Sample records for night shift workers

  1. Effects of napping on sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits in night-shift workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S

    2014-04-01

    Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation. PMID:23411360

  2. Length polymorphism in the Period 3 gene is associated with sleepiness and maladaptive circadian phase in night-shift workers.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher L; Belcher, Ren; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Levin, Albert M; Gumenyuk, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine if night-shift workers carrying the five-repeat variant of the Period 3 gene show elevated levels of nocturnal sleepiness and earlier circadian phase compared with homozygotes for the four-repeat allele. Twenty-four permanent night-shift workers were randomly selected from a larger study. Participants took part in an observational laboratory protocol including an overnight multiple sleep latency test and half-hourly saliva collection for calculation of dim-light melatonin onset. Period 3(-/5) shift workers had significantly lower multiple sleep latency test during overnight work hours compared with Period 3(4/4) workers (3.52 ± 23.44 min versus 10.39 ± 6.41 min, P = 0.003). We observed no significant difference in sleepiness during early morning hours following acute sleep deprivation. Long-allele carriers indicated significantly higher sleepiness on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale administered at 17:00 hours (12.08 ± 2.55 versus 8.00 ± 1.94, P < 0.001). We observed a significantly earlier melatonin onset in Period 3(-/5) individuals compared with Period 3(4/4) shift workers (20:44 ± 6:37 versus 02:46 ± 4:58, P = 0.021). Regression analysis suggests that Period 3 genotype independently predicts sleepiness even after controlling for variations in circadian phase, but we were unable to link Period 3 to circadian phase when controlling for sleepiness. Period 3(-/5) shift workers showed both subjective and objective sleepiness in the pathological range, while their Period 3(4/4) counterparts showed sleepiness within normal limits. Period 3(-/5) night workers also show a mean circadian phase 6 h earlier (i.e. less adapted) than Period 3(4/4) workers. Because Period 3(-/5) workers have maladaptive circadian phase as well as pathological levels of sleepiness, they may be at greater risk for occupational and automotive accidents. We interpret these findings as a call for future research on the role of Period 3 in sleepiness and circadian phase, especially as they relate to night work. PMID:25545397

  3. [Diurnal blood pressure rhythms in night shift workers in terms of age and work experience: issues of adaptation].

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, A Z; Alpaev, D V; Gorokhov, V D

    2013-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) are studied in working persons within every hour of day and night by the means of multipoint measurements of BP in pre-shift period. The analysed cohort consists of 34 163 locomotive drivers (544 804 individual BP measurement points). Basing on these data the average diurnal BP profiles (DPBP) are plotted for different age and work experience groups. It is established that all DPBPs are of non-dipper type. This can be considered as a mechanism of adaptation being a compromise between work requirements and minimization of health hazard. This kind of adaptation develops approximately in one year period. PMID:24000723

  4. Night Shift Work, Sleep Quality, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between night shift work and sleep, to investigate the correlations with various biomarkers that show the influence of sleep on obesity, and ultimately, to analyze factors that have an impact on obesity. Methods: This study used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States II (MIDUS II study) and the MIDUS II Biomarker Project. After connecting the MIDUS II study data with the MIDUS II Biomarker Project data, we analyzed data from 883 subjects to investigate the relationship between night shift work and sleep quality. We also examined the correlations with biomarkers and sleep quality. Lastly, we performed logistic regression analyses to investigate factors that had an impact on obesity. Results: Sleep quality was found to be low among night shift workers. Sleep quality was positively correlated with HbA1c, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and inversely correlated with DHEA levels. Sleep quality was highly correlated with inflammatory markers and inversely correlated with antioxidant markers. Sleep quality was significantly associated with obesity (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.18). Biomarkers that had an influence on obesity included diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c and triglyceride levels, inflammatory markers, and antioxidant values. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality due to night shift work disturbs the circadian rhythm, causing negative changes in metabolic, inflammatory, neuroendocrine, and antioxidant biomarkers. These changes may eventually play a role in increasing the incidence of obesity.

  5. Night shift paralysis in air traffic control officers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMON FOLKARD; RUTH CONDON

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Folkard et al. 1984) we reported on the incidence of a temporary but incapacitating paralysis known as ‘night shift paralysis’. This appeared to be a special form of sleep paralysis that occurs when night workers manage to maintain a state of wakefulness despite considerable pressures to sleep. The incidence of this paralysis might thus be assumed

  6. Shift Workers: A Descriptive Analysis of Worker Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Carol

    National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Experience (NLS) data were used to describe those people who work outside the traditional 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. work day. Depending on the approximate time of day they worked, respondents were classified into four categories of workers: day, evening, night, and split shift (working hours interrupted by…

  7. Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ramin, Cody; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wang, Weike; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association of night shift work history and age when night shift work was performed with cancer and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 54 724 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II. Methods We calculated age-adjusted and socioeconomic status-adjusted means and percentages for cancer and cardiovascular risk factors in 2009 across categories of night shift work history. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for key risk factors among 54 724 participants (72% ever shift workers). We further examined these associations by age (20–25, 26–35, 36– 45 and 46+ years) at which shift work was performed. Results Ever night shift workers had increased odds of obesity (body mass index ?30 kg/m2; OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43); higher caffeine intake (?131 mg/day; OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) and total calorie intake (?1715 kcal/day; OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13); current smoking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.42); and shorter sleep durations (?7 h of sleep/day; OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) compared to never night shift workers. These estimates varied depending on age at which night work was performed, with a suggestion that night shift work before age 25 was associated with fewer risk factors compared to night shift work at older ages. Conclusions Our results indicate that night shift work may contribute to an adverse chronic disease risk profile, and that risk factors may vary depending on the age at which night shift work was performed. PMID:25261528

  8. Adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in shiftworkers on offshore oil installations during a 2-week 12-h night shift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G Barnes; S. J Deacon; M. J Forbes; J Arendt

    1998-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of most shiftworkers do not adapt to night shift. We have studied oil workers on a rotating system involving 2 weeks day shift (0600–1800 h) and 2 weeks night shift (1800–0600 h) throughout a day and night shift sequence. Urine samples were collected 3-hourly whilst awake, with an over-sleep collection, for the measurement of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin by radioimmunoassay.

  9. Implementing a night-shift clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was created in a midsized, community teaching hospital. The goal was to provide an advanced practice presence to improve patient outcomes, communication, education, and cost-effectiveness. The night-shift CNS participated in nursing education and skill certifications, communicated new procedures and information, and created a communication committee specifically for night-shift nurses. Through regular rounding and on-call notification, the CNS was available to every area of the hospital for consultation and clinical assistance and assisted with rapid responses, codes, and traumas. Providing education during night shift reduced overtime costs and increased morale, positively affecting turnover rates. The night-shift CNS position has improved morale and equalized support for night-shift nurses. More research, most notably in specific night-shift metrics, is necessary, and with the implementation of the role in additional facilities, more can be understood about improving patient care and nursing staff satisfaction during night shift. PMID:23222025

  10. Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work

    PubMed Central

    SHARKEY, KATHERINE M.; FOGG, LOUIS F.; EASTMAN, CHARMANE I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Disturbed sleep and on-the-job sleepiness are widespread problems among night shift workers. The pineal hormone melatonin may prove to be a useful treatment because it has both sleep-promoting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study was designed to isolate melatonin’s sleep-promoting effects, and to determine whether melatonin could improve daytime sleep and thus improve night time alertness and performance during the night shift. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Subjects (n = 21, mean age = 27.0 ± 5.0 years) participated in two 6-day laboratory sessions. Each session included one adaptation night, two baseline nights, two consecutive 8-h night shifts followed by 8-h daytime sleep episodes and one recovery night. Subjects took 1.8 mg sustained-release melatonin 0.5 h before the two daytime sleep episodes during one session, and placebo before the daytime sleep episodes during the other session. Sleep was recorded using polysomnography. Sleepiness, performance, and mood during the night shifts were evaluated using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and a computerized neurobehavioral testing battery. Melatonin prevented the decrease in sleep time during daytime sleep relative to baseline, but only on the first day of melatonin administration. Melatonin increased sleep time more in subjects who demonstrated difficulty in sleeping during the day. Melatonin had no effect on alertness on the MSLT, or performance and mood during the night shift. There were no hangover effects from melatonin administration. These findings suggest that although melatonin can help night workers obtain more sleep during the day, they are still likely to face difficulties working at night because of circadian rhythm misalignment. The possibility of tolerance to the sleep-promoting effects of melatonin across more than 1 day needs further investigation. PMID:11696071

  11. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of night shifts and alcohol consumption on construction tiling quality.

    PubMed

    Dzeng, Ren-Jye; Wang, Shih-Hsu; Fang, Yi-Cho

    2015-09-01

    The adverse effects of night-shift work and alcohol consumption on performance have received considerable attention. However, how night shifts and alcohol affect productivity in workers has not been quantified. This paper describes the experiments featuring multiple tiling tasks and patterns. The tiling quality performed by the graduate student participants in four different statuses was objectively evaluated by an edge-detection computer program. The results indicate that both night shift and alcohol significantly reduce the quality in general, and the effects of the factors on position and alignment-angle qualities were dissimilar in distinct areas due to tile patterns and size. Both night-shift and alcohol conditions affected the basic (-34.01% and -25.79%) and advanced tiling abilities (-40.14% and -26.16%), and night shift had a larger impact than alcohol. These results provide jobsite managers with usable information regarding how night shifts and alcohol affect workers' abilities to execute basic and advanced tasks. PMID:25959338

  12. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives

    PubMed Central

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in ?ód?, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Results Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI?30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. Conclusion The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity. PMID:26196859

  13. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age?±?SD: 28.9?±?3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00?h-07:00?h; day work schedule: 07:00?h-15:00?h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n?=?13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n?=?26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No difference was found regarding light exposure between chronotypes. In conclusion, sleep parameters revealed poorer sleep quality in E-types for both the night and day shifts. These differences could not be explained by sleep opportunity, light exposure or activity levels. This study challenges the notion that E-types adapt better to night shifts. Further studies must verify whether E-types exhibit lower sleep quality than Morning-types. PMID:26035480

  14. [Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic shift workers in a population of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Graziani, A; De Luca, A; Mazzantini, A; Montalti, M; Mucci, N; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors prevalence is studied with an increasing interest, involving also working-age people, Several studies had evidenced that shift-work is a key factor in the etiology of cardiovascular illnesses. Railway workers--especially those who are involved in the monitoring of rail traffic--are often shift-workers. Their shift-schedule is based on a rotation of--in this order--afternoon, morning and night. Regarding the important role played by this kind of workers for the public safety, the evaluation of their cardiovascular risk is of utmost importance. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in railway shift-workers to define prevention strategies. PMID:23405615

  15. Effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

  16. Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bjørn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

  17. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Sharif, Farkhondeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems. PMID:25276724

  18. Shift type and season affect adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in offshore oil rig workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G Barnes; M. J Forbes; J Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800–0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200–0000 h), 1 week night (0000–1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2–3

  19. Napping during the night shift and recovery after work among hospital nurses1

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Thaís Aparecida de Castro; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Silva-Costa, Aline; Souto, Ester Paiva; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the length of napping during the night shift and the recovery after work among nurses. METHOD: Cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 1940 nurses from 18 public hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. A multidimensional and self-applied questionnaire was used with information about health, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, health-related behaviors and housework. Multiple logistic regression was applied to identify the association, adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: The gross analyses showed 44%, 127% and 66% higher chances of a high level of recovery after work for nurses who sleep up to two hours, between 2.1 and 3 hours and 3.1 hours or more, respectively, when compared to the nurses who do not sleep. After adjusting for confounding variables, the association only continues significant for the group that sleeps 2.1 to 3 hours during the night shift (OR=1.79; 95%CI=1.33-2.41). CONCLUSION: The association between the length of napping and the high level of recovery after work, confirmed in the present results, can be included in the studies that aim to support more appropriate policies aimed at improving the workers' work, life and health conditions, not only in nursing, but night-shift workers in general. PMID:25806639

  20. Shift type and season affect adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in offshore oil rig workers.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R G; Forbes, M J; Arendt, J

    1998-08-21

    Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800-0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200-0000 h), 1 week night (0000-1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2-3 h throughout the subjective days, with over-sleep collections, for the measurement of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin by radioimmunoassay. One crew (n = 11), studied in November, showed no change in their 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm during night shift. The other crew (n = 7), studied in March, showed a significant phase advance of the rhythm during night shift. The data indicate that both the type of shift and the season influence the direction and degree of adaptation. PMID:9739990

  1. Anxiety about starting three-shift work among female workers: findings from the Female Shift Workers' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Shirane, Kiyoyumi; Otomo, Hajime; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2008-03-01

    In 1999, the Japanese Law on Equal Employment Opportunity and Conditions was amended and the previous prohibition of the assignment of female workers to night work was abolished. Subsequently, the number of female shift workers has been increasing in Japan, necessitating greater attention to the health care of this population. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the relationship between anxiety expressed about starting three-shift work and background characteristics among female workers who were being assigned to three-shift work for the first time. The subjects were 38 middle-aged female workers (age range: 44 to 59 years) who were working at a chemical plant. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire before starting three-shift work. Levels of anxiety about starting three-shift work were assessed by the question 'Do you feel anxious about starting three-shift work?' The available responses were: 'Very agree', 'Considerably agree', 'Rather agree', 'Slightly agree' and 'Not agree at all', and 63% of the subjects gave one of the first two answers, which were defined as indicating anxiety. We also acquired information regarding lifestyle and occupation for each subject, including the following factors: frequency of breakfast consumption, subjective sleep insufficiency, previous experience of similar work before beginning shift work, previous experience of two-shift work, and responsibility for household duties. In the study, we found a marginally statistically significant trend association between frequent breakfast consumption and anxiety about starting three-shift work (P(trend) = 0.09). Anxiety was also high among subjects with sleep disorders, especially those suffering from subjective sleep insufficiency (P = 0.08). Due to the small study population, these results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by future studies. PMID:18350748

  2. The effect of sleep on item recognition and source memory recollection among shift-workers and permanent day-workers.

    PubMed

    Mawdsley, Matthew; Grasby, Katrina; Talk, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of sleep versus wakefulness on item recognition and source memory recollection in a sample of shift-workers and permanent day-workers. Recognition of words that were previously viewed arrayed in quadrants of a page, and recollection of the original source location of the words on the page were assessed after a 12-h retention interval that was filled with wakefulness incorporating the subjects' work-shift, or an equal period that included sleep. Both shift-workers and permanent day-workers had poorer item recognition and source memory recollection when the retention interval was spent awake rather than including sleep. Shift-workers expressed larger deficits in performance than day-workers after wakefulness. This effect was not mediated by whether the shift-workers were on a day- or night-shift at the time of the study. These results indicate that sleep is an important contributor to successful item recognition and source recollection, and that mnemonic processing in shift-workers may be especially sensitive across their work-shift. PMID:24673876

  3. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  4. Working shifts: Perceptions of African American community members and shift workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ericka King-Betts

    2008-01-01

    This research study examined African American shift workers, family and friends of African American shift workers, and African American community members' perceptions of shift work. In order to gain a clearer understanding of African Americans' perceptions of shift work, focus groups were conducted. By taking a qualitative approach and examining the views held by African American shift workers, friends and

  5. The nighttime nap strategies for improving night shift work in workplace.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Hidemaro; Kubo, Tomohide; Itani, Toru

    2005-01-01

    Nighttime napping is an effective measure to prevent adverse effects due to night shift work. A characteristic of nighttime nap is that it can result in considerably deeper sleep. Several studies have shown that taking nighttime naps suppressed increasing sleepiness, decreasing alertness during the period following awaking from a nap, and prevented disturbance of circadian rhythm ("anchor sleep"). The length of daytime sleep after night shift, when combined with a nighttime nap, is shorter than that without nap. This finding might be interpreted as a beneficial effect rather than a negative feature because workers can then spend time engaged in other activities rather than sleeping. Nevertheless, the introduction of nighttime sleep break in the workplace has not been widely accepted. To promote nighttime napping strategy in the workplace, consensus building while acting on conflicting interest is essential. Recently, participatory method for improvement of working condition has expanded worldwide. A characteristic of the activity is using action checklist and group work, and heightening motivation to improvement working condition between worker and manager. Through the activities, nighttime napping strategy would be spread more in the workplaces and play a role as one of the effective tools for improving working conditions, work performance and safety in the future. PMID:15732300

  6. Shift schedules, work factors, and mental health among onshore and offshore workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Mona; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Knardahl, Stein

    2015-06-10

    The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007

  7. Shift schedules, work factors, and mental health among onshore and offshore workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    BERTHELSEN, Mona; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; KNARDAHL, Stein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007

  8. NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training - a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model. A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. Results In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction. In addition to this main result – the NightShift framework itself – we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. Conclusion By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators. The framework can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/akdehof/nightshift. It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via https://ballaxy.bioinf.uni-sb.de/. PMID:23496927

  9. A controlled intervention study on the effects of a very rapidly forward rotating shift system on sleep-wakefulness and well-being among young and elderly shift workers.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Mikko; Tarja, Hakola; Irja, Kandolin; Mikael, Sallinen; Jussi, Virkkala; Anne, Bonnefond; Pertti, Mutanen

    2006-01-01

    Shift work is related to problems in sleep/wakefulness and social life. The effects of a very rapidly forward rotating shift system on sleep, health and well-being of young (-45) and elderly (45+) maintenance workers were studied by a controlled intervention study. In the beginning, all the workers had a continuous backward rotating three-shift system. A very quickly forward rotating shift system was developed, avoiding consecutive night shifts and with more free-time between the individual shifts. The effect of the new shift system on sleep/wakefulness and general well-being was studied by questionnaire and field studies including on-site registration of sleep (actigraphy), subjective sleepiness (KSS) and psychomotor performance (PVT). Based on a linear mixed model for repeated measurements, the new shift system increased the main sleep length after the night shift and improved alertness and PVT performance during the night shift among the older workers. Alertness also improved during free-time after the night shift and sleep complaints decreased after all shifts. The workers on the new shift schedule perceived the effects of the new shift system on sleep, alertness, general health, well-being at work, social and family life more positively than the workers in the old shift system. At the end of the study, all subjects voted for the new shift system. It is concluded that although the new shift system increased the operating hours at night, the very rapidly forward rotating shift system had positive effects on the sleep, alertness and well-being of especially the older shift workers. PMID:16297476

  10. A 14-h night-shift in the control room of a fire brigade.

    PubMed

    Knauth, P; Keller, J; Schindele, G; Totterdell, P

    1995-01-01

    All 29 operators in the control room of a fire brigade performed test sessions during work and leisure time at 2-h intervals on a day with a 14-h night-shift, a day off and a day with a 10-h morning shift. The test sessions consisted of a visual search choice reaction time test and two Sternberg memory search tests (1 or 5 letters had to be memorized). Furthermore, the operators recorded their oral temperature and their subjective alertness before each test session. The subject also kept a diary of work and sleep times for 14 days. The circadian rhythm of body temperature was hardly changed by a single night-shift. Parallel to the body temperature, the subjective alertness fell significantly during the night-shift reaching a minimum value at 06:00 h. The mean reaction times increased non-significantly at the end of the night-shift and the results of the two Sternberg memory search tests showed no significant trends. The sleep of the operators after the night-shift was on average reduced to 5 hs 34 min. The results of subjective rating of alertness and reaction time test are interpreted as effects of the combined influences of circadian rhythmicity, sleep loss and time on professional task. Most results support the conclusion that a 14-h night-shift without extensive breaks is not acceptable. PMID:11539390

  11. Shift Work Disorder Among Oil Rig Workers in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Siri; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Pallesen, Ståle; Eriksen, Hege R.; Ursin, Holger; ?kerstedt, Torbj?rn; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Shift work disorder (SWD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder caused by work hours during the usual sleep period. The main symptoms are excessive sleepiness and insomnia temporally associated with the working schedule. The aim of the present study was to examine SWD among shift workers in the North Sea. Design and Participants: A total of 103 shift workers (2 weeks on 7 nights/ 7days, 12-h shifts, 4 weeks off), mean age 39.8 years, working at an oil rig in the North Sea responded to a questionnaire about SWD. They also completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Composite Morningness Questionnaire, Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, Demand/Control, and Instrumental Mastery Oriented Coping (based on the Utrecht Coping list). Most of these instruments were administered during the first day of the 2-week working period, thus reflecting symptoms and complaints during the 4-week non-work period. The shift workers were also compared to day workers at the oil rig. Results: Twenty-four individuals were classified as suffering from SWD, yielding a prevalence for SWD of 23.3%. During the 4-week non-work period, individuals with SWD reported significantly poorer sleep quality, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and more subjective health complaints than individuals not having SWD. There were no differences between the 2 groups in sleepiness, insomnia, circadian preference, psychological demands, or control. Individuals with SWD reported significantly lower scores on coping. The reports of shift workers without SWD were similar to those of day workers regarding sleep, sleepiness, subjective health complaints, and coping. Conclusions: The prevalence of SWD was relatively high among these shift workers. Individuals with SWD reported poorer sleep quality and more subjective health complaints in the non-work period than shift workers not having SWD. Citation: Waage S; Moen BE; Pallesen S; Eriksen HR; Ursin H; ?kerstedt T; BjorvatnB. Shift work disorder among oil rig workers in the North Sea. SLEEP 2009;32(4):558-565. PMID:19413151

  12. 9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715

    E-print Network

    9/4/12 Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people | Science Codex 1/3www.sciencecodex.com/tigers_take_the_night_shift_to_coexist_with_people-97715 RSS Feeds » Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech Tigers take the night shift to coexist with people posted on: september 3, 2012 7:30pm TweetTweet Tigers don't have a reputation for being

  13. Night and Day in the VA: Associations between Night Shift Staffing, Nurse Workforce Characteristics, and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    de Cordova, Pamela B.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Schmitt, Susan; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses’ years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. PMID:24403000

  14. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans. PMID:20937863

  15. The distribution of sleepiness, sleep and work hours during a long distance morning trip: a comparison between night- and non-night workers.

    PubMed

    Di Milia, Lee; Kecklund, Göran

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ?10) and sleep restriction (?5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ?5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (?4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety. PMID:23357032

  16. Perceived mastery of work among shift workers in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between individual and work-related factors and perceived mastery of work among offshore shift workers. 2,406 employees of a Norwegian petroleum company were invited to participate. A web-based survey was used and 1336 completed questionnaires were returned (56%). Mastery of work was assessed using QPS Nordic Mastery Scale and the results were compared with a sample from the QPS Nordic study. Individual factors adjusted for were age, gender, marital status and personality. The following work-related factors were included: demands, control, support, night work and shift work home interference. Female offshore shift workers reported higher levels of perceived mastery of work compared with women in the comparison sample. The following variables were independently associated with perceived mastery of work: female gender (?=0.10, p=0.008), decisional demands (?=0.13, p<0.001), control (?=0.05, p=0.009), social support (?=0.07, p<0.001), shift-work locus of control (?=0.04, p=0.005) and neuroticism (?=-0.29, p<0.001). Post hoc analyses showed no sex differences in perceived mastery in two separate work positions on the platforms. Work-related variables and personality explained 55% and 45% respectively of the total variance (R(2)=0.22) explained by the final model. Female petroleum offshore workers reported somewhat higher levels of mastery of work than their male colleagues, however, this may be due to different work positions. Work-related factors accounted for about half of the explained variance and decisional demands, control and support remained statistically significant after controlling for personality. PMID:23095327

  17. 9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us...

    E-print Network

    9/4/12 Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans wh... 1/11dailymail.co.uk/.../Night-shifts-tiger-Fearsome-beasts-Nepal-change-sleep-patterns-avoid-humans-us... Night shifts of the tiger: Fearsome beasts in Nepal change their sleep patterns to avoid the humans who

  18. Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

  19. Metabolic disturbances in male workers with rotating three-shift work. Results of the WOLF study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berndt H. Karlsson; Anders K. Knutsson; Bernt O. Lindahl; Lars S. Alfredsson

    2003-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between important metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes in shift workers and day workers. Methods Cross-sectional data from a sub-population in the WOLF study consisting of 665 day workers and 659 three-shift workers in two plants were analysed. Results A higher proportion

  20. Effects of light intensity and restraint on dark-pulse-induced circadian phase shifting during subjective night in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S M; Rosenwasser, A M

    2000-12-01

    Dark pulses presented on a background of constant light (LL) result in phase advances during midsubjective day and early subjective night, and phase delays during late subjective night, as shown in the dark-pulse phase response curve. In hamsters, the phase-shifting effects of dark pulses are thought to be mediated by increased activity, as previous studies have shown that restraining animals during dark pulses blocks the phase shifts observed in midsubjective day and late subjective night. This study focuses on dark-pulse-induced phase shifting during early subjective night, examining the influence of both LL intensity and restraint on the magnitude of these phase shifts. Syrian hamsters were maintained in LL of four different illumination levels (1, 10, 100, or 600 lux) and periodically presented with 6-h pulses (dark pulse alone, restraint alone, or dark pulse plus restraint) beginning at circadian time 11. Phase advances were observed in response to dark pulses alone, and the magnitude of these shifts was dependent on background illumination, with significantly larger advances seen under higher intensities. No relationship was found between the amount of activity displayed during dark pulses and phase shift magnitude. Six-hour periods of restraint resulted in phase delays, the magnitude of which was also dependent on background illumination. Restraining hamsters during dark pulses reduced the magnitude of phase advances, but the extent of this reduction could be predicted from the additive effects of the dark-pulse-alone and restraint-alone conditions. These results indicate that the phase-shifting effects of dark pulses during early subjective night are not mediated by behavioral activation and may instead reflect a mirror image of the phase-delaying effects of light pulses at this phase. PMID:11106066

  1. 9/7/12 To Avoid Humans, Tigers Take Night Shift 1/3www.voanews.com/content/to-avoid-humans-tigers-take-night-shift/1503593.html

    E-print Network

    Show Endangered Species in Shark Fin Soup Human Impact Muffles Mother Nature's Voice News / Science More Articles BLOGS Science World Science Images of the Week 1 days ago Women and Men Literally See typically move around at any time of the day or night, the camera images show that the vast majority

  2. Structural relations of late night snacking choice attributes and health promotion behaviors according to dietary style of industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research was conducted to develop a construct model regarding the dietary style, late night snacking choice attributes and health promotion behaviors of industrial workers. SUBJECTS/METHODS The surveys were collected during the period between January and February 2013. A statistical analysis of 888 industrial workers was conducted using SPSS 12.0 for Windows and SEM (Structural Equation Model) using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure) 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The results of the correlations between all variables showed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05). Results of factors analysis on dietary styles were categorized into five factors and health promotion behaviors were categorized into four. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all other factors. After obtaining the factors from processing an exploratory factor analysis and the end results supported the validity. In an attempt to study the late night snacking choice attributes in accordance to dietary styles and the health promotion behaviors of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests proved the model satisfied the recommended levels of the goodness on fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proved to be appropriate. PMID:25110564

  3. The Association of Sleep Deprivation on the Occurrence of Errors by Nurses Who Work the Night Shift

    PubMed Central

    RAMADAN, MOHAMED ZAKI; AL-SALEH, KHALID SAAD

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of sleep deprivation on the occurrence of errors by registered nurses working in night shift in intensive care departments. Methods: The study utilized a multi-part questionnaire which included items about demographic characteristics, reported medical errors, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 300 questionnaires were distributed to registered nurses working in intensive care departments. 138 of the 153 (51% response rate) collected questionnaires were analyzed using correlation and stepwise logistic multiple regression. Results: Registered nurses who were sleep deprived had worse sleep quality in terms of high PSQI than those who were not. None of the demographic variables was statistically significant, not providing evidence that these variables may explain odds for being sleep deprived in the population. Conclusions: Work schedule changes, offering shorter periods of time on night shift and less working hours in the week may lead to better sleep quality and less sleep deprivation. PMID:25729589

  4. 9/4/12 Tigers Work the Night Shift in Nepal | LiveScience 1/8www.livescience.com/22876-tigers-humans-coexist.html

    E-print Network

    9/4/12 Tigers Work the Night Shift in Nepal | LiveScience 1/8www.livescience.com/22876-tigers Shift in Nepal #12;9/4/12 Tigers Work the Night Shift in Nepal | LiveScience 2/8www.livescience.com/22876-tigers-humans-coexist.html A Bengal tiger caught by a motion-activated camera in Nepal. CREDIT

  5. Health and safety consequences of shift work in the food processing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. SMITH; MICHAEL J. COLLIGAN; DONALD L. TASTO

    1982-01-01

    Both a questionnaire survey and an evaluation of health and safety records were used to characterize the health and safety consequences of day versus afternoon, night and rotating shifts for approximately 1000 food processing workers. Relative to the day workers, the results indicated that those on shift work, particularly rotating and night shifts, showed greater adverse effects. These included poorer

  6. The Association between Shift Work and the Metabolic Syndrome in Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine identify any association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome by comparing the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome in shift work groups and daytime work groups for female workers. Methods Based on data from health examinations carried out from April to December of 2012, we selected as our subjects 254 female workers from the Daegu area Dyeing Industrial Complex. We diagnosed the metabolic syndrome using the examination results, and information about age, whether or not they did shift work, job type, smoking habits, drinking habits, exercise habits, and past medical history was collected through self-administered questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The variables found in a univariate analysis to be significant in the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome - age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work - were included in a logistic regression analysis of the risk of the metabolic syndrome for female workers. Results The prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome for the total group of study subjects was 11.8%, for daytime workers was 2.8%, and for shift workers was 15.3%. A logistic regression analysis of the odds of the metabolic syndrome for female workers was conducted that included factors associated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome: age, drinking habits, exercise habits, and shift work. The results revealed that the odds ratio of the metabolic syndrome in the shift work group, 6.30 (95% CI 1.24-32.15), was significantly higher when compared with the daytime work group. Conclusion Shift work appears to have an association with the metabolic syndrome in female workers. Accordingly, we believe that the attention of government agencies and business owners is needed together with the individual practice of health behaviors to manage the metabolic syndrome for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in female shift workers. PMID:24472469

  7. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and its Associated Factors among Male Non-shift White-collar Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriko DOI; Masumi MINOWA; Toshiharu FUJITA

    2002-01-01

    Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and its Associated Factors among Male Non-shift White- collar Workers: Yuriko DOI, et al. Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health— Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been noted as a tremendous burden on our modern society and life, but evidence on EDS is limited for white-collar workers in occupational settings. To estimate the prevalence rate of

  8. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic branches increased. In the early 1960s the employment of foreign workers was concentrated in 3 branches -- the construction sector (32% of all foreign workers), metal industries (16%), and textile industries (10%). In 1982 only 1/3 of all foreign workers were still employed in these branches as an infiltration by foreign labor had taken place in all sectors. The services sector showed the greatest increase in foreign employment since 1975. There has never been as strong a concentration of 1 nationality in a particular economic branch as in Switzerland, Germany, or France. Case studies in Austria reveal that it was an explicit policy for firms (and also unions and entrepreneur representatives) not to depend on only 1 nationality of foreign workers. According to the case studies, about 1/3 of all foreign workers today occupy jobs which are in direct competition with indigenous labor. Another 1/3 fill jobs which are complementary to indigenous labor. For the remainder it is difficult to say to what extent they belong to one or the other segment of the labor market, because there is no information available on the occupational job structure. PMID:12159579

  9. Night Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Exposures among Boilermaker Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fang, Shona C.; Dobson, Christine B.; Schwartz, Joel; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although studies have documented the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate exposures, the association between HRV, especially at night, and metal-rich, occupational particulate exposures remains unclear. Objective Our goal in this study was to investigate the association between long-duration HRV, including nighttime HRV, and occupational PM2.5 exposures. Methods We used 24-hr ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECGs) to monitor 36 male boilermaker welders (mean age of 41 years) over a workday and nonworkday. ECGs were analyzed for HRV in the time domain; rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals), SDNN (SD of normal-to-normal intervals over entire recording), and SDNNi (SDNN for all 5-min segments) were summarized over 24-hr, day (0730–2130 hours), and night (0000–0700 hours) periods. PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m) exposures were monitored over the workday, and 8-hr time-weighted average concentrations were calculated. We used linear regression to assess the associations between HRV and workday particulate exposures. Matched measurements from a nonworkday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors. Results Mean (± SD) PM2.5 exposure was 0.73 ± 0.50 mg/m3 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.70 mg/m3. We observed a consistent inverse exposure–response relationship, with a decrease in all HRV measures with increased PM2.5 exposure. However, the decrease was most pronounced at night, where a 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a change of ?8.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), ?16.29 to ?0.35] msec nighttime rMSSD, ?14.77 (95% CI, ?31.52 to 1.97) msec nighttime SDNN, and ?8.37 (95% CI, ?17.93 to 1.20) msec nighttime SDNNi, after adjusting for nonworking nighttime HRV, age, and smoking. Conclusion Metal-rich particulate exposures were associated with decreased long-duration HRV, especially at night. Further research is needed to elucidate which particulate metal constituent is responsible for decreased HRV. PMID:17637921

  10. Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

  11. Task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada: does it help personal support workers' intention to stay?

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Plenderleith, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of task shifting policy on personal support workers' (PSWs) intention to stay in home care. Data were collected through interviews with 46 home care staff of a large home care organization in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and a thematic analysis was conducted using a qualitative software package. Half of the study participants mentioned that task shifting increases PSWs' intention to stay in home care, while less than a quarter commented that task shifting increases PSWs intention to leave. Results show that the implementation of task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada may contribute to personal support workers' intention to stay; however, inadequate compensation may negatively affect intention to stay and should be addressed. We recommend policy-makers consider appropriate compensation to assist PSWs in effectively executing shifted tasks. PMID:24461719

  12. Fluid losses and hydration status of industrial workers under thermal stress working extended shifts

    PubMed Central

    Brake, D; Bates, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess whether workers under significant thermal stress necessarily dehydrated during their exposure and whether "involuntary dehydration" was inevitable, as supported by ISO 9866 and other authorities. Other objectives were to quantify sweat rates against recommended occupational limits, to develop a dehydration protocol to assist with managing heat exposures, and to understand the role of meal breaks on extended shifts in terms of fluid replacement. Methods: A field investigation to examine the fluid consumption, sweat rates, and changes in the hydration state of industrial workers on extended (10, 12, and 12.5 hour) shifts under significant levels of thermal stress (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) >28°C) was conducted on 39 male underground miners. Urinary specific gravity was measured before, during, and at the completion of the working shift. Environmental conditions were measured hourly during the shift. Fluid replacement was measured during the working periods and during the meal breaks. Results: Average environmental conditions were severe (WBGT 30.9°C (SD 2.0°C), range 25.7–35.2°C). Fluid intake averaged 0.8 l/h during exposure (SD 0.3 l/h, range 0.3–1.5 l/h). Average urinary specific gravity at start, mid, and end of shift was 1.0251, 1.0248, and 1.0254 respectively; the differences between start and mid shift, mid and end shift, and start and end shift were not significant. However, a majority of workers were coming to work in a moderately hypohydrated state (average urinary specific gravity 1.024 (SD 0.0059)). A combined dehydration and heat illness protocol was developed. Urinary specific gravity limits of 1.022 for start of shift and 1.030 for end of shift were selected; workers exceeding these values were not allowed into the workplace (if the start of shift limit was exceeded) or were retested prior to their next working shift (if the end of shift limit was exceeded). A target of 1.015 as a euhydrated state for start of shift was adopted for workforce education. Conclusions: This study found that "involuntary dehydration" did not occur in well informed workers, which has implications for heat stress standards that do not make provision for full fluid replacement during heat exposure. Fluid replacement during meal breaks was not significantly increased above fluid replacement rates during work time, with implications for the duration and spacing of meal breaks on long shifts. Testing of urinary specific gravity was found to be a good indication of hydration status and a practical method of improving workforce awareness and understanding of this important risk factor. Approximately 10 000 dehydration tests have been conducted under the dehydration protocol in a workforce of 2000 persons exposed to thermal stress and has proved practical and reliable. PMID:12554834

  13. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L. [Institute for Circadian Physiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  14. Effects of work and motivation on the heart rates of chronic heat-exposed workers during their regular work shifts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. GERTNER; R. ISRAELI; Y. CASSUTO

    1984-01-01

    Heart rate is accepted as one of the best indices of physiological strain imposed by physical and environmental stressors. Continuous recordings of ECG were taken in mid-summer and mid-winter from metal workshop workers during their regular 8 hour work shifts at the work area in two plants located in the desert in Israel. Seven workers were studied in Beer Sheva,

  15. Cardiac strain of confectionery worker in relation to heat exposure during regular work shift

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Rajib; Samanta, Amalendu; Saha, Prasenjit

    2011-01-01

    Context: In India, a wide variety of occupations are performed in adverse indoor working environment. Work physiological studies in these jobs are scanty as compared to investigations done on more arduous outdoor occupations. Aims and Objectives: Physiological strain of workers engaged in sweet making activities was assessed in terms of cardiac strain indices in relation to heat stress. Setting and Design: 33 full-time workers from eastern India were compared for cardiac strain profile obtained during summer and winter during their regular work shift. A comparison was also done in between younger (n=12) and older (n=16) subjects. Materials and Methods: Working heart rate (WHR) was recorded continuously during work. The pulse deceleration index (PDI) was obtained from recovery heart rate (RHR). Net cardiac cost (NCC) and relative cardiac cost (RCC) were the main indices used to evaluate physical strain. Thermal stress assessed from wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Statistical Analysis: Students’ t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank paired tests were used for comparing physiological responses. Values were considered significant when P < 0.05. Results: Work load was significantly higher in summer for all workers. RCC of younger workers in winter and summer ranged between 18% and 26%. This was significantly lower as compared to the RCC of older workers which was 27% in winter and 30% in summer. The physiological workload appeared to be moderate in nature. The WBGT index was above the recommended range in summer for both the groups. Older workers showed a no recovery pattern in terms of recovery pulse that indicated toward a cumulative stress which may be attributed to a combined effect of heat and work in summer and extra amount of work performed in winter season. Conclusion: The physical workload is aggravated with various ergonomic stressors present in the work place. An ergonomic intervention has been indicated as further scope of this study. PMID:22412290

  16. Psychosocial work characteristics predicting daytime sleepiness in day and shift workers.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Haratani, Takashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Kaida, Kosuke; Fukasawa, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of work organization other than working time arrangements may contribute importantly to daytime sleepiness. The present study was designed to identify the psychosocial factors at work that predict daytime sleepiness in a sample of day and shift workers. Participants working at a pulp and chemical factory completed an annual questionnaire regarding psychosocial factors at work using the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (i.e., quantitative workload, variance in workload, job control, support from supervisor, coworkers, or family/friends, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms), as well as daytime sleepiness (through the Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) and sleep disturbances for three years starting in 2002 (response rates, 94.6-99.0%). The present analysis included 55 day workers (11 women) and 57 shift workers (all men) who participated in all three years of the study, worked under the same work schedule throughout the study period, and had no missing data on any of the daytime sleep items. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the effects of work schedule (day vs. shift work) and psychosocial factors at work in 2002 on the ESS scores in subsequent years, with sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, chronic diseases, and sleepiness levels at baseline as covariates. Given significant and near-significant interactions of work schedules with psychosocial factor or study year, the ANCOVA, with the factors of psychosocial work characteristics and study year, was performed by type of work schedule. The results indicated a significant main effect of psychosocial work characteristics (p = 0.010, partial eng2 = 0.14) and an almost significant main effect of study year (p = 0.067, partial eng2 = 0.06) and interaction between psychosocial work characteristics and study year (p = 0.085, partial eng2 = 0.06) for variance in workload among the day work group. The day workers reporting high variance in workload in 2002 exhibited significantly higher ESS scores in 2003 and 2004 than did those reporting low variance in workload. The ANCOVA for the shift work group showed a main effect of psychosocial work characteristics for job satisfaction (p = 0.026, partial eng2 = 0.10) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.094, partial eng2 = 0.06) with the interaction between psychosocial work characteristics and study year for job satisfaction (p = 0.172, partial eng2 = 0.04) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.035, partial eng2 = 0.07). The shift workers with low job satisfaction and high symptoms of depression in 2002 showed significantly greater ESS scores in 2003 and/or 2004 than did those with opposite characteristics. These results may suggest a potential predictive value of variance in workload for day workers as well as job satisfaction and depressive symptoms for shift workers with respect to daytime sleepiness. The present findings may imply that redesigning these aspects of work environment would be of help in managing daytime sleepiness. PMID:17190723

  17. Shift work and serum 25-OH vitamin D status among factory workers in Northern Italy: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandro; Vigna, Luisella; Belluigi, Valentina; Conti, Diana Misaela; Barberi, Claudia Eleonora; Tomaino, Laura; Consonni, Dario; Riboldi, Luciano; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-07-01

    Low levels of vitamin D are related to muscle weakness, poor balance, and higher risk of falls, and can therefore have a major impact on performance and safety at work. Little knowledge exists on the association between work environment and vitamin D status. This study evaluates vitamin D status in shift workers. In this cross-sectional study, led during early springtime, 96 male shift workers at an engineering factory in Northern Italy, and 100 male daily workers operating nearby, participated. 25-OH vitamin D concentration, anthropometric indexes, fasting glycemia and triglycerides were detected. 51 shift workers underwent anamnesis collection on lifestyle and habits and determination of heel bone mineral density. Vitamin D levels were lower in shift workers than daily ones (13.4?±?5.3 ng/mL versus 21.9?±?10.7 ng/mL, p?shift work and vitamin D levels (p?shift workers compared with daily ones. PMID:26125129

  18. Rotating Shift-Work as an Independent Risk Factor for Overweight Italian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N?=?229), rotating shift workers (N?=?110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels. PMID:23675472

  19. Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time

    PubMed Central

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

  20. Full shift arm inclinometry among dairy parlor workers: a feasibility study in a challenging work environment.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Fethke, Nathan B; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, the US dairy industry has experienced a significant transformation from small farm operations to an industrialization of the milking process. This transformation has resulted in improvements in process efficiency and product quality. Milking tasks in large-herd parlors are highly-repetitive involving awkward postures and high muscle loads of the upper extremity. Field-based direct measures of physical exposures have been limited in challenging work settings such as dairies. This study evaluated full-shift exposures of posture and motion of the upper extremity among large-herd parlor milkers using wireless inclinometry. Results suggest large-herd parlor workers may be exposed to high exposure levels (posture, movement velocity, repetition, and inadequate rest) associated with the development of shoulder pathology. Compared to other high-risk occupations involving shoulder-intensive work, parlor workers may have higher exposure levels. These findings warrant the need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of cost-effective intervention strategies. PMID:22019358

  1. Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Katharine; Edwards, Philip James; Felix, Lambert M; Blackhall, Karen; Roberts, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleepiness leads to a deterioration in performance and attention, and is associated with an increased risk of injury. Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep disorders which result in sleepiness and can elevate injury risk. They create a need for individuals to operate at times which are different to those dictated by their circadian rhythms. Consequently there is also a need for interventions to help ensure that these persons can do so safely. Caffeine has a potential role in promoting alertness during times of desired wakefulness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder, however its effects on injury and error are unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of caffeine for preventing injuries caused by impaired alertness in persons with jet lag or shift work disorder. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, TRANSPORT (to July 2008); and PubMed databases (to April 2010). We also searched the Internet and checked reference lists of relevant papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of caffeine on injury, error or cognitive performance in people with jet lag or shift work disorder. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened search results and assessed full texts for inclusion. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Estimates of treatment effect (odds ratio and standardised mean difference (SMD)) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and pooled using the fixed-effect model. Main results Thirteen trials were included. None measured an injury outcome. Two trials measured error, and the remaining trials used neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive performance. The trials assessing the impact on errors found that caffeine significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo. The pooled effect estimates on performance by cognitive domain suggest that, when compared to placebo, caffeine improved concept formation and reasoning (SMD ?0.41; 95% CI ?1.04 to 0.23), memory (SMD ?1.08; 95% CI ?2.07 to ?0.09), orientation and attention (SMD ?0.55; 95% CI ?0.83 to ?0.27) and perception (SMD ?0.77; 95% CI ?1.73 to 0.20); although there was no beneficial effect on verbal functioning and language skills (SMD 0.18; 95% CI ?0.50 to 0.87). One trial comparing the effects of caffeine with a nap found that there were significantly less errors made in the caffeine group. Other trials comparing caffeine with other active interventions (for example nap, bright light, modafinil) found no significant differences. There is a high risk of bias for the adequacy of allocation concealment and presence of selective outcome reporting amongst the trials. Authors’ conclusions Caffeine may be an effective intervention for improving performance in shift workers however, there are no trials from which we can assess its effect on injuries. The results largely originate from studies involving young participants under simulated conditions, and the extent to which the findings are generalisable to older workers and real world shift work is unclear. Based on the current evidence, there is no reason for healthy individuals who already use caffeine within recommended levels to improve their alertness to stop doing so. The assessment of the relative effects of caffeine to other potential countermeasures should be a focus of future research. PMID:20464765

  2. Assessing internet survey data collection methods with ethnic nurse shift workers.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Barbara Betz; Farr, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of ethnic minorities are expected to enter the United States workforce based on projected demographic changes. This includes American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) nurses. Sociocultural influences on sleep disturbances, sleepiness, and other aspects related to shift-work tolerance are of unrecognized importance. More minority nurses are needed to provide culturally congruent care; however, AI/AN nurses represent less than 1% of nurses located throughout the American workforce. This article aims to verify the feasibility of Internet data collection (Web-based survey) methods and instrument stability as the first part of a two-phase study comparing individual differences and shift-work-related sleep disturbances between AI/AN and White non-Hispanic (WNH) nurses. In the first phase, an Internet survey was used to reach a cross-section of AI/AN and WNH nurses. The on-line survey was composed of accepted shift-work-related instruments. Items estimating sleep disturbances, sociocultural choices, time awareness, polychronicity, morningness/ eveningness, ethnic identity, and demographic questions were asked. The survey was linked to a series of Web pages describing the study purpose, inclusion and exclusion criteria, consent form, Web survey, and the second phase of the study in which subjects were invited to participate in actigraphy measurements. The survey was pilot-tested for error codes, item confusion, length, and completion time. Forced-answer questions were added asking ethnicity, age group, license type, state where licensed, and legal name on nursing license before accessing the survey. Data were saved periodically, cued by the word "continue." The database was located on a secure server and password protected. Nurses were recruited using published articles and printed advertisements, hospital e-mail systems, national nursing organization Web sites (minoritynurse.com; NANAINA.org), nursing Web site discussion groups, snow-balling, and word of mouth. The site was accessed 656 times with the Internet survey being completed by 138 WNH and 56 AI/AN nurses meeting the inclusion criteria. Except for the polychronicity measure (PAI3), instruments measuring time awareness, chronotype, and situational sleepiness achieved acceptable reliability coefficients with Internet data collection. Using pull-down menus would improve questions asking specific times. Internet data collection with different ethnic groups is possible; however, accessing the target population may be difficult. Despite extensive recruitment efforts, few AI/AN nurses participated. Computer literacy and failing to relate to the study's purpose may have limited the interest of the AI/AN nurses. It is possible to recruit nurse shift workers and collect individual difference and sleep disturbance data through the Internet; however, the researcher must remain vigilant throughout the process. PMID:15646245

  3. Associations between Diurnal 24-Hour Rhythm in Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability and the Timing and Amount of Meals during the Day Shift in Rotating Shift Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Kohe; Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    It has not hitherto been clarified whether there is an association between dietary behavior and circadian variation in autonomic nervous system activity among shift workers. This study examines diurnal 24-h rhythm in heart rate variability (HRV) and dietary behavior among rotating shift workers, while taking into account the sleep-wake cycle and physical activity. The subjects were 11 female and 2 male nurses or caregivers working in a rotating 2-shift system at a health care facility. All the subjects were asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings, and to record the time of each meal and the amounts of each food and beverage consumed. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz) of the periodic components and the integrated power of periodic components in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges. Then the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu) and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF) were calculated to assess cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sympathovagal balance, respectively. Single cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h period variations in both variables of HRV. Acrophases of HF nu and LF/HF expressed in time since awakening were significantly (p<0.05) delayed for subjects having breakfast at a later time after awakening. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that the timing of breakfast, the ratio of energy intake at dinner to total energy intake, and total energy intake were correlated to the acrophases of HF nu and/or LF/HF. These results suggest that the phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle may be associated with dietary behavior in shift workers. PMID:25211024

  4. [The use of melatonin for correction of sleep disturbances in assembly-line shift workers with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zamotaev, Iu N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of melaxen on the circadian chronostructure of AP and pulse rate was studied in 57 assembly-line shift workers with arterial hypertension of whom 23 were given melaxen with teveten and 34 teveten alone for 3 weeks. Introduction of melaxen in therapy of AH reduced AP and normalized disturbed circadian hemodynamics. Moreover, combined treatment eliminated sleep disturbances not infrequent in such patients. PMID:22690565

  5. Endocrine responses to nocturnal eating – possible implications for night work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Holmbäck; Anders Forslund; Arne Lowden; Jeanette Forslund; Torbjörn Åkerstedt; Maria Lennernäs; Leif Hambraeus; Mats Stridsberg

    2003-01-01

    Summary.   Background: Night work is becoming more common and shift workers display several metabolic disturbances. Aim To study the endocrine responses\\u000a in relation to time of day during a 24-h period and how dietary macronutrient composition affects these responses. Design: Seven males (26–43 y and 19.9–26.6 kg · m?2) were studied in a crossover design. Isocaloric diets described as high-carbohydrates

  6. Night Lights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-04

    In this activity, learners create night lights using a plastic cup, programmable PICO Cricket, tri-color LED, and sensor. Learners can decorate the outside of the night light using a permanent marker or with paper cut-outs to resemble a skyline at night, for instance. Use this activity to help learners explore PICO Crickets, sensors, and LEDs.

  7. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Scott, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare. PMID:19916089

  8. Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: a study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data were presented as mean value (SD). Over 90% of workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, is the most feasible method for the protection of industrial workers from prevailing noise in workplace environments in the developing countries. PMID:22718110

  9. Effectiveness of the hearing conservation program: Change in hearing threshold shift incidence among industrial workers, 1978 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    Hearing conservation programs (HCP) are widely employed in preventing noise-induced hearing loss, but studies of their effectiveness have been rare. The impact of the implementation of hearing conservation programs was assessed in a large group of highly noise-exposed blue-collar workers by investigating time-trends in hearing-threshold shift incidence. Serial annual audiograms for employees of 14 British Columbia lumber mills for the period 1978 to 2003 were obtained from local regulatory-agency archives. Audiograms and concomitant otological medical histories were linked to subjects' work histories and noise exposure data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the incidence of hearing threshold shift while controlling for age, baseline level of hearing loss, and other potential confounders. A total of 109257 audiograms were associated with 10590 subjects. Mean noise exposure in this group was 91.4 dBA(A). Mean interval between hearing tests was 566 days and mean age at first threshold shift was 44. Forty-six percent of subjects had at least one OSHA significant threshold shift during follow up. Preliminary analyses indicated a trend toward lower incidence of threshold shifts over the study period, with incidence in 5 approximately equal 5-year periods from 1978 to 2003 being 3.2%, 6.6%, 4.9%, 4.3% and 2.4%, respectively.

  10. Disappointing Weight Loss among Shift Workers after Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Ketchum; John M. Morton

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Background  Shift work is an increasingly common employment structure in the United States and has been associated with increased rates\\u000a of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Shift work can necessitate altered patterns of sleep, eating, and activity over traditional\\u000a work schedules. We investigated the effects of shift work on postoperative weight loss in bariatric surgery patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective chart review of

  11. [Effect of working shift timing and different workload on development of fatigue in workers].

    PubMed

    Matiukhin, V V; Mo?kin, Iu V; Poroshenko, A S; Iushkova, O I

    1994-01-01

    The authors studied functional changes of central nervous and cardiovascular systems among operators having variable work strain (airlines dispatchers, operators of robot complexes, TV operators) and changeable duration of working shift (8 and 12 hours). Analysis of the materials considered work strain in the occupational groups (I, II and III degrees of strain) and duration of the working shift. The results proved that the fatigue degree depends on the work strain degree and duration of the working shift, so prophylaxis and normal work duration could be set. PMID:7728428

  12. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  13. Night flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    Dr. Warner examines the utility and economy of flying at night when flying passengers. Some of the points discussed include lighted landing fields, the possibility of using airships, and the cost of landing fields.

  14. Melatonin-Depleted Blood from Premenopausal Women Exposed to Light at Night Stimulates Growth of Human Breast Cancer Xenografts in Nude Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Blask; George C. Brainard; Robert T. Dauchy; John P. Hanifin; Leslie K. Davidson; Jean A. Krause; Leonard A. Sauer; Moises A. Rivera-Bermudez; Margarita L. Dubocovich; Samar A. Jasser; Darin T. Lynch; Mark D. Rollag; Frederick Zalatan

    2005-01-01

    The increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers has been postulated to result from the suppression of pineal melatonin production by exposure to light at night. Exposure of rats bearing rat hepatomas or human breast cancer xenografts to increasing intensities of white fluorescent light during each 12-hour dark phase (0-345 MW\\/cm2) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of nocturnal

  15. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity. PMID:25893969

  16. Night Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students view a satellite image of Earth at night, and consider the environmental considerations and consequences associated with the pattern of light they see. The resource includes a map for student use. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

  17. Trends in approaches to night and shiftwork and new international standards.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K; Thurman, J E

    1993-01-01

    While relatively few countries have changed their working time legislation in recent years, new working time patterns show some changes in approaches to night and shiftwork. Prominent trends include (i) the spread of irregular hours of work to different sectors, including services, often as a result of decoupling business hours from individual working hours; (ii) greater flexibility, often in return for shorter hours, in covering operating hours by different individuals; (iii) the appearance of complex combinations of different categories of working time arrangements, such as a combination of full-time semi-continuous shifts and part-time weekend shifts; and (iv) the adoption of a complex process for changes in schemes, incorporating group study and joint planning. Importantly, these trends reflect fundamental changes in the concept of night work (and that of nightworkers). The issues related to these recent trends were apparent in the two-year debate that led to new international labour standards, the Night Work Convention (No. 171) and Recommendation (No. 178), 1990, both of which apply to both sexes and to nearly all occupations. Also adopted was the Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (No. 89) of 1948, under which national laws or regulations may now permit night work of women in industry under strictly defined conditions. The new Convention and Recommendation define 'nightworker' to include workers performing a substantial amount of night work. They prescribe a variety of actions to improve the quality of working life of such workers, including measures related to working hours, rest periods, safety and health, transfer to day work, maternity protection, social services, and consultations. Strategies should be adopted that take into account the local situation, that are participatory, and that take due account of the diverse aspects of working life associated with the new concept of night work. PMID:8440226

  18. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

  19. Sleep, ageing and night work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. N. Pires; C. W. Teixeira; A. M. Esteves; L. R. A. Bittencourt; R. S. Silva; R. F. Santos; S. Tufik; M. T. Mello

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects

  20. Impact of nightshift work on overweight and abdominal obesity among workers of a poultry processing plant in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macagnan, Jamile; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Olinto, Maria Teresa A

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined the associations of shiftwork with overweight and abdominal obesity through a cross-sectional study of 1206 employees 18 to 50 yrs of age who were working on a production line in a poultry processing plant. Night-shift workers (n = 800) were considered exposed, whereas day shiftworkers (n = 406) were considered nonexposed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference ? 88 cm in women and ? 102 cm in men. The mean age of the workers was 30.5 yrs (standard deviation = 8.7 yrs), and 65.2% were women. Nightshift workers compared to dayshift workers showed higher prevalences of overweight (42.2% vs. 34.3%; p=?.020) and abdominal obesity (24.9% vs. 19.5%; p =?.037). After adjusting for sociodemographics, parental overweight status, behavioral characteristics, and sleep characteristics, including hours of sleep, the prevalence ratios for overweight and abdominal obesity were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [ CI]: 1.00-1.61) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.10-1.92), respectively, for the nightshift workers compared to the dayshift workers. A consistent finding in our study was the independent contribution of night shiftwork to overweight and abdominal obesity among Brazilian workers. Further studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms involved and the complex behavioral and social adaptations experienced by night-shift workers. PMID:22390246

  1. Sleepiness, Long Distance Commuting and Night Work as Predictors of Driving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Di Milia, Lee; Rogers, Naomi L.; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n?=?649). The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR?=?5.25, CI, 1.42–19.49, p<0.01) followed by driving ?150 kms (OR?=?3.61, CI, 1.66–7.81, p<0.001), obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR?=?2.58, CI, 1.03–6.46, p<0.05), driving after night shift (OR?=?2.19, CI, 1.24–3.88, p<0.001), being <43 years old (OR?=?1.95, CI, 1.11–3.41, p<0.05) and using mobile phones during the journey (OR?=?1.90, CI, 1.10–3.27, p<0.05). Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers. PMID:23029278

  2. Assessment of Irritative Effects of Fumes of Bitumen on the Airways by using Non-Invasive Methods—Results of a Cross-Shift Study in Mastic Asphalt Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Beate Pesch; Anne Spickenheuer; Rainer Bramer; Klaus Schott; Boleslaw Marczynski; Dietmar Breuer; Jens-Uwe Hahn; Rolf Merget; Thomas Brüning

    2007-01-01

    Data concerning the irritative effects of current exposure to fumes of bitumen on the airways in humans are limited. To assess the effects of fumes of bitumen on the airways a cross-shift study was conducted with monitoring of inflammatory process in upper and lower airways of workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and a reference group. All workers were examined

  3. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    PubMed

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep. PMID:25213642

  4. A cross-shift study of lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers in blood in Norwegian cement production workers

    PubMed Central

    Notø, Hilde; Skogstad, Marit; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Øvstebø, Reidun; Trøseid, Anne Marie Siebke; Kongerud, Johny

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study possible effects of aerosol exposure on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in blood from Norwegian cement production workers across one work shift (0 to 8?h) and again 32?h after the non-exposed baseline registration. Methods 95 workers from two cement plants in Norway were included. Assessment of lung function included spirometry and gas diffusion pre- and post-shift (0 and 8?h). FeNO concentrations were measured and blood samples collected at 0, 8 and 32?h. Blood analysis included cell counts of leucocytes and mediators of inflammation. Results The median respirable aerosol level was 0.3?mg/m3 (range 0.02–6.2?mg/m3). FEV1, FEF25–75% and DLCO decreased by 37?ml (p=0.04), 170?ml/s (p<0.001) and 0.17?mmol/min/kPa (p=0.02), respectively, across the shift. A 2?ppm reduction in FeNO between 0 and 32?h was detected (p=0.01). The number of leucocytes increased by 0.6×109?cells/l (p<0.001) across the shift, while fibrinogen levels increased by 0.02?g/l (p<0.001) from 0 to 32?h. TNF-? level increased and IL-10 decreased across the shift. Baseline levels of fibrinogen were associated with the highest level of respirable dust, and increased by 0.39?g/l (95% CI 0.06 to 0.72). Conclusions We observed small cross-shift changes in lung function and inflammatory markers among cement production workers, indicating that inflammatory effects may occur at exposure levels well below 1?mg/m3. However, because the associations between these acute changes and personal exposure measurements were weak and as the long-term consequences are unknown, these findings should be tested in a follow-up study. PMID:21297153

  5. Leveraging Workforce Development and Postsecondary Education for Low-Skilled, Low-Income Workers: Lessons from the Shifting Gears Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Dresser, Laura; Smith, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Shifting Gears was launched in 2007 by the Joyce Foundation, a Chicago-based organization focused on improving the quality of life of citizens residing in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The primary goal of Shifting Gears is to increase the number of low-skilled, low-income Midwestern adults who obtain college-level occupational…

  6. Correlates shift work with increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H. pylori -infected shift workers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke van Mark; Michael Spallek; David A. Groneberg; Richard Kessel; Stephan W. Weiler

    2010-01-01

    Aim  There is an ongoing discussion whether work under shift work conditions enhances the ulcerogenic potential of Helicobacter pylori infections. This may be induced by a disruption of the circadian rhythm. The present study assessed whether there is an association\\u000a between H. pylori infection and an increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H. pylori-infected

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. PMID:25763276

  8. Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

  9. Day and Night Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lindsay Demoranville

    2012-07-10

    What objects can you see in the day sky? What objects can you see in the night sky? Are there objects that can be seen in both the day and night sky? Can the sun be seen during the night, or only during the day? Students will encounter these questions as they explore the similarities and differences between the day and night sky. This lesson will help students identify what objects can be seen in the day and night sky, and objects are exclusively seen in the day sky and the night sky.

  10. Darkness at Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this probe is to elicit students' ideas about the day/night cycle. The probe is designed to find out if students recognize that the Earth's rotation is responsible for the day/night cycle.

  11. Night Spectra Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)

  12. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ulhôa, M. A.; Marqueze, E. C.; Burgos, L. G. A.; Moreno, C. R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes. PMID:25892993

  13. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes. PMID:25892993

  14. The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-01

    Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

  15. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  16. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

  17. Armodafinil for Treatment of Excessive Sleepiness Associated With Shift Work Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Walsh, James K.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (?3 months) shift work disorder (SWD) of moderate or greater severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-week, randomized controlled study was conducted at 42 sleep research facilities in North America from April 2 through December 23, 2004, and enrolled 254 permanent or rotating night shift workers with SWD. Entry criteria included excessive sleepiness during usual night shifts for 3 months or longer (corroborated by mean sleep latency of ?6 minutes on a Multiple Sleep Latency Test), insomnia (sleep efficiency ?87.5% during daytime sleep), and SWD that was judged clinically to be of moderate or greater severity. Patients received armodafinil, 150 mg, or placebo 30 to 60 minutes before each night shift. Physiologic sleep propensity during night shift hours, clinical impression of severity, patient-reported sleepiness, and cognitive function were assessed during laboratory night shifts at weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Armodafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency from 2.3 (1.6) minutes at baseline to 5.3 (5.0) minutes at final visit, compared with a change from 2.4 (1.6) minutes to 2.8 (2.9) minutes in the placebo group (P<.001). Clinical condition ratings improved in more patients receiving armodafinil (79%) vs placebo (59%) (P=.001). As reported by patients' diaries, armodafinil significantly reduced sleepiness during laboratory nights (P<.001), night shifts at work (P<.001), and the commute home (P=.003). Armodafinil improved performance on standardized memory (P<.001) and attention (power, P=.001; continuity, P<.001) tests compared with placebo. Armodafinil was well tolerated and did not affect daytime sleep, as measured by polysomnography. CONCLUSION: In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic SWD of moderate or greater severity, armodafinil significantly improved wakefulness during scheduled night work, raising mean nighttime sleep latency above the level considered to indicate severe sleepiness during the daytime. Armodafinil also significantly improved measures of overall clinical condition, long-term memory, and attention. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00080288 PMID:19880686

  18. City Night Lights Poster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This poster shows a global view of Earth at night, compiled from over 400 satellite images collected during the nighttime phase of the orbit. Much of Earth is illuminated at night by city lights. The poster includes elementary-secondary activities on the backside from Mission Geography (http://missiongeography.org/).

  19. "Starry Night" on Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an exploration of depth in landscape painting using Vincent van Gogh's "Starry Night" as an example. Used computer drawing software for children to allow students to create their own interpretations of "Starry Night" while exploring means of portraying depth in two-dimensional art. (DSK)

  20. GLOBE at Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students and families are invited to participate in a worldwide campaign to observe and record the magnitude of visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. GLOBE at Night is an easy observation and reporting activity with a goal of collecting 5,000 observations. Information for parents, students and teachers details the data collection activity, and participants can subscribe to the GLOBE at Night mailing list to receive updates and results. The site includes background information and interactive simulations that show the effects of light pollution on the night sky, and finding the constellation Orion.

  1. The effects of chronic photoperiod shifting on the physiology of female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; Himmler, Stephanie M; McDonald, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    As the prevalence of shift work is increasing, it is important to elucidate the impact that shift work has on health. Because of the alternating work schedules present in rotating shift work and working at night, shift workers are in a chronic state of circadian disruption. Animal models of circadian disruption are useful because they offer more experimental control than the largely correlational human shift work studies. The effects of chronic circadian disruption on food preference, glucose tolerance, corticosterone secretion, and performance in a stress-inducing task were investigated in female Long-Evans rats. A 64-day photoperiod shifting paradigm was used to induce circadian disruption. Surprisingly, neither the photoperiod shifted animals, nor the control animals demonstrated a preference for either an unhealthy or healthy diet. Nor was there a difference between the groups in weight gained during photoperiod shifting. However, the photoperiod shifted rats gained significantly more weight than control animals, without eating more food during discriminative fear conditioning to context (DFCTC). Surprisingly, chronic photoperiod shifting appeared to facilitate retention in the DFCTC task. The photoperiod shifted animals also had increased serum glucose values during fasting and after a glucose challenge test. The photoperiod shifted animals only had elevated corticosterone during the final two phases of photoperiod shifting. This study demonstrates that chronic photoperiod shifting elicits weight gain when exposed to a stressful event and impairs glucose tolerance in the same individual. PMID:24631903

  2. Globe at Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-01

    The Globe at Night program is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by inviting citizen-scientists to measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations from a computer or smart phone. Light pollution threatens not only our “right to starlight”, but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. Nearly 100,000 measurements have been contributed from people in 115 countries during the campaigns each winter/spring over the last 8 years, making Globe at Night the most successful light pollution awareness campaign to date! Explore the last 8 years of data in our interactive data map, or see how your city did with our regional map generator. The Globe at Night website is easy to use, comprehensive and holds an abundance of background information. The database is usable for comparisons with a variety of other databases, like how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.

  3. The Starry Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Jerome J.

    1985-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh's painting "The Starry Night" is discussed, and ways that an art teacher can use this painting as a resource for learning are suggested. Specific activities to use with elementary and secondary students are included. (RM)

  4. One Night in January.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)

  5. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  6. The Night Eating Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grethe Støa Birketvedt; Jon R. Florholmen

    The typical behavioral characteristics of the night eating syndrome have been described as morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia\\u000a and insomnia. The neuroendocrine characteristics have been described as changes in the circadian rhythm by an attenuation\\u000a in the nocturnal rise of the plasma concentrations of melatonin and leptin and an increased circadian secretion of cortisol.\\u000a The night eaters also have an overexpressed

  7. Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms.

    PubMed

    Esquirol, Yolande; Bongard, Vanina; Mabile, Laurence; Jonnier, Bernard; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Perret, Bertrand

    2009-04-01

    The impact of shift work on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and metabolic syndrome are not yet completely understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of shift work on metabolic syndrome according to two different definitions in a population of strictly rotating shift workers (3x8 h) compared to paired counterparts working only day hours, and to study whether shift work itself is a determinant of metabolic syndrome after taking into account a large panel of confusing factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing 98 strictly rotating shift workers to 100 regular day-workers (all subjects had a long experience of their working rhythms) within the same petrochemical plant. Clinical, behavioral, occupational, and biological data were collected, and a detailed nutritional investigation was done. Shift and day workers were comparable in terms of major CVD factors, and both had a 10 yr Framingham risk scoring of 11%. Shift workers reported an increased job strain and higher total and at-work physical activity. Alterations in metabolic parameters were evident with a rise in triglycerides, free fatty acids, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lower HDL-cholesterol. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that shift work was associated with occurrence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII criteria, OR: 2.38 (1.13-4.98), but not using the more recent score from the International Diabetes Federation, which gives a major emphasis on abdominal obesity. Total energy intake and contributions of the major nutrients did not differ between the two groups, with the notable exception of saturated lipids (+10% in shift workers). Meal distribution was clearly different: energy intake was more fractionated within the day, with a lesser contribution of breakfast and lunch but with increased intakes during intermediate light meals, particularly in the afternoon and night. Multivariate analyses were performed to test for the influence of dietary rhythms on the development of an NCEP-ATPIII metabolic syndrome. Dietary intakes at breakfast and during intermediate light meals appear to be "protective" against metabolic syndrome, while a high load at dinner favors its occurrence. A high intake at lunch is particularly deleterious to shift workers. However, in all tested models, shift work remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, after taking into account potential covariates like job strain, physical activity, quantitative dietary parameters, and meal distribution. A specific follow-up of shift workers should be recommended to occupational physicians. PMID:19360495

  8. La night eating syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Godini; Giovanni Castellini; Carolina Lo Sauro; Valdo Ricca; Carlo Faravelli

    IntroductionThe night eating syndrome (NES) is a disorder that has been the object of interest in the scientific community only in recent years. For this reason, there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, and data in the literature on NES are often discordant. We conducted a critical review of the literature, which focused on the epidemiologic, psychopathological,

  9. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with pictures, letters,…

  10. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  11. Comforters and night waking.

    PubMed Central

    Morley, R; Morley, C J; Lucas, P J; Lucas, A

    1989-01-01

    Among 320 low birthweight infants seen at nine months post term those using a soft object, thumb, or fingers as comforter were significantly less likely to wake at night (9/96, 9%) than those with no comforter or using a dummy (66/224, 29%). Dummy users were as likely to wake (27/93, 29%) as those without a comforter (39/131, 30%). PMID:2604424

  12. All Night Study TSU Operations

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    All Night Study TSU Operations Student Engagement Report FY 2012-2013 Mission Statement The purpose of All Night Study is to provide a safe and lively environment for CSUF students to study during finals for twelve days at the end of each semester. All Night Study begins the Monday prior to finals week and ends

  13. All Night Study TSU Operations

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    All Night Study TSU Operations Student Engagement Report FY 2010-2011 Mission Statement The purpose of All Night Study is to provide a safe and lively environment for CSUF students to study during finals for twelve days at the end of each semester. All Night Study begins the Monday prior to finals week and ends

  14. All Night Study TSU Operations

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    All Night Study TSU Operations Student Engagement Report FY 2008-2009 Mission Statement The purpose of All Night Study is to provide a safe and lively environment for CSUF students to study during finals for twelve days at the end of each semester. All Night Study begins the Monday prior to finals week and ends

  15. All Night Study TSU Operations

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    All Night Study TSU Operations Student Engagement Report FY 2009-2010 Mission Statement The purpose of All Night Study is to provide a safe and lively environment for CSUF students to study during finals for twelve days at the end of each semester. All Night Study begins the Monday prior to finals week and ends

  16. Review of night vision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2015-06-01

    A review of night vision metrology is presented in this paper. A set of reasons that create a rather chaotic metrologic situation on night vision market is presented. It is shown that there has been made a little progress in night vision metrology during last decades in spite of a big progress in night vision technology at the same period of time. It is concluded that such a big discrep- ancy between metrology development level and technology development can be an obstacle in the further development of night vision technology.

  17. Night nursing – staff's working experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Campbell, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence. PMID:18976475

  18. Mushroom plant workers experience a shift towards a T helper type 2 dominant state: contribution of innate immunity to spore antigen

    PubMed Central

    SAIKAI, T; TANAKA, H; SATO, N; ABE, S; MATSUURA, A

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary mushroom factories are places where there is a substantial risk of the occurrence of respiratory allergy. The aims of this investigation were to estimate its causative agents and to evaluate the contribution of innate immune response in mushroom workers who cultivate Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji). Cross-sectional and follow-up studies were performed in the factory. We investigated CD1b, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD45RO, CD62L and CD161 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, and serum levels of interleukin (IL-2), IL-4, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-? by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Co-culture experiments of PBMC with spore extracts were also performed. Percentages of CD1b+ monocytes, natural killer (NK), NK T and CD4+ T cells were increased in the workers compared with controls. Increases in Th2 type cells, Th2/Th1 ratio and serum IL-13 and decreased IFN-? were detected, indicating a Th2-biased status of the workers. The follow-up study showed that monocytes and NK cells increased soon after employment while CD4+ T, Th2 and NK T cells increased gradually as employment time lengthened. Serum precipitating antibody to the mushroom antigen could be detected at a later stage. Co-cultivation of PBMC with the spore extracts induced much higher CD1b expression, and suppressed secretion of Th1 cytokine in culture supernatants. These results indicate that the mushroom antigen contains highly immunogenic substances which stimulate PBMC into a Th2-biased in vivo status, and innate immune cells might also play a critical role in developing respiratory allergy in mushroom workers. PMID:14678272

  19. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  20. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

  1. LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY NIGHT!

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY NIGHT! Saturday March 22, 2008 ARENA FOOTBALL Game time - 7 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory along with their friends and families to come out and enjoy a night for further information at mnieves@sanjosesabercats.com *Tickets MUST be purchased through the SaberCats Front

  2. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  3. MINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological,

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    and circadian physiological and behavioral functions. Sources of light at night Light pollution by urban of the natural sky beyond background levels, called urban sky glow [15,16]. Light pollution has demonstrated at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting

  4. Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Walsh; Mark J. Muehlbach; Tina M. Humm; Q. Stokes Dickins; Jeffrey L. Sugerman; Paula K. Schweitzer

    1990-01-01

    Marked sleepiness occurs during typical night shift work hours and this reduced alertness is associated with marked performance deficits. The effect of caffeine (versus placebo) upon sleepiness at night was studied using objective measures of physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness. Both measures show caffeine to reduce sleepiness at a single dose roughly the equivalent of two to

  5. Acute Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment Associated with Transition onto the First Night of Work Impairs Visual Selective Attention

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Horowitz, Todd S.; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p?=?.04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). Conclusions/Significance These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work. PMID:18043740

  6. Injuries in marginal workers and social trauma in female: Important cause of the paradigm shift in eye injury over a decade

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing profile of work force can give rise different types of injuries. Purpose: To analyse causative factors (Host-Agent-Event) in ocular trauma over last 15 years. Methods: Hospital based prospective study during 1997-2012. Detailed information on nature of trauma; agent and setting were recorded. Results: Cohort included 12365 eye injuries, 1241 serious cases. Prevalence – 0.45 /10000 Mean age 45.8 with bi- modal pattern of incidence, 3:1 male-female ratio. 80% closed globe, 48% workplace injury (90% in marginal labourers with an exponential annual increase). 10% cases from garage mechanics.60% of eye injuries in female were related to “social violence”. Multivariate analysis has detected new causative agents. Conclusion: Significant change in parameters of trauma (Host-Agent-Event) is resulting in paradigm shift in eye injury. Unorganised unaccustomed labour in workplace injury and “social trauma” in females has become an important cause of eye injury.

  7. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy. PMID:20309751

  8. GLOBE at Night in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongfeng

    2015-03-01

    The GLOBE at Night citizen-science campaign was introduced in China in 2010. Observations and works made by students are presented. The students were guided to participate in this meaningful international activity by 1) taking light pollution observations of the night sky at different locations, 2) becoming aware of the severity of the effects of light pollution, and 3) making the whole society aware of the importance to save energy by reducing light pollution.

  9. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  10. TWAN: The World at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

  11. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  12. Differential Sleep, Sleepiness, and Neurophysiology in the Insomnia Phenotypes of Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Belcher, Ren; Drake, Christopher L.; Roth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize and compare insomnia symptoms within two common phenotypes of Shift Work Disorder. Design: Observational laboratory and field study. Setting: Hospital sleep center. Participants: 34 permanent night workers. Subjects were classified by Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Insomnia Severity Index into 3 subgroups: asymptomatic controls, alert insomniacs (AI), and sleepy insomniacs (SI). Measurements: Sleep parameters were assessed by sleep diary. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was measured using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Brain activity was measured using the N1 event-related potential (ERP). A tandem repeat in PER3 was genotyped from saliva DNA. Results: (1) AI group showed normal MSLT scores but elevated N1 amplitudes indicating cortical hyperarousal. (2) SI group showed pathologically low MSLT scores but normal N1 amplitudes. (3) AI and SI groups were not significantly different from one another in circadian phase, while controls were significantly phase-delayed relative to both SWD groups. (4) AI showed significantly longer sleep latencies and lower sleep efficiency than controls during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep. SI significantly differed from controls in nocturnal sleep parameters, but differences during diurnal sleep periods were smaller and not statistically significant. (5) Genotype × phenotype ?2 analysis showed significant differences in the PER3 VNTR: 9 of 10 shift workers reporting sleepiness in a post hoc genetic substudy were found to carry the long tandem repeat on PER3, while 4 of 14 shift workers without excessive sleepiness carried the long allele. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the sleepy insomnia phenotype is comprehensively explained by circadian misalignment, while the alert insomnia phenotype resembles an insomnia disorder precipitated by shift work. Citation: Gumenyuk V, Belcher R, Drake CL, Roth T. Differential sleep, sleepiness, and neurophysiology in the insomnia phenotypes of shift work disorder. SLEEP 2015;38(1):119–126. PMID:25325466

  13. ONESTEPinthe NIGHT might SAVEyour LIFE

    E-print Network

    Ejiri, Shinji

    .) 16:00-17:30, 1D201 Morning Traffic Safety Guidance 1st (Thurs.) -7th (Wed.) 8:10-8:40 Night Traffic Safety Guidance 1st (Thurs.) 17:30-18:30 Drinking Manners Course 5th (Mon.) 18:00-19:00, 1D201 Safety

  14. Separating the endogenous and exogenous components of the circadian rhythm of body temperature during night work using some ‘purification’ models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. MINORS; J. M. WATERHOUSE

    1993-01-01

    Ten nurses have been studied for a period of about ten days during which they had rest days and between two and seven successive night shifts. Rectal temperature and wrist movement were monitored throughout, and the nurses kept an activity log. The process of adjustment to night work was assessed by comparing shirts in body temperature with those in mid-sleep,

  15. Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate of the effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems. Although several studies have examined the effects of compressing work schedules by comparing 8 and 12 hour shift systems, there is little published research examining the various forms of 12 hour shift system. METHODS: An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of > 24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. For the purposes of the analysis, each of these two groups were further subdivided into those who started their morning shift at 0600 and those who started at 0700. RESULTS: Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, along with longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. These effects of changeover time were broadly in agreement with previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. It is conceded that the design of the study may have obscured some subtle differences between the shift systems. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the impact of distribution of rest days seems to be minor relative to previously found effects of other features of shift systems--for example, shift duration.   PMID:10448331

  16. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®) Overview Key Points ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  17. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact of these shift schedules compared to day work, to the extent that health can be measured by the WAI. PMID:20636221

  18. Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night

    PubMed Central

    deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

  19. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  20. Familial aggregation in the night eating syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer D. Lundgren; Kelly C. Allison; Albert J. Stunkard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the extent to which the night eating syn- drome (NES) affects first-degree relatives of NES and control probands. Method: NES participants and controls were assessed with the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), 10 day sleep and food records, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Struc- tured Clinical Interview for

  1. 6, 77157745, 2006 Night-time radical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 7715­7745, 2006 Night-time radical chemistry during NAMBLEX R. Sommariva et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign R. Sommariva1­7745, 2006 Night-time radical chemistry during NAMBLEX R. Sommariva et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  2. Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD).

    PubMed

    Wright, Kenneth P; Bogan, Richard K; Wyatt, James K

    2013-02-01

    Nearly 20% of the labor force worldwide, work shifts that include work hours outside 07:00 h to 18:00 h. Shift work is common in many occupations that directly affect the health and safety of others (e.g., protective services, transportation, healthcare), whereas quality of life, health, and safety during shift work and the commute home can affect workers in any field. Increasing evidence indicates that shift-work schedules negatively influence worker physiology, health, and safety. Shift work disrupts circadian sleep and alerting cycles, resulting in disturbed daytime sleep and excessive sleepiness during the work shift. Moreover, shift workers are at risk for shift work disorder (SWD). This review focuses on shift work and the assessment and management of sleepiness and sleep disruption associated with shift work schedules and SWD. Management strategies include approaches to promote sleep, wakefulness, and adaptation of the circadian clock to the imposed work schedule. Additional studies are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the health risks of shift work, understanding which shift workers are at most risk of SWD, to investigate treatment options that address the health and safety burdens associated with shift work and SWD, and to further develop and assess the comparative effectiveness of countermeasures and treatment options. PMID:22560640

  3. Who is too old for shift work? Developing better criteria.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; Signal, Leigh

    2008-04-01

    Demographic and social trends in industrialized countries are expected to lead to increasing numbers of older shift workers, raising concerns about possible health and safety risks. For older night workers, the International Labour Organization has recommended options for transferring to day work or early retirement, but few States have adopted these measures. For commercial air transport pilots, the International Civil Aviation Organization has implemented a series of regulatory measures that could manage the risks associated with aging, including a mandatory retirement age, regular medical assessments for fitness to fly, and limits on the duration of duty and rest. Each of these approaches has strengths and weaknesses. The mandatory retirement age is effectively arbitrary, has been controversial, and was recently increased from 60 to 65 yrs for one member of a two-person cockpit crew. Medical assessments offer a more individualized approach, but to improve safety, they must address aspects of health and physical or mental function that affect work performance and safety outcomes. The traditional focus has been on cardiovascular risk factors, although cardiac incapacitation is not a cause of accidents in a two-person cockpit aircraft. On the other hand, while pilot fatigue is an acknowledged cause of accidents, there is currently no requirement to consider issues associated with fatigue or sleep problems in fitness-to-fly medical assessments. Older long-haul pilots show greater sleep fragmentation than their younger colleagues and those in the general population. Sleep becomes more fragmented with increasing age, but the functional significance of this remains unclear. Among younger adults, experimental sleep fragmentation leads to increased sleepiness and degradation of performance and mood. Greater sleep loss is reported by older long-haul pilots, as well as other older shift workers, compared to younger people working similar duty patterns. Experimental sleep restriction causes a degradation of performance and mood that is cumulative and dose-dependent. In addition, a recent large-scale flight simulation study indicates that the duration of sleep obtained by individual pilots is an independent predictor of crew performance in a two-person cockpit. Based on these considerations, we propose that fatigue and sleep-related issues should become a standard part of fitness-for-work medical assessments, particularly for older shift workers. A multi-layered approach is proposed, with a routine structured sleep history leading to referral to specialist sleep services where appropriate. Criteria for specialist referral and medical retirement should be related to the workplace risk represented by an older worker. Additional research is needed to develop and validate sleep-related criteria for assessing fitness for work. For example, a better understanding of the effects of sleep fragmentation on the waking function of older workers might lead to a fragmentation threshold for fitness for work. The potential negative effects of unemployment and early retirement also need to be taken into account when considering the options for managing the occupational health and safety needs of older shift workers. PMID:18484361

  4. Personality factors predict sleep-related shift work tolerance in different shifts at 2-year follow-up: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Storemark, Sunniva Straume; Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Flo, Elisabeth; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the personality variables morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness could predict sleep-related shift work tolerance for the day, evening and night shifts, respectively. Design Prospective study design with questionnaires administered in winter 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2?years later in spring 2011 (wave 3). Setting Different healthcare institutions in Norway. Participants The sample comprised in all 700 nurses working a three-shift rotating schedule. Primary and secondary outcome measures The personality variables were assessed at wave 1, as were the demographic, lifestyle and work-related variables. Sleep-related shift work tolerance, assessed at wave 3, was measured separately for the day, evening and night shifts with the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire. Results Morningness was positively associated with sleep-related day shift tolerance (p<0.001). Flexibility was positively associated with sleep-related tolerance for the evening as well as night shift (p<0.001). Furthermore, languidity was negatively associated with sleep-related shift tolerance for the day, evening and night shifts (p<0.001, <0.01, <0.05, respectively). Hardiness was positively associated with sleep-related tolerance for the day, evening and night shifts (p<0.001, <0.01, <0.05, respectively). Age was negatively associated with sleep-related shift tolerance for the day, night (p<0.01) and evening shifts (p<0.001). Conclusions The findings indicate that hardiness and languidity predict sleep-related shift work tolerance across all shift types among shift working nurses. The effects of flexibility and morningness seem to depend on the shift schedule. By and large, our results are in accordance with previous studies; however, we have now demonstrated the prospective importance of personality in relation to sleep-related shift work tolerance across different shifts. PMID:24189084

  5. A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, K J; Day, A; Tranmer, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential pathways linking shift work and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), this study aimed to identify whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of CVD risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary-level, acute care teaching hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Participants Female hospital employees working a shift schedule of two 12?h days, two 12?h nights, followed by 5?days off (n=121) were compared with female day-only workers (n=150). Primary and secondary outcome measures Each of the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was measured. Of these, PSQI global score, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were examined as potential mediators in the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Results Shift work status was associated with poor (>5) PSQI global score (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.65), poor (?2) sleep latency (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.87) and poor (?2) sleep efficiency (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.84). Although shift work was associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.70), the measured components of sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Women working in a rapid forward rotating shift pattern have poorer sleep quality according to self-reported indicators of the validated PSQI and they have a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with women who work during the day only. However, sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that there are other psychophysiological pathways linking shift work to increased risk for CVD. PMID:25757950

  6. Polysomnographic Sleep and Circadian Temperature Rhythms as a Function of Prior Shift Work Exposure in Retired Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Billy, Bart D.; Fletcher, Mary E.; Kennedy, Kathy S.

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier published telephone interview study (n > 1,000) we have shown that retired shift workers subjectively report worse sleep than retired day workers. This laboratory study sought to determine whether these findings held up when objective polysomnograhic (PSG) measures of sleep were taken and whether retirees' circadian temperature rhythms differed as a function of shift work exposure. All completers of the telephone interview were invited to attend a 36-hour laboratory study for which participants were paid. This involved continuous core body temperature measurement (using an ingestible pill-based system) and 2 nights of PSG. Shift work exposure (plus other measures) was collected by taking a detailed work history. The second laboratory night was scored into sleep stages. Post hoc, we divided participants into 4 shift work exposure groups: 0 years (ie, no exposure to shift work), 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years. Sample sizes were 11, 16, 15, and 15, respectively, with approximate equality in mean age (71.7 years of age, 69.1 years of age, 70.0 years of age, and 70.4 years of age, respectively) and percent male (63%, 50%, 67%, and 73%, respectively). Shift work exposure was associated with worse PSG sleep in a dose-related fashion. The percentages of participants with sleep efficiency, 80% for the 0 years, 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years groups were 36%, 63%, 67%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01), and the percentages with total sleep time (TST), 6 hours were 36%, 56%, 53%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01). From the circadian rhythm record, shift work exposure appeared to result (P = 0.06) in an increased spread of phase angles (difference between habitual bedtime and time of temperature trough). In conclusion, it appears likely that shift work may be related to a scarring of sleep and circadian rhythms. This may be associated with a change in the relationship between habitual sleep timing and the phase of the circadian pacemaker. PMID:24062618

  7. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  8. Neural activation in arousal and reward areas of the brain in day-active and night-active grass rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castillo-Ruiz; J. P. Nixon; L. Smale; A. A. Nunez

    2010-01-01

    In the diurnal unstriped Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) access to a running wheel can trigger a shift in active phase preference, with some individuals becoming night-active (NA), while others continue to be day-active (DA). To investigate the contributions of different neural systems to the support of this shift in locomotor activity, we investigated the association between chronotype and Fos

  9. Split-night versus full-night studies for sleep apnoea\\/hypopnoea syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. McArdle; A. Grove; G. Devereux; L. Mackay-Brown; T. Mackay; N. J. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and treatment of sleep apnoea\\/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is placing increasing demands on healthcare resources. This workload may be reduced by using split-night studies instead of the standard full-nights of diagnostic polysomnography and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration. Split- night studies involve polysomnography in the first half of the night followed, if there is an abnormal frequency of apnoeas

  10. Shift Work Linked to Health Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152606.html Shift Work Linked to Health Problems Excess weight, sleep issues more common among those ... Medicine and Public Health, said in a Sleep Health journal news ... to experiencing sleep problems as their jobs require them to work night, ...

  11. Night Eating: Prevalence and Demographic Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko; Douglas Thompson; Sandra Affenito; Helena C. Kraemer

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of night eating, the core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome among adolescents and adults, using two public access survey databases of nationally representative samples.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were extracted for individuals age 13 years or older who completed food diary data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (N

  12. The night eating syndrome: a progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Stunkard; Kelly C. Allison; John P. O'Reardon

    2005-01-01

    The night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder marked by a delay in the circadian pattern of eating that disrupts sleep. Studies have shown that those with NES eat a significant proportion of their calories after their evening meal and wake up during the night to eat. However, the timing of the sleep cycles are phase appropriate, with similar

  13. Light Night: an “enlightening” place marketing experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Jiwa; J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak; Martin Blackwell; Toyubur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The Light Night initiative currently under development in the UK offers an innovative approach to revitalising town and city centres by involving residents and visitors through culture and the arts. This initiative is based on the successful Nuit Blanche (White Night) culture-led urban revitalisation model tested in cities like Brussels, Madrid, Montreal, Rome, São Paulo, Skopje and Toronto,

  14. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. PMID:25151314

  15. Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

  16. Overcoming Barriers to Workers' Education. Topic Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Dennis P.

    This booklet is intended to assist union representatives at plants in counseling workers who want to pursue college studies. Presented first is a hypothetical case study of a 37-year-old printer who would like to attend college at night but who is beset with time, family, and money problems. The remainder of the booklet consists of guidelines and…

  17. Optimizing the utilization of multiple labor shifts in construction projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dho Heon Jun; Khaled El-Rayes

    2010-01-01

    Evening and night shifts are often used in construction projects to accelerate schedules despite their negative impacts on construction cost and productivity. In order to minimize these negative impacts, this paper presents a multi-objective optimization model for scheduling multiple labor shifts in construction projects. The optimization model incorporates (1) an initialization module that initializes the scheduling optimization computations; (2) a

  18. [Effects of shift work schedule on mood changes among female nurses].

    PubMed

    Fukukawa, Yasuyuki; Nakashima, Chiori; Tsuboi, Satomi; Saito, Itsuko; Kosugi, Shotaro; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of shift work on mood changes. The subjects were 1,608 Japanese female nurses, working on rotating 3-shift schedules consisted of day, evening, and night shift. Repeated measurements of six dimensions of mood and sleep hours in four consecutive days were analyzed. Prominent changes of subjective fatigue, activity and confusion were observed especially when shift changes occurred (e.g., day shift to night shift or night shift to evening shift). The changes of mood were contingent to those of sleep hours, which suggested the close association between them. However, the mood changes were observed even after adjusting for the effect of sleep hours, indicating that irregular sleep pattern is not the only cause that affects mood. PMID:14708481

  19. Is transcriptomic regulation of berry development more important at night than during the day?

    PubMed

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

  20. Stick shift

    E-print Network

    Parness, Aaron J. (Aaron Joseph), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Stick Shift is a novel that has undergone several rounds of significant revision. Scott, the book's main character, is a sarcastic American who travels to England to move in with an ex-girlfriend. He experiences all of the ...

  1. Is light-at-night a health risk factor or a health risk predictor?

    PubMed

    Kantermann, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till

    2009-08-01

    In 2007, the IARC (WHO) has classified "shift-work that involves circadian disruption" as potentially carcinogenic. Ample evidence leaves no doubt that shift-work is detrimental for health, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not well understood. The hormone melatonin is often considered to be a causal link between night shift and tumor development. The underlying "light-at-night" (LAN) hypothesis is based on the following chain of arguments: melatonin is a hormone produced under the control of the circadian clock at night, and its synthesis can be suppressed by light; as an indolamine, it potentially acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals, which in turn can damage DNA, which in turn can cause cancer. Although there is no experimental evidence that LAN is at the basis of increased cancer rates in shiftworkers, the scenario "light at night can cause cancer" influences research, medicine, the lighting industry and (via the media) also the general public, well beyond shiftwork. It is even suggested that baby-lights, TVs, computers, streetlights, moonlight, emergency lights, or any so-called "light pollution" by urban developments cause cancer via the mechanisms proposed by the LAN hypothesis. Our commentary addresses the growing concern surrounding light pollution. We revisit the arguments of the LAN theory and put them into perspective regarding circadian physiology, physical likelihood (e.g., what intensities reach the retina), and potential risks, specifically in non-shiftworkers. PMID:19731106

  2. TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE

    E-print Network

    TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $3,299 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JUNE 6, 2013 PAPEETE with exceptional intimacy and warmth, Marina redefines the cruising experience: luxurious, yet refreshingly casual

  3. SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    SPLENDORS DOWN UNDER 16-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $6,499 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JUNE 20, 2013 the cruising experience: luxurious, yet refreshingly casual; spacious, yet comfortably intimate. With some

  4. TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    TAHITIAN JEWELS 10-NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE FROM $3,299 PER PERSON IF BOOKED BY JULY 17, 2013 PAPEETE redefines the cruising experience: luxurious, yet refreshingly casual; spacious, yet comfortably intimate

  5. Common Misconceptions about Day and Night, Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article describes common misconceptions held by elementary students about the cause of day and night and seasons. The article provides ideas for formative assessment, teaching strategies, and the National Science Education Standards.

  6. A. S. Pushkin (from Egyptian Nights)

    E-print Network

    Givental, Alexander

    your mind and move your soul. A talent must aspire for beauty. A poet of your self-esteem Has of youth, and charm, and wit, Would Desdemona love her Maure as The Moon adores the gloom of night? Because

  7. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  8. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers. PMID:15646248

  9. Shift Registers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Shift Registers, is the twelfth chapter in Volume IV â??Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Serial-in, serial-out shift register, Parallel-in, parallel-out shift register, and Ring counters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  10. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described, including novel hardware and countermeasures.

  11. NightSkyLive.net: Bringing the Night Sky into Your Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live

    2004-12-01

    Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.

  12. True-color night vision cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason; Gat, Nahum

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes True-Color Night Vision cameras that are sensitive to the visible to near-infrared (V-NIR) portion of the spectrum allowing for the "true-color" of scenes and objects to be displayed and recorded under low-light-level conditions. As compared to traditional monochrome (gray or green) night vision imagery, color imagery has increased information content and has proven to enable better situational awareness, faster response time, and more accurate target identification. Urban combat environments, where rapid situational awareness is vital, and marine operations, where there is inherent information in the color of markings and lights, are example applications that can benefit from True-Color Night Vision technology. Two different prototype cameras, employing two different true-color night vision technological approaches, are described and compared in this paper. One camera uses a fast-switching liquid crystal filter in front of a custom Gen-III image intensified camera, and the second camera is based around an EMCCD sensor with a mosaic filter applied directly to the sensor. In addition to visible light, both cameras utilize NIR to (1) increase the signal and (2) enable the viewing of laser aiming devices. The performance of the true-color cameras, along with the performance of standard (monochrome) night vision cameras, are reported and compared under various operating conditions in the lab and the field. In addition to subjective criterion, figures of merit designed specifically for the objective assessment of such cameras are used in this analysis.

  13. Frequency of sickness absence and worksite clinic visits among nurses as a function of shift.

    PubMed

    Colligan, M J; Frockt, I J; Tasto, D L

    1979-01-01

    The records of 1219 nurses on permanent day, afternoon, night and rotating shifts were examined to assess the effects of shift schedule on sick leave and frequency of worksite clinic visits. Relative to nurses on permanent shifts, rotators exhibited a significantly higher rate of clinic visits and took more sick days for serious illnesses. PMID:512553

  14. Frequency of sickness absence and worksite clinic visits among nurses as a function of shift.

    PubMed

    Colligan, M J; Frockt, I J; Tasto, D L

    1979-06-01

    The records of 1219 nurses on permanent day, afternoon, night and rotating shifts were examined to assess the effects of shift schedule on sick leave and frequency of worksite clinic visits. Relative to nurses on permanent shifts, rotators exhibited a significantly higher rate of clinic visits and took more sick days for serious illnesses. PMID:15676353

  15. Management of Knowledge Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans K. Hvide; Eirik Gaard Kristiansen

    2007-01-01

    We study how complementarities and intellectual property rights affect the management of knowledge workers. The main results relay when a firm will wish to sue workers that leave with innovative ideas, and the effects of complementary assets on wages and on worker initiative. We argue that firms strongly protected by property rights may not sue leaving workers in order to

  16. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  17. Nutritional Amblyopia Combined with Night Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; Campbell, Ashley A.; Semba, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling. PMID:23275794

  18. Solar power for the lunar night

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  19. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  20. Children Show Individual Night-to-Night Variability of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Picchietti, Matthew A.; Picchietti, Daniel L.; England, Sandra J.; Walters, Arthur S.; Couvadelli, Barbara V.; Lewin, Daniel S.; Hening, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: Several studies have documented the occurrence of significant night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the night-to-night variability of PLMS in children. Design and Measurements: Two to 4 nights of polysomnography were performed as part of a multisite, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of carbidopa/levodopa on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children who were not taking other medications that impacted the central nervous system. Baseline polysomnograms from all children and endpoint polysomnograms from children who were randomly assigned to a placebo group were scored using International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group criteria for PLMS. PLMS indexes from 101 sleep studies of 36 children, aged 7 to 12 years, were compared. Interventions: N/A. Results: For all 36 children as a group, PLMS index on Night 1 was predictive of PLMS index on Night 2 (odds ratio 7.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4-38.4), suggesting that overall diagnostic classification (PLMS index above or below 5/h) was accurate. In addition, for the 15 children with 5 or more PLMS per hour on either night, there was no significant group difference on Night 1 versus Night 2 for mean PLMS index (10.6 vs 8.5/h, P = 0.92) or chance of having 5 or more PLMS per hour, indicating no first-night effect. When looking at individual data, however, 9 of these 15 children (60%) had PLMS indexes over and under the 5 per hour cutoff on these 2 nights. Of these 15, 10 had clinical diagnoses of restless legs syndrome and 5 of periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). The PLMS indexes of all children who were medication free for a third and fourth night (n = 7) or just a third night (n = 2) and had not shown a PLMS index of 5 or greater on either of the first 2 nights remained under this threshold. Conclusions: In this sample of children, considerable individual night-to-night variability of PLMS indexes was observed. This finding has important clinical relevance for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and PLMD and may have an impact on future studies that correlate individual PLMS severity with frequently associated symptoms, such as negative affect, fatigue, and inattention. Our data, however, also suggest that individual PLMS variability is random and not likely to skew the group-level analysis of treatment outcome studies. Citation: Picchietti MA; Picchietti DL; England SJ; Walters AS; Couvadelli BV; Lewin DS; Hening W. Children show individual night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements in sleep. SLEEP 2009;32(4):530-535. PMID:19413147

  1. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  2. Night side electromagnetic response of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1973-01-01

    The inductive response of the moon to interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations has been measured by the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer. The dependence of the night side lunar response on frequency in the band from about 0.001 to 0.01 Hz is reported. It is shown that the night side response of the moon is not that of a sphere in vacuum. Instead, hydromagnetic radiation scattered from the moon is strongly confined to the interior of the cavity formed downstream from the moon in the solar wind.

  3. 78 FR 8587 - Heraeus Kulzer, LLC., Including On-Site Leased Workers from People Link Staffing, Forge Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...is to include all workers of the subject firm who were adversely affected by a shift in the production of dental products to Romania. Based on these findings, the Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from Career...

  4. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  5. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  6. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  7. Polar night operation at Dome C with

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Herber; A. Gröschke; V. Vitale; K. Strassmeier

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the Antarctic plateau are very sparse. Some AOD measurements were performed during austral summer but none during winter, although some night aerosol information has been gathered from Lidar measurements in the coastal areas. Satellite measurements are very difficult as a consequence of the low AOD values, the high surface reflectivity, and the long

  8. Dew Worms in the White Nights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew worm) forages, mates and migrates on the soil surface during the night. Its distribution covers a broad latitudinal gradient and variation in day length conditions. Since soil-surface activity is crucial for the survival and reproduction of dew worms, it is conceivab...

  9. Power from the Sun: Light at night

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Aarsse

    1984-01-01

    The basics of photovoltaic technology are explained. The application described in the paper is the lighting of a house during the night from energy generated and collected during the day. The aspects covered in a general fashion are the energy produced by a typical panel, the energy used in the house, different components and their placement, the wiring of the

  10. Reproductive health services for populations at high risk of HIV: Performance of a night clinic in Tete province, Mozambique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Lafort; Diederike Geelhoed; Luisa Cumba; Carla das Dores Mosse Lázaro; Wim Delva; Marleen Temmerman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different models exist to provide HIV\\/STI services for most-at-risk populations (MARP). Along the Tete traffic corridor in Mozambique, linking Malawi and Zimbabwe, a night clinic opening between 4 and 10 PM was established targeting female sex workers (FSW) and long-distance truck drivers (LDD). The clinic offers free individual education and counselling, condoms, STI care, HIV testing, contraceptive services and

  11. Night eating patterns of individuals with eating disorders: Implications for conceptualizing the night eating syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer D. Lundgren; Ashley McCune; Carrie Spresser; Paula Harkins; Lauren Zolton; Konoy Mandal

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating

  12. Evaluation of the Night Vision Spectacles on patients with impaired night vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Friedburg; Ludwig Serey; Lindsay T. Sharpe; Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski; Eberhart Zrenner

    1999-01-01

    · Background: The Night Vision Spectacles (NiViS) were developed by a consortium of European companies to assist individuals\\u000a who suffer from impaired night vision. They consist of a head-mounted video camera (input) and binocular displays (output)\\u000a connected to a portable computer processor, which uses an algorithm to enhance the luminance and contrast of the video image.\\u000a · Methods: Eighteen patients

  13. Discouraged Workers and Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Marc

    1974-01-01

    Older workers appear more sensitive to labor market conditions in discouragement trms as well as on regular measures of labor force participation. Thus, the age-mismatch group is especially important in the interpretation of discouraged worker patterns. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers

    PubMed Central

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mojahede; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Rahimian, Masoud; Ghove Nodoushan, Mohamad ali; Jafari Nodoushan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn’t find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group. Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers’ respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job. PMID:25664289

  15. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. PMID:23929553

  16. Night eating syndrome: Evaluation of two screening instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillon S. Vander Wal; Sandia M. Waller; David M. Klurfeld; Michael I. McBurney; Nikhil V. Dhurandhar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether night eating syndrome was associated with treatment outcomes during a brief weight loss intervention for self-identified night snackers, and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a screening question and the Night Eating Syndrome Questionnaire (NESQ) for the detection of night eating syndrome.Participants enrolled in a 4-week randomized clinical trial for

  17. Night Eating Syndrome: Impact on Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Colles; John B. Dixon

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with night eating syndrome (NES) display a time-delayed pattern of food intake, outside the natural circadian\\u000a rhythm. High prevalence estimates have been reported among bariatric surgery candidates, and some evidence suggests that NES\\u000a is positively associated with obesity, negatively associated with weight loss efficacy, and follows a chronic course. In order\\u000a to evaluate current NES theory, and the association

  18. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  19. Prevalence of Night Eating syndrome in select metro Detroit populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandia M Waller

    2008-01-01

    Night Eating may constitute a significant proportion of total daily energy intake and contribute to weight management problems for some individuals. Three studies were conducted to study night eating in metro Detroit subjects. Studies 1 and 2 were intervention studies in known overweight and obese night eaters at an obesity research affiliated clinic which tested the hypothesis that providing prescribed

  20. Prevalence of night eating syndrome in select metro Detroit populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandia M Waller

    2008-01-01

    Night Eating may constitute a significant proportion of total daily energy intake and contribute to weight management problems for some individuals. Three studies were conducted to study night eating in metro Detroit subjects. Studies 1 and 2 were intervention studies in known overweight and obese night eaters at an obesity research affiliated clinic. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that providing

  1. How much wrapping do babies need at night?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E Wigfield; P J Fleming; Y E Azaz; T E Howell; D E Jacobs; P S Nadin; R McCabe; A J Stewart

    1993-01-01

    In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C

  2. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  3. Behavioral management of night eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

  4. The night-eating syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V

    2012-06-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118

  5. Agomelatine efficacy in the night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (-5.5?kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

  6. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  7. Sleepiness, sleep, and use of sleepiness countermeasures in shift-working long-haul truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Pylkkönen, M; Sihvola, M; Hyvärinen, H K; Puttonen, S; Hublin, C; Sallinen, M

    2015-07-01

    Driver sleepiness is a prevalent phenomenon among professional drivers working unconventional and irregular hours. For compromising occupational and traffic safety, sleepiness has become one of the major conundrums of road transportation. To further elucidate the phenomenon, an on-road study canvassing the under-explored relationship between working hours and sleepiness, sleep, and use of sleepiness countermeasures during and outside statutory rest breaks was conducted. Testing the association between the outcomes and working hours, generalized estimating equations models were fitted on a data collected from 54 long-haul truck drivers (mean 38.1±10.5 years, one female) volunteering in the 2-week study. Unobtrusive data-collection methods applied under naturalistic working and shift conditions included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) measuring sleepiness, a combination of actigraphy and sleep-log measuring sleep, and self-report questionnaire items incorporated into the sleep-log measuring the use of sleepiness countermeasures during and outside statutory rest breaks. Drivers' working hours were categorized into first and consecutive night, morning and day/evening shifts based on shift timing. The results reveal severe sleepiness (KSS?7) was most prevalent on the first night (37.8%) and least on the morning (10.0%) shifts. Drivers slept reasonably well prior to duty hours, with main sleep being longest prior to the first night (total sleep time 7:21) and shortest prior to the morning (total sleep time 5:43) shifts. The proportion of shifts whereby drivers reported using at least one sleepiness countermeasure outside statutory rest breaks was approximately 22% units greater for the night than the non-night shifts. Compared to the day/evening shifts, the odds of severe sleepiness were greater only on the first night shifts (OR 6.4-9.1 with 95% confidence intervals, depending on the statistical model), the odds of insufficient daily sleep were higher especially prior to the consecutive night shifts (OR 3.5 with 95% confidence intervals), and the odds of using efficient sleepiness countermeasures outside statutory rest breaks were greater on the first as well as consecutive night shifts (OR 4.0-4.6 with 95% confidence intervals). No statistically significant association was found between shift type and use of efficient sleepiness countermeasures during statutory rest breaks. In all, the findings demonstrate marked differences in the occurrence of severe sleepiness at the wheel, sleep preceding duty hours, and the use of sleepiness countermeasures between different shift types. In addition, although drivers slept reasonably well in connection with different shift types, the findings imply there is still room for improvement in alertness management among this group of employees. PMID:25957933

  8. CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to helpCIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing 1 CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light-time Light Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2008 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York

  9. Objective Sleep Measures and Subjective Sleep Satisfaction: How Do Older Adults With Insomnia Define a Good Night’s Sleep?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between objective sleep measures and subjective sleep satisfaction was explored in a sample of 47 older adults (59 years and older; 35 women, 12 men) with primary insomnia. Participants submitted to all-night sleep evaluations (polysomnography) for 2 nights. After each night, participants provided subjective sleep-satisfaction ratings. Depth of sleep (decreased Stage 1 sleep and increased Stages 3 and

  10. Night eating patterns of individuals with eating disorders: implications for conceptualizing the night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; McCune, Ashley; Spresser, Carrie; Harkins, Paula; Zolton, Lauren; Mandal, Konoy

    2011-03-30

    The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8 years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating behavior and quality of life. NES was diagnosed in 25% of patients; significantly more patients diagnosed with BN meet criteria for NES compared to those diagnosed with AN. In general, patients with NES did not differ from patients without NES on eating behaviors, attitudes, or quality of life; symptoms of NES frequently co-occurred. This study supports previous research finding that night eating behavior is common in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:20826005

  11. Subjective health status of day and shift-working policemen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. OTTMANN; M. J. KARVONEN; K.-H. SCHMIDT; P. KNAUTH; J. RUTENFRANZ

    1989-01-01

    To assess the subjective health status of day- and shift-working police officers, a questionnaire-based study was carried out All the day-workers had previous shift experience. To control the age factor the total population of 2659 shift-working and 1303 day-working police officers was divided into four ten-year age classes. Factor analysis revealed that all the symptoms included in the questionnaire could

  12. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  13. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  14. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human" engineered for ease of operation. To meet the requirements of the U.S. Army, Baird is now developing the AN/PVS-7 goggle. The most significant difference from the GP/NVG goggle is the use of a third generation image intensifier tube in the AN/PVS-7 goggle. Other changes have also been made, but the general design is the same for both.

  15. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  16. Ambient and Biological Monitoring of Exposure and Genotoxic Effects in Mastic Asphalt Workers Exposed to Fumes of Bitumen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boleslaw Marczynski; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Anne Spickenheuer; Thomas Mensing; Peter Welge; Katrin Förster; Jürgen Angerer; Beate Pesch; Rainer Bramer; Heiko U. Käfferlein; Dietmar Breuer; Jens-Uwe Hahn; Thomas Brüning

    2007-01-01

    Mastic asphalt workers may be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in bitumen. We conducted a cross-shift study to determine genotoxic effects after exposure to bitumen. For this purpose, external and internal exposure of 202 mastic asphalt workers exposed to bitumen and 55 construction workers without exposure to bitumen was assessed. Exposure by inhalation to fumes of bitumen during

  17. Daily and Nightly Anxiety Among Patients Affected by Night Eating Syndrome and Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Sassaroli; Giovanni Maria Ruggiero; Piergiuseppe Vinai; Silvia Cardetti; Gabriella Carpegna; Noemi Ferrato; Paola Vallauri; Donatella Masante; Silvio Scarone; Sara Bertelli; Roberta Bidone; Luca Busetto; Simona Sampietro

    2009-01-01

    We tested if there were any differences about nocturnal and diurnal anxiety between patients either affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Night eating Syndrome (NES). Fifty four patients affected by BED, 13 by NES and 16 by both BED and NES were tested using the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). Their nocturnal eating

  18. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  19. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  20. The plasma concentration of copper and prevalence of depression were positively correlated in shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Yu; Tseng, Chin-Ho; Chiou, Ya-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have reported the prevalence of depression in shift nurses to be 15%, and in some cases it may even be as high as 23%. Depression is a major cause of poor sleep quality and can impede efforts to overcome the chronic fatigue that commonly affects shift nurses. Adverse mental health issues have been confirmed in shift nurses, but few studies have investigated the underlying cause of poor mental health in different shift-nurse populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum trace element levels to mental health and the tendency toward depression in shift nurses. We collected blood samples from 90 shift nurses (day, evening, and night shift) who worked in intensive care units and asked them to complete a general data questionnaire as well as the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition. The night-shift nurses showed mild-to-moderate depression levels, which were significantly higher than those of the control group and other shift nurses. Night-shift nurses also had higher levels of plasma copper, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-6, and alanine aminotransferase (p < .05) than the control group and other nurses. Elevated concentrations of ferritin and IL-6 are considered important markers for the onset of depression. The results of this study suggest that plasma copper concentrations in nurses should be monitored. PMID:23460604

  1. A longitudinal ethnographic study of night?freight pilots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Bennett

    2010-01-01

    This paper records the lived reality of night?freight operations at a UK?registered airline. Observations were made over an 18?month period. The paper answers calls for more research into the working and living conditions of night?freight pilots. Pilots perceived numerous issues. These included cultural cleavage, terms and conditions, roster instability and the impact of night flying on physical and psychological health.

  2. Occupational Disease and Workers’ Compensation: Coverage, Costs, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J Paul; Robbins, John A

    2004-01-01

    Most of the costs of occupational disease are not covered by workers’ compensation. First, the authors estimated the deaths and costs for all occupational disease in 1999, using epidemiological studies. Among the greatest contributors were job-related cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and circulatory disease. Second, the authors estimated the number of workers’ compensation cases, costs, and deaths for 1999, using data from up to 16 states representing all regions of the country. Unlike the epidemiological studies that emphasized fatal diseases, the workers’ compensation estimates emphasized nonfatal diseases and conditions like tendonitis and hernia. Comparisons of the epidemiological and workers’ compensation estimates suggest that in 1999, workers’ compensation missed roughly 46,000 to 93,000 deaths and $8 billion to $23 billion in medical costs. These deaths and costs represented substantial cost shifting from workers’ compensation systems to individual workers, their families, private medical insurance, and taxpayers (through Medicare and Medicaid). Designing policies to reduce the cost shifting and its associated inefficiency will be challenging. PMID:15595947

  3. Light-at-night-induced circadian disruption, cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Vinogradova, Irina A; Panchenko, Andrei V; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that "shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylurea and transplacental carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosoethylurea in rats. Treatment with melatonin prevented premature aging and tumorigenesis in rodents. The data found in the literature and our observations suggest that the use of melatonin would be effective for cancer prevention in humans at risk as a result of light pollution. PMID:23237593

  4. Night vision support devices: Human engineering integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, L. V.

    1985-12-01

    Although NVGs extend the luminance range over which vision can be used, current AN/PVS systems require special cockpit lighting to be fully effective, reduce visual depth of field and diminish the field of view. All three of these factors are extremely important to pilots performing night operations. The results of several operationally oriented efforts conducted by the U.S. Air Force to improve visual performance, cockpit lighting, and flight information transfer in conjunction with the use of NVGs are described. The efforts include an operational definition of NVG compatible lighting, a recommended approach to improving depth of focus, an attempt to expand field of view, and a description of a NVG HUD using optically injected flight data. All efforts center around using or modifying current AN/PVS NVGs used by US forces.

  5. Protein Adaptive Plasticity and Night Vision

    E-print Network

    J. C. Phillips

    2011-01-14

    Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized network criticality (SONC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently exponentially unlikely phenomena. Adaptive plasticity is a term which has become much more specific as a result of recent physiological and genetic studies. Here we show that the molecular properties of rhodopsin, the transmembrane protein associated with night vision, can be quantified species by species using the Moret-Zebende hydropathicity scale based on SONC. The results show that long-range adaptive plasticity optimizes proximate species molecular functionality far more effectively than one would infer using only standard amino acid sequence (local similarity) tools such as BLAST for multiple alignments. These results should be universal, and they suggest new paths for analyzing and predicting protein functionality from amino acid sequences alone.

  6. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  7. The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Navara, Kristen J; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result. PMID:17803517

  8. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  9. [Asthma among mink workers.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf; Sherson, David

    2014-09-29

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers. PMID:25294518

  10. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations. PMID:18569572

  11. The effect of SAS shoes on standing fatigue in light fabrication workers 

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Lee Norman

    1996-01-01

    A field study was conducted on light fabrication workers who worked 12-hour shifts to determine the effect of a high quality shoe, such as a SAS shoe, on standing fatigue. Nine participants (five male, four female) were ...

  12. 77 FR 71637 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...at least 20 percent of the production or sales of the workers...a)(2)(B) (shift in production or services) of the Trade...Tholstrup Cheese USA Inc... Norton Shores...31, 2011. Company, Wire Production Division, SSW Holding...

  13. Developing a near infrared based night vision system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bellotti; F. Bellotti; A. De Gloria; L. Andreone; M. Mariani

    2004-01-01

    Accidents occurring at night represent a significant part of the total number of road fatalities. Thus, intelligent systems for supporting the driver during night promise to have a significant impact on traffic safety. In particular, the second generation of such systems provide semantic, symbolic information in order to effectively draw the driver's attention towards the actual danger source. This paper

  14. Morning and Night People in the Family: A Preliminary Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert N.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary statement about morning and night people. The authors collected and analyzed married student responses to open-ended questions concerning "morningness" and "nightness" as factors influencing individual, marital, and family adjustment. This issue has both theoretical and practical significance for marriage and the…

  15. Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

  16. Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear June 2012 By Max Cacas, SIGNAL Magazine E with graphene. Page 1 of 4Wonder Material Brings New Light to Night-Vision Gear | SIGNAL Magazine 12/16/2013http of Science; and the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

  17. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bourget; Yann Guimond; John Franks; Marleen Van Den Bergh

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile

  18. DAY VS. NIGHT SAMPLING FOR SPIDERS IN GRAPE VINEYARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Costello; Kent M. Daane

    2005-01-01

    We compared day sampling (between 0700 and 1100) and night sampling (between 1900 and 2300) of spiders on grapevines in a California vineyard in 1993 and 1994, shaking spiders from the vines onto a drop cloth and vacuuming them up. Pooled density of the seven most abundant spider species did not differ significantly between day and night sampling, nor did

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Lodging. Course: Night Auditing Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, D.

    One of three individualized courses included in a lodging curriculum, this course covers the basic policies and procedures used by the night auditor in hotels and motels. The course is comprised of four units: (1) The Hand Transcript, (2) Balancing Cashier Totals, (3) Preparing the Night Audit, and (4) Auditing on Miscellaneous Machines. Each unit…

  20. Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other Absence Behaviour at an Oil Refinery from 1962 to 1965

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of continuous process shift work in modern industry, few studies on the medical aspects of shift work can be found in recent literature of occupational health. Physiologists have shown that the ability of the body to adjust its circadian rhythms to alteration in hours of work or sleep can take up to a month. The usual type of shift work in industry involves weekly changes of hours, and thus on theoretical grounds at least this may not be the most suitable frequency for shift changes. Sickness absence of male refinery workers has been studied over a four-year period. The figures show that continuous three-cycle shift workers have consistently and significantly lower rates of sickness than day workers in similar occupations. The annual inception rate (spells) standardized for age was 108% for shift workers and 182% for day workers, and the average annual duration per man was 11 days for shift workers and 18 days for day workers, although the average length of spell was slightly longer among shift workers. As far as is known, such a difference has not been described before in detail. Age-related lateness and absenteeism have been measured and show similar wide differences between the two groups. Although both types of worker are largely self-selected, the difference is not due to medical selection or to an excess of any one type of disease in day workers. Over three-quarters of 150 shift workers interviewed stated that they preferred shift work hours and that sleeping difficulties were not common. It is suggested that the main reasons for the difference between shift and day workers' sickness absence lie in the degree of personal involvement in the work and in the social structure of the working group. PMID:6023084

  1. Serotonin phase-shifts the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Page, T L

    1987-01-01

    Serotonin, a putative neurotransmitter in insects, was found to cause consistent phase shifts of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae when administered during the early subjective night as a series of 4-microliters pulses (one every 15 min) for either 3 or 6 hr. Six-hour treatments with dopamine also caused significant phase shifts during the early subjective night, but 3-hr treatments with dopamine had no phase-shifting effect. Other substances tested in early subjective night (norepinephrine, octopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, carbachol, histamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, N-acetyl serotonin, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid) did not consistently cause phase shifts. The phase-shifting effect of serotonin was found to be phase-dependent. The phase response curve (PRC) for serotonin treatments was different from the PRC for light. Like light, serotonin caused phase delays in the late subjective day and early subjective night, but serotonin did not phase-shift rhythms when tested at phases where light causes phase advances. PMID:2979649

  2. Counseling the Disestablished Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Gordon; Miller, B. Jaynn

    1983-01-01

    Describes a career counseling program to assist Canadian workers unemployed due to plant closures. The program included assessment, career clarification, and job search techniques delivered during a series of group workshops and individual counseling sessions. (JAC)

  3. Protecting Temporary Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... essential that both employers comply with all relevant OSHA requirements." David Michaels, PhD, MPH, Assistant Secretary of ... training and safety and health protections. How can OSHA help? Workers have a right to a safe ...

  4. Downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity increases the gustatory responsiveness of honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gro V. Amdam; Kari Norberg; Robert E. Page; Joachim Erber; Ricarda Scheiner

    2006-01-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), young workers usually perform tasks in the nest while older workers forage in the field. The behavioral shift from nest-task to foraging activity is accompanied by physiological and sensory changes so that foragers can be characterized by a higher juvenile hormone (JH) level, a lower vitellogenin protein titer, and an increased responsiveness to water

  5. Interdependence in worker productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Herries; Daniel I. Rees; Jeffrey S. Zax

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates interactions between co-worker productivity levels in a rich empirical context. Workers have unambiguous output measures, compensation that depends on individual and group output to differing degrees and potential peers beyond their immediate work group. Important productivity interdependencies exist, which could arise from the group-based component of compensation, peer pressure, common supervisors or information exchanges, but not group-based

  6. The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ): Psychometric properties of a measure of severity of the Night Eating Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Allison; Jennifer D. Lundgren; John P. O'Reardon; Nicole S. Martino; David B. Sarwer; Thomas A. Wadden; Ross D. Crosby; Scott G. Engel; Albert J. Stunkard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) as a measure of severity of the Night Eating Syndrome (NES). The 14-item NEQ assesses the behavioral and psychological symptoms of NES. The NEQ was evaluated in three samples: 1980 persons who completed the NEQ on the Internet; 81 persons diagnosed with NES; and 194 bariatric surgery

  7. Night-to-night changes in the characteristics of gravity waves at stratospheric and lower-mesospheric heights

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Night-to-night changes in the characteristics of gravity waves at stratospheric and lower to investigate the changes in the vertical propagation of gravity waves during periods of 4 days in June 1995 Rayleigh lidar á MST radar systems á Radiosondes á Gravity waves 1 Introduction Early studies recognised

  8. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  9. Big Bangs in the Night Sky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell L. Collins

    2002-01-01

    The big bang theory of the universe holds that we exist amidst the remnants of a single huge explosion about 15 billion years ago. Absent acceleration, the recession velocity v between any two remnants (galaxies) is proportional to the present distance. This is the Hubble law, v=Hr, where H≈ 65 km\\/sec\\/megaparsec. For small velocities, one can use the red shift,

  10. Night vision imaging system lighting evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.; Barbato, Maryann H.; Hausmann, Martha A.

    2005-05-01

    In order for night vision goggles (NVGs) to be effective in aircraft operations, it is necessary for the cockpit lighting and displays to be NVG compatible. It has been assumed that the cockpit lighting is compatible with NVGs if the radiance values are compliant with the limits listed in Mil-L-85762A and Mil-Std-3009. However, these documents also describe a NVG-lighting compatibility field test procedure that is based on visual acuity. The objective of the study described in this paper was to determine how reliable and precise the visual acuity-based (VAB) field evaluation method is and compare it to a VAB method that employs less expensive equipment. In addition, an alternative, objective method of evaluating compatibility of the cockpit lighting was investigated. An inexpensive cockpit lighting simulator was devised to investigate two different interference conditions and six different radiance levels per condition. This paper describes the results, which indicate the objective method, based on light output of the NVGs, is more precise and reliable than the visual acuity-based method. Precision and reliability were assessed based on a probability of rejection (of the lighting system) function approach that was developed specifically for this study.

  11. Gear shift control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, D.A.

    1987-03-10

    A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

  12. Job Security: An Issue of Primacy among Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Walter H.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses factors which affect the rate of productivity (the end of the farm-to-nonfarm shift, increased foreign competition, more highly educated workforce, rising cost of energy). Also discusses worker concerns over job security and how these concerns are reflected in union demands. (CT)

  13. The night sky brightness at Potsdam-Babelsberg

    E-print Network

    Puschnig, Johannes; Posch, Thomas; Schwarz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the results of a 2 years (2011--2012) time series of night sky photometry performed at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam (AIP). This observatory is located on top of a hill ("Babelsberg"), 22\\,km to the southwest of the center of Berlin. The measurements have been performed with a Unihedron Sky Quality Meter. We find night sky brightness values ranging from 16.5 to 20.3 mag$_{\\rm SQM}$ arcsec$^{-2}$; the latter (best) value corresponds to 4.7 times the natural zenithal night sky brightness. We discuss the influence of clouds, of the Moon and other factors on the night sky brightness. With respect to the influence of the Moon, it turns out that Potsdam-Babelsberg, despite its proximity to Berlin, still shows a circalunar periodicity of the night sky brightness, although it is much weaker than naturally. The light-pollution-enhancing effect of clouds dominates the night sky brightness by far. Overcast nights with light pollution (up to 16.5 mag$_{\\rm SQM}$ arcsec$^{-2}$) are brighter ...

  14. Night or darkness, which intensifies the feeling of fear?

    PubMed

    Li, Yadan; Ma, Wenjuan; Kang, Qin; Qiao, Lei; Tang, Dandan; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Nighttime fear is a phenomenon in which people feel more afraid of threats at night. Despite the vast amount of psychological research on nighttime fear, previous researchers have not accurately distinguished between "night" and "darkness", both of which play important roles in nighttime fear. We collected physiological (skin conductance response and heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data simultaneously to investigate the effects of "night" and "darkness" on fearful feelings and whether these effects were moderated by the mode of stimulus delivery (i.e., visual or auditory). Specifically, two tasks were employed in which time (day vs. night), illumination (light vs. darkness) and stimulus type (fearful vs. neutral) were manipulated. Participants (n=128) were exposed to visual and auditory oddball tasks consisting of fearful and neutral stimuli. The results indicated that there were significant increases in fear responses at night, and the difference between day and night was significant for fear stimuli but not for neutral events. Furthermore, these effects were consistent over different sensory modalities (visual and auditory). The results of this study underscore the importance of the day-night cycle in fear-related information processing and suggest that further attention needs to be paid to the influence of the biological circadian rhythm on these processes. The current findings could inform a deeper understanding of anxiety and fear-related disorders, and thus, we invite future studies to illuminate the underlying neurobiological mechanisms therein. PMID:25957698

  15. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  16. What Makes Day and Night? The Earth's Rotation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about day and night as a result of the Earth's rotation. Learners will first identify what they already know about day, night, and rotation and will be asked to share any questions they may have. Then, a book is read out loud in class and students are asked to identify relevant and important vocabulary words. On day two of this activity, learners will act as the Earth in creating a kinesthetic model of the day and night rotation. Lastly, learners will identify what was learned and complete a worksheet. This is Activity 5 of a larger resource entitled Eye on the Sky.

  17. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be featured (www.darksky.org/int-l-dark-sky-week-main) and The World at Night will co-host the sixth annual International Earth and Sky Photo Contest (www.TWANight.org/contest).The poster will provide further updates.

  18. Channel at Night in Thermal Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime thermal infrared image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows differences in temperature that are due to differences in the abundance of rocks, sand and dust on the surface. Rocks remain warm at night, as seen in the warm (bright) rim of the five kilometer (three mile) diameter crater located on the right of this image.

    The sinuous channel floor is cold, suggesting that it is covered by material that is more finely grained than the surrounding plains. The interior of the crater shows a great deal of thermal structure, indicating that the distribution of rocks, sand and dust varies across the floor.

    The presence of rocks on the rim and inner wall indicates that this crater maintains some of its original character, despite erosion and deposition by Martian winds. Nighttime infrared images such as this one will greatly aid in mapping the physical properties of Mars' surface.

    This image is centered at 2 degrees north, 0.4 degrees west, and was acquired at about 3:15 a.m. local Martian time. North is to the right of the image.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Educating workers about tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, L H; Rosen, J D

    1994-01-01

    At a state penitentiary, workers are told that the communicable disease unit is a safe environment in which to work due to the negative air pressure in the isolation rooms and the improved ventilation system. However, nobody is trained to monitor the system or understands the role of negative air pressure, and isolation room doors are occasionally left open. As a result, workers are reluctant to work in the unit. At a soup kitchen, workers refuse to serve people with HIV due to fear of tuberculosis transmission. They have heard that people infected with HIV are likely to have TB and, therefore, to protect themselves, they feel the soup kitchen should not serve people with HIV. In a large, urban social service agency, workers buy masks and begin wearing them to work when they hear a coworker has tuberculosis. Pictures of them in the newspaper instigate a string of similar actions in other agencies. Emergency room workers in a city hospital have been told they are not at increased risk of contracting TB, because they do not have prolonged contact with infectious patients. However, when they discover that several coworkers tested positive on PPD screening tests, they go to their union demanding action. PMID:7878495

  20. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, W.T. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies; Henneberger, P.K. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies; Martyny, J. [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States)] [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States); Ellis, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health] [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); Newman, L.S. [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers` clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers` hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 {micro}g/ft{sup 2} on workers` hands and up to 714 {micro}g/fg{sup 2} inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers` vehicles were found on the drivers` floor (GM = 19 {micro}g/ft{sup 2}, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  1. RSFQ circular shift registers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cess A. Mancini; Nada Vukovic; Andrea M. Herr; Kris Gaj; Mark F. Bocko; Marc J. Feldman

    1997-01-01

    The circular shift register is a versatile building block for RSFQ digital circuits. It can be used for local memory and it is essential for the proposed implementation of residue number system arithmetic. It is surprising that the successful recurrent operation of such a shift register has never been reported m the RSFQ literature. Circular shift registers have a design

  2. Monitoring of workers exposed to a mixture of toluene, styrene and methanol vapours by means of diffusive air sampling, blood analysis and urinalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Kawai; Tomojiro Yasugi; Kazunori Mizunuma; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Ikuharu Morioka; Kazuhisa Miyashita; Yoko Uchida; Masayuki Ikeda

    1992-01-01

    Summary Exposure of 34 male workers to combined toluene, styrene and methanol was monitored by personal diffusive sampling of solvent vapours in breathing zone air, analysis of shift-end blood for the 3 solvents and analysis of shift-end urine for hippuric, mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids and methanol. The exposure of most of the workers was below current occupational exposure limits. Regression

  3. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function in confectionery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in a group of 288 workers (259 women and 29 men) employed in a confectionery plant. A group of workers (96 women and 31 men) not exposed to confectionery manufacture were also studied as controls. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was higher in exposed than in control workers, being greatest for confectionery workers exposed to the dust of flour, talc, and starch and the vapours of alcohol. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 7% of the women and 21% of the men, and chest tightness was reported by 27% of women and 66% of men. There was a high prevalence of acute irritative symptoms during the workshift in all groups of confectionery workers, especially for cough, dyspnoea, burning and dryness of the throat, and eye irritation. For all groups of confectionery workers there were statistically significant across shift reductions in ventilatory capacity, being most pronounced for maximum flow rate at 50% of the control vital capacity (FEF50; range 4.6-13.0%) and at 25% of the control vital capacity (FEF25; range 4.7-22.3%). Preshift values of FEF50 and FEF25 were significantly lower than predicted values. The data suggest that some workers employed in confectionery plants may develop acute and chronic respiratory symptoms associated with changes in lung function. PMID:8044240

  4. Neurobehavioral performance in workers exposed to toluene.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Rohlman, Diane S; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye-Sil; Chung, Soo-Young; Anger, W Kent

    2005-05-01

    Toluene is widely used in adhesive, printing, painting and petroleum industries in many countries. This study was conducted to examine the effect of chronic exposure to toluene below 100ppm on neurobehavioral performance using a computerized neurobehavioral test battery that emphasizes simple instructions and practice prior to testing. The Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with Korean language instructions was administered to 54 workers from three different industries: oil refinery, gravure printing, and rubber boat manufacturing. The battery consisted of the following tests: Digit Span (DS), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Selective Attention (SAT), Finger Tapping (FT), and Symbol Digit (SD). Urine was collected at the end-of-shift to analyze urinary hippuric acid to assess exposure level to toluene. Based on the previous air toluene level, workers were divided into three groups: Low (21 workers, less than 10ppm), Moderate (13 workers, 20-30ppm) and High (20 workers, 70-80ppm) exposure status. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) adjusting for age, education and work duration as covariates, was performed to examine the relationship between the neurobehavioral performance and the exposure groups. Poorer performance of the High exposure group was found on FT-preferred (F=7.034, p=0.002) and SAT latency (F=11.710, p=0.000). Age showed a significant correlation with SD (r=0.417, p=0.002) and SAT number correct (r=-0.460, p=0.000). Years of education and work duration were not significantly correlated with any items. This study supports that toluene exposure below 100ppm is associated with neurobehavioral changes and that high-level toluene exposure could cause not only attention and concentration, but also motor performance deficits. PMID:21783537

  5. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night - Duration: 82 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  6. 11 NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE 3,117per person

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    11 NIGHT LUXURY CRUISE from $ 3,117per person INCLUDING AIRFARE! 2-FOR-1 CRUISE FARES FREE AIRFARE is luxurious yet refreshingly casual, spacious yet comfortably intimate. And with some of the best cuisine

  7. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  8. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dark at ?0?lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16?h light at ?150?lux/8?h dim light at ?5?lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

  9. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  10. Effects of street traffic noise in the night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.

  11. Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, unravels the riddle of the dark night sky, known as Olbers' Paradox. It walks students through the history of various proposed solutions from 1610 to the present.

  12. Olber's Paradox: Why Is The Sky Dark at Night?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Soter, Steven

    This website from the American Museum of Natural History provides a description of Olbersâ?? Paradox which poses the question of why the sky is dark at night. The site presents an explanation for why a bright night sky would be expected but is not present and also describes the development of the paradox. Implications about the age of the Universe and its expansion are included.

  13. NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept

    E-print Network

    Parker, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    NIGHTCOOL: AN INNOVATIVE RESIDENTIAL NOCTURNAL RADIATION COOLING CONCEPT Danny S. Parker John Sherwin Principal Research Scientist Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Using a...-efficiency applications. On a clear desert night, a typical sky-facing surface at 27°C will cool at a rate of about 75 W/m 2 . In a humid climate with the greater atmospheric moisture, the rate drops to about 60 W/m 2 (Martin and Berdahl, 1984) Night- time cloud...

  14. Intensivists at night: putting resources in the right place

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the past 50 years, caring for the critically ill has become increasingly complex and the need for an intensivist has become more evident. Management by intensivists has become a quality indicator for many ICUs. Numerous small studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of intensivists on outcomes in the critically ill, and some clinicians have advanced the argument that a night-time intensivist is essential for the care of critically ill patients. In response, many institutions have hired full-time intensivists for both day and night coverage in the ICU. Two recent studies have been conducted that make a compelling argument for redirecting funding of night-time intensivists to areas of greater need in health care. In a retrospective analysis of a large database that involved more than 65,000 patients, no benefit of night-time intensivists could be found in ICUs where care is managed by intensivists during the day. Only in ICUs where management by intensivists is not mandated could a beneficial impact on mortality be found. The second study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effect of night-time intensivists on length of stay, mortality, and other outcomes and was a negative trial. In this methodologically rigorous trial, there was no difference in outcomes between the intensivist and control group, which consisted of in-house resident coverage at night with availability by telephone of fellows and intensivists. These two robust studies clearly suggest that night-time intensivists do not improve mortality in ICUs managed by intensivists during the day. Though possibly beneficial in low-intensity environments, the widespread drive to add night-time intensivist coverage may have been premature. PMID:24120020

  15. 77 FR 67403 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...at least 20 percent of the production or sales of the workers...a)(2)(B) (shift in production or services) of the Trade...Holdings, Inc., Ralcorp Snacks, Sauces and Spreads Division...a)(2)(B) (shift in production or services to a foreign...

  16. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, S. (Production Training Center, Commonwealth Edison Co. (US))

    1989-01-01

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication.

  17. Risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain and prognostic factors for return to work in a cohort of shipyard workers

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Tanagra, Dimitra; Burdorf, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for the occurrence of sickness absence due to low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate prognostic factors for return to work. A longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up was conducted among 853 shipyard workers. The cohort was drawn around January 2004 among employees in the shipyard industry. Baseline information was obtained by questionnaire on physical and psychosocial work load, need for recovery, perceived general health, musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and health care use during the past year. During the 1-year follow-up for each subject medical certifications were retrieved for information on the frequency and duration of spells of sickness absence and associated diagnoses. Cox regression analyses were conducted on occurrence and on duration of sickness absence with hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) as measure of association. During the 1-year follow-up period, 14% of the population was on sick leave at least once with LBP while recurrence reached 41%. The main risk factors for sickness absence were previous absence due to a health problem other than LBP (HR 3.07; 95%CI 1.66–5.68) or previous sickness absence due to LBP (HR 6.52; 95%CI 3.16–13.46). Care seeking for LBP and lower educational level also hold significant influences (HR 2.41; 95%CI 1.45–4.01 and HR 2.46; 95%CI 1.19–5.07, respectively). Living with others, night shift and supervising duties were associated with less absenteeism due to LBP. Workers with a history of herniated disc had a significantly decreased rate of returning to work, whereas those who suffered from hand-wrist complaints and LBP returned to work faster. Prior sick leave due to LBP partly captured the effects of work-related physical and psychosocial factors on occurrence of sick leave. Our study showed that individual and job characteristics (living alone, night shift, lower education, sick leave, or care seeking during the last 12 months) influenced the decision to take sick leave due to LBP. An increased awareness of those frequently on sick leave and additional management after return to work may have a beneficial effect on the sickness absence pattern. PMID:18649089

  18. Doctoring the Knowledge Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

  19. Training Alaska Pipeline Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The Government, unions, and employers in Alaska are walking a thin line between training enough pipeline workers to meet current demands, and training too many for jobs that may not exist four or five years from now. The article surveys training programs which stress job opportunities for the State's natives. (Author/AJ)

  20. Talent Report: What Workers

    E-print Network

    important are "impact jobs", values, and corporate responsibility and sustainability? Will employees make of corporate social responsibility exists in the country as a whole among college- educated workers -- those to which the desire to make a contribution to society affects people's choices, especially those made

  1. Georgia's "Older Worker Specialists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, John V.; Barbour, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Referral/Employment Network for Elderly Workers (RENEW) in Georgia funded by the Department of Labor under Title IX of the Older Americans Act. The program recruits and trains older people (over age 55) to help other seniors find jobs. (MF)

  2. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling

  3. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  4. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Selikoff; M. M. Key; D. H. K. Lee

    1972-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the human respiratory tract are reviewed in relation to factors influencing coal dust retention and the etiology of pneumoconiosis in coal workers. The extent and distribution of the disease world-wide is discussed, and physiological and radiological diagnostic tests and methods of treatment are reviewed. Methods for the control of coal dust in mines, standards in

  5. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  6. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  7. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers. PMID:22252612

  8. Effect of carbohydrates and night temperature on night respiration in rice.

    PubMed

    Peraudeau, Sébastien; Lafarge, Tanguy; Roques, Sandrine; Quiñones, Cherryl O; Clement-Vidal, Anne; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Van Rie, Jeroen; Fabre, Denis; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Global warming causes night temperature (NT) to increase faster than day temperature in the tropics. According to crop growth models, respiration incurs a loss of 40-60% of photosynthate. The thermal sensitivity of night respiration (R n) will thus reduce biomass. Instantaneous and acclimated effects of NT on R n of leaves and seedlings of two rice cultivars having a variable level of carbohydrates, induced by exposure to different light intensity on the previous day, were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and growth chambers, with R n measured on the youngest fully expanded leaves or whole seedlings. Dry weight-based R n was 2.6-fold greater for seedlings than for leaves. Leaf R n was linearly related to starch (positive intercept) and soluble sugar concentration (zero intercept). Increased NT caused higher R n at a given carbohydrate concentration. The change of R n at NT increasing from 21 °C to 31 °C was 2.4-fold for the instantaneous response but 1.2- to 1.7-fold after acclimation. The maintenance component of R n (R m'), estimated by assimilate starvation, averaged 28% in seedlings and 34% in leaves, with no significant thermal effect on this ratio. The acclimated effect of increased NT on R m' across experiments was 1.5-fold for a 10 °C increase in NT. No cultivar differences were observed in R n or R m' responses. The results suggest that the commonly used Q10=2 rule overestimates thermal response of respiration, and R n largely depends on assimilate resources. PMID:25954047

  9. Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers February 2001 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... workers' bodies workers' earnings growers' profits Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers [PDF - 1,521 KB] Print ...

  10. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Takaro; Jordan Firestone

    2009-01-01

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public

  11. Factory Workers and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Emanuel

    1980-01-01

    The reflections of worker-students at United Auto Workers Local 686 who participated in the humanities curriculum for adults developed at State University of New York College in Buffalo are presented. Most of the workers said they would never again be satisfied with their lives, especially their worklives. (Author/MLW)

  12. Older Workers. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    An increasing proportion of the work force is aging at the same time that the workplace is changing in ways that are detrimental to older workers. Attitudes and beliefs about older workers appear to be ambivalent. Studies show that employers and managers stereotype older workers as loyal and possessing good work habits but inflexible and difficult…

  13. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Includes Raises for Clinical Social Workers Social Workers’ Perceptions of Workforce Challenges Survey NASW is revising its ... 50A937A0-9CB9-4432-BB3E-65FCB0B4DE9B', layer: ' Social Workers’ Perceptions of Workforce Challenges Survey In our continuing effort ...

  14. Worker Knowledge of Pension Provisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia S. Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    This article evaluates the quality of workers' information regarding pension offerings using both administrative records and worker repor ts of pension provisions. Missing and incorrect information is widesp read. Unionized employees, higher income workers, better educated wor kers, and those with seniority are better informed about their pensio ns. There are also demographic differences: minorities have less pens ion knowledge

  15. Dark or Short Nights: Differential Latitudinal Constraints in Nestling Provisioning Patterns of a Nocturnally Hunting Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Korpimäki, Erkki; Griesser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50°N; Finland 63°N) with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1±0.1; FIN: 6.6±0.1), but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5±0.3; FIN: 3.9±0.2). Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of ?11° to ?15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from ?17° in April to ?14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from ?11° in April to ?1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min) than Finnish males (270 min). This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations. PMID:22615850

  16. Inhalation and dermal exposure among asphalt paving workers.

    PubMed

    McClean, M D; Rinehart, R D; Ngo, L; Eisen, E A; Kelsey, K T; Herrick, R F

    2004-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify determinants of inhalation and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt paving workers. The study population included three groups of highway construction workers: 20 asphalt paving workers, as well as 12 millers and 6 roadside construction workers who did not work with hot-mix asphalt. During multiple consecutive work shifts, personal air samples were collected from each worker's breathing zone using a Teflon filter and cassette holder connected in series with an XAD-2 sorbent tube, while dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrist. All exposure samples were analyzed for PACs, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Inhalation and dermal PAC exposures were highest among asphalt paving workers. Among paving workers, inhalation and dermal PAC exposures varied significantly by task, crew, recycled asphalt product (RAP) and work rate (inhalation only). Asphalt mix containing high RAP was associated with a 5-fold increase in inhalation PAC exposures and a 2-fold increase in dermal PAC exposure, compared with low RAP mix. The inhalation PAC exposures were consistent with the workers' proximity to the primary source of asphalt fume (paver operators > screedmen > rakers > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among paver operators (5.0 microg/m3, low RAP; 24 microg/m3, high RAP) were 12 times higher than among roller operators (0.4 microg/m3, low RAP; 2.0 microg/m3, high RAP). The dermal PAC exposures were consistent with the degree to which the workers have actual contact with asphalt-contaminated surfaces (rakers > screedmen > paver operators > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among rakers (175 ng/cm2, low RAP; 417 ng/cm2, high RAP) were approximately 6 times higher than among roller operators (27 ng/cm2, low RAP; 65 ng/cm2, high RAP). Paving task, RAP content and crew were also found to be significant determinants of inhalation and dermal exposure to pyrene. The effect of RAP content, as well as the fact that exposures were higher among paving workers than among millers and roadside construction workers, suggests that the PAC and pyrene exposures experienced by these paving workers were asphalt-related. PMID:15509633

  17. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  18. Healthcare workers and the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Serour, Gamal I

    2009-08-01

    The brain drain of health workers occurs mostly from low- and low/middle-income countries to resource-rich countries and from rural to urban areas. Shortage and uneven distribution of healthcare workers aggravated by the brain drain from Africa, Asia, and Pacific countries has contributed to impaired reproductive and sexual health services and the high rate of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity in these counties. Brain drain impedes maternal, neonatal, and child health and the fight against HIV/AIDS, and translates into loss of potential employers, teachers, and role models. Source countries spend US$ 500 million each year to educate health workers who leave their home countries for North America, Western Europe, and South Asia. A code of practice on international recruitment of health personnel is needed. Improving the health workforce database, wages, health resources and working conditions, task shifting, pay-back from recipient countries and migrant health professionals, securing additional investment in the health workforce, and the development of locally relevant medical training and research are useful measures to combat this problem. PMID:19535068

  19. Effects of shift work on QTc interval and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Murata; Eiji Yano; Hideki Hashimoto; Kanae Karita; Miwako Dakeishi

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: There is evidence that shift work contributes to excess cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of shift work on heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) and blood pressure in relation to heart rate variability (CVRR). Methods: The study population consisted of 153 male shiftworkers and 87 male day workers who were employed at a copper-smelting

  20. Full-time workers reach out to the villages.

    PubMed

    Sobrevinas, R V

    1977-06-01

    The Philippine Commission on Population (Popcom) has fielded 2721 fulltime outreach workers (FTOWs). The FTOWs are the outcome of a shift from a clinic-based, motivation-oriented family planning effort to the Rural Outreach Program which is part of the new Total Integrated Development Approach (TIDA). Organizationally, the workers are under local government supervision and their purpose is to make the family planning program more responsive to community needs. This article profiles the average FTOW, describes recruitment and training procedures and discusses problems of the program -- funding, transportation, inadequate training, lack of educational materials, shortage of contraceptive supplies -- and possible solutions. PMID:12278132

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

    2010-01-01

    Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon H. Thompson; Rita DiGioacchino DeBate

    2009-01-01

    Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating syndrome in other populations; therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study

  3. Considerations of circadian impact for defining ‘shift work’ in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G Stevens; Johnni Hansen; Giovanni Costa; Erhard Haus; Timo Kauppinen; Kristan J Aronson; Gemma Castaño-Vinyals; Scott Davis; Monique H W Frings-Dresen; Lin Fritschi; Manolis Kogevinas; Kazutaka Kogi; Jenny-Anne Lie; Arne Lowden; Beata Peplonska; Beate Pesch; Eero Pukkala; Eva Schernhammer; Ruth C Travis; Roel Vermeulen; Tongzhang Zheng; Vincent Cogliano; Kurt Straif

    2010-01-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human

  4. Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Affects Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Meléndez-Fernández, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. PMID:23929553

  5. Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed?Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

  6. The impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on IL-6 and TNF-? immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    AIM Sleep disturbances induce proinflammatory immune responses, which might increase cardiovascular disease risk. So far the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep illnesses on the immune system have been investigated. The particular impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on specific immune responses has not been addressed so far. Methods Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index (PSQI) questionnaire and blood sampling was performed by 225 shift workers and 137 daytime workers. As possible markers the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? and lymphocyte cell count were investigated. A medical examination was performed and biometrical data including age, gender, height, weight, waist and hip circumference and smoking habits were collected by a structured interview. Results Shift workers had a significantly higher mean PSQI score than day workers (6.73 vs. 4.66; p < 0.001). Day workers and shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6 (2.30 vs. 2.67 resp.; p = 0.276), TNF-? (5.58 vs. 5.68, resp.; p = 0.841) or lymphocytes count (33.68 vs. 32.99, resp.; p = 0.404). Furthermore there were no differences in cytokine levels (IL-6 p = 0.761; TNF-? p = 0.759) or lymphocyte count (p = 0.593) comparing the sleep quality within the cohorts. When this calculation of sleep quality was stratified by shift and day workers irrespective of their sleep quality day workers and shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6, TNF-? or lymphocytes count. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation of lymphocytes count and smoking habits. Conclusion Shift work induces chronic sleep debt. Our data reveals that chronic sleep debt might not always lead to an activation of the immune system, as we did not observe differences in lymphocyte count or level of IL-6 or TNF-? serum concentration between shift workers and day workers. Therefore chronic sleep restriction might be eased by a long-term compensating immune regulation which (in healthy) protects against an overstimulation of proinflammatory immune mechanisms and moderates metabolic changes, as they are known from short-term sleep deprivation or sleep related breathing disorders. PMID:20602750

  7. New device for monitoring the colors of the night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, Henk

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

  8. How much wrapping do babies need at night?

    PubMed

    Wigfield, R E; Fleming, P J; Azaz, Y E; Howell, T E; Jacobs, D E; Nadin, P S; McCabe, R; Stewart, A J

    1993-08-01

    In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C minimum bedroom temperature falling to 4.0 tog at 25 degrees C). For a particular temperature they also applied 2 tog more insulation in winter than in summer. The amounts of bedclothing used in the home were compared with insulation levels predicted to achieve thermo-neutrality over a similar range of environmental temperature from heat balance studies in young infants. They corresponded closely. The average amount of bedclothing chosen for babies in Avon allows them to remain in thermoneutral conditions throughout the night. These values are proposed as broad guidelines for the thermal care of young babies at night. PMID:8215517

  9. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  10. Seasonal Shifts of Photosynthesis in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. 1

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Lonnie J.; Rorabaugh, Patricia A.; Hanscom, Zac

    1984-01-01

    Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq., a perennial facultative Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, was studied under natural photoperiods and temperatures in San Diego, California. The plants were irrigated every fourth day throughout the study period. Measurements of 14CO2 uptake, stomatal resistance, and titratable acidity were made periodically from July 1981 through May 1982. P. afra maintained C3 photosynthesis during the winter and the spring. Diurnal acid fluctuations were low and maximal 14CO2 uptake occurred during the day. The day/night ratio of carbon uptake varied from 5 to 10 and indicated little nocturnal CO2 uptake. CAM photosynthesis occurred during the summer and a mixture of both C3 and CAM during the fall. Large acid fluctuations of 100 to 200 microequivalents per gram fresh weight were observed and maximal 14CO2 uptake shifted to the late night and early morning hours. Daytime stomatal closure was evident. A reduction in the day/night ratio of carbon uptake to 2 indicated a significant contribution of nocturnal CO2 uptake to the overall carbon gain of the plant. The seasonal shift from C3 to CAM was facilitated by increasing daytime temperature and accompanied by reduced daytime CO2 uptake despite irrigation. PMID:16663899

  11. REPRESENTATIONS OF SHIFTED YANGIANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN BRUNDAN; ALEXANDER KLESHCHEV

    We study highest weight representations of shifted Yangians over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0. In particular, we classify the finite dimensional irreducible representations and explain how to compute their Gelfand- Tsetlin characters in terms of known characters of standard modules and certain Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. Our approach exploits the relationship between shifted Yangians and the finite W-algebras associated to

  12. Generalized minimum shift keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, I.

    1980-03-01

    A generalized minimum shift keying (GMSK) signal is defined, and its equivalence to a modified offset quadrature shift keying signal is shown. A simple formula for the spectrum of a GMSK signal is presented and the spectrum and out-of-band power are computed for two examples.

  13. Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.

    PubMed

    Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2014-04-20

    All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid. PMID:24787595

  14. The Night Sky Monitoring Network in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Chun S. J.; So, Chu W.; Wong, Chung F. T.

    2015-03-01

    The Night Sky Monitoring Network is a project that aims to study the extent, distribution, and properties of the light pollution condition in the populous metropolis of Hong Kong. Continuous measurements of the Night Sky Brightness (NSB) at strategically chosen locations that cover a wide range of population density and land usage were made, with over 2.5 million NSB readings collected in 18 months up to June 2012. Results from the project are presented, with focus on the contrast between the urban and rural night sky profiles, and light pollution contributions from artificial lightings. This project is supported by the Environment and Conservation Fund of the Hong Kong SAR government (ECF 10/2009, ECF 1/2007).

  15. The Electronic Literature Foundation presents The Arabian Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "A jug of wine, a loaf of bread-and thou" reads one of the enduring lines of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayya, as translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Translations of the entire Rubaiyat and the Arabian Nights can be found online here, courtesy of the Electronic Literature Foundation. The Rubaiyat is attributed to Omar Khayyam, the Persian philosopher and mathematician who lived in the 11th century. The site includes four versions translated by Fitzgerald, and a more substantial translation by E.H. Winfield. Users can also read Fitzgerald's notes on his own translations, along with searching through all of the verses by keywords. Several translations of the Arabian Nights are also available, including those by Andrew Lang and the explorer Sir Richard Burton. Additionally, there is an interpretive essay on the translation of the Arabian Nights available here, composed by Professor Daniel Beaumont of the University of Rochester.

  16. Acquired night blindness due to bad eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Parafita-Fernández, A; Escalona-Fermín, M M; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Fernández-Vila, P C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of acquired night blindness in a developed country (Spain) without risk factors for nutritional deficiency disease or family history of hereditary retinal disease. A 76-year-old woman presented with acquired night blindness of 6-month progression. After a thorough inquiry about eating patterns she becomes suspicious of vitamin A low dietary intake, which is analytically confirmed and successfully treated. Despite being very uncommon in our environment and even more in patients without digestive problems, in a patient reporting acquired night blindness vitamin A deficiency should not be discarded until eating patterns have been investigated. It might be especially relevant in certain socioeconomic situations and eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa. PMID:25804276

  17. Using Technology to Analyze and Illustrate Symbolism in Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Thomason

    2012-07-26

    What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.

  18. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  19. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts. PMID:23335816

  20. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-01-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects. 2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the ‘trespass’ of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting. 3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards ‘whiter’ light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths. 4. Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts. PMID:23335816

  1. Registration of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission day and night images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Neither iterative registration, using drainage intersection maps for control, nor cross correlation techniques were satisfactory in registering day and night HCMM imagery. A procedure was developed which registers the image pairs by selecting control points and mapping the night thermal image to the daytime thermal and reflectance images using an affine transformation on a 1300 by 1100 pixel image. The resulting image registration is accurate to better than two pixels (RMS) and does not exhibit the significant misregistration that was noted in the temperature-difference and thermal-inertia products supplied by NASA. The affine transformation was determined using simple matrix arithmetic, a step that can be performed rapidly on a minicomputer.

  2. The Shifting Salary Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Judy VanSlyke

    1986-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1985, advancement officers' salaries stayed slightly ahead of inflation but didn't increase as much as other white-collar workers' salaries. A 1985 CASE survey of institutional advancement professionals' salaries investigated factors that influence salary, and gender was found to be a significant influence. (MLW)

  3. Modular community structure suggests metabolic plasticity during the transition to polar night in ice-covered Antarctic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Vick-Majors, Trista J; Priscu, John C; A Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude environments, such as the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, are subject to seasonally segregated light–dark cycles, which have important consequences for microbial diversity and function on an annual basis. Owing largely to the logistical difficulties of sampling polar environments during the darkness of winter, little is known about planktonic microbial community responses to the cessation of photosynthetic primary production during the austral sunset, which lingers from approximately February to April. Here, we hypothesized that changes in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic community structure, particularly shifts in favor of chemolithotrophs and mixotrophs, would manifest during the transition to polar night. Our work represents the first concurrent molecular characterization, using 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic communities in permanently ice-covered lakes Fryxell and Bonney, before and during the polar night transition. We found vertically stratified populations that varied at the community and/or operational taxonomic unit-level between lakes and seasons. Network analysis based on operational taxonomic unit level interactions revealed nonrandomly structured microbial communities organized into modules (groups of taxa) containing key metabolic potential capacities, including photoheterotrophy, mixotrophy and chemolithotrophy, which are likely to be differentially favored during the transition to polar night. PMID:24152712

  4. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-08-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes. PMID:25793365

  5. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  6. Respiratory morbidity in workers exposed to dust containing phenolic resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Jo Sparks; John M. Peters

    1980-01-01

    Summary Seventy-three men and women exposed to phenolic resin dust and\\/or processed cotton dust in a factory producing sound-deadening material were studied cross-sectionally. There was a statistically significant acute drop in FEV1 and FVC over the shift in garnett-line workers exposed to dust containing phenolic resin. Pickers, exposed to processed cotton dust only, did not show a significant drop in

  7. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Henderson; K. Meymaris; D. Ward; C. Walker; R. Russell; S. Pompea; D. Salisbury

    2006-01-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the

  8. Night blindness and the retinal mechanism of visual adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Ripps, H.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of investigations into the mechanisms of dark-adaptation in the retina of man and of the skate and other fish. Working hypotheses as to the possible sites of abnormal function in the various disorders of which night blindness is a feature are presented. Images Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1083707

  9. Circadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects. Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight/ obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls diaries at home. Results: There was no difference between the total energy intake of the NES

  10. Night eating syndrome: A critical review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillon S. Vander Wal

    Clinical psychologists are increasingly called to participate in the treatment of obesity, a condition that affects about one-third of adults in the United States. A disorder gaining increased recognition for its role in the development and maintenance of obesity is Night Eating Syndrome (NES), a relatively novel disorder involving morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia and\\/or nocturnal ingestions, and insomnia. NES affects

  11. Circadian Rhythm Profiles in Women with Night Eating Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namni Goel; Albert J. Stunkard; Naomi L. Rogers; Hans P. A. Van Dongen; Kelly C. Allison; John P. OReardon; Rexford S. Ahima; David E. Cummings; Moonseong Heo; David F. Dinges

    2009-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian rhythms in patients with NES were evaluated. Fifteen women with

  12. Luminous Night Clouds over Norway in 1933 and 1934

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Störmer

    1935-01-01

    As reported in a letter to NATURE1 large masses of noctilucent clouds were seen over southern Norway in the night of June 30-July 1, 1934. From three of my aurora stations I got a series of simultaneous photographs of these clouds. The plates have now been measured, and the results will soon appear in Astrophysica norvegica. The following points from

  13. Naked-eye astronomy: optics of the starry night skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salva

    2014-07-01

    The world at night offers a wealth of stimuli and opportunities as a resource for Optics education, at all age levels and from any (formal, non formal or informal) perspective. The starry sky and the urban nightscape provide a unique combination of pointlike sources with extremely different emission spectra and brightness levels on a generally darker, locally homogeneous background. This fact, combined with the particular characteristics of the human visual system under mesopic and scotopic conditions, provides a perfect setting for experiencing first-hand different optical phenomena of increasing levels of complexity: from the eye's point spread function to the luminance contrast threshold for source detection, from basic diffraction patterns to the intricate irradiance fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. Looking at the nightscape is also a perfect occasion to raise awareness on the increasing levels of light pollution associated to the misuse of public and private artificial light at night, to promote a sustainable use of lighting, and to take part in worldwide citizen science campaigns. Last but not least, night sky observing activities can be planned and developed following a very flexible schedule, allowing individual students to carry them out from home and sharing the results in the classroom as well as organizing social events and night star parties with the active engagement of families and groups of the local community. This contribution describes these possibilities and introduces some of the free resources available to put them in practice.

  14. Polygraphic Study during Whole Night Sleep in Infantile Spasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Fukuyama; Atsuko Shionaga; Yoko Iida

    1979-01-01

    The whole night EEG were polygraphically recorded and analyzed in 9 patients with infantile spasms prior to ACTH therapy. The subjects were divided into two groups, favorable and unfavorable, depending upon the response to the ACTH therapy. (1) Among the unfavorable group, the deep sleep stage was not observed; while the light sleep stage tended to dominate. (2) REM sleep

  15. Day Persons, Night Persons, and Time of Birth: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; Fisher, Leslie E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results from two surveys that explored the relationship between time of birth and being a day or night person. Explains that in survey one, U.S. high school students completed a questionnaire related to daytime or nighttime activity, while in survey two, U.S. college students completed the same questionnaire. (CMK)

  16. Polar Patterns: Day, Night, and Seasons - Issue 3, May 2008

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ohio State University

    This issue of the free online magazine, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears, highlights ways to teach about the extremes in day and night and seasons in the Arctic and Antarctica. The targeted literacy skill is cause/effect relationships. Art and poetry are integrated through a study of the aurora.

  17. Day-to-night transport in the Martian ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jun; Galand, Marina; Yelle, Roger; Wei, Yong

    2015-04-01

    The nightisde Martian ionosphere is thought to be contributed by day-to-night transport and electron precipitation, of which the former has not been well studied. In this work, we evaluate the role of day-to-night transport based on the total electron content (TEC) measurements made by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) onboard Mars Express (MEx). This is accomplished by an examination of the variation of nightside TEC in the time domain rather than the traditional solar zenith angle (SZA) domain. Our analyses here, being constrained to the northern hemisphere where the effects of crustal magnetic fields can be neglected, reveal that day-to-night transport serves as the dominant source for the nightside Martian ionosphere from terminator crossing up to time in darkness, TD, of ˜ 5.3 × 103 s, beyond which it is surpassed by electron precipitation. We also compare the observations with predictions from a simplified time-dependent ionosphere model. We conclude that the solid body rotation of Mars is insufficient to account for the observed depletion of nightside TEC but the data could be reasonably reproduced by the zonal transport model with a zonal electron flow velocity of ˜ 1.9 km s-1. Such a velocity corresponds to a day-to-night electron transport rate of ˜ 2.6 × 1025 s-1, of which the driving force is unclear.

  18. Mental Models of the Day\\/Night Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Vosniadou; William F. Brewer

    1994-01-01

    Surveys 60 students from first, third and fifth grades about the cause of day and night; the youngest children formulated explanations describing rising and setting based upon everyday experience, whereas older children used a model of a moving earth with a fixed Sun and Moon. Only a small portion of older children described mental models consistent with scientific explanations.

  19. "Smoky Night" and "Crack": Controversial Subjects in Current Children's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two children's picture books: "Smoky Night" and "The House that Crack Built." Notes that the books deal with the Los Angeles riots and the use and distribution of crack cocaine. Concludes that each book treats important issues with sensitivity and honesty and is engaging, even when dealing with controversial topics in a didactic…

  20. Family Math Night: Middle School Math Standards in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…

  1. Exploring Audience Preferences for Hour Network Nightly News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James R.; Carroll, Raymond L.

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of television viewer interest in watching a 60-minute network evening newscast each weeknight. Data were collected through telephone interviews with 203 residents of a single county served primarily by New York City stations. Respondents reported their viewing of network nightly news programs, the…

  2. Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltsek, Gustave

    2005-01-01

    Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

  3. 2007 NCTE Presidential Address: Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatvin, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of Joanne Yatvin's presidential address, delivered at the NCTE Annual Convention in New York City in November 2007. The title of her presidential address, "Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night," was taken from Matthew Arnold's (1867) poem "Dover Beach." Yatvin states that the federal government has usurped the right…

  4. The 1997 Reference of Diffuse Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinert, C.; Bowyer, S.; Haikala, L. K.; Hanner, M. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Mann, I.; Mattila, K.; Reach, W. T.; Schlosser, W.; Staude, J. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Weinberg, J. L.; Witt, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    In the following we present material in tabular and graphical form, with the aim to allow the non specialist to obtain a realistic estimate of the diffuse night sky brightness over a wide range of wavelengths from the far UV longward of Ly to the far-infrared.

  5. Incomes of Migratory Agricultural Workers

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Frederic O.; Metzler, William H.

    1960-01-01

    of labor surpluses at the home base during the winter: (2) development of annual workers' plans which correlate movement of the workers with local labor needs during the sea- son: (3) development of better means of school- ~ attendcmce administration... in the midcontinent area is also diminishing. As Latin-American workers in South Texas are able to qualify for and find local permanent employ- ment either at the home base or in the work areas, they are lost as potential migrant workers. Even though both...

  6. Cancer mortality in metal workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R. P.; Threlfall, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated for 10 036 metal workers in British Columbia with the use of information on cause of death and occupation recorded in death registrations from 1950 to 1978. Metal workers were found to have a significantly increased risk of death from lung cancer (PMR = 134). In addition, certain occupational groups of metal workers were found, for the first time, to be at increased risk of death from other types of cancer; these included leukemia (PMR = 356) and cancer of the rectum (PMR = 248) in metal mill workers, Hodgkin's disease in welders (PMR = 242) and multiple myeloma in machinists (PMR = 209). PMID:6640455

  7. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  8. Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2011-09-01

    The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

  9. The night-sky at the Calar Alto Observatory

    E-print Network

    S. F. Sanchez; J. Aceituno; U. Thiele; D. Perez-Ramirez; J. Alves

    2007-09-06

    We present a characterization of the main properties of the night-sky at the Calar Alto observatory for the time period between 2004 and 2007. We use optical spectrophotometric data, photometric calibrated images taken in moonless observing periods, together with the observing conditions regularly monitored at the observatory, such as atmospheric extinction and seeing. We derive, for the first time, the typical moonless night-sky optical spectrum for the observatory. The spectrum shows a strong contamination by different pollution lines, in particular from Mercury lines, which contribution to the sky-brightness in the different bands is of the order of ~0.09 mag, ~0.16 mag and ~0.10 mag in B, V and R respectively. The zenith-corrected values of the moonless night-sky surface brightness are 22.39, 22.86, 22.01, 21.36 and 19.25 mag arcsec^-2 in U, B, V, R and I, which indicates that Calar Alto is a particularly dark site for optical observations up to the I-band. The fraction of astronomical useful nights at the observatory is ~70%, with a ~30% of photometric nights. The typical extinction at the observatory is k_V~0.15 mag in the Winter season, with little dispersion. In summer the extinction has a wider range of values, although it does not reach the extreme peaks observed at other sites. The median seeing for the last two years (2005-6) was ~0.90", being smaller in the Summer (~0.87") than in the Winter (~0.96"). We conclude in general that after 26 years of operations Calar Alto is still a good astronomical site, being a natural candidate for future large aperture optical telescopes.

  10. Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. E. G.; Cairns, B. J.; Key, T. J.; Travis, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Methods Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies indexed in PubMed prior to 31 December 2009 were retrieved, aided by manual searches of reference lists. The main conclusions from reviews and principle results from recent studies are presented in text and tables. Results Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship. Conclusions Heterogeneity of study exposures and outcomes and emphasis on positive but non-significant results make it difficult to draw general conclusions. Further data are needed for additional disease endpoints and study populations. PMID:21355031

  11. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.

  12. Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan H.; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E.; Leu, Eva S.; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1–1.5 x 10-5 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 (400–700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20–30m depth during the Arctic polar night. PMID:26039111

  13. Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E; Leu, Eva S; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1-1.5 x 10-5 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 (400-700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20-30m depth during the Arctic polar night. PMID:26039111

  14. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  15. Need Help? Try Student Workers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futch, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Explains a work-study program designed for fourth and fifth grade students and describes pros and cons of using student workers in the media center for checking out materials, shelving books, straightening shelves, and dusting. Includes the student's job application, the teacher's application for student workers, and the work-study agreement and…

  16. Laboratory Workers, Supervisors and Administration

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Laboratory Workers, Supervisors and Administration Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Guidance Document Laboratory Workers, Supervisors and Administration For the purpose of the lab ventilation or group of labs because they work with hazardous chemicals in the laboratory. Other members of this group

  17. A Profile of Contingent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on data from the supplement to the February 1995 Current Population Survey, contingent workers were more likely to be female, black, young, enrolled in school, and employed in services and construction industries than were noncontingent workers. More than 10% were teachers. (Author)

  18. Chronic bronchitis in textile workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Niven; A. M. Fletcher; C. A. Pickering; D. Fishwick; C. J. Warburton; J. C. Simpson; H. Francis; L. A. Oldham

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to cotton is known to produce a specific occupational disease known as byssinosis. A large population of textile workers was investigated to determine whether such exposure was also associated with chronic bronchitis once other possible aetiological factors had been accounted for. METHODS: A total of 2991 workers were investigated for the presence of symptoms compatible with chronic bronchitis.

  19. Making Space Cool - Successful Outreach at Yuri's Night Stuttgart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christine; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Grossmann, Agnes

    Yuri’s Night - also known as the “World Space Party” - is the annual celebration commemorating Gagarin’s historic flight on April 12, 1961, and the maiden voyage of the American space shuttle on April 12, 1981. It was created by young space enthusiasts in 2000 at the annual Space Generation Congress and was first celebrated in 2001, registering more than 60 events around the world from the start. Since then the interest in celebrating human spaceflight grew constantly to over 350 events across all seven continents in 2013. The honoring of Yuri Gagarin’s first spaceflight in Stuttgart started in 2007 and resulted in one of the largest events outside the US, with five parties following in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. The Stuttgart event was originally organized as space party for an audience at the age of 20 and beyond including informative aspects at the afternoon and a following party far into the night. Since 2010 the focus of the Yuri’s Night Stuttgart is to bring awareness of space exploration to people of all ages, including particularly many participatory hands-on space activities for kids and families that attract hundreds of visitors every year. As much as Yuri’s Night is a worldwide party, the events in Stuttgart successfully concentrate on educational aspects that help to inspire new generations of space enthusiasts who will ultimately shape the future of space exploration. It is therefore not only a look back to one of the greatest achievements of the 20th Century, but it is also a look into the future: from multinational cooperation on the International Space Station to benefit of space flight to the introduction of the next generation of space technology. This paper will introduce the celebrations of Yuri’s Night in Stuttgart of the past four years and compare them to the early events. It provides a summary of the development of the Yuri’s Night including educational aspects, public relations and media attraction and gives recommendations to similar future events worldwide.

  20. Effects of Marital Status and Shift Work on Family Function among Registered Nurses

    PubMed Central

    TAI, Shu-Yu; LIN, Pei-Chen; CHEN, Yao-Mei; HUNG, Hsin-Chia; PAN, Chih-Hong; PAN, Shung-Mei; LEE, Chung-Yin; HUANG, Chia-Tsuan; WU, Ming-Tsang

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the interactive effect of marital status and shift work on family function. A population-based sample of 1,438 nurses between the ages of 20–45?yr was recruited from Taiwan during the period from July 2005 to April 2006 using a mailed questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire contained information about demographic data, work status, shift work schedule, and the Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) Scale, to evaluate family function. Compared to day shift nurses, non-night and rotation shift nurses had 1.53- and 1.38-fold (95% CI=1.09–2.14 and 1.01–1.88) risk to have poor family function after adjusting for other covariates. Married nurses, by contrast, had a 0.44-fold (95% CI=0.29–0.66) risk to have poor family function compared to single nurses. In addition, married nurses who worked non-night or rotation shifts had a significantly higher percent of poor family function than those married nurses working day shifts; however, similar results were not replicated in single nurses. We concluded that shift work and marital status could influence family function. PMID:24909112

  1. 76 FR 24783 - Workers Memorial Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...These preventable tragedies disable workers, devastate families, and erode our economy. On Workers Memorial Day, we celebrate the improvements...century ago in New York City, nearly 150 young garment workers either burned or jumped to their...

  2. Treatment of Shift Work Disorder and Jet Lag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis C. Zee; Cathy A. Goldstein

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  With the growth of the 24-hour global marketplace, a substantial proportion of workers are engaged in nontraditional work\\u000a schedules and frequent jet travel across multiple time zones. Thus, shift work disorder and jet lag are prevalent in our 24\\/7\\u000a society and have been associated with significant health and safety repercussions. In both disorders, treatment strategies\\u000a are based on promoting

  3. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  4. 78 FR 31872 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...

  5. 78 FR 77587 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...

  6. Reproductive workers show queenlike gene expression in an intermediately eusocial insect, the buff-tailed bumble bee Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark C; Hammond, Robert L; Mallon, Eamonn B

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees represent a taxon with an intermediate level of eusociality within Hymenoptera. The clear division of reproduction between a single founding queen and the largely sterile workers is characteristic for highly eusocial species, whereas the morphological similarity between the bumble bee queen and the workers is typical for more primitively eusocial hymenopterans. Also, unlike other highly eusocial hymenopterans, division of labour among worker subcastes is plastic and not predetermined by morphology or age. We conducted a differential expression analysis based on RNA-seq data from 11 combinations of developmental stage and caste to investigate how a single genome can produce the distinct castes of queens, workers and males in the buff-tailed bumble bee Bombus terrestris. Based on expression patterns, we found males to be the most distinct of all adult castes (2411 transcripts differentially expressed compared to nonreproductive workers). However, only relatively few transcripts were differentially expressed between males and workers during development (larvae: 71 and pupae: 162). This indicates the need for more distinct expression patterns to control behaviour and physiology in adults compared to those required to create different morphologies. Among female castes, reproductive workers and their nonreproductive sisters displayed differential expression in over ten times more transcripts compared to the differential expression found between reproductive workers and their mother queen. This suggests a strong shift towards a more queenlike behaviour and physiology when a worker becomes fertile. This contrasts with eusocial species where reproductive workers are more similar to nonreproductive workers than the queen. PMID:25913260

  7. Sleep-related eating disorder: a case report of a progressed night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387

  8. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

  9. Bioluminescence in the high Arctic during the polar night.

    PubMed

    Berge, J; Båtnes, A S; Johnsen, G; Blackwell, S M; Moline, M A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the composition and activity of the planktonic community during the polar night in the high Arctic Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Our results are the first published evidence of bioluminescence among zooplankton during the Arctic polar night. The observations were collected by a bathyphotometer detecting bioluminescence, integrated into an autonomous underwater vehicle, to determine the concentration and intensity of bioluminescent flashes as a function of time of day and depth. To further understand community dynamics and composition, plankton nets were used to collect organisms passing through the bathyphotometer along with traditional vertical net tows. Additionally, using a moored bathyphotometer closed to the sampling site, the bioluminescence potential itself was shown not to have a diurnal or circadian rhythm. Rather, our results provide evidence for a diel vertical migration of bioluminescent zooplankton that does not correspond to any externally detectable changes in illumination. PMID:24489409

  10. Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  11. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Shing Jason Pun; Chu Wing So

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured\\u000a and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning\\u000a in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all

  12. NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept 

    E-print Network

    Parker, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    power variable speed fan. The warm air from the interior then goes to the attic and warms the interior side of the metal roof which then radiates the heat away to the night sky. As increased cooling is required, the air handler fan speed is increased.... If the interior air temperature does not cool sufficiently or the relative humidity is not kept within bounds (radiation cooling. The massive construction of interior tile floors and concrete walls...

  13. GLOBE At Night: Mobilizing The Citizen-scientist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance E. Walker; M. Newhouse

    2011-01-01

    GLOBE at Night is an annual international citizen-science event encouraging everyone to measure local levels of light pollution in February and March and contribute their observations online to a world map. (See www.globeatnight.org.) The campaign is hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in partnership with ESRI. In the last three years citizen-scientists from around the world contributed more

  14. Prevalence of Night Eating in Obese and Nonobese Twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna Tholin; AnnaKarin Lindroos; Per Tynelius; Torbjörn åkerstedt; Albert J. Stunkard; Cynthia M. Bulik; Finn Rasmussen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of night eating (NE) and associated symptoms in a population-based sample of Swedish twins. A total of 21,741 individuals aged 20–47 years completed a questionnaire in 2005\\/2006. NE was defined as ?25% of daily food intake after the evening meal and\\/or awakening at least once per week with eating episodes.

  15. Circadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. O’Reardon; Brenda L. Ringel; David F. Dinges; Kelly Costello Allison; Naomi L. Rogers; Nicole S. Martino; Albert J. Stunkard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the eating and sleep-wake patterns of persons with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight\\/obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 ± 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls (mean age 39.0 ± 11.0 years; 28 women) wore wrist actigraphs for 7 days and completed sleep and food

  16. Night eating syndrome and winter seasonal affective disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Friedman; Christian Even; Jacques Thuile; Frédéric Rouillon; Julien-Daniel Guelfi

    2006-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) share some features such as snacking for high-carbohydrate\\/high-fat food with increased weight, emotional distress, circadian disturbances, good response to serotoninergic antidepressants (SSRIs) and bright-light therapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographical and clinical correlates of the NES in a sample of 62 consecutive depressed outpatients with winter seasonal features

  17. Fermented Ginseng Improves the First-Night Effect in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Uchida, Kaoru; Okamoto, Naoko; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Takeda, Eiji; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of this study was to clarify whether ginseng fermented by lactic acid bacteria (fermented ginseng, FG), can improve the first-night effect (FNE) in humans. Design: Behavioral tests and quantification of mRNA expression related to GABAergic neurotransmission in brain (glutamic acid decarboxylase 1, ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase [Abat], ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 [GAT1], ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 4, ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit ? 1 and ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit ? 2) were carried out in FG-treated mice. We also performed double-blind sleep recordings of human subjects given FG or placebo. Setting: A university-based sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Sixteen healthy male volunteers (aged 20.69 ± 0.44 years) were observed in the human study. Interventions: At the end of administration, 2 consecutive all-night polysomnography recordings were performed. Subjects also completed psychological questionnaires, and urine and saliva samples were taken to analyze stress-sensitive markers. Measurements and Results: The light-dark transition test demonstrated that FG had some anxiolytic effect in mice, but other anxiety measures were unaffected. The hippocampal mRNA expression showed a decrease of Abat and GAT1 suggesting an increase of GABA. Other regions (amygdala and cerebellum) showed no differences. Furthermore, there was some evidence (using simple pairwise comparisons but not supported in the full ANOVA model) that administration of FG tended to diminish decreases in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (seen as first night effects in the placebo group) without affecting sleep architecture. Conclusions: Our results suggest the administration of FG could improve the FNE in humans. The improvement may be related to an anxiolytic effect of FG which acts via GABAergic modification. Citation: Kitaoka K; Uchida K; Okamoto N; Chikahisa S; Miyazaki T; Takeda E; Séi H. Fermented ginseng improves the first-night effect in humans. SLEEP 2009;32(3):413–421. PMID:19294962

  18. One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel J. Oliver; Ricardo J. S. Costa; Stewart J. Laing; James L. J. Bilzon; Neil P. Walsh

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that one night of sleep deprivation will impair pre-loaded 30 min endurance performance\\u000a and alter the cardio-respiratory, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses to exercise. Eleven males completed two randomised\\u000a trials separated by 7 days: once after normal sleep (496 (18) min: CON) and once following 30 h without sleep (SDEP). After\\u000a 30 h participants performed a 30 min pre-load

  19. How does Earth's shadow make it dark at night?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio show explains why the night sky appears dark in spite of the fact that almost all of the space inside our solar system is filled with the light of the sun. The show describes how the shadow of the Earth touches the moon during a lunar eclipse and how to observe the shadow of the Earth during the evening. The clip lasts 1 minute, 34 seconds.

  20. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE <90%), as well as projected low noise (<2h+) readout. Power consumption is minimized in the camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  1. Feasibility of night-sky radiation with heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the procedure involved in the determination of the feasibility of high-sky radiation as the means of rejecting heat through solar collectors for a sample residential house in the Evansville area. It presents conclusions on different types of coatings that are used on solar collectors. It also designs the system, and its backup, in schematic form. For the purpose of cost analysis it discusses the difference of a cooling tower and night-sky radiation.

  2. Background Atmosphere Radiance Day (BARD) and Night (BARN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Armstrong; S. B. Downer; J. P. Kennealy; R. J. Larkin; S. P. McGowan

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the format, the details, and methods used to calculate the BACKGROUND ATMOSPHERE RADIANCE DAY (BARD) and NIGHT (BARN) data bases. BARD\\/BARN (v4.1), in tabular ASCII form, consists of 57 bins, each 5 percent in energy, spanning 1.9 to 34 micron. BARD\\/BARN (v4.1) is now available and is being used within fast running codes such as IRSim, HiSEMM,

  3. 25 CFR 36.78 - What are the staffing requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service? 36.78 Section...requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service? For homeliving programs providing less than 5 nights service, the staffing...

  4. 25 CFR 36.78 - What are the staffing requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service? 36.78 Section...requirements for homeliving programs offering less than 5 nights service? For homeliving programs providing less than 5 nights service, the staffing...

  5. Chronic Citalopram Treatment Ameliorates Depressive Behavior Associated With Light at Night

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Randy J.

    : light pollution, hippocampus, Phodopus sungorus, SSRI, circadian Exposure to light at night (LAN% of individuals living in the U.S. or Europe experience nightly light pollution (Navara & Nelson, 2007) and aboutChronic Citalopram Treatment Ameliorates Depressive Behavior Associated With Light at Night Tracy A

  6. 77 FR 64722 - Safety Zone: Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk Fireworks Display; Willamette River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...USCG-2012-0803] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk Fireworks...Bridge, and will be enforced during the Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk fireworks...Sec. 165.T13-231 Safety Zone; Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk...

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome using item response theory analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Allison; Scott G. Engel; Ross D. Crosby; Martina de Zwaan; John P. O'Reardon; Stephen A. Wonderlich; James E. Mitchell; Delia Smith West; Thomas A. Wadden; Albert J. Stunkard

    2008-01-01

    Uniform diagnostic criteria for the night eating syndrome (NES), a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian pattern of eating, have not been established. Proposed criteria for NES were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) analysis. Six studies yielded 1,481 Night Eating Questionnaires which were coded to reflect the presence\\/absence of five night eating symptoms. Symptoms were evaluated based

  8. 78 FR 75249 - Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...USCG-2013-0902] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display, San...breakwater in Alameda, CA in support of Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Displays on...Coast Guard to establish safety zones. Google will sponsor the Google's Night at...

  9. Beautiful Black: A Bibliography about the Night for Young Readers from Preschool through Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Mary Ann, Comp.

    This bibliography offers a "magical adventure into the dark and dreamy world of the night." It contains annotations for 146 books, available for free to the blind and disabled, that cover various things associated with the night: dreams, monsters and ghosts, overcoming fear of the dark, nights in other countries that are six months long, and more.…

  10. THE DIET OF THE NIGHT HERON AND PURPLE HERON IN THE GUADALQUIVIR MARSHES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia MONTESINOS; Frederic SANTOUL; Andy J. GREEN

    SUMMARY.—The diet of the night heron and purple heron in the Guadalquivir Marshes. Aims: To compare the diet of chicks of night heron Nycticorax nycticorax and purple heron Ardea Pur- purea in the Guadalquivir Marshes. To study the diet of night heron adults during breeding and non-breed- ing seasons. To establish whether the diet of purple heron in Doñana has

  11. Segmenting American and Japanese Tourists on Novelty-seeking at Night Markets in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Chang; Chun Hui Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Night markets are an essential part of Taiwanese life. Tourists wish to experience new things and visit different environments away from their homes. Thus, night markets can stimulate international tourists' novelty-seeking motives when visiting Taiwan. This research segments and profiles international tourists based on their novelty-seeking motives in visiting night markets. One hundred and forty Japanese tourists are segmented into

  12. Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision Monday, January 17, 2011

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision Monday, January 17, 2011 Researchers from night-vision surveillance, robotic vision, endoscopic imaging, and consumer electronics. "We were on this article! 0 COMMENTS Page 1 of 1Tiny camera could aid in robotics, night vision | R&D Mag 1/19/2011http

  13. Effect of Night Temperature on Pollen Characteristics, Growth, and Fruit Set in Tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary M. Peet

    1996-01-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Laura' plants were grown in the North Carolina State Univ. phytotron at 26C day temperature and 18, 22, 24, or 26C night temperatures to determine the effects of night temperature on pollen characteristics, growth, fruit set, and early fruit growth. Total and percentage normal pollen grains were higher in plants grown at night temperatures of 18 and

  14. Analysis of Night Ventilation Potential for Residen tial Buildings in Hot-Humid Climate of Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DORIS TOE HOOI CHYEE; TETSU KUBOTA

    This paper discusses the potential of app lying night ventilation as a passive cooling techni que for Malaysian terraced houses based on the results of a full-scal e field experiment. The results revealed that night ventilation provides better diurnal and nocturnal air temperature reduct ions than daytime ventilation, full-day ventilation and no ventilation. Night ventilation improves thermal comfort more tha

  15. INTRODUCTION THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF SHIFTWORK, IN PARTICU-

    E-print Network

    on the first of a series of night shifts. In addition, due to the subsequent desyn- chronization of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian system, the daytime sleep of night workers is of shorter duration and poorer quality

  16. Day-night difference in thermoregulatory responses to olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Takuo; Niijima, Akira; Nagai, Katsuya

    2008-07-11

    Previously, we observed that olfactory stimulation with scent of grapefruit oil (SGFO) or scent of lavender oil (SLVO) affected, elevated or lowered brown adipose tissue temperature (BAT-T) in conscious mice, respectively. In the present study, to test the day-night difference in the actions of olfactory stimulations, we examined the responses of BAT-T and body temperature (BT) measured as the abdominal temperature to SGFO or SLVO during day-time at 14:00 and night-time at 2:00 in conscious rats. In the light period, BAT-T and BT were suppressed after SLVO and elevated after SGFO whereas in the dark period, these parameters remained unchanged with olfactory stimulations. Bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) eliminated the effects of olfactory stimulations with SGFO and SVLO on BAT-T and BT. Moreover, sympathetic nerve activity innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT-SNA) changes after SGFO or SLVO were abolished in SCN-lesioned rats. Thus, we concluded that there is day-night difference in the effects of SGFO or SLVO on BAT-T and BT, and that the SCN might be involved in these effects. PMID:18514405

  17. Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of Modern Art's online exhibition "Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night" is the first exhibit to organize his paintings around the theme of night and twilight paintings. Since Van Gogh could not work solely from memory or imagination, he created these paintings in the dark or near dark. Some of his paintings, however, were of indoor light at night, so he didn't always face the obstacle of complete darkness. This exhibit is very straightforward and well organized, and includes audio clips, drawings, pages from his journal, and extremely high quality images that let you see those thick swathes of paint he so successfully employed. The exhibit also clues you in as to his relationship with his brother and sister, to whom he sometimes sent drawings of his work, or descriptions of the colors he was planning on using in a piece. Visitors shouldn't leave without contrasting his traditional and somber "Early Landscapes" of the Netherlands, where he was born, to his later landscapes of France, that have strong uses of vibrant color. The "Sowers and Wheatfields" section has some good examples of this use of color.

  18. Flight test of monocular day/night HMD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Craig; Longman, Peter J.; Makepeace, Nat R.

    2002-08-01

    The Crew Systems Group at QinetiQ Farnborough, formerly part of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), have recently conducted development and flight evaluations of two monocular display systems that provided dynamic symbology for the pilot. The systems were the Pilkington Optronics (now Thales) Guardian monocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) used for daytime operations and the QinetiQ Display Night Vision Goggles (DNVGs) used at night. Test flights of the two systems were performed in a modified Jaguar T2B combat aircraft, that was based at the QinetiQ Boscombe Down research facility. Good performance was obtained from each system with both producing clear, legible symbology. During day and night Air to Ground (A-G) sorties both the Guardian and the DNVGs were used for simulated attacks and reconnaissance tasks on a variety of operationally realistic targets. In addition the Guardian HMD was used with an ASRAAM in the day Air to Air (A-A) environment to provide high off-boresight capability. The results from the test program have validated a range of significant capability enhancements offered by either a HMD or a DNVG, and have provided a significant increase in the technical and operational understanding of fast-jet helmet display systems.

  19. Night-time Noise Annoyance: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Rainer; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Felscher-Suhr, Ute; Griefahn, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The annoyance-reaction is one of the central variables in noise research. After an introduction to different concepts and definitions of noise annoyance different scales of how noise annoyance can be measured are shown. The question is discussed whether disturbance effects of noise at different times of day are given. To clarify this problem, the results of a series of actual German noise studies are reported. In these studies differences between day- and night-time annoyance are found depending on the sound sources. For the case of road traffic noise no differences between day and night-time annoyance were found. In contrast, annoyance reactions are related to the time of day for railway and air traffic noise. Especially for aircraft noise, above a Leq of 50 dB(A) night-time annoyance rises faster than day-time annoyance. The effects are discussed in the frame of a cognitive model of noise annoyance. It is argued that annoyance judgements are based on an internal representation of the noise situation. Part of this representation are the event characteristics of the sound sources and their estimated impacts for disturbances at different times of day. PMID:12678946

  20. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary B Morris; Bushimbwa Tambatamba Chapula; Benjamin H Chi; Albert Mwango; Harmony F Chi; Joyce Mwanza; Handson Manda; Carolyn Bolton; Debra S Pankratz; Jeffrey SA Stringer; Stewart E Reid

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART) have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized

  1. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27 485 people

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, B; Knutsson, A; Lindahl, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To explore how metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ between shift workers and day workers in a defined population. Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Risk factors and causal pathways for this association are only partly known.?METHODS—A working population of 27 485 people from the Västerbotten intervention program (VIP) has been analysed. Cross sectional data, including blood sampling and questionnaires were collected in a health survey.?RESULTS—Obesity was more prevalent among shift workers in all age strata of women, but only in two out of four age groups in men. Increased triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/l) were more common among two age groups of shift working women but not among men. Low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (men<0.9 and women<1.0 mmol/l) were present in the youngest age group of shift workers in both men and women. Impaired glucose tolerance was more often found among 60 year old women shift workers. Obesity and high triglycerides persisted as risk factors in shift working men and women after adjusting for age and socioeconomic factors, with an OR of 1.4 for obesity and 1.1 for high triglyceride concentrations. The relative risks for women working shifts versus days with one, two, and three metabolic variables were 1.06, 1.20, and 1.71, respectively. The corresponding relative risks for men were 0.99, 1.30, and 1.63, respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—In this study, obesity, high triglycerides, and low concentrations of HDL cholesterol seem to cluster together more often in shift workers than in day workers, which might indicate an association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome.???Keywords: shift work; metabolic variables; coronary heart disease PMID:11600731

  2. Sectoral Shifts and Interindustry Wage Differentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Helwege

    1992-01-01

    The observed differences in wages across industries may arise from a lack of worker mobility, particularly among experienced workers, allowing the effects of industry shocks to persist for some time. Although young workers arbitrage wage shocks, they will have little effect on the dispersion of experienced workers' wages if young and old workers are poor substitutes in production. This explanation

  3. Respiratory function in female workers occupationally exposed to organic dusts in food processing industries.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovi?, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J; Ivankovi?, D; Heimer, S

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory consequences of work in food processing industry were studied in 764 female workers exposed to organic dusts associated with the processing of green and roasted coffee, tea, spices, dried fruits, cocoa and flour. A group of 387 female workers not exposed to respiratory irritants served as controls for the prevalence of acute (during work shift) and chronic respiratory symptoms. A greater prevalence of all acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was consistently found among exposed workers than among control workers. The highest prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded for chronic cough (40%), followed by acute symptoms of dry cough (58.7%). The difference in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms between the exposed and control workers was in general significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Mean acute reductions of lung function over the work shift were recorded in all of the studied groups; the mean across-shift decrease as a percentage of preshift values was particularly marked in FEF25 (-26.7%), FEF50 (-21.6%), followed by FEV1 (-9.9%) and FVC (-3.7%). The preshift (baseline) values of ventilatory capacity were decreased in comparison to the predicted ones, and were lowest for FEF50 and FEF25. This finding indicated an effect of organic dust on small airways. Our analysis suggested that both dust exposure and smoking history contributed independently to these respiratory findings. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25 in a subgroup of the examined workers. Our data suggested the female workers employed in food processing industry to be at risk of developing both acute and chronic respiratory symptoms as well as ventilatory capacity impairment as the result of occupational exposures. PMID:11379483

  4. Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Hygge, Staffan; Clark, Charlotte; Alfred, Tamuno

    2010-01-01

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these questions. In conclusion, results from both studies suggest that night aircraft noise exposure does not appear to add any cognitive performance decrement to the cognitive decrement induced by daytime aircraft noise alone. We suggest that the school should be the main focus of attention for protection of children against the effects of aircraft noise on school performance. PMID:20871180

  5. Whole Genome Expression in Peripheral-Blood Samples of Workers Professionally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Su, Hung-Ju; Huang, Jie-Len; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Weihsin; Chou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Pan, Chih-Hong; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine global gene expression profiles before and after the work-shift among coke-oven workers (COW). COW work six consecutive days and then take two days off. Two blood and urine samples in each worker were collected before starting to work after two-days off and end-of-shift in the sixth-day work in 2009. Altered gene expressions (ratio of gene expression levels between end-of-shift and pre-shift work) were performed by Human OneArray expression system which probes ?30,000-transcription expression profiling of human genes. Sixteen workers, all men, were enrolled in this study. Median urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) levels (?mole/mole creatinine) in end-of-shift work were significantly higher than those in pre-shift work (2.58 vs. 0.29, p = 0.0002). Among the 20,341 genes which passed experimental quality control, 26 gene expression changes, 7 positive and 19 negative, were highly correlated with across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels (end-of-shift – pre-shift 1OHP) (p-value < 0.001). The high and low exposure groups of across-the-shift urinary 1OHP levels dichotomized in ?2.00 ?mole/mole creatinine were able to be distinguished by these 26 genes. Some of them are known to be involved in apoptosis, chromosome stability/DNA repair, cell cycle control/tumor suppressor, cell adhesion, development/spermatogenesis, immune function, and neuronal cell function. These findings in COW will be an ideal model to study the relationship of PAHs exposure with acute changes of gene expressions. PMID:21854004

  6. Decompression sickness in caisson workers

    PubMed Central

    Ghawabi, Samir H. El; Mansour, Mohamed B.; Youssef, Fatma L.; Ghawabi, Mohamed H. El; Latif, Mohamed M. Abd El

    1971-01-01

    El Ghawabi, S. H., Mansour, M. B., Youssef, F. L., El Ghawabi, M. H., and Abd El Latif, M. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 323-329. Decompression sickness in caisson workers. An investigation of 55 bridge construction workers is reported. The overall bends rate was 0·97%. (The term `bends' as used in this study is defined in the paper.) Chokes were encountered in 67·27% of workers. A clinical, haematological, and radiological study was performed. Definite bony changes were found in 43·6% of all workers; 91·6% of these had lesions around the elbow. The presence of dense areas in the neck of the scapula is reported in two cases for the first time. The relatively high haematocrit value is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of bone infarction through its relation with blood viscosity. Images PMID:5124832

  7. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities. (ACR)

  8. Secretary Salazar Meets with Workers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Secretary Salazar shares a laugh with workers, who are constructing a new headquarters and visitor center for the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge. This project is being funded by the Recovery Act....

  9. Competencies for Information Systems Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.; O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    1990-01-01

    Through survey research using the DACUM approach and the Delphi technique, 8 broad skill categories and 278 competencies were determined to have some degree of importance for information systems workers. (Author)

  10. Respiratory consequences of exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde of workers manufacturing oriented strand board.

    PubMed

    Herbert, F A; Hessel, P A; Melenka, L S; Yoshida, K; Nakaza, M

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed at a plant in which 99 workers were employed in the manufacture of oriented strand board. This group was compared with 165 unexposed workers from the petroleum industry. Both groups were assessed, using a questionnaire, spirometry, and skin prick tests to common environmental antigens. Environmental studies showed a low dust level of 0.27 mg/m3, consisting of particles of a mass median aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 microns. There were variable concentrations of formaldehyde, up to 0.27 ppm. A significant difference between the oriented strand board workers and oil field workers was noted for the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, without significant differences in either the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the forced vital capacity. Oriented strand board workers who were current smokers were three times as likely to have a forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 75% of that found in the currently smoking oil field workers. Significant reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p = .044) and forced vital capacity (p = .022) in oriented strand board workers were noted across the work shift. The oriented strand board workers complained of self-reported asthma and of lower respiratory tract symptoms significantly more frequently than did oil workers for all of the symptoms examined. The prevalence of atopy was not different in the two groups. Lung function was significantly better in oriented strand board workers who had no symptoms, compared with oriented strand board workers who were symptomatic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7818289

  11. Latex allergy of healthcare workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Suzuki; Nobuo Ohta; Shinichi Sakurai; Masaru Aoyagi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Latex allergy has been recognized to be an important problem and to be associated with serological cross-reactivity to inhalant and plant food. We investigated specific IgE sensitization for latex allergen, inhalant allergens, and food allergens in health care workers.Methods: Serum samples of 6 health care workers were investigated: 3 doctors, 1 nurse, and 2 students. All had a history

  12. Ambiguous Red Shifts

    E-print Network

    Carl E. Wulfman

    2010-10-11

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

  13. The Older Worker. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David; Rocco, Tonette S.

    Although workplaces are searching for ways to increase productivity, older workers asking for increased career development opportunities are neglected by most workplaces. Age alone may not be a defining characteristic of an older worker. Perhaps becoming an older worker is more situational than chronological. Retirement for future older workers is…

  14. Replacing Technically Skilled Workers: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.; Wither, Steven V.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the early 1900s, the United States could either find technically skilled workers based upon their backgrounds or was able to train workers quickly. Farmers, military personnel, and other sources of skilled workers were available to fill the needs of the workforce. These sources of readily available skilled workers are no longer as…

  15. Thermal limits for industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. R.; Watts, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Bell, C. R., and Watts, A. J. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 259-264. Thermal limits for industrial workers. The literature on relationships between man's comfort, efficiency, and physical well-being and the nature of his thermal working environment is diverse and highly specific. Industrial practice requires more general `concensus' data on which to base reasonable recommendations for the establishment of thermal environmental limits. A series of three such limits is proposed which provide protection of the workers' comfort, efficiency, and physiological safety. For sedentary workers it is suggested that in summer an upper limit of 21·8°C C.E.T. is advisable if not less than 80% of workers are to be free from discomfort. Against a similar criterion in winter a lower limit of 15·5°C C.E.T. is proposed. An extrapolation of data from laboratory to industrial work-places provides a suggested limit for efficiency at skilled tasks at 26·7°C C.E.T. Finally, a limit of environmental severity based upon an absence of severe physiological distress in 95% of exposed workers is proposed which varies with the age and physical fitness of the workers and the physical demands of the work they are called upon to perform. Images PMID:5557846

  16. Office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hiebert, D.G.

    1994-05-01

    A study of office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The main purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess ELF MF exposures. A secondary objective was to determine whether or not exposures to ELF MF can be reduced by implementing administrative controls and educating workers on the sources of such fields. EMDEX dosimeters were used to determine full shift personal exposures for 12 volunteers from two personnel sections and one training section. In addition, using the EMDEX meter in survey mode, office area evaluations were conducted. Administrative controls and training were implemented in an attempt to reduce exposures. Post control monitoring was conducted to determine if a reduction in ELF MF occurred among the workers. On average, baseline office worker exposures to ELF MF were 2.3 mG, ranging from 0.6 to 9.7 mG. The post control exposures averaged 1.1 mG with a range from 0.5 to 2.2 mG. A reduction of 53% overall was seen after implementation of administrative controls and training. The office area survey indicated that many sources of ELF MF influence exposure and that magnetic field strengths vary not only from one type of equipment to another, but also vary between two similar pieces of equipment.

  17. Why do workers behave unsafely at work? Determinants of safe work practices in industrial workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Garcia; P Boix; C Canosa

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To explore the relation between safety climate (workers’ perceptions regarding management’s attitudes towards occupational safety and health) and workers’ behaviour at work.Methods: Cross sectional survey of workers at the pottery industry in Castellon, Spain. Sampling was stratified by plant size and workers’ gender, according to data on the working population at this setting. A total of 734 production workers

  18. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  19. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: National Finance Sector Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zaniah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  20. ESTIMATING HERITABILITIES OF WORKER CHARACTERS : A NEW APPROACH USING LAYING WORKERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ESTIMATING HERITABILITIES OF WORKER CHARACTERS : A NEW APPROACH USING LAYING WORKERS OF THE CAPE Kirchhain 1 SUMMARY Heritabilities (h2) of worker characters in honeybees are estimated with laying workers in the honeybee. INTRODUCTION Heritabilities (h2) of characters of workers in honeybees (Apis mellifena L

  1. Future Demand For Long-Term Care Workers Will Be Influenced By Demographic And Utilization Changes.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Trupin, Laura; Bates, Timothy; Coffman, Janet M

    2015-06-01

    A looming question for policy makers is how growing diversity of the US elderly population and greater use of home and community-based services will affect demand for long-term care workers. We used national surveys to analyze current use and staffing of long-term care, project demand for long-term care services and workers through 2030, and assess how projections varied if we changed assumptions about utilization patterns. If current trends continue, the occupations anticipated to grow the most over the period are counselors and social workers (94 percent), community and social services workers (93 percent), and home health and personal care aides (88 percent). Alternative projections were computed for scenarios that assumed changing racial and ethnic patterns of long-term care use or shifts toward noninstitutional care. For instance, if Hispanics used services at the same rate as non-Hispanic blacks, the projected demand for long-term care workers would be 5 percent higher than if current trends continued. If 20 percent of nursing home care were shifted to home health services, total employment growth would be about 12 percent lower. Demographic and utilization changes would have little effect on projections of robust long-term care employment growth between now and 2030. Policy makers and educators should redouble efforts to create and sustainably fund programs to recruit, train, and retain long-term care workers. PMID:26056198

  2. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theleman, Scott; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Scott, Courtney; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.; Napier, S.

    2006-08-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. This paper describes work that is being performed for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG-WDT (Weather Dipiction Technology) system. NVG-WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5); and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) is being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs.

  3. One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Samuel J; Costa, Ricardo J S; Laing, Stewart J; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that one night of sleep deprivation will impair pre-loaded 30 min endurance performance and alter the cardio-respiratory, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses to exercise. Eleven males completed two randomised trials separated by 7 days: once after normal sleep (496 (18) min: CON) and once following 30 h without sleep (SDEP). After 30 h participants performed a 30 min pre-load at 60% [VO(2 max) followed by a 30 min self-paced treadmill distance test. Speed, RPE, core temperature (T(re)), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), heart rate (HR) and respiratory parameters VO(2 max), VCO(2), VE, RER pre-load only) were measured. Less distance (P = 0.016, d = 0.23) was covered in the distance test after SDEP (6037 (759) 95%CI 5527 to 6547 m) compared with CON (6224 (818) 95%CI 5674 to 6773 m). SDEP did not significantly alter T(re) at rest or thermoregulatory responses during the pre-load including heat storage (0.8 degrees C) and T(sk). With the exception of raised VO(2) at 30 min on the pre-load, cardio-respiratory parameters, RPE and speed were not different between trials during the pre-load or distance test (distance test mean HR, CON 174 (12), SDEP 170 (13) beats min(-1): mean RPE, CON 14.8 (2.7), SDEP 14.9 (2.6)). In conclusion, one night of sleep deprivation decreased endurance performance with limited effect on pacing, cardio-respiratory or thermoregulatory function. Despite running less distance after sleep deprivation compared with control, participants' perception of effort was similar indicating that altered perception of effort may account for decreased endurance performance after a night without sleep. PMID:19543909

  4. [Features of overexertion formation due to high psychoemotional strain and shift work].

    PubMed

    Iushkova, O I; Kuz'mina, L P; Poroshenko, A S; Kapustina, A V

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic studies proved that considerable psychoemotional load in shift work and longer working shifts lead to the certain functional state called overexertion. The authors are first to set biochemical and physiologic characteristics by main parameters for this state in mental workers. According to the authors, physiologic features of overexertion should be evaluated from the viewpoint of coordinated diurnal rhythms, internal and intersystem communications in central nervous and cardiovascular systems, functional levels. PMID:18524031

  5. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended duration work shifts. These findings indicate that extended duration work shifts present a significant challenge to crewmembers and mission support specialists during long-duration space mission operations. Future research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of alternative work schedules and the development and implementation of more effective countermeasures will be required to maintain high levels of performance.

  6. [Visual efficiency of pilot using of the night vision glasses].

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Romasiuk, S I; Riabinin, V A; Chuntul, A V; Prokof'ev, A B

    2007-01-01

    Questionnaires filled out by 24 helicopter pilots using the night vision glasses (NVG) showed that minimization of the risk of visual discomfort was, first of all achieved through proper adjustment of image brightness and setting NVG time limits. The experiments enabled determination of the most favorable range of brightness (0.67-1.79 cd/m2) and rationalization of the necessity of individual adjustment depending on the light conditions and flight objectives, and NVG usage regulations to preclude visual fatigue. PMID:18672513

  7. Things that go bump in the night: the parasomnias revisited.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, M W; Ettinger, M G

    1990-01-01

    The parasomnias have been identified as a major category of sleep disorders and represent a group of physiologic and behavioral phenomena that occur exclusively during, or are augmented by, the sleeping state. They are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are typically dismissed as "bumps in the night" or attributed to psychiatric disease. Despite their often bizarre nature, most are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. Some have formed the basis for art, literature, and folklore. Pertinent references from a wide variety of disciplines have been collected, and a clinical classification of the parasomnias is proposed to assist in the understanding, diagnosis, and management of these fascinating disorders. PMID:2406282

  8. Vitamin A responsive night blindness in Dent's disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sidharth Kumar; Ludwig, Michael; Kabra, Madhulika; Hari, Pankaj; Bagga, Arvind

    2009-09-01

    Dent's disease is an X-linked renal tubular disorder characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis. The disease is caused by mutations in a renal chloride channel gene, CLCN5. We report on three boys, of Indian origin, with Dent's disease that presented at an early age (1-4 years), with polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, recurrent vitamin A-responsive night blindness, hypophosphataemic rickets, hypercalciuria and low molecular weight proteinuria. All these patients were found to have novel mutations in the CLCN5 gene. PMID:19444483

  9. Radiative-transfer models of the night side of Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Kamp, L.W.; Taylor, F.W. (Oxford Univ. (England))

    1990-08-01

    The difference-equation algorithm for multiple scattering presently used, which is comparable to the matrix-operator method in accuracy and efficiency, is used to calculate the radiative transfer characteristics of a realistic model of the atmosphere and cloud layers of Venus. In order to obtain a fit between computation results and ground-based observations of the night side of Venus, special parameters accounting for the CO{sub 2} far-wing opacity and unidentified strong absorption bands must be introduced. For a region of average brightness, the fit thus obtained implies a depletion of water by a factor of 4 with respect to Pioneer Venus results. 41 refs.

  10. LEECH: A 100 Night Exoplanet Imaging Survey at the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew; Apai, Daniel; Bailey, Vanessa; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; Defrere, Denis; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Esposito, Simone; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hinz, Phil; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Leisenring, Jarron; Males, Jared; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Pascucci, Ilaria; Patience, Jenny; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Skrutskie, Mike; Su, Kate; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.

  11. A 100-Night Exoplanet Imaging Survey at the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil; Skemer, Andrew; Apai, Daniel; Bailey, Vanessa; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; Defrere, Denis; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Esposito, Simone; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hinz, Phil; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Leisenring, Jarron; Males, Jared; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Pascucci, Ilaria; Patience, Jenny; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Skrutskie, Michael; Su, Kate; Woodward, Chick; Weigelt, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. We present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.

  12. LEECH: A 100 Night Exoplanet Imaging Survey at the LBT

    E-print Network

    Skemer, Andrew; Bailey, Vanessa; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; Defrere, Denis; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Esposito, Simone; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hinz, Phil; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Leisenring, Jarron; Males, Jared; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Pascucci, Ilaria; Patience, Jenny; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Skrutskie, Mike; Su, Kate; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH nearly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.

  13. Walk-up Keyboard: An Efficient Low Overhead Interface For Transient Workers

    E-print Network

    Guestrin, Carlos

    Walk-up Keyboard: An Efficient Low Overhead Interface For Transient Workers Matthew Rosencrantz if they are forced to change the focus of their concentration [1]. One possible solution to this would be to simply a task. Logging in takes time however, and the user would be forced to shift her concentration from what

  14. Daily suppression of discrete emotions during the work of police service workers and criminal investigation officers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. van Gelderen; Arnold B. Bakker; Elly A. Konijn; Evangelia Demerouti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research among Dutch police officers was to examine whether fluctuations in emotional job demands predict exhaustion through the suppression of discrete emotions. A first diary study (N=25) tested how the suppression of discrete emotions is related to exhaustion at the end of the work shift of police call-center service workers. Results revealed that suppressing anger

  15. Phase-shifting of a neuronal circadian pacemaker in Bulla gouldiana by pentylenetetrazol.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, S B; Block, G D

    1992-04-01

    1. The convulsant agent pentylenetetrazol generates compound action potential activity from the circadian pacemaker cells in the Bulla retina. 2. The phase response curve to 3 hr pulses of pentylenetetrazol consists of only phase delays which occur following pulses delivered in the early subjective night. 3. Phase shifts to pentylenetetrazol are independent of extracellular calcium since they persist in a low-calcium EGTA solution. PMID:1354133

  16. Strong shift equivalence theory and the shift equivalence problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. WAGONER

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses strong shift equivalence and counterexamples to the long standing Shift Equivalence Problem in symbolic dynamics. We also discuss how strong shift equivalence theory is closely related to areas of mathematics outside dynamics such as algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, and topological quantum eld theory.

  17. Respiratory morbidity in wollastonite workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, W; Sepulveda, M J; Watson, A; Jankovic, J

    1984-01-01

    Medical and environmental surveys were conducted at a wollastonite mine and mill in 1976 and in 1982. Health testing included chest radiography, spirometry, and a questionnaire. Workers at a nearby electronics plant were also examined in 1982 for a comparison of lung function and respiratory symptoms. Both wollastonite and control workers showed significant smoking effects for chronic respiratory symptoms, but differences between the groups were not detected. Pneumoconiosis was found in 3% (3/108) of the wollastonite workers in 1982, but none showed a significant progression from their 1976 radiographs. The lung function tests of the 108 wollastonite workers examined in 1982 showed dust related changes in FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak flow rate which were independent of age, height, and smoking habit (p less than 0.01). For non-smokers alone, only the FEV1/FVC ratio declined significantly with dust-years of exposure (p less than 0.01). The comparison of lung function in 1982 between a high dust exposed subgroup of wollastonite workers and the control population showed a significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate in the study group (p less than 0.05). Analysis of 1976-82 changes in pulmonary function showed that wollastonite workers with higher dust exposure had a significantly greater decline in peak flow over the period than workers with lower exposures (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that long term cumulative exposure to wollastonite may impair ventilatory capacity as reflected by changes in the FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate. PMID:6093849

  18. Sleep staging and respiratory events in refractory epilepsy patients: Is there a first night effect?

    PubMed Central

    Selwa, Linda M.; Marzec, Mary L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Weatherwax, Kevin J.; Vaughn, Bradley V.; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Malow, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose We performed this analysis of possible first night effects (FNEs) on sleep and respiratory parameters in order to evaluate the need for two serial night polysomnograms (PSGs) to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in epilepsy patients. Methods As part of a pilot multicenter clinical trial investigating the effects of treating sleep apnea in epilepsy, two nights of PSG recording were performed for 40 patients with refractory epilepsy and OSA symptoms. Sleep architecture was examined in detail, along with respiratory parameters including apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and minimum oxygen saturation. Analysis included two-tailed t-tests, Wilcox sign rank analysis, and Bland Altman measures of agreement. Results Total sleep time differed between the two nights (night 1,363.8 min + 59.4 vs. 386.3 min + 68.6, p = 0.05). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and percentage of REM sleep were increased during night two (night 1: 12.3% + 5.9 vs. night 2: 15.5% + 6.2, p = 0.007), and the total minutes of slow-wave sleep (SWS) were increased (night 1: 35.6 + 60.7 vs. night 2: 46.4 + 68.1, p = 0.01). No other sleep or respiratory variables differed between the two nights. Given an AHI inclusion criterion of five apneas per hour, the first PSG identified all but one patient with OSA. Discussion Respiratory parameters showed little variability between the first and second nights. Sleep architecture was mildly different between the first and second PSG night. Performing two consecutive baseline PSGs to diagnose OSA may not be routinely necessary in this population. PMID:18513353

  19. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data. PMID:24464742

  20. Shifting Times Tables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity provides students with an opportunity to recognize arithmetic sequences and at the same time reinforces identifying multiples. The interactivity displays five numbers and the student must discover the times table pattern and the numerical shift. On Levels 1 and 2, the first five numbers in the sequence are given and on Levels 3 and 4, the numbers given could be any five numbers in the sequence. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  1. Visible wavelength Doppler Lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Wilbert R.; Fischer, Kenneth W.; Abreu, Vincent J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Irgang, Todd D.; Barnes, John E.

    1994-06-01

    The University of Michigan's Space Physics Research Laboratory has constructed a mobile high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar capable of measuring wind and aerosol loading profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system uses a 3-W pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm as the active source. Backscattered signal is collected by a 44.4-cm-diameter Newtonian telescope. A two axis mirror scanning system allows the instrument to achieve full sky coverage. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers in combination with a narrowband (0.1nm) interference filter are used to filter daylight background and provide a high spectral resolving element to measure the Doppler shift. In addition, the aerosol and molecular scattered components of the signal can be separated, giving a measure of the relative aerosol loading. Measurements have been made day and night in the boundary layer with vertical resolution of 100 m and a temporal resolution of approximately 5 minutes. Accuracy of the wind velocity is on the order of 1 to 2 m/s in the boundary layer.

  2. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. PMID:25834450

  3. PM2.5 metal exposures and nocturnal heart rate variability: a panel study of boilermaker construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Eisen, Ellen A; Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2008-01-01

    Background To better understand the mechanism(s) of particulate matter (PM) associated cardiovascular effects, research priorities include identifying the responsible PM characteristics. Evidence suggests that metals play a role in the cardiotoxicity of fine PM (PM2.5) and in exposure-related decreases in heart rate variability (HRV). We examined the association between daytime exposure to the metal content of PM2.5 and night HRV in a panel study of boilermaker construction workers exposed to metal-rich welding fumes. Methods Twenty-six male workers were monitored by ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) on a workday while exposed to welding fume and a non-workday (baseline). From the ECG, rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals) was summarized over the night (0:00–7:00). Workday, gravimetric PM2.5 samples were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence to determine metal content. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations between night rMSSD and PM2.5 metal exposures both with and without adjustment for total PM2.5. Matched ECG measurements from the non-workday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors and models were also adjusted for smoking status. To address collinearity between PM2.5 and metal content, we used a two-step approach that treated the residuals from linear regression models of each metal on PM2.5 as surrogates for the differential effects of metal exposures in models for night rMSSD. Results The median PM2.5 exposure was 650 ?g/m3; median metal exposures for iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, and nickel ranged from 226 ?g/m3 to non-detectable. We found inverse linear associations in exposure-response models with increased metal exposures associated with decreased night rMSSD. A statistically significant association for manganese was observed, with a decline of 0.130 msec (95% CI: -0.162, -0.098) in night rMSSD for every 1 ?g/m3 increase in manganese. However, even after adjusting for individual metals, increases in total PM2.5 exposures were associated with declines in night rMSSD. Conclusion These results support the cardiotoxicity of PM2.5 metal exposures, specifically manganese. However the metal component alone did not account for the observed declines in night HRV. Therefore, results suggest the importance of other PM elemental components. PMID:18613971

  4. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMR 0.93) or of lung cancer (SMR 1.02). Workers routinely exposed to TCE, PCE, or a mixture of solvents also were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMRs 0.86, 1.07, and 0.89, respectively), and the numbers of deaths for specific cancer sites were close to expected values. Slight to moderately increased rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were found among workers exposed to TCE or PCE, but none was significant. A significant increase in testicular cancer was found among those with exposure to mixed solvents, but the excess was based on only six deaths and could not be linked to any particular solvent or job activity. Internal cohort analyses showed no significant trends of increased risk for any cancer with increasing years of exposure to chromate or solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases. Our findings support previous studies of aircraft workers in which cancer risks were generally at or below expected levels.   PMID:10615290

  5. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  6. Reciprocal association between atopy and respiratory symptoms in fully employed female, but not male, workers in swine operations.

    PubMed

    Dosman, James A; Chenard, Liliane; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2009-01-01

    In large commercial swine operations, workers are exposed to indoor air-contaminants during their work-shift. In recently developed large swine operations, exposures are typically 8 or 12 hours/day and females account for a sizeable proportion of the workers. Implications of enhanced exposures and gender require evaluation. Two hundred and forty male and 134 female swine barn workers and 184 male and 227 female nonfarming rural dwellers (controls) (mean age +/- SD males: 36.2 +/- 11.9; females: 34.9 +/- 10.7) completed respiratory questionnaires. Of these, 348 workers (93.0%) and 401 controls (97.6%) underwent allergy skin prick tests (house dust mite, Alternaria sp., hog, cat, mixed grass). The number of hours worked per day was 8.2 for female workers and 7.7 for male workers. Atopy was present in 38.7% and 29.4% of male and female workers, and 46.9% and 38.3% of male and female controls. There was a 72% reduction in risk for chronic phlegm and 70% reduction in usual phlegm in female workers with atopy in comparison to female controls without atopy. There was a significantly increased risk for chronic and usual phlegm, and chronic and usual cough in male workers with atopy. Female workers with atopy were at increased risk for asthma. These findings, that atopy in exposed female workers may be protective of symptoms suggestive of chronic bronchitis but that atopic female workers may be more susceptible to the development of asthma, suggest that exposures to inhaled substances in the workplace may be mediated differently in male and female workers. PMID:19437288

  7. Assessment of DNA damage in WBCs of workers occupationally exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Preuss, Ralf; Kappler, Martin; Schott, Klaus; Pesch, Beate; Zoubek, Gerd; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Mensing, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a cross-shift study with 66 bitumen-exposed mastic asphalt workers and 49 construction workers without exposure to bitumen. Exposure was assessed using personal monitoring of airborne bitumen exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and the sum of 1-, 2 + 9-,3-,4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH). Genotoxic effects in WBC were determined with nonspecific DNA adduct levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and the formation of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Concentration of fumes and aerosols of bitumen correlated significantly with the concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPH after shift (r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.03 and r(s) = 0.55; P < 0.0001, respectively). Bitumen-exposed workers had more DNA strand breaks than the reference group (P < 0.0001) at both time points and a significant correlation with 1-OHP and OHPH in the postshift urines (r(s) = 0.32; P = 0.001 and r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.004, respectively). Paradoxically, we measured higher levels of DNA strand breaks, although not significant, in both study groups before shift. 8-OxodGuo adduct levels did not correlate with DNA strand breaks. Further, 8-oxodGuo levels were associated neither with personal exposure to bitumen nor with urinary metabolite concentrations. Significantly more DNA adducts were observed after shift not only in bitumen-exposed workers but also in the reference group. Only low-exposed workers had significantly elevated 8-oxodGuo adduct levels before as well as after shift (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results show that exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen may contribute to an increased DNA damage assessed with strand breaks. PMID:16614104

  8. Shifted nondiffractive Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Kotlyar, Victor V.; Porfirev, Alexey A.

    2015-05-01

    Nondiffractive Bessel beams are well known to have infinite energy and infinite orbital angular momentum (OAM). However, when normalized to unity of energy, their OAM is finite. In this work, we derive an analytical relationship for calculating the normalized OAM of the superposition of off-axis Bessel beams characterized by the same topological charge. We show that if the constituent beams of the superposition have real-valued weight coefficients, the total OAM of the superposition of the Bessel beams equals that of an individual nonshifted Bessel beam. This property enables generating nondiffractive beams with different intensity distributions but identical OAM. The superposition of a set of identical Bessel beams centered on an arbitrary-radius circle is shown to be equivalent to an individual constituent Bessel beam put in the circle center. As a result of a complex shift of the Bessel beam, the transverse intensity distribution and OAM of the beam are also shown to change. We show that, in the superposition of two or more complex-shifted Bessel beams, the OAM may remain unchanged, while the intensity distribution is changed. Numerical simulation is in good agreement with theory.

  9. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  10. The triad of shift work, occupational noise, and physical workload and risk of coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Virkkunen; M Ha?rma?; T Kauppinen; L Tenkanen

    2006-01-01

    Background: Shift work, noise, and physical workload are very common occupational exposures and they tend to cluster in the same groups of workers.Objectives: To study the short and long term effects of these exposures on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to estimate the joint effects of these factors.Methods: The study population in this prospective 13 year follow up

  11. Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance.

    PubMed

    Kyba, Christopher C M; Wagner, Janna M; Kuechly, Helga U; Walker, Constance E; Elvidge, Christopher D; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the "First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness" are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate. PMID:23677222

  12. Citizen Science Provides Valuable Data for Monitoring Global Night Sky Luminance

    PubMed Central

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Wagner, Janna M.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Walker, Constance E.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate. PMID:23677222

  13. Citizen Science Provides Valuable Data for Monitoring Global Night Sky Luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Wagner, Janna M.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Walker, Constance E.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2013-05-01

    The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the ``First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness'' are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.

  14. How the circadian rhythm affects sleep, wakefulness, and overall health: background for understanding shift work disorder.

    PubMed

    Krystal, Andrew D

    2012-02-01

    It is estimated that 15 to 25% of the U.S. labor force works night, evening, or rotating shifts. These non-traditional schedules can affect the circadian rhythm, a self-sustained rhythm of biological processes that plays an important role in modulating sleep/wake function, resulting in circadian rhythm sleep disorder, shift work type, usually referred to as shift work disorder. The disorder consists of a constant or recurrent pattern of sleep interruption that results in insomnia when sleep is needed and excessive sleepiness during waking hours. Clinicians need more information about the role of the circadian rhythm in human functioning as well as the pathophysiology, prevalence, and consequences of shift work disorder, so that they can recognize and diagnose this problem in clinical practice. PMID:22401482

  15. Predictors of Hearing Protection Use in Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Jane; Neitzel, Richard; Meischke, Hendrika; Daniell, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Stover, Bert; Seixas, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Although noise-induced hearing loss is completely preventable, it remains highly prevalent among construction workers. Hearing protection devices (HPDs) are commonly relied upon for exposure reduction in construction, but their use is complicated by intermittent and highly variable noise, inadequate industry support for hearing conservation, and lax regulatory enforcement. Methods: As part of an intervention study designed to promote HPD use in the construction industry, we enrolled a cohort of 268 construction workers from a variety of trades at eight sites and evaluated their use of HPDs at baseline. We measured HPD use with two instruments, a questionnaire survey and a validated combination of activity logs with simultaneous dosimetry measurements. With these measurements, we evaluated potential predictors of HPD use based on components of Pender's revised health promotion model (HPM) and safety climate factors. Results: Observed full-shift equivalent noise levels were above recommended limits, with a mean of 89.8 ± 4.9 dBA, and workers spent an average of 32.4 ± 18.6% of time in each shift above 85 dBA. We observed a bimodal distribution of HPD use from the activity card/dosimetry measures, with nearly 80% of workers reporting either almost never or almost always using HPDs. Fair agreement (kappa = 0.38) was found between the survey and activity card/dosimetry HPD use measures. Logistic regression models identified site, trade, education level, years in construction, percent of shift in high noise, and five HPM components as important predictors of HPD use at the individual level. Site safety climate factors were also predictors at the group level. Conclusions: Full-shift equivalent noise levels on the construction sites assessed were well above the level at which HPDs are required, but usage rates were quite low. Understanding and predicting HPD use differs by methods used to assess use (survey versus activity card/dosimetry). Site, trade, and the belief that wearing HPD is not time consuming were the only predictors of HPD use common to both measures on an individual level. At the group level, perceived support for site safety and HPD use proved to be predictive of HPD use. PMID:19531807

  16. Discrimination between the origins and functional implications of haze and halo at night after photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Brart, D P; Lohmann, C P; Fitzke, F W; Klonos, G; Corbett, M C; Kerr-Muir, M G; Marshall, J

    1994-01-01

    A series of 84 eyes with up to -6.00 diopters (D) of myopia were treated by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using a 5.00 mm ablation zone. Three months postoperatively, 43 eyes (51%) complained of disturbed night vision, compared to 12 (14%) preoperatively. Ten (12%) had significant problems, ie, interference with driving at night. At 12 months, there were 32 patients (38%) with minor disturbances of night vision, 4 (5%) with significant problems. PMID:7517318

  17. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  18. Circadian Rhythm Profiles in Women with Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Stunkard, Albert J.; Rogers, Naomi L.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Allison, Kelly C.; O’Reardon, John P.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Cummings, David E.; Heo, Moonseong; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian rhythms in patients with NES were evaluated. Fifteen women with NES (mean age ± SD, 40.8 ± 8.7 y) and 14 control subjects (38.6 ± 9.5 y) were studied in the laboratory for 3 nights, with food intake measured daily. Blood also was collected for 25 h (every 2 h from 0800 to 2000 h, and then hourly from 2100 to 0900 h) and assayed for glucose and 7 hormones (insulin, ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and prolactin). Statistical analyses utilized linear mixed-effects cosinor analysis. Control subjects displayed normal phases and amplitudes for all circadian rhythms. In contrast, patients with NES showed a phase delay in the timing of meals, and delayed circadian rhythms for total caloric, fat, and carbohydrate intake. In addition, phase delays of 1.0 to 2.8 h were found in 2 food-regulatory rhythms—leptin and insulin—and in the circadian melatonin rhythm (with a trend for a delay in the circadian cortisol rhythm). In contrast, circulating levels of ghrelin, the primary hormone that stimulates food intake, were phase advanced by 5.2 h. The glucose rhythm showed an inverted circadian pattern. Patients with NES also showed reduced amplitudes in the circadian rhythms of food intake, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin, but increased TSH amplitude. Thus, patients with NES demonstrated significant changes in the timing and amplitude of various behavioral and physiological circadian markers involved in appetite and neuroendocrine regulation. As such, NES may result from dissociations between central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) timing mechanisms and putative oscillators elsewhere in the central nervous system or periphery, such as the stomach or liver. Considering these results, chronobiologic treatments for NES such as bright light therapy may be useful. Indeed, bright light therapy has shown efficacy in reducing night eating in case studies and should be evaluated in controlled clinical trials. PMID:19150931

  19. Jupiter Night-Side Auroras, North and South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Oval-shaped auroras glow in night-side areas near Jupiter's north and south poles in these images taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Jan. 13, 2001. The lower frame is the first to capture the southern aurora on the planet's night side. Blue lines of longitude and latitude have been added in each frame to indicate position of the glows.

    Jupiter's auroral ovals are similar to Earth's auroras, often called the northern lights or southern lights, although fluctuations in solar activity play a more important role in the auroras at Earth than at Jupiter. Energetic particles are constantly streaming towards Jupiter on magnetic field lines that intersect the planet's atmosphere on a ring around the magnetic pole. Where the energetic particles hit the upper atmosphere, they cause emission of light, similar to the glow in a fluorescent bulb. In the north (upper image), the magnetic pole is offset from the rotational pole, which is where the blue longitude lines converge, just to the left of the imaged area. The auroral oval appears like a draped necklace that is carried around by the rotation of the planet. In the south (lower image), the magnetic and rotational poles are nearly coincident, so no significant offset is visible.

    Cassini had passed its closest to Jupiter about two weeks before taking these pictures, so it was in position to see the night side of the planet. It was about 16.5 million kilometers (10.3 million miles) from the planet and about 2.5 degrees below the plane of Jupiter's equator. The smallest features visible are about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) across. The images were taken by Cassini's narrow-band camera through a filter centered on a light-wave frequency at which hydrogen emits light when it is excited. They have been processed to remove scattered light from the overexposed sunlit crescent of the planet. Hydrogen is a major ingredient of Jupiter's atmosphere.

    It is not understood why the auroral oval rings are so thin. Cassini images will help scientists figure out what brings about the narrow nature and other features of the auroras, such as the break in the northern oval visible in the upper image.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  20. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  1. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  2. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  3. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, N.; Lejard, C.; Deltel, G.; Bijl, P.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, MODs and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The Image Intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, PHOTONIS has investigated the link between its products physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include 1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, 2) an image-based night vision simulation and 3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: i) being able to support the need of the integrators and end users, and ii) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, PHOTONIS and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. With respect to the image-based simulation, PHOTONIS performs physical and performance comparisons between artificial and real imagery, promising exciting further development of a model based on the merging of the different approaches of night vision evaluation and modelling. In this paper, we present the PHOTONIS night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices and show range prediction examples.

  4. Seasonal trends and nightly fluctuations of SWIR air-glow irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Allen, Jeffrey; Nolasco, Rudolph; Gonglewski, John D.; Myers, Michael; Fertig, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    It is well known that luminance from photo-chemical reactions of hydroxyl ions in the upper atmosphere (~85 km altitude) produces a significant amount of night time radiation in the short wave infra-red (SWIR) band with wavelength between 0.9 and 1.7 ?m. This air glow has been proposed as an illumination source for obtaining imagery in the dark of night. By examining short term nightly fluctuations and long term seasonal trends in the ground level irradiance we hope to determine the source reliability for night time low light surveillance and imaging.

  5. Increase in interleukin-6 and fibrinogen after exposure to dust in tunnel construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, B; Qvenild, T; Holme, J; Svendsen, K; Ulvestad, B

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To see if there is any change in blood concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen during a working shift in tunnel construction workers. Methods: 12 Tunnel construction workers were followed up during a 24 hours period after returning from a 9 day work free period. The first blood sample was taken on Monday afternoon before starting the shift. Another was taken around midnight after 8 hours of work, and another the next afternoon after about 12 hours of rest. Exposure to respirable dust was measured by personal samplers. Results: The exposure of the workers to respirable dust, in terms of an 8 hour time weighted average, varied between 0.3 and 1.9 mg/m3. For IL-6, there was an increase in the median serum concentration from 1.14 ng/l before starting the shift to 4.86 ng/l after 8 hours of work (p=0.002). For fibrinogen, there was an increase in the median concentration from 3.40 g/l before entering the shift to 3.70 g/l 24 hours later (p=0.044). There was a positive correlation between values of IL-6 at the end of the working shift and the fibrinogen concentrations the next afternoon (Pearson's R=0.73, p=0.007). The observed increase in IL-6 was significant for both smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: The study shows an increase in both IL-6 and fibrinogen concentrations during a working shift for both smoking and non-smoking tunnel construction workers. PMID:11836462

  6. A computer-based multimedia prototype for night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Bobby; Day, Glenroy E., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    Naval aviators who employ night vision goggles (NVG) face additional risks during nighttime operations. In an effort to reduce these risks, increased training with NVG's is suggested. Our goal was to design a computer-based, interactive multimedia system that would assist in the training of pilots who use NVG's. This thesis details the methods and techniques used in the development of the NVG multimedia prototype. It describes which hardware components and software applications were utilized as well as how the prototype was developed. Several facets of multimedia technology (sound, animation, video, and three dimensional graphics) have been incorporated into the interactive prototype. For a more robust successive prototype, recommendations are submitted for future enhancements that include alternative methodologies as well as expanded interactions.

  7. Design of a Day/Night Lunar Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelman, Peter; Easudes, Jesse; Martin, Martin C.; Rollins, Eric; Silberman, Jack; Chen, Mei; Hancock, John; Mor, Andrew B.; Sharf, Alex; Warren, Tom; Bapna, Deepak

    1995-06-01

    The pair of lunar rovers discussed in this report will return video and state data to various ventures, including theme park and marketing concerns, science agencies, and educational institutions. The greatest challenge accepted by the design team was to enable operations throughout the extremely cold and dark lunar night, an unprecedented goal in planetary exploration. This is achieved through the use of the emerging technology of Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converters (AMTEC), provided with heat from a innovative beta-decay heat source, Krypton-85 gas. Although previous space missions have returned still images, our design will convey panoramic video from a ring of cameras around the rover. A six-wheel rocker bogie mechanism is implemented to propel the rover. The rovers will also provide the ability to safeguard their operation to allow untrained members of the general public to drive the vehicle. Additionally, scientific exploration and educational outreach will be supported with a user operable, steerable and zoomable camera.

  8. Analysis of Risk Compensation Behavior on Night Vision Enhancement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Toshihiro; Masui, Junya; Nishikawa, Seimei

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) such as a forward obstacle collision warning system (FOCWS) and a night vision enhancement system (NVES) aim to decrease driver's mental workload and enhance vehicle safety by provision of useful information to support driver's perception process and judgment process. On the other hand, the risk homeostasis theory (RHT) cautions that an enhanced safety and a reduced risk would cause a risk compensation behavior such as increasing the vehicle velocity. Therefore, the present paper performed the driving simulator experiments to discuss dependence on the NVES and emergence of the risk compensation behavior. Moreover, we verified the side-effects of spontaneous behavioral adaptation derived from the presentation of the fuel-consumption meter on the risk compensation behavior.

  9. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Chicago, Illinois at night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows Chicago, Illinois with part of the shoreline of Lake Michigan at night as photographed during orbit 33 from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The image was recorded with an image intensifier on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 41.8 degrees north latitude and 87.7 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired at 1/60-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03031.IMG.

  10. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Chicago, Illinois at night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows Chicago, Illinois with part of the shoreline of Lake Michigan at night as photographed during orbit 33 from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The image was recorded with an image intensifier on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 41.8 degrees north latitude and 87.7 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired at 1/60-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03032.IMG.

  11. Mining knowledge in One Night Stands data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansaturio, M. E.; Arratia, O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we set up a procedure that aims at improving the orbits of the known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) by making use of the One Night Stands (ONS) file distributed by the Minor Planet Center. The identification algorithm employed is of the observation attribution type and takes into account the higher apparent motion exhibited by this kind of asteroids. The application of this algorithm together with the ONS file is not straightforward, as in practice such a file presents several problems that must be managed prior to the massive treatment of the information contained in it. We include a three-step protocol to handle these drawbacks. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the results obtained with this procedure, the main conclusion being that more than 80 NEA orbits have been improved.

  12. SWIR air glow mapping of the night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Michael M.; Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Fertig, Gregory; Allen, Jeff; Nolasco, Rudolf; Burns, Dennis; Mons, Ishan

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that luminance from photo-chemical reactions of hydroxyl ions in the upper atmosphere (~85 km altitude) produces a significant amount of night time radiation in the short wave infra-red (SWIR) band of wave length 0.9 to 1.7 ?m. Numerous studies of these phenomena have demonstrated that the irradiance shows significant temporal and spatial variations in the night sky. Changes in weather patterns, seasons, sun angle, moonlight, etc have the propensity to alter the SWIR air glow irradiance pattern. By performing multiple SWIR measurements a mosaic representation of the celestial hemisphere was constructed and used to investigate these variations over time and space. The experimental setup consisted of two sensors, an InGaAs SWIR detector and a visible astronomical camera, co-located and bore sighted on an AZ-EL gimbal. This gimbal was programmed to view most of the sky using forty five discrete azimuth and elevation locations. The dwell time at each location was 30 seconds with a total cycle time of less than 30 minutes. The visible astronomical camera collected image data simultaneous with the SWIR camera in order to distinguish SWIR patterns from clouds. Data was reduced through batch processing producing polar representations of the sky irradiance as a function of azimuth, elevation, and time. These spatiotemporal variations in the irradiance, both short and long term, can be used to validate and calibrate physical models of atmospheric chemistry and turbulence. In this paper we describe our experimental setup and present some results of our measurements made over several months in a rural marine environment on the Islands of Kauai and Maui Hawaii.

  13. GLOBE At Night: Mobilizing The Citizen-scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Newhouse, M.

    2011-01-01

    GLOBE at Night is an annual international citizen-science event encouraging everyone to measure local levels of light pollution in February and March and contribute their observations online to a world map. (See www.globeatnight.org.) The campaign is hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in partnership with ESRI. In the last three years citizen-scientists from around the world contributed more than 50,000 observations, with nearly 18,000 data points from the 2010 campaign. During the same time, millions of touch-based, GPS-enabled smartphones and tablets have been sold worldwide. Each year NOAO staff has to discard data points due to inaccurate reporting of the location (latitude and longitude). Despite the use of innovative mapping tools on the data reporting web page, it is too easy to mistype numbers or forget a negative sign, spuriously relocating data points. Additionally, there is a time lag between when the data is collected at night and when it is reported later that can allow for additional error. One approach to address these problems would be to create a way to submit the data when it is observed and have a more automated GPS capability for reporting an accurate location. The rise in popularity of GPS-enabled mobile devices provides such a solution. These phones include state-of-the-art browsers that have access to the GPS and other data (date, time). These devices can potentially be used to show an appropriate magnitude/sky chart to the citizen-scientist and submit the data in real time, as the observation is made. NOAO staff is building a web application for mobile devices that will help realize these possibilities and potentially enable the accurate reporting of many more observations this year. Our poster will discuss this effort and describe what we hope to accomplish.

  14. Does thermal convection occur in mammalian burrows during the night?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganot, Y.; Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.; Nachshon, U.

    2010-12-01

    Burrowing is a common habit of mammals in arid zones, yet knowledge of environmental conditions within animal burrows, and especially of the way burrows are ventilated, is scarce. The ventilation rate of a burrow controls air composition within the burrow by driving gas exchange between the lower part of the burrow where the animal typically lives, and the atmosphere. Ventilation can be achieved by the following mechanisms: (1) diffusion; (2) external winds; (3) movement of the inhabitant within the burrow (the 'piston-effect'); and (4) natural thermal convection, a process by which a natural thermal gradient between burrow and atmosphere creates a density gradient which induces air flow. Here we investigate the role of thermal convection in burrow ventilation. For this purpose, artificial burrows (65 cm in depth and 7 cm in diameter) were drilled in loess soil in the Negev Desert of Israel and a network of thermocouples was installed to continuously monitor and record temperature distribution within these burrows. The results show that free convection occurs on a daily basis during the night and early morning. During these times, burrow air temperature was warmer than atmospheric air, and temperature readings pointed to the regular occurrence of convection flow in a thermosyphon pattern. Volume fluxes were calculated based on analytical solution and empirical correlations. For the artificial burrows investigated, an average CO2 volume flux of about 15 liter/hour was calculated during the night when convective conditions prevailed. For comparison, CO2 volume flux by steady-state diffusion alone is 3 orders of magnitude lower.

  15. South African Public Workers Strike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    Yesterday, hundreds of thousands of South African public workers held a one-day strike, demanding wage increases. The strike left many public offices and schools with minimal staffing and forced others to close. Participating in the largest labor protest in South Africa since the end of apartheid, workers marched in cities across the country including Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg. Twelve unions, representing over one million teachers, police and prison workers, hospital personnel, and other public workers, held the strike after seven months of negotiations between the unions and government led to no agreement on pay increases. The unions had demanded a 7.3 percent increase in wages, in line with inflation. Due to difficulties in the economy, however, the government was only able to offer an increase of 6.3 percent. The unions consider the strike successful because the government promised to return to the negotiating table within the next several days. This week's In the News looks at the strike and the economy of South Africa under the leadership of President Thabo Mbeki, who was inaugurated just two months ago. The following ten sources provide background on the South African government as well as news and information about the strike.

  16. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  17. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  18. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  19. How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Wood

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that the main cause of the deteriorating economic position of unskilled workers in the United States and other developed countries has been expansion of trade with developing countries. In the framework of a Heckscher-Ohlin model, it outlines the evidence in support of this view, responds to criticisms of this evidence, and challenges the evidence for the alternative

  20. Enumeration of Sex Workers in the Central Business District of Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T. Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts. PMID:23372713

  1. Cross-shift peak expiratory flow changes are unassociated with respirable coal dust exposure among South African coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Becklake, M.; Seixas, N.; Thompson, M.L. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa)

    2007-12-15

    he objectives of this study were to determine whether cross-shift changes in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were related to respirable dust exposure in South African coalminers. Fifty workers were randomly selected from a cohort of 684 miners from 3 bituminous coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Peak expiratory efforts were measured prior to the commencement of the shift, and at the end of the shift on at least two occasions separated by at least 2 weeks, with full shift personal dust sampling being conducted on each occasion for each participant. Interviews were conducted, work histories were obtained and cumulative exposure estimates were constructed. Regression models examined the associations of cross-shift changes in PEFR with current and cumulative exposure, controlling for shift, smoking and past history of tuberculosis. There were marginal differences in cross-shift PEFR (ranging from 0.1 to 2 L/min). Linear regression analyses showed no association between cross-shift change in PEFR and current or cumulative exposure. The specific shift worked by participants in the study showed no effect. Our study showed no association between current respirable dust exposure and cross-shift changes in PEFR. There was a non-significant protective effect of cumulative dust exposure on the outcome, suggesting the presence of a 'healthy worker survivor effect' in this data.

  2. Respiratory disease in foundry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Low, I; Mitchell, C

    1985-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the various moulding processes reported these symptoms less often. Of 46 workers exposed to moulding fumes and vapours, 11 had developed a wheeze while working at the foundry. Wheeze and other respiratory tract symptoms were often attributed by the workers to exposure to substances at work, particularly from the Shell process which uses phenol formaldehyde resin and hexamethylenetetramine. Symptoms were reported also, but less often, on exposure to materials used in the Furane process (urea formaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol) and the Isocure process (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, phenol formaldehyde, and dimethylethylamine). Ventilatory function studied over Monday and Friday showed a small and inconsistent changes. The six subjects working on the semiautomated line showed a small decrease in FEV1 (+/- SEM) (208 +/- 70 ml) only on Monday; this differed significantly from that in 17 aftercast workers (9 +/- 50 ml, p less than 0.05). Ventilatory function recorded before work on Monday morning showed no evidence of chronic airway obstruction in any group. Most environmental measurements were below the threshold limit values (TLV) except in the general foundry, where furfuryl alcohol was detected at concentrations of up to 50 ppm and formaldehyde at 4 ppm. The onset of symptoms in relation to exposure to various fumes and vapours suggests that both irritant and hypersensitivity mechanisms are present. As environmental modifications had occurred recently the apparent hypersensitivity may relate to past exposure levels above the TLV. PMID:3970867

  3. A study of the prevalence of acute respiratory disorders among workers in the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Meyer-Bisch, C; Mur, J M

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological study of 774 workers in seven eastern France cotton textile factories was conducted to determine the prevalence of acute respiratory disorders. From nine non-textile companies, 464 workers, stratified as to sex, age and tobacco consumption participated in the study as a control population. A questionnaire designed to elicit the respiratory symptoms (in particular the Monday tightness characterizing byssinosis) was administered to the 1238 workers. Peak-expiratory-flow (PEF) measurement was made for each subject, exposed and non-exposed, before the start of the shift on the day of the worker's return to work and repeated at the end of the shift. The PEF's variations during the workshift were studied. Present Monday tightness was mentioned by 48 cotton exposed workers (6.2%) and by 9 non-exposed (1.9%) (P less than 0.001). A 10% decrease in PEF during the shift was present in 63 cotton exposed workers (8.1%) and in 10 non-exposed (2.1%) (P less than 0.001). For the exposed population, Monday tightness was analysed using multiple logistic regression, showing an absence of a link with smoking, an increased occurrence after 20 years of exposure (OR = 7.3) and a link with current job (more frequent among those with the dustiest jobs) (OR = 4.9). The multiple logistic analysis of a 10% decrease in PEF showed effects of smoking habits (OR = 1.86). It also showed a link with "highly polluted job" history (OR = 2.7), but especially with present job (OR = 3.4). The absence of a constant link between Monday tightness and drop of the PEF was found. PMID:1856010

  4. Changing Employment Patterns of Organized Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Larry T.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the employment of organized workers in May 1980 with averages for the year ended in September 1984. Data indicate that the total number of U.S. workers rose while the number of employed workers who were members of unions or employee associations fell. Statistical tables and charts are included. (CT)

  5. Invisible Divide: Farm Workers and Telephone Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Delgadillo, Viviana; Flores, Nicolas; Ramirez, Debora

    2003-01-01

    A survey of California farm workers (n=34), former farm workers (n=7), vendors of telephone technology (n=13), and farm camp managers (n=5) revealed a pattern of low access to and availability of telephones and problems in the use of prepaid telephone cards. Results show that farm worker communities are largely forgotten in discussions of the…

  6. Doctoral Defense "CONSTRUCTION WORKERS' ABSENCE BEHAVIOR

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "CONSTRUCTION WORKERS' ABSENCE BEHAVIOR UNDER SOCIAL INFLUNECE" Seungjun Ahn Date & Environmental Engineering Due to the labor intensive nature of construction, workers' timely attendance control in workgroups affects worker absence behavior in construction, and nor is it known how social

  7. FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS

    E-print Network

    List of FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS in the United States, 1968 UNITED STATES LIST OF FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1968 By Branch of Foreign fishermen!s and fish shore workers! unions only. The list was originally compiled February 1948

  8. Male Sex Workers in Three Australian Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Minichiello; Rodrigo Marino; Jan Browne; Maggie Jamieson; Kirk Peterson; Brad Reuter; Kenn Robinson

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic and sex work characteristics of sex workers in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. A total of 185 male sex workers completed the questionnaire component of the study. The results of this study serve to debunk many of the myths surrounding the popular view of the male sex worker (MS W). The respondents in this study were

  9. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  10. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed. PMID:25826875

  11. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  12. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Jennings; André Sourou Yebadokpo; Jean Affo; Marthe Agbogbe; Aguima Tankoano

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting

  13. Facing the challenge of a changing system: training child welfare workers in a privatized environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Debora M; Levy, Michelle M

    2002-01-01

    The state of Kansas' implementation of a privatized child welfare system is arguably an ambitious shift in child welfare service delivery. In an attempt to drastically improve services to vulnerable families, privatization resulted in intended and unintended consequences for the child welfare workforce. Some of these consequences, including the influx of inexperienced new workers, high worker turnover, and managing relationships with multiple partners, are issues that affect training needs of child welfare professionals. The following paper offers one approach to addressing these needs as well as identifying the challenges involved in training in a privatized environment. PMID:12705471

  14. Dim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Tomoko Ikeno

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Randy J.

    Light pollution Pelage Immune function a b s t r a c t Photoperiodic regulation of physiologyDim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Tomoko Ikeno , Zachary M of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. How- ever, artificial light at night caused by recent

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Randy J.

    .96; published online 24 July 2012 Keywords: BDNF; cytokine; hamster; hippocampus; light pollution; Phodopus in the United States and Europe experience nightly light pollution.8 Such unnatural conditions almost certainlyORIGINAL ARTICLE Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible

  16. MINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    and circadian physiological and behavioral functions. Sources of light at night Light pollution by urban of the natural sky beyond background levels, called urban sky glow [15,16]. Light pollution has demonstratedMINI REVIEW The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological

  17. The night sky brightness at Potsdam-Babelsberg including overcast and moonlit conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschnig, Johannes; Schwope, Axel; Posch, Thomas; Schwarz, Robert

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the results of 2 years (2011-2012) of night sky photometry performed at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam-Babelsberg. This institute is located 23 km to the southwest of the center of Berlin. Our measurements have been performed with a Sky Quality Meter. We find night sky brightness values ranging from 16.5 to 20.3 magSQM arcsec-2; the latter value corresponds to 4.8 times the natural zenithal night sky brightness. We focus on the influence of clouds and of the moon on the night sky brightness. It turns out that Potsdam-Babelsberg, despite its proximity to Berlin, still shows a significant correlation of the night sky brightness with the lunar phases. However, the light-pollution-enhancing effect of clouds dominates the night sky brightness by far: overcast nights (up to 16.5 magSQM arcsec-2) are much brighter than clear full moon nights (18-18.5 magSQM arcsec-2).

  18. Low-cost day\\/night helmet-mounted displays (HMD) in airborne operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis J. Casey

    1999-01-01

    Current doctrine dictates a requirement for conducting 24-hour operations on the modern battlefield either in a rural or urban environment. To date, Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) along with Infrared sensors provide the bulk of vision aids that allow crew members to engage in tactical operations at night and during periods of low and reduced visibility. Since operations employing these devices,

  19. Heart rate variability: sleep stage, time of night, and arousal influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Bonnet; D. L. Arand

    1997-01-01

    Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability in consecutive 5-min epochs during the night in 12 normal adults. Simultaneous time coding of EEG and digitized EKG allowed examination of heart rate variability as a function of sleep stage, time of night and presence of EEG arousal. The results replicated previous studies in showing increases in high frequency components

  20. Changing Pre-School Children's Conceptions of the Day/Night Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valanides, N.; Gritsi, F.; Kampeza, M.; Ravanis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of a teaching intervention on preschoolers' concepts of the day/night cycle. Found that most children readily accepted that the sun and earth are separate spherical objects, but fewer attributed the day/night cycle to rotation of the earth on its axis. Most were puzzled by simultaneous movements of the earth around the sun and…