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Sample records for nigrostriatal dopaminergic system

  1. Effects of HZE particle on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in a future Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yu; Frey, M A; Sahiar, F; Dodge, R; Mohler, S

    2005-02-01

    Because of long duration travel outside the Earth's magnetic field, the effect of iron-rich high charge and energy (HZE) particles in Galactic Cosmic Rays on human body is the major concern in radiation protection. Recently attention has been directed to effects on the central nervous system in addition to mutagenic effects. In particular, a reduction in striatal dopamine content on nigrostriatal dopaminergic system has been reported by investigators using accelerated iron ions in ground-based mammalian studies. In addition, studies of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease demonstrated that excess iron cause a reduction in the dopamine content in the substantia nigra. This suggests an intriguing possibility to explain the selective detrimental effects of HZE particles on the dopaminergic system. Should these particles have biochemical effects, possible options for countermeasures are: (1) nutritional prevention, (2) medication, and (3) surgical placement of a stimulator electrode at a specific anatomic site in the basal ganglia. PMID:15754475

  2. Gdf-15 deficiency does not alter vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in MPTP-intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Machado, Venissa; Gilsbach, Ralf; Das, Richa; Schober, Andreas; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Krieglstein, Kerstin; Unsicker, Klaus; Spittau, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-15 (Gdf-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (Tgf-β) superfamily and has been shown to be a potent neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Gdf-15 has also been shown to be involved in inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to identify the role of endogenous Gdf-15 in the MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by comparing Gdf-15 (+/+) and Gdf-15 (-/-) mice. At 4 days and 14 days post-MPTP administration, both Gdf-15 (+/+) and Gdf-15 (-/-) mice showed a similar decline in DAergic neuron numbers and in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. This was followed by a comparable restorative phase at 90 days and 120 days, indicating that the absence of Gdf-15 does not affect the susceptibility or the recovery capacity of the nigrostriatal system after MPTP administration. The MPTP-induced microglial and astrocytic response was not significantly altered between the two genotypes. However, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiling revealed the differential expression of markers in Gdf-15 (+/+) and Gdf-15 (-/-) mice after MPTP administration. Thus, the MPTP mouse model fails to uncover a major role of endogenous Gdf-15 in the protection of MPTP-lesioned nigrostriatal DAergic neurons, in contrast to its capacity to protect the 6-hydroxydopamine-intoxicated nigrostriatal system. PMID:27115420

  3. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anmol; Kopra, Jaakko; Varendi, Kärt; Porokuokka, Lauriina L; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-12-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson's disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson's disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3'UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson's disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3'UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct spatial

  4. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function

    PubMed Central

    Porokuokka, Lauriina L.; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson’s disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson’s disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3’UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson’s disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3’UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct

  5. Changes in dopamine availability in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic systems by gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Y; Kanno, T; Okada, H; Yoshikawa, E; Futatsubashi, M; Nobezawa, S; Torizuka, T; Tanaka, K

    2001-04-01

    The basal ganglia play a role in controlling movement during gait. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum and extrastriatal region in association with walking exercise in six normal subjects and seven age-matched unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease. This was done by comparing DAT radioligand uptake in the dopaminergic projection areas after gait with that under the resting condition using a DAT probe, 11C-labelled 2-beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane ([11C]CFT) and PET. Physiological parameters were stable during and after gait in both groups. The regions of interest method for measuring differences in [11C]CFT uptake level and voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) showed that [11C]CFT uptake in the striatum (specifically the putamen) was decreased by gait to a greater extent in normal subjects, whereas a significant reduction in [11C]CFT uptake was not found in the putamen but in the caudate and orbitofrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease patients. These results are the first in vivo evidence that DAT availability is reduced in the nigrostriatal projection area by basic human behaviour, i.e. gait. Alterations in this availability in Parkinson's disease suggested that shifted activation in the medial striatum and the mesocortical dopaminergic system might reflect the pathophysiology of parkinsonian gait. PMID:11287377

  6. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography in healthy volunteer subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leenders, K.L.; Salmon, E.P.; Tyrrell, P.; Perani, D.; Brooks, D.J.; Sager, H.; Jones, T.; Marsden, C.D.; Frackowiak, R.S. )

    1990-12-01

    A group of healthy control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease were investigated using positron emission tomography and two tracers as indicators of different specific properties of the presynaptic dopaminergic system in caudate nucleus and putamen. The first tracer, 6-L-(18F)-fluorodopa, was used as an analog of levodopa to assess its regional brain uptake, conversion into, and retention as dopamine and further metabolites. The second tracer, (11C)-nomifensine was employed as an indicator of striatal monaminergic reuptake sites that are principally dopaminergic. We have used this tracer to assess dopaminergic nerve terminal density. In patients with Parkinson's disease, striatal uptake of both tracers was decreased, putamen being significantly more affected than caudate. Side-to-side differences of uptake in putamen, but not caudate, correlated with corresponding left-right differences of scored clinical motor performance. Both 6-L(18F)-fluorodopa and (11C)-nomifensine tracer uptake in putamen was decreased on average to 40% of normal values, suggesting that a substantial part of the cellular elements of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system is still intact in living parkinsonian patients. This is in contrast to the generally extreme depletion of endogenous dopamine in the putamen of patients found at postmortem. Our results lend support to the search for drug treatments that protect against further nigrostriatal cell loss and that could be exhibited as soon as the disease manifests clinically. If successful, a sufficient striatal nerve terminal pool would remain so that the effectiveness of levodopa as a dopamine repletor could persist.

  7. Motor impairments and neurochemical changes after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Apicella, P; Trouche, E; Nieoullon, A; Legallet, E; Dusticier, N

    1990-01-01

    Unilateral lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system were induced in five monkeys by intranigral injections of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. Following the lesion, all monkeys showed a transient reluctance in using the contralateral forelimb, accompanied, in two monkeys by semi-flexed posture of the disabled forelimb. Three of the monkeys that had been conditioned to perform a visually triggered goal-directed arm movement, showed an increase in latency and duration of contralateral arm movements. Task performance recovered spontaneously to preoperative levels within four months in two monkeys despite significant reductions of endogenous dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid contents in the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus ipsilateral to the neurotoxic nigral injection. The third monkey exhibited a persistent increase in movement latency associated with a near complete loss of dopamine in both the putamen and the caudate nucleus. In all cases, an increase the dihydroxyphenyl-acetic acid to dopamine ratio was detected in the striatum and pallidum suggesting a compensatory increase in dopamine turnover in remaining intact dopaminergic nerve terminals. The level of serotonin was changed in all monkeys consisting of either a decrease or an increase, depending on the striatopallidal regions studied. Changes in choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in the same regions were only seen in some cases. The present results show that 6-hydroxydopamine-induced partial unilateral lesion of nigral dopaminergic neurons produced predominantly contralateral hypokinesia, accompanied by reductions of dopamine content in the ipsilateral striatum and pallidum. The use of this locally applied neurotoxin appears to be a suitable method for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms underlying hypokinesia since deficits in both initiating and executing movements can be expressed independently of other behavioral symptoms. The results

  8. Naringin: a protector of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Un Ju; Leem, Eunju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and a biochemical reduction of striatal dopamine levels. Despite the lack of fully understanding of the etiology of Parkinson's disease, accumulating evidences suggest that Parkinson's disease may be caused by the insufficient support of neurotrophic factors, and by microglial activation, resident immune cells in the brain. Naringin, a major flavonone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, is considered as a protective agent against neurodegenerative diseases because it can induce not only anti-oxidant effects but also neuroprotective effects by the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways and the induction of neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. We have recently reported that naringin has neuroprotective effects in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Our observations show that intraperitoneal injection of naringin induces increases in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity in dopaminergic neurons of rat brains with anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor by naringin treatment contributes to the protection of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Although the effects of naringin on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in human brains are largely unknown, these results suggest that naringin may be a beneficial natural product for the prevention of dopaminergic degeneration in the adult brain. PMID:24963276

  9. Presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic binding densities in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical systems in early Parkinson's disease: a double-tracer positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Y; Kanno, T; Okada, H; Yoshikawa, E; Futatsubashi, M; Nobezawa, S; Torizuka, T; Sakamoto, M

    1999-11-01

    To investigate changes in the relation between presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic functions in vivo in both nigrostriatal and mesocortical systems in Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 drug-naive early PD patients were studied twice using positron emission tomography with [11C]CFT (dopamine transporter probe) followed by [11C]SCH 23390 (D1 receptor probe). Regional binding potentials (k3/k4) of [11C]CFT and [11C]SCH 23390 in the striatum (nigrostriatal system) and the orbitofrontal cortex (mesocortical system) were estimated by compartment analyses. Levels of [11C]CFT k3/k4 in the two projection areas were shown to be significantly lower in PD, whereas [11C]SCH 23390 levels remained unchanged. Regression analysis showed that estimates of CFT k3/k4 were positively correlated with those of SCH 23390 k3/k4 in the striatum in normal control, whereas the two binding estimates were less positively correlated in the caudate and inversely correlated in the putamen in PD. No significant correlation was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in both groups. These results indicated that dopamine transporters and D1 receptors change in parallel in the normal striatal synapses, but the association becomes asymmetrical because of reduction in presynaptic and relative elevation in postsynaptic markers in PD. Alterations in synaptic parallel regulation in the nigrostriatal system might reflect early pathophysiology in the parkinsonian brain. PMID:10553989

  10. Deficits in coordinated motor behavior and in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system ameliorated and VMAT2 expression up-regulated in aged male rats by administration of testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yingbo; Cui, Rui; Yan, Wensheng; Tan, Huibing; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Baiyila; Cui, Huixian; Shi, Geming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of testosterone propionate (TP) supplements on the coordinated motor behavior and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system were analyzed in aged male rats. The present study showed the coordinated motor behavioral deficits, the reduced activity of NSDA system and the decreased expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in 24month-old male rats. Long term TP treatment improved the motor coordination dysfunction with aging. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter, as well as dopamine and its metabolites were found in the NSDA system of TP-treated 24month-old male rats, indicative of the amelioratory effects of TP supplements on NSDA system of aged male rats. The enhancement of dopaminergic (DAergic) activity of NSDA system by TP supplements might underlie the amelioration of the coordinated motor dysfunction in aged male rats. TP supplements up-regulated VMAT2 expression in NSDA system of aged male rats. Up-regulation of VMAT2 expression in aged male rats following chronic TP treatment might be involved in the maintenance of DAergic function of NSDA system in aged male rats. PMID:26956479

  11. Repeated exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters locomotor activity and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica M; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Mendoza-Trejo, Maria Soledad; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Hernández-Plata, Isela; Giordano, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is used as a pre- and post-emergent herbicide; although banned in several countries of the European Community, it is still used extensively around the world. A recent study in rats has shown that chronic, daily exposure to 10 mg ATR/kg BW causes hyperactivity, disrupts motor coordination and learning of behavioral tasks, and decreases dopamine levels in the brain. In order to evaluate the short-term effect of ATR exposure on locomotor activity, monoamine markers, and antioxidants, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received six IP injections of 100 mg ATR/kg BW or vehicle over two weeks. After every ATR injection we found hypoactivity that lasted up to five days, and it was accompanied by reductions in levels of striatal DA, DOPAC, and HVA without any alteration in the striatal expression of the mRNAs for Mn-SOD, Trx-1, DAR-D(1), or DAR-D(2). In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens no changes in monoamine markers were observed, and a down-regulation of Trx-1 expression was detected shortly after the ATR treatment. Moreover, in the ventral midbrain, we found that ATR induced a down-regulation of mRNA for Th and DAT, but it increased VMAT2 mRNA expression. Decreases of monoamine levels and of locomotor activity disappeared three months after ATR treatment; however, an amphetamine challenge (1 mg/kg) given two months after the ATR treatment resulted in a significant stimulation in the exposed group, revealing hidden effects of ATR on dopaminergic systems. These results indicate that ATR exposure differentially modifies the dopaminergic systems, and these modifications may underlie the behavioral changes observed. PMID:23123945

  12. Progressive Axonal Degeneration of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2β Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Goichi; Shinzawa, Koei; Hayakawa, Hideki; Baba, Kousuke; Sumi-Akamaru, Hisae; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β, PLA2G6) is essential for the remodeling of membrane glycerophospholipids. Mutations in this gene are responsible for autosomal recessive, young onset, L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism (PARK14), suggesting a neurodegenerative condition in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients with PLA2G6 mutations. We previously observed slowly progressive motor deficits in iPLA2β-knockout (KO) mice. To clarify whether a deficiency of iPLA2β leads to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we analyzed the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice. At all clinical stages, nerve terminals in the striatum were immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in wild-type (WT) control mice. In iPLA2β-KO mice, focal loss of nerve terminals positive for TH and DAT was found from 56 weeks (early clinical stage), although iPLA2β-KO mice at 56 weeks showed no significant decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compared with age-matched WT mice, as reported previously. At 100 weeks (late clinical stage), greater decreases in DAT immunoreactivity were observed in the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice. Moreover, strongly TH-positive structures, presumed to be deformed axons, were observed in the neuropils of the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice starting at 15 weeks (preclinical stage) and increased with age. These results suggest that the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons occurs mainly in the distal region of axons in iPLA2β-KO mice. PMID:27078024

  13. Progressive Axonal Degeneration of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2β Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Beck, Goichi; Shinzawa, Koei; Hayakawa, Hideki; Baba, Kousuke; Sumi-Akamaru, Hisae; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β, PLA2G6) is essential for the remodeling of membrane glycerophospholipids. Mutations in this gene are responsible for autosomal recessive, young onset, L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism (PARK14), suggesting a neurodegenerative condition in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients with PLA2G6 mutations. We previously observed slowly progressive motor deficits in iPLA2β-knockout (KO) mice. To clarify whether a deficiency of iPLA2β leads to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we analyzed the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice. At all clinical stages, nerve terminals in the striatum were immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in wild-type (WT) control mice. In iPLA2β-KO mice, focal loss of nerve terminals positive for TH and DAT was found from 56 weeks (early clinical stage), although iPLA2β-KO mice at 56 weeks showed no significant decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compared with age-matched WT mice, as reported previously. At 100 weeks (late clinical stage), greater decreases in DAT immunoreactivity were observed in the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice. Moreover, strongly TH-positive structures, presumed to be deformed axons, were observed in the neuropils of the striatum of iPLA2β-KO mice starting at 15 weeks (preclinical stage) and increased with age. These results suggest that the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons occurs mainly in the distal region of axons in iPLA2β-KO mice. PMID:27078024

  14. Minocycline Rescues from Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration: Biochemical and Molecular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of zinc (Zn) in dopaminergic neurons is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and microglial activation plays a critical role in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Oxidative stress is accused in Zn-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, its connection with microglial activation is still not known. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of microglial activation in Zn-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with/without zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) in the presence/absence of minocycline (30 mg/kg), a microglial activation inhibitor, for 2-12 weeks. While neurobehavioral and biochemical indexes of PD and number of dopaminergic neurons were reduced, the number of microglial cells was increased in the substantia nigra of the Zn-exposed animals. Similarly, Zn elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; however, catalase activity was reduced. Besides, Zn increased an association of NADPH oxidase subunit p67(phox) with membrane, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and cleavage of pro-caspase 3. Zn attenuated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) while augmented the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Minocycline alleviated Zn-induced behavioural impairments, loss of TH-positive neurons, activated microglial cells and biochemical indexes and modulated the expression of studied genes/proteins towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that minocycline reduces the number of activated microglial cells and oxidative stress, which rescue from Zn-induced changes in the expression of monoamine transporter and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:25764516

  15. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F.; Anis, Hiba K.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  16. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Anis, Hiba K; Dexter, David T

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  17. Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system

    PubMed Central

    Molochnikov, Ilana; Cohen, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA) levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e., the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods) remains controversial, however, if confirmed, it may provide a valuable non-invasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance. PMID:24966817

  18. Endogenous dynorphin protects against neurotoxin-elicited nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron damage and motor deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The striato-nigral projecting pathway contains the highest concentrations of dynorphin in the brain. The functional role of this opioid peptide in the regulation of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is not clear. We reported previously that exogenous dynorphin exerts potent neuroprotective effects against inflammation-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vitro. The present study was performed to investigate whether endogenous dynorphin has neuroprotective roles in vivo. Methods 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (MA), two commonly used neurotoxins in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease, were administered to wild-type (Dyn+/+) and prodynorphin-deficient mice (Dyn−/−). We examined dopaminergic neurotoxicity by using an automated video tracking system, HPLC, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Treatment with MPTP resulted in behavioral impairments in both strains. However, these impairments were more pronounced in Dyn-l- than in Dyn+/+. Dyn−/− showed more severe MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and striatum than Dyn+/+. Similarly, the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum were depleted to a greater extent in Dyn−/− than in Dyn+/+. Additional mechanistic studies revealed that MPTP treatment caused a higher degree of microglial activation and M1 phenotype differentiation in Dyn−/− than in Dyn+/+. Consistent with these observations, prodynorphin deficiency also exacerbated neurotoxic effects induced by MA, although this effect was less pronounced than that of MPTP. Conclusions The in vivo results presented here extend our previous in vitro findings and further indicate that endogenous dynorphin plays a critical role in protecting dopaminergic neurons through its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:22695044

  19. 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Stereotactic Infusion Completely and Specifically Ablated the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Pathway in Rhesus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baihui; Rizak, Joshua; Li, Ling; Xu, Liqi; Liu, Li; Wu, Jing; Lü, Longbao; Wang, Zhengbo; Hu, Yingzhou; Le, Weidong; Deng, Xingli; Li, Jiali; Yao, Yonggang; Xu, Lin; Hu, Xintian; Zhang, Baorong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Complete and specific ablation of a single dopaminergic (DA) pathway is a critical step to distinguish the roles of DA pathways in vivo. However, this kind of technique has not been reported in non-human primates. This study aimed to establish a lesioning method with a complete and specific ablation. Method A carefully designed infusion route based on a MRI stereotactic technique was developed to deliver the highly selective dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) unilaterally into multiple sites of compact part of substantia nigra (SNc) and striatum in monkeys. The nigrostriatal DA pathway was selected because lesioning of this pathway may induce symptoms that are suitable for evaluation. The pathological, behavioral, neuropharmacological, and clinical laboratorial data were collected to evaluate the lesioning effects. Result Pathological examination revealed a complete ablation of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons in the SNc, while preserving intact TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) nearby. TH+ projections in the striatum were also unilaterally lost. The monkeys displayed stable (>28 weeks) rotations and symptoms which were expected with loss of DA neurons in the SNc, with rest tremor being an exception. No item implied the presence of a severe side effect caused by the operation or the intracerebral MPP+ infusion. The results suggested that rest tremor may not directly rely on the nigrostriatal pathway. Conclusion Taken together, in addition to providing a specific nigrostriatal DA lesioned model, this method, combined with brain stimulation or other techniques, can be applied as a powerful tool for the complete lesion of any desired DA pathway in order to study its specific functions in the brain. PMID:26010745

  20. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Component Cyclophilin D Distinguishes Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Death Paradigms in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N.; Zhang, Steven F.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Ho, Daniel J.; Beal, M. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca2+ overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca2+ threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Innovation: Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 855–868. PMID:21529244

  1. The Toll-like receptor-3 agonist poly(I:C) triggers nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deleidi, Michela; Hallett, Penelope J.; Koprich, James B.; Chung, Chee-Yeun; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), loss of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are associated with glial reactions. Such inflammatory processes are commonly considered an epiphenomenon of neuronal degeneration. However, there is increasing recognition of the role of neuroinflammation as an initiation factor of DA neuron degeneration. To investigate this issue, we established a new model of brain inflammation by injecting the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in the SN of adult rats. Poly(I:C) injection induced a sustained inflammatory reaction in the SN and in the dorsolateral striatum. Significant changes were detected in proteins relevant to synaptic transmission and axonal transport. In addition, cytoplasmic mislocalization of neuronal TDP-43 was observed. Poly(I:C) injection increased the susceptibility of midbrain DA neurons to a subsequent neurotoxic trigger (low dose 6-hydroxydopamine). Systemic delivery of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-ra) protected SN DA neurons exposed to combined poly(I:C) induced inflammatory and neurotoxic oxidative stress. These data indicate that viral-like neuroinflammation induces predegenerative changes in the DA system, which lowers the set point toward neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. New powerful neuroprotective therapies for PD might be considered by targeting critical inflammatory mechanisms, including cytokine-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21123556

  2. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  3. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD. PMID:27313094

  4. A positron emission tomography study of nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms underlying attention: implications for ADHD and its treatment.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Natalia; Fryer, Tim D; Hong, Young T; Smith, Rob; Brichard, Laurent; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Tait, Roger; Izquierdo, David; Regenthal, Ralf; Dowson, Jonathan; Suckling, John; Baron, Jean-Claude; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Through the combined use of (18)F-fallypride positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging this study examined the neural mechanisms underlying the attentional deficits associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their potential reversal with a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate. Sixteen adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 16 matched healthy control subjects were positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanned and tested on a computerized sustained attention task after oral methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo administration in a within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design. Although patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a group showed significant attentional deficits and reduced grey matter volume in fronto-striato-cerebellar and limbic networks, they had equivalent D2/D3 receptor availability and equivalent increases in endogenous dopamine after methylphenidate treatment to that observed in healthy control subjects. However, poor attentional performers drawn from both the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the control groups had significantly reduced left caudate dopamine activity. Methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine levels in all nigro-striatal regions, thereby normalizing dopamine levels in the left caudate in low performers. Behaviourally, methylphenidate improved sustained attention in a baseline performance-dependent manner, irrespective of diagnosis. This finding was accompanied by an equally performance-dependent effect of the drug on dopamine release in the midbrain, whereby low performers showed reduced dopamine release in this region. Collectively, these findings support a dimensional model of attentional deficits and underlying nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder that extends into the healthy population. Moreover, they confer midbrain dopamine autoreceptors a hitherto

  5. A positron emission tomography study of nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms underlying attention: implications for ADHD and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Tim D.; Hong, Young T.; Smith, Rob; Brichard, Laurent; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Tait, Roger; Izquierdo, David; Regenthal, Ralf; Dowson, Jonathan; Suckling, John; Baron, Jean-Claude; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Through the combined use of 18F-fallypride positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging this study examined the neural mechanisms underlying the attentional deficits associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their potential reversal with a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate. Sixteen adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 16 matched healthy control subjects were positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanned and tested on a computerized sustained attention task after oral methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo administration in a within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design. Although patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a group showed significant attentional deficits and reduced grey matter volume in fronto-striato-cerebellar and limbic networks, they had equivalent D2/D3 receptor availability and equivalent increases in endogenous dopamine after methylphenidate treatment to that observed in healthy control subjects. However, poor attentional performers drawn from both the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the control groups had significantly reduced left caudate dopamine activity. Methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine levels in all nigro-striatal regions, thereby normalizing dopamine levels in the left caudate in low performers. Behaviourally, methylphenidate improved sustained attention in a baseline performance-dependent manner, irrespective of diagnosis. This finding was accompanied by an equally performance-dependent effect of the drug on dopamine release in the midbrain, whereby low performers showed reduced dopamine release in this region. Collectively, these findings support a dimensional model of attentional deficits and underlying nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder that extends into the healthy population. Moreover, they confer midbrain dopamine autoreceptors a hitherto

  6. Comparison of Transduction Efficiency of Recombinant AAV Serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 8 in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Lee, Jeng-Shin; Hyman, Bradley T.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced delivery and expression of genes in specific neuronal systems is critical for the development of genetic models of neurodegenerative disease and potential gene therapy. Recent discovery of new recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) capsid serotypes has resulted in improved transduction efficiency, but expression levels, spread of transgene, and potential toxicity can differ depending on brain region and among species. We compared the transduction efficiency of titer-matched rAAV 2/1, 2/5 and 2/8 to the commonly used rAAV2/2 in the rat nigrostriatal system via expression of the reporter transgene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Newer rAAV serotypes 2/1, 2/5 and 2/8 demonstrated marked increase in transduction and spread of EGFP expression in dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons and projections to the striatum and globus pallidus compared to rAAV2/2 at 2 weeks post injection. The number of nigral cells transduced was greatest for rAAV2/1, but for serotypes 2/5 and 2/8 was still 2 to 3-fold higher than that for 2/2. Enhanced transduction did not cause an increase in glial cell response or toxicity. New rAAV serotypes thus promise improved gene delivery to nigrostriatal system with the potential for better models and therapeutics for Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19250335

  7. Sub-chronic treatment with classical but not atypical antipsychotics produces morphological changes in rat nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons directly related to "early onset" vacuous chewing.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Bartholini, Francesco; Ruiu, Stefania; Saba, Pierluigi; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Pani, Luca

    2002-04-01

    In the present work, we investigated if an impairment of dopaminergic neurons after subchronic haloperidol treatment might be a possible physiopathologic substrate of the "early onset" vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats. For this purpose, different antipsychotics were used to analyse a possible relationship between VCMs development and morphological alterations of tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunostained (TH-IM) neurons. Rats treated twice a day with haloperidol displayed a significant increase of VCMs that was both time- (2-4 weeks) and dose (0.1-1 mg/kg) dependent. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a shrinkage of TH-IM cell bodies in substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata and a reduction of TH-immunostaining in the striatum of haloperidol treated rats with the arising of VCMs. No differences were observed in TH-IM neurons of ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens vs. control rats. The atypical antipsychotics risperidone (2 mg/kg, twice a day), amisulpride (20 mg/kg, twice a day) and clozapine (10 mg/kg, twice a day) did not produce any nigro-striatal morphological changes or VCMs. TH-IM nigro-striatal neuron morphological alterations and VCMs were still present after three days of withdrawal in rats treated for four weeks with haloperidol (1 mg/kg). Both the main morphological changes and the behavioural correlate disappeared after three weeks of withdrawal. These results suggest that haloperidol induces a morphological impairment of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal neurons which is directly associated with the arising, permanency and disappearance of VCMs in rats. PMID:11982629

  8. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  9. GDNF-based therapies, GDNF-producing interneurons, and trophic support of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Implications for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Pascual, Alberto; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a well-established trophic agent for dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. GDNF is necessary for maintenance of neuronal morphological and neurochemical phenotype and protects DA neurons from toxic damage. Numerous studies on animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported beneficial effects of GDNF on nigrostriatal DA neuron survival. However, translation of these observations to the clinical setting has been hampered so far by side effects associated with the chronic continuous intra-striatal infusion of recombinant GDNF. In addition, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported any clinically relevant effect of GDNF on PD patients. In the past few years, experiments with conditional Gdnf knockout mice have suggested that GDNF is necessary for maintenance of DA neurons in adulthood. In parallel, new methodologies for exogenous GDNF delivery have been developed. Recently, it has been shown that a small population of scattered, electrically interconnected, parvalbumin positive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons is responsible for most of the GDNF produced in the rodent striatum. In addition, cholinergic striatal interneurons appear to be also involved in the modulation of striatal GDNF. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on brain GDNF delivery, homeostasis, and its effects on nigrostriatal DA neurons. Special attention is paid to the therapeutic potential of endogenous GDNF stimulation in PD. PMID:25762899

  10. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K; Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4months of age, approximately 10months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased alpha

  11. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M.; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Sioshansi, Pedrom; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4 months of age, approximately 10 months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased

  12. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Pabla; Mena, Natalia P.; Carrasco, Carlos M.; Muñoz, Yorka; Pérez-Henríquez, Patricio; Morales, Rodrigo A.; Cassels, Bruce K.; Méndez-Gálvez, Carolina; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; González-Billault, Christian; Núñez, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2’-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death. PMID:26658949

  13. Organotypic slice co-culture systems to study axon regeneration in the dopaminergic system ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Heine, Claudia; Franke, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Organotypic slice co-cultures are suitable tools to study axonal regeneration and development (growth or regrowth) of different projection systems of the CNS under ex vivo conditions.In this chapter, we describe in detail the reconstruction of the mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection system culturing tissue slices from the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the striatum (STR). The protocol includes the detailed slice preparation and incubation. Moreover, different application possibilities of the ex vivo model are mentioned; as an example, the substance treatment procedure and biocytin tracing are described to reveal the effect of applied substances on fiber outgrowth. PMID:24838961

  14. Small molecule TrkB agonist deoxygedunin protects nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA and MPTP induced neurotoxicity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuke; Xu, Yan; Chen, Guiqin; Ma, Kai; Han, Chao; Guo, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhentao; Ye, Keqiang; Cao, Xuebing

    2015-12-01

    Dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and dopamine (DA) content loss in the striatum correlate well with disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of neurotrophin family and is necessary for the survival and development of DA neurons in the SN. Deficits in BDNF/TrkB receptors signaling contribute to the dysfunction of PD. Deoxygedunin, a derivative of gedunin produced from Indian neem tree, binds TrkB receptor and activates TrkB and its downstream signaling cascades in a BDNF-independent manner, and possesses neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested the neuroprotective effects of deoxygedunin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease. Rats were treated with deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for one month started two weeks before 6-OHDA lesion (pre-treatment), or for two weeks right after lesion (post-treatment), with isovolumetric vehicle as control and normal. Mice were given deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for 2 weeks and administrated with MPTP twice at the dose of 20 mg/kg (i.p.) on day 7. The results revealed that pretreatment with deoxygedunin improved PD models' behavioral performance and reduced dopaminergic neurons loss in SN, associated with the activation of TrkB receptors and its two major signaling cascades involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Thus, our current study indicates that deoxygedunin, as a small molecule TrkB agonist, displays prominent neuroprotective properties, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for treating Parkinson's disease. PMID:26282118

  15. Suppression of endogenous PPARγ increases vulnerability to methamphetamine –induced injury in mouse nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Airavaara, Mikko; Shen, Hui; Chou, Jenny; Harvey, Brandon K.; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Methamphetamine is a commonly abused drug and dopaminergic neurotoxin. Repeated administration of high doses of methamphetamine induces programmed cell death, suppression of dopamine release, and reduction in locomotor activity. Previous studies have shown that pretreatment with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist reduced Methamphetamine -induced neurodegeneration. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the role of endogenous PPARγ in protecting against methamphetamine toxicity. Methods Adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding the Cre recombinase gene was unilaterally injected into the left substantia nigra of loxP-PPARγ or control wild type mice. Animals were treated with high doses of methamphetamine 1-month after viral injection. Behavioral tests were examined using Rotarod and rotometer. In vivo voltammetry was used to examine dopamine release/clearance and at 2 months after methamphetamine injection. Results Administration of AAV-Cre selectively removed PPARγ in left nigra in loxP-PPARγ mice but not in the wild type mice. The loxP-PPARγ/AAV-Cre mice that received methamphetamine showed a significant reduction in time on the rotarod and exhibited increased ipislateral rotation using a rotometer. The peak of dopamine release induced by local application of KCl and the rate of dopamine clearance were significantly attenuated in the left striatum of loxP-PPARγ/AAV-Cre animals. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was reduced in the left, compared to right, nigra and dorsal striatum in loxP-PPARγ/AAV-Cre mice receiving high doses of methamphetamine. Conclusion A deficiency in PPARγ increases vulnerability to high doses of methamphetamine. Endogenous PPARγ may play an important role in reducing methamphetamine toxicity in vivo. PMID:22160138

  16. 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease-like degeneration generates acute microgliosis and astrogliosis in the nigrostriatal system but no bioluminescence imaging-detectable alteration in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Inga B; Viel, Thomas; Worlitzer, Maik M; Collmann, Franziska M; Vrachimis, Alexis; Faust, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Faber, Cornelius; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Schäfers, Klaus; Hermann, Sven; Schwamborn, Jens C; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), leading to severe impairment in motor and non-motor functions. Endogenous subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells constantly give birth to new cells that might serve as a possible source for regeneration in the adult brain. However, neurodegeneration is accompanied by neuroinflammation and dopamine depletion, potentially compromising regeneration. We therefore employed in vivo imaging methods to study striatal deafferentation (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[(123) I]iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography, DaTscan(™) ) and neuroinflammation in the SN and striatum (N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide positron emission tomography, [(18) F]DPA-714 PET) in the intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine Parkinson's disease mouse model. Additionally, we transduced cells in the SVZ with a lentivirus encoding firefly luciferase and followed migration of progenitor cells in the SVZ-olfactory bulb axis via bioluminescence imaging under disease and control conditions. We found that activation of microglia in the SN is an acute process accompanying the degeneration of dopaminergic cell bodies in the SN. Dopaminergic deafferentation of the striatum does not influence the generation of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts in the SVZ, but generates chronic astrogliosis in the nigrostriatal system. PMID:26950181

  17. The systemic administration of oleoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotection of the nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aparicio, Ramiro; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavon, Francisco Javier; Parsons, Loren H; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia; Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez

    2014-03-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and has been described to exhibit neuroprotective properties when administered locally in animal models of several neurological disorder models, including stroke and Parkinson's disease. However, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of systemic administration of OEA on Parkinson's disease. In the present study, OEA-mediated neuroprotection has been tested on in vivo and in vitro models of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA)-induced degeneration. The in vivo model was based on the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin 6-OH-DA, which generates Parkinsonian symptoms. Rats were treated 2 h before and after the 6-OH-DA treatment with systemic OEA (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). The Parkinsonian symptoms were evaluated at 1 and 4 wk after the development of lesions. The functional status of the nigrostriatal system was studied through tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, oxidation marker) immunostaining as well as by monitoring the synaptophysin content. In vitro cell cultures were also treated with OEA and 6-OH-DA. As expected, our results revealed 6-OH-DA induced neurotoxicity and behavioural deficits; however, these alterations were less severe in the animals treated with the highest dose of OEA (5 mg/kg). 6-OH-DA administration significantly reduced the striatal TH-immunoreactivity (ir) density, synaptophysin expression, and the number of nigral TH-ir neurons. Moreover, 6-OH-DA enhanced striatal HO-1 content, which was blocked by OEA (5 mg/kg). In vitro, 0.5 and 1 μM of OEA exerted significant neuroprotection on cultured nigral neurons. These effects were abolished after blocking PPARα with the selective antagonist GW6471. In conclusion, systemic OEA protects the nigrostriatal circuit from 6-OH-DA-induced neurotoxicity through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. PMID:24169105

  18. Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jaime M; Richardson, Jason R; Guillot, Thomas S; McCormack, Alison L; Di Monte, Donato A; Jones, Dean P; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

    2007-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. Alpha-synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by (3)H-WIN 35,428 binding and (3)H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD. PMID:17291500

  19. Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jaime M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; McCormack, Alison L.; Di Monte, Donato A.; Jones, Dean P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Miller, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. α-Synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by 3H-WIN 35,428 binding and 3H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD. PMID:17291500

  20. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Increases Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Nigrostriatal System and Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Spieles-Engemann, Anne L.; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Behbehani, Michael M.; Collier, Timothy J.; Wohlgenant, Susan L.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Levine, Nathan D.; Gombash, Sara E.; Thompson, Valerie B.; Lipton, Jack W.; Sortwell, Caryl E.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) as a therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain poorly understood. The present study examined whether functionally effective, long-term STN DBS modulates glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both unlesioned and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Lesioned rats that received two weeks of continuous unilateral STN DBS exhibited significant improvements in parkinsonian motor behaviors in tests of forelimb akinesia and rearing activity. Unilateral STN DBS did not increase GDNF in the nigrostriatal system, primary motor cortex (M1), or hippocampus of unlesioned rats. In contrast, unilateral STN DBS increased BDNF protein 2–3 fold bilaterally in the nigrostriatal system with the location (substantia nigra vs. striatum) dependent upon lesion status. Further, BDNF protein was bilaterally increased in M1 cortex by as much as 2 fold regardless of lesion status. STN DBS did not impact cortical regions that receive less input from the STN. STN DBS also was associated with bilateral increases in BDNF mRNA in the substantia nigra (SN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi). The increase observed in GPi was completely blocked by pretreatment with 5-Methyl-10,11-dihydro-5 H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801), suggesting that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was involved in this phenomenon. The upregulation of BDNF associated with long term STN DBS suggest that this therapy may exert pronounced and underappreciated effects on plasticity in the basal ganglia circuitry that may play a role in the symptomatic effects of this therapy as well as support the neuroprotective effect of stimulation documented in this rat model. PMID:22328911

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of the Nigrostriatal System: Biomarkers of Parkinson’s Disease Stages?

    PubMed Central

    Hopes, Lucie; Grolez, Guillaume; Moreau, Caroline; Lopes, Renaud; Ryckewaert, Gilles; Carrière, Nicolas; Auger, Florent; Laloux, Charlotte; Petrault, Maud; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Bordet, Regis; Defebvre, Luc; Jissendi, Patrice; Delmaire, Christine; Devos, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease (PD); R2* values reflect iron content related to high levels of oxidative stress, whereas volume and/or shape changes reflect neuronal death. We sought to assess iron overload in the nigrostriatal system and characterize its relationship with focal and overall atrophy of the striatum in the pivotal stages of PD. Methods Twenty controls and 70 PD patients at different disease stages (untreated de novo patients, treated early-stage patients and advanced-stage patients with L-dopa-related motor complications) were included in the study. We determined the R2* values in the substantia nigra, putamen and caudate nucleus, together with striatal volume and shape analysis. We also measured R2* in an acute MPTP mouse model and in a longitudinal follow-up two years later in the early-stage PD patients. Results The R2* values in the substantia nigra, putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly higher in de novo PD patients than in controls. Early-stage patients displayed significantly higher R2* values in the substantia nigra (with changes in striatal shape), relative to de novo patients. Measurements after a two-year follow-up in early-stage patients and characterization of the acute MPTP mouse model confirmed that R2* changed rapidly with disease progression. Advanced-stage patients displayed significant atrophy of striatum, relative to earlier disease stages. Conclusion Each pivotal stage in PD appears to be characterized by putative nigrostriatal MRI biomarkers: iron overload at the de novo stage, striatal shape changes at early-stage disease and generalized striatal atrophy at advanced disease. PMID:27035571

  2. Dopaminergic System Dysfunction in Recreational Dexamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  3. Prothrombin Kringle-2: A Potential Inflammatory Pathogen in the Parkinsonian Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Won, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection. This disruption is mediated by neurotoxic inflammatory events via the induction of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vivo , thereby resulting in less neurotoxicity in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, inhibition of microglial activation following minocycline treatment, which has anti-inflammatory activity, protects DA neurons from pKr-2-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo. We also found that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were significantly increased in the SN of PD patients compared to those of age-matched controls. These observations suggest that there may be a correlation between pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 in the initiation and progression of PD, and that inhibition of pKr-2-induced microglial activation may be protective against the degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA system in vivo. To describe the significance of pKr-2 overexpression, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of PD, we have reviewed the mechanisms of pKr-2-induced microglial activation, which results in neurodegeneration in the SN of the adult brain. PMID:27574481

  4. Prothrombin Kringle-2: A Potential Inflammatory Pathogen in the Parkinsonian Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Won, So-Yoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection. This disruption is mediated by neurotoxic inflammatory events via the induction of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vivo , thereby resulting in less neurotoxicity in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, inhibition of microglial activation following minocycline treatment, which has anti-inflammatory activity, protects DA neurons from pKr-2-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo. We also found that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were significantly increased in the SN of PD patients compared to those of age-matched controls. These observations suggest that there may be a correlation between pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 in the initiation and progression of PD, and that inhibition of pKr-2-induced microglial activation may be protective against the degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA system in vivo. To describe the significance of pKr-2 overexpression, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of PD, we have reviewed the mechanisms of pKr-2-induced microglial activation, which results in neurodegeneration in the SN of the adult brain. PMID:27574481

  5. Cross interaction of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems in neural modulation

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Bao-Wen; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems are widely distributed in the CNS and have been established as a crucial regulatory component in diverse physiological functions. The pharmacology of both melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems including their individual receptors, signaling mechanisms, agonists and antagonists has been extensively studied. Several lines of evidence showed that there existed a cross interaction between the receptors of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems. The data available at present had expanded our understanding of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic system interaction in neural modulation, which will be main discussed in this paper. PMID:26823964

  6. Establishing diversity in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Bodea, Gabriela O; Blaess, Sandra

    2015-12-21

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (MbDNs) modulate cognitive processes, regulate voluntary movement, and encode reward prediction errors and aversive stimuli. While the degeneration of MbDNs underlies the motor defects in Parkinson's disease, imbalances in dopamine levels are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and substance abuse. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding how MbDNs, which constitute a relatively small neuronal population in the brain, can contribute to such diverse functions and dysfunctions. In particular, important insights have been gained regarding the distinct molecular, neurochemical and network properties of MbDNs. How this diversity of MbDNs is established during brain development is only starting to be unraveled. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity in MbDN progenitors and differentiated MbDNs in the developing rodent brain. We discuss the signaling pathