collected from 1,200 workers and managers employed in seventy-six organizations in Moscow, Saratov

Susan J. Linz

2002-01-01

367

Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

Nisbet, Michael K.

1999-01-01

368

Medical Surveillance for Former Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public

Tim Takaro; Jordan Firestone

2009-01-01

369

Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers February 2001 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... workers' bodies workers' earnings growers' profits Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers [PDF - 1,521 KB] Print ...

370

Examining Fatigue and Insomnia Symptoms Among Workers of a Gas Transmission Industry in 2013  

PubMed Central

Background: Fatigue, which interferes with one’s physical and mental operation, resulting in strength reduction and weakness, is considered one of the most important issues in the workplace. In addition, it can cause diseases, occupational accidents, and a reduction in an individual’s efficiency. The aforementioned effects can be aggravated by fatigue in shift workers who experience sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to investigate fatigue and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) among workers of a gas transmission industry in 2013. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted among 300 workers of the aforementioned industry and required data was collected via the face-to-face survey method and questionnaires. Data analysis was done with the following techniques: Mann-Whitney, variance analysis test, independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s correlation test, and chi square test. Results: The highest fatigue scores among fixed-dayshift and rotating-shift workers were 6 and 7, respectively, and the fatigue level for both groups was 4. The average of all symptoms associated with fatigue and the total score on the Insomnia Severity Index in rotating-shift workers were higher than for dayshift workers and there was a significant difference between them (P=0.001). Lack of concentration, exhaustion, and fatigue during work were the most common symptoms of fatigue among the aforementioned shift workers in this evaluation. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the level of fatigue and severity of insomnia among workers of this gas transmission industry is very high. Since this can lead to occupational accidents and efficiency reduction, it is necessary to provide workers with opportunities such as short breaks during working hours, rest and exercise during work, paying adequate attention to the workers’ human needs, and improving work systems.

Moradifar, Razmik; Hoveidi, Hassan; Givehchi, Saeed; Talebi, Faranak

2014-01-01

371

[The relationship between fatigue and the specific features of a flight shift of civil aviation flight crew].  

PubMed

The paper considers the development of fatigue in civil pilots in relation to the specific features of a flight shift, the duration of a flight, the size of a crew size, and the number of night flight hours. The flight lasting 28 consecutive days negatively affects the pilot's working capacity, with flight hours exceeding 90 hours, due to accumulated fatigue. At the stages "before landing" and "after landing", the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders depends on the duration of a flight shift, peaking with the flights lasting more than 10-13 working hours. Inclusion of additional crewmen during flight shifts of more than 12 hours results in a reduction in the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders. Night air departure and arrival are most unfavorable according to the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders, i.e. the length of night time during flights, they are followed by a night air departure and daylight air arrival; a daylight air departure and night arrival rank third. Flights with daylight departure and daylight arrival are least of all exhausting. A night air arrival is characterized by the greatest degrees of integral fatigue at the stages "before landing" and "after landing", these are little associated with the duration of a flight shift. The existing provision, that such flights may be made thrice in succession, carries a risk for chronic fatigue. It is proposed to permit not more two flight shifts in succession during night air arrival. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the factor of possible fatigue development on developing the regulation of flight shifts. PMID:20373715

Rodionov, O N

2010-01-01

372

12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity  

SciTech Connect

Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication.

Gould, S. (Production Training Center, Commonwealth Edison Co. (US))

1989-01-01

373

Dark or Short Nights: Differential Latitudinal Constraints in Nestling Provisioning Patterns of a Nocturnally Hunting Bird Species  

PubMed Central

In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50°N; Finland 63°N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1±0.1; FIN: 6.6±0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5±0.3; FIN: 3.9±0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of ?11° to ?15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from ?17° in April to ?14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from ?11° in April to ?1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations. PMID:22615850

Zárybnická, Markéta; Korpimäki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael

2012-01-01

374

Shift worked, quality of sleep, and elevated body mass index in pediatric nurses.  

PubMed

Using the Neuman Systems Model framework, the relationship between shift worked, quality of sleep, and body mass index (BMI) was explored in nurses working at least 8 hours per shift on units providing 24-hour care at a Magnet recognized, Midwestern free-standing pediatric hospital. Electronic surveys collected demographic data and the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI) measured sleep quality. Sleep quality was not significantly correlated to elevated BMI >30. Night shift participants' reported fairly bad to very bad sleep quality scores at higher rates than day shift participants. Study findings will inform nurses and organizations concerned with maintaining a healthy workforce. PMID:23545126

Huth, Jennifer J; Eliades, Aris; Handwork, Colleen; Englehart, Jennifer L; Messenger, Jennifer

2013-01-01

375

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

2010-01-01

376

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating syndrome in other populations; therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study

Sharon H. Thompson; Rita DiGioacchino DeBate

2009-01-01

377

Optimizing Fishing Time: One vs. Two-Night Fyke Net Sets in Great Lakes Coastal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic surveys of fish assemblages captured using fyke nets typically use a soak time of one night. We questioned whether enough information was gained from maintaining the nets for a second night to justify both the additional effort and the resulting reduction in sites sampled per field season. We compared fyke net catches from one-night and two-night sets at Great

Valerie J. Brady; Jan J. H. Ciborowski; Lucinda B. Johnson; Nickolas P. Danz; Jeff D. Holland; Dan H. Breneman; Joseph P. Gathman

2007-01-01

378

A NEW LOOK AT THE BARBER'S ASTROLABE IN THE ARABIAN NIGHTS  

E-print Network

: W.H. Macnaghten (ed.), Alif laila or book of the Thousand nights and one night. The original Arabic. 3 M. Mahdi, The Thousand and one nights (Alf layla wa-layla) from the earliest known sources. ArabicA NEW LOOK AT THE BARBER'S ASTROLABE IN THE ARABIAN NIGHTS Jan P. Hogendijk Introduction In one

Hogendijk, Jan P.

379

Nasal antibodies against gram-negative bacteria in cotton-mill workers.  

PubMed

Antibody activity to cotton dust bacteria in the nasal secretions of cotton-mill cardroom workers was studied using the ELISA technique. Secretion samples were collected by inserting a roll of filter paper into the nasal cavities of the subjects. The amount of secretion was significantly less among cotton-mill workers than workers in a wood factory. No significant differences were seen between byssinotic and nonbyssinotic cotton-mill workers. No significant differences were observed between cotton and wood workers regarding antibody activity against Pseudomonas syringae and Enterobacter agglomerans. Workers tested before and after the shift showed no difference in amount of secretion or in antibody activity. Smokers had a lower antibody activity than nonsmokers. PMID:7141716

Rylander, R; Wold, A; Haglind, P

1982-01-01

380

New device for monitoring the colors of the night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

Spoelstra, Henk

2014-05-01

381

Shift work, health, the working time regulations and health assessments.  

PubMed

Shift work and night work in particular have been associated with sleep difficulties, general malaise, fatigue, peptic ulceration, ischaemic heart disease, cigarette smoking and adverse pregnancy outcome. The medical conditions previously regarded as making individuals unsuitable for shift work show wide ranging patho-physiological activity and there is no published evidence for any such condition to be regarded an absolute reason to exclude an individual from shift work. The fulfilment of the legal obligations of the Working Time Regulations 1998 is neither prescribed nor constrained in any way. It is advisable therefore to build on existing health procedures where they are in effect. Periodic health questionnaires can offer health professionals an opportunity to detect any disorder likely to be aggravated by shift work or by a combination of shift work, job demands and workplace conditions. A further purpose of the questionnaire is the assessment of ability to undertake shift work duties. However, health questionnaires are neither sensitive nor specific enough to be used to select applicants or employees for shift work, since they do not consistently predict tolerance of shift work or subsequent health problems. Whether employers should offer anything more than a simple questionnaire will depend on the culture of the company and accessibility of health services. Screening programmes affect many people relative to the few who benefit and with existing knowledge, periodic general health examinations performed in asymptomatic subjects have limited predictive or preventive value. PMID:10451593

Nicholson, P J; D'Auria, D A

1999-04-01

382

Work-Related Pain and Injury and Barriers to Workers’ Compensation Among Las Vegas Hotel Room Cleaners  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence of work-related pain and injury and explored barriers to and experiences of reporting among workers. Methods. We surveyed 941 unionized hotel room cleaners about work-related pain, injury, disability, and reporting. Results. During the past 12 months, 75% of workers in our study experienced work-related pain, and 31% reported it to management; 20% filed claims for workers’ compensation as a result of work-related injury, and 35% of their claims were denied. Barriers to reporting injury included “It would be too much trouble” (43%), “I was afraid” (26%), and “I didn’t know how” (18%). An estimated 69% of medical costs were shifted from employers to workers. Conclusions. The reasons for underreporting and the extent of claim denial warrant further investigation. Implications for worker health and the precise quantification of shifting costs to workers also should be addressed. PMID:15727981

Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner; Krause, Niklas

2005-01-01

383

Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed?Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

2013-08-01

384

The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above. Results: A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97–1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01–1.47) with a statistically significant dose–response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant. Conclusion: We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose–response relationships. PMID:24022188

Fritschi, L; Erren, T C; Glass, D C; Girschik, J; Thomson, A K; Saunders, C; Boyle, T; El-Zaemey, S; Rogers, P; Peters, S; Slevin, T; D'Orsogna, A; de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Heyworth, J S

2013-01-01

385

Microbial diversity and community respiration in freshwater sediments influenced by artificial light at night.  

PubMed

An increasing proportion of the Earth's surface is illuminated at night. In aquatic ecosystems, artificial light at night (ALAN) may influence microbial communities living in the sediments. These communities are highly diverse and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. We combined field and laboratory experiments using sediments from an agricultural drainage system to examine how ALAN affects communities and alters carbon mineralization. Two identical light infrastructures were installed parallel to a drainage ditch before the start of the experiment. DNA metabarcoding indicated that both sediment communities were similar. After one was lit for five months (July-December 2012) we observed an increase in photoautotroph abundance (diatoms, Cyanobacteria) in ALAN-exposed sediments. In laboratory incubations mimicking summer and winter (six weeks each), communities in sediments that were exposed to ALAN for 1 year (July 2012-June 2013) showed less overall seasonal change compared with ALAN-naive sediments. Nocturnal community respiration was reduced in ALAN-exposed sediments. In long-term exposed summer-sediments, we observed a shift from negative to positive net ecosystem production. Our results indicate ALAN may alter sediment microbial communities over time, with implications for ecosystem-level functions. It may thus have the potential to transform inland waters to nocturnal carbon sinks. PMID:25780242

Hölker, Franz; Wurzbacher, Christian; Weißenborn, Carsten; Monaghan, Michael T; Holzhauer, Stephanie I J; Premke, Katrin

2015-05-01

386

Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Affects Metabolism  

PubMed Central

With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. PMID:23929553

Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Meléndez-Fernández, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

2014-01-01

387

Work and Nonwork Experiences of Employees on Fixed and Rotating Shifts: An Empirical Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between shift time and use of leisure time, nonwork satisfaction, and mental and physical health among rank-and-file workers and nurses. Found employees working on fixed shift had higher job performance, motivation, and patients' care skill, and probably enjoyed better physical and emotional health. (Author/JAC)

Jamal, Muhammad; Jamal, Saleha M.

1982-01-01

388

Effects of shift work on QTc interval and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There is evidence that shift work contributes to excess cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of shift work on heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability (CVRR). Methods: The study population consisted of 153 male shiftworkers and 87 male day workers who were employed at a copper-smelting

Katsuyuki Murata; Eiji Yano; Hideki Hashimoto; Kanae Karita; Miwako Dakeishi

2005-01-01

389

Helmet-mounted display systems for night and day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helmet mounted displays are now widely accepted as an essential component of any head coupled night vision system and due to enter service on several rotary wing and fast jet aircraft. The technologies and human factors issues involved in the design and manufacture of HMDs are now reaching maturity. However the operational effectiveness of HMDs is greatly influenced by the design of the HMD system as a whole. This paper presents a discussion of HMD system design issues, covering the design of HMDs for both night and day applications, system architectures and helmet tracker subsystems. The paper then presents an overview of an HMD system which provides both night and day operational capability as part of a head coupled system.

Cameron, Alexander A.

1997-02-01

390

The Night Sky Monitoring Network in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Night Sky Monitoring Network is a project that aims to study the extent, distribution, and properties of the light pollution condition in the populous metropolis of Hong Kong. Continuous measurements of the Night Sky Brightness (NSB) at strategically chosen locations that cover a wide range of population density and land usage were made, with over 2.5 million NSB readings collected in 18 months up to June 2012. Results from the project are presented, with focus on the contrast between the urban and rural night sky profiles, and light pollution contributions from artificial lightings. This project is supported by the Environment and Conservation Fund of the Hong Kong SAR government (ECF 10/2009, ECF 1/2007).

Pun, Chun S. J.; So, Chu W.; Wong, Chung F. T.

2015-03-01

391

Modafinil for Excessive Sleepiness Associated with Shift-Work Sleep Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Patients with shift-work sleep disorder chronically have excessive sleepiness during night work and insomnia when attempting to sleep during the day. We evaluated the use of modafinil for treating sleepiness in patients with this disorder. methods In a three-month, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 209 patients with shift- work sleep disorder to receive either 200 mg of modafinil or

Charles A. Czeisler; James K. Walsh; Thomas Roth; Rod J Hughes; Kenneth P. Wright; Lilliam Kingsbury; Sanjay Arora; Jonathan R. L. Schwartz; Gwendolyn E. Niebler; David F. Dinges

2005-01-01

392

Does Early-Night REM Dream Content Reliably Reflect Presleep State of Mind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a small-scale study, Rados and Cartwright (1982) found that presleep thought samples, but not postsleep-elicited significant concerns, could be matched with a night’s REM dream content on a cross-participant basis. We collected either presleep thought samples or significant concerns for later blind judge matching with 8 participants’ mentation reports from the night’s first REM period over 8 nonconsecutive nights

Francine Roussy; Claude Camirand; David Foulkes; Joseph De Koninck; Maleah Loftis; Nancy H. Kerr

1996-01-01

393

Benzene in the blood and breath of normal people and occupationally exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

Benzene was measured in blood and alveolar air of 168 men, aged 20-58 years, subdivided into four groups: blood donors, hospital staff, chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene, and chemical workers not occupationally exposed to benzene. The group of exposed workers was employed in work places with a mean environmental exposure to benzene of 1.62 mg/M3 (8 hr TWA). Non-exposed workers were employed elsewhere in the same plant, with an environmental exposure to benzene lower than 0.1 mg/M3. Blood and alveolar air samples were collected in the morning, before the start of the work shift for the chemical workers. The group of exposed workers was found to be significantly different from the other three groups, both for blood and alveolar benzene concentrations. The mean blood benzene concentration was 789 ng/l in the exposed workers, 307 ng/l in the non-exposed workers, 332 ng/l in the hospital staff, and 196 ng/l in the blood donors. Apart from the exposed workers, blood benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The mean alveolar benzene concentration was 92 ng/l in the exposed workers, 42 ng/l in the non-exposed workers, 22 ng/l in the hospital staff, and 11 ng/l in the blood donors. Alveolar benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers in the groups of the hospital staff and non-exposed workers, but not in the blood donors and exposed workers. In the three groups without occupational exposure considered altogether, the alveolar benzene concentration correlated significantly with environmental benzene concentration measured at the moment of the individual examinations, both in the smokers and non-smokers. In the same three groups and in the exposed workers, alveolar benzene concentration showed a significant correlation with the blood benzene concentration.

Brugnone, F.; Perbellini, L.; Faccini, G.B.; Pasini, F.; Danzi, B.; Maranelli, G.; Romeo, L.; Gobbi, M.; Zedde, A. (Universita di Verona (Italy))

1989-01-01

394

Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

2012-01-01

395

Making Shifts toward Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

396

Shift work, cancer and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary intends to instigate discussions about upcoming epidemiologic research, and its interpretation, into putative links between shift work, involving circadian disruption or chronodisruption [CD], and the development of internal cancers. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened an expert group to examine the carcinogenicity of shift work, inter alia characterized by light exposures at unusual

Thomas C Erren

2010-01-01

397

Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets. PMID:19380369

Stevens, Richard G

2009-01-01

398

Shifting scintillator neutron detector  

DOEpatents

Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

2014-03-04

399

Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments  

PubMed Central

1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts. PMID:23335816

Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

2012-01-01

400

Do Rotational Shifts Affect Micturition Patterns in Real Practice? A Pilot Study in Healthy, Young Female Nurses  

PubMed Central

Purpose Healthy, young individuals are known to exhibit circadian variation in urinary functions. However, the effects of chronic circadian disturbance on voiding functions are largely unknown. The present work compared the effects of rotational shifts on the micturition patterns of female nurses to that in female nurses with routine daytime shifts. Methods A total of 19 nurses without lower urinary tract symptoms who worked rotational shifts for an average duration of 2 years were recruited. A voiding diary was kept for 9 consecutive days, and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire was completed three times, starting 3 days before their night duties until 3 days after completion of their night duties. For comparison, seven nurses with regular shifts completed a 3-day voiding diary and the OABSS questionnaire. Results Female nurses working rotational shifts had lower overall urine production and had decreased urination frequency and nocturia than female nurses working regular shifts, even when the nurses who worked rotational shifts had a regular night's sleep for at least 7 days. Upon reinitiation of night duty, overall urine production increased significantly, with no significant changes in urgency and frequency. When these nurses returned to daytime duty, the volume of urine decreased but nocturnal urine production remained high, and the incidence of nocturia also increased significantly. However, the effects on OABSS score were not significant under the study design used. Conclusions Long-term rotational shifts resulted in adaptive changes such as decreased urine production and frequency in healthy, young female nurses. In addition, their micturition patterns were significantly affected by abrupt changes in their work schedules. Although working in shifts did not increase urgency or frequency of urination in healthy, young female nurses working rotational shifts for an average 2 years, large-scale studies are needed to systematically analyze the influence of shift work timings on micturition in humans. PMID:25558418

Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, Chang Hee; Kwon, Boeun; Han, Deok Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Jin; Cho, Sehyung

2014-01-01

401

Effects on health of a change from a delaying to an advancing shift system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--Shift work can lead to a range of problems for some people that seem to result from the disturbance of the circadian system, and can broadly be classified as: disturbances of sleep, impaired physical and psychological health, and disturbed social and domestic life. The main attempt to try to reduce these problems has focused on the design of the shift system, and the identification of the most problematic features of the shift system. One such feature is believed to be the direction of shift rotation. Systems that advance are thought to be more problematic than those that delay. The present study examines the change in the direction of shift rotation from a delaying to an advancing system on health and wellbeing. METHODS--Self reported measures of tolerance to shift work were taken two months before and six months after the change. These included sleep difficulties, gastrointestinal problems, psychological ill health, chronic fatigue, social and domestic disruption, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with the shift system. RESULTS--The change from a delaying to an advancing system resulted in an increase in sleep difficulties between successive afternoon shifts, but a decrease in social disruption. There was little evidence of impaired health on the advancing compared with the delaying system. CONCLUSIONS--The increase in sleep difficulties was thought to result from the undesired adaptation of the circadian system to night work, as a result of the afternoon shifts now following a series of night shifts, whereas previously they followed a series of morning shifts. The decrease in social disruption was thought to result from the specific sequence of the shifts and the discontinuous nature of the shift system, in particular, the long week-end off every third week. Lack of reported health related differences are explained in terms of the relatively unharmful nature of the shift system in question, and the relatively short time span over which the study was conducted. PMID:7849852

Barton, J; Folkard, S; Smith, L; Poole, C J

1994-01-01

402

Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.  

PubMed

The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings. PMID:11109178

Sass, R

2000-01-01

403

Phase-shifting response to light in older adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract?Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (?8), 3 h before (?3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age. PMID:24144880

Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

2014-01-01

404

Radiological worker training  

SciTech Connect

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

NONE

1998-10-01

405

Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612

Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

2012-01-01

406

Workers 45+: Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that the median age of workers will rise from 34.8 years in 1982 to 37.3 years by 1995. In the 30 years between 1955 and 1985, the number of workers aged 45 and over has risen from 25 million to nearly 32 million. Workers over the age of 45 are established in all types of occupations. The number of men aged…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

407

Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

2007-01-01

408

UVM Night at Vermont Lake Monsters Baseball Game & Barbecue  

E-print Network

UVM Night at Vermont Lake Monsters Baseball Game & Barbecue Thursday, August 2, 2012 Name Waterman Bldg., Burlington, VT 05405 THE VERMONT LAKE MONSTERS (MLB affiliate = Oakland A's) VS. MAHONING.Council@uvm.edu See Page 2 for the Vermont Lake Monsters' Rain Policy. Refunds will not be issued by Staff Council

Hayden, Nancy J.

409

Gradient index optics for image-intensifier night vision system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of image intensifier night vision systems involves meeting the typical requirements of a high aperture and high-speed objective with high contrast at low frequencies throughout the image field. Use of conventional homogeneous lenses in such systems often gives rise to bulky structures in size and weight. In this paper, we describe the availability and use of gradient index (GRIN)

K. S. Krishna; R. C. Pande

1999-01-01

410

Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut,

Constance E. Walker; S. M. Pompea; D. Isbell

2009-01-01

411

2007 NCTE Presidential Address: Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the text of Joanne Yatvin's presidential address, delivered at the NCTE Annual Convention in New York City in November 2007. The title of her presidential address, "Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night," was taken from Matthew Arnold's (1867) poem "Dover Beach." Yatvin states that the federal government has usurped the right…

Yatvin, Joanne

2008-01-01

412

Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the

S. Henderson; K. Meymaris; D. Ward; C. Walker; R. Russell; S. Pompea; D. Salisbury

2006-01-01

413

Conference Adopts Conventions on Night Work and Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the International Labor Conference held in Geneva in June 1990, the following topics were discussed: the Director-General's report on the environment and the world of work; night work; safety in the use of chemicals; working conditions in hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments; and the promotion of self-employment. (JOW)

Labour Education, 1990

1990-01-01

414

Press Release Light Night 2013 -Circus of the Senses  

E-print Network

friends and family, as we shine a new light on the city with over 50 free art events and a spectacular night to remember. Leeds College of Art present an array of sculptural performance installations & storytelling. Explore our historic building at Vernon Street and take part in the Table Top Circus and Clown

Stell, John

415

Beyond Humor in Joel Chandler Harris's "Nights with Uncle Remus."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stories from "Nights with Uncle Remus" are examined for the messages beyond Harris's ostensible humor. The story plots are filled with degradations and stereotypes found in the slavery era. Whether authentic retold folk tales or "fakelore" constructed by Harris, the tales reveal information about Harris's audience, the White southerner. (SLD)

Nash, Evelyn

1990-01-01

416

The 1997 Reference of Diffuse Night Sky Brightness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the following we present material in tabular and graphical form, with the aim to allow the non specialist to obtain a realistic estimate of the diffuse night sky brightness over a wide range of wavelengths from the far UV longward of Ly to the far-infrared.

Leinert, C.; Bowyer, S.; Haikala, L. K.; Hanner, M. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Mann, I.; Mattila, K.; Reach, W. T.; Schlosser, W.; Staude, J. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Weinberg, J. L.; Witt, A. N.

1997-01-01

417

The History and Meaning of the Election Night Bonfire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines a practice commonly associated with American political elections in the nineteenth century—the building of large bonfires by gangs of young boys on the night of the vote—in order to make a larger point about the meaning that an election ritual communicates to a voting public. I argue that the ritual message that elections send to public is

Mark Brewin

2007-01-01

418

A Midsummer Night's Dream: Relating Ethics to Mutuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream shows ethical conflicts to be resolved relationally. Quarreling lovers divide Duke Theseus's Athenian court in advance of his own nuptial celebration, forcing the Duke to decide moral questions based on their ethical consequences. King Oberon's conflicted fairy world meddles in human affairs, adding to the ethical confusion. Athenian workmen vie for roles in a court

William M. Hawley

2010-01-01

419

Hosting a Family Literacy Night at Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea for a family literacy event resulted because teachers wanted more time to share reading strategies with parents, and parents wanted more information on how they could support and encourage their children with reading at home. With great success, Holy Cross School, Kemptville, Ontario, hosted a Family Literacy Night that coincided with the…

McGahey, Michelle

2005-01-01

420

Sugata Sanyal That night was washed in heavy rain.  

E-print Network

The Nail Sugata Sanyal That night was washed in heavy rain. I came out of my concrete wall, where I to feel the pain of a Nail. These flights through the rain soaked sky Gives me immense relief. I have seen loved him, very much. Allow me to get on with my flight. It is still raining heavily. #12;

Sanyal, Sugata

421

“When Golden Time Convents”: Twelfth Night and Shakespeare's Eastern Promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the British Museum's Shah Abbas exhibition quotations from Twelfth Night reassured visitors Shakespeare was as familiar with ‘the Sophy’ as with Elizabeth. One of four dedicated to empire and globalization, the show used Shakespeare's ‘universalism’ in the debate about ownership of cultural property, to illustrate director Neil MacGregor's idea of the museum as ‘the world under one roof’. But

Richard Wilson

2010-01-01

422

Roosting of passerines over open water at night  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night observations on the roosting of various species of birds on emergent vegetation over open water is presented. The following species were recorded: Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), Tree Swallow (Iridoproene bicolor), Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia), Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis), Purple Martin (Progne subis), red-winged black bird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Yellow-headed Black Bird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). (ACR)

1978-01-01

423

Polar Patterns: Day, Night, and Seasons - Issue 3, May 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue of the free online magazine, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears, highlights ways to teach about the extremes in day and night and seasons in the Arctic and Antarctica. The targeted literacy skill is cause/effect relationships. Art and poetry are integrated through a study of the aurora.

The Ohio State University

424

Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) calibration and configuration: recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS) system has participated in a large variety of hyperspectral data collections for the Department of Defense. A large number of improvements to this system have been undertaken. They include the implementation of a calibration process that utilizes in-flight calibration units (IFCU). Other improvements include the completion and implementation of an updated laboratory wavelength assignments

Christopher G. Simi; Anthony B. Hill; Henry Kling; Christopher LaSota; Jerome A. Zadnik; John Parish; Joe Deaver

2001-01-01

425

Naked-eye astronomy: optics of the starry night skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world at night offers a wealth of stimuli and opportunities as a resource for Optics education, at all age levels and from any (formal, non formal or informal) perspective. The starry sky and the urban nightscape provide a unique combination of pointlike sources with extremely different emission spectra and brightness levels on a generally darker, locally homogeneous background. This fact, combined with the particular characteristics of the human visual system under mesopic and scotopic conditions, provides a perfect setting for experiencing first-hand different optical phenomena of increasing levels of complexity: from the eye's point spread function to the luminance contrast threshold for source detection, from basic diffraction patterns to the intricate irradiance fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. Looking at the nightscape is also a perfect occasion to raise awareness on the increasing levels of light pollution associated to the misuse of public and private artificial light at night, to promote a sustainable use of lighting, and to take part in worldwide citizen science campaigns. Last but not least, night sky observing activities can be planned and developed following a very flexible schedule, allowing individual students to carry them out from home and sharing the results in the classroom as well as organizing social events and night star parties with the active engagement of families and groups of the local community. This contribution describes these possibilities and introduces some of the free resources available to put them in practice.

Bará, Salva

2014-07-01

426

Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

Brown, Alistair

2014-10-01

427

A Two-Layer Night-Time Vehicle Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-layer night time vehicle detector in this work. At the first layer, vehicle headlight detection is applied to find areas (bounding boxes) where the possible pairs of headlights locate in the image, the Haar feature based AdaBoost framework is then applied to detect the vehicle front. This approach has achieved a very promising performance for vehicle detection

Weihong Wang; Chunhua Shen; Jian Zhang; Sakrapee Paisitkriangkrai

2009-01-01

428

Performing A Thousand and One Nights in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the tales that make up the written corpus of A Thousand and One Nights were once orally recited. While their oral provenance is indisputable in many instances, the precise relationship between writing and orality, manuscripts and traditional spoken narrative is open to speculation. It is possible that certain tales thought to be written down or transcribed in manuscript

Susan Slyomovics

429

The Colour of the Moon by Day and by Night  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAN any of your readers give me a full explanation of the reason why the moon looks white by day and yellow by night? The light that proceeds from it is of course the same at both periods; whence does the change in appearance arise? Two reasons occur at first thought, but they do not completely satisfy the many requirements

F. G

1870-01-01

430

Legal protection of the night sky in Andalusia (Western Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Andalusia (Spain) houses several astronomical observatories, among them the main observational facility in continental Europe: Calar Alto Observatory. In recent years, the regional government of Andalusia has been setting up a regulation to protect the natural conditions of darkness at night all over the region. This regulation includes several outstanding features and poses specific rules to protect the influence area of Calar Alto Observatory.

Enríquez, David Galadí; Ranea-Palma, Ángela

2015-03-01

431

Observing Nitric Oxide in the Polar Night by Stellar Occultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now understood that NO plays a key role in the coupling of the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere (SMLT) via energetic particle precipitation. A significant body of evidence suggests that NO created by energetic particles is transported to the lower atmosphere during polar night, where it participates in catalytic ozone destruction. To date, measurements of the highly variable

J. D. Lumpe; S. Bailey; B. McClintock; C. Randall

2007-01-01

432

Cancer mortality in metal workers.  

PubMed Central

Age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated for 10 036 metal workers in British Columbia with the use of information on cause of death and occupation recorded in death registrations from 1950 to 1978. Metal workers were found to have a significantly increased risk of death from lung cancer (PMR = 134). In addition, certain occupational groups of metal workers were found, for the first time, to be at increased risk of death from other types of cancer; these included leukemia (PMR = 356) and cancer of the rectum (PMR = 248) in metal mill workers, Hodgkin's disease in welders (PMR = 242) and multiple myeloma in machinists (PMR = 209). PMID:6640455

Gallagher, R. P.; Threlfall, W. J.

1983-01-01

433

Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats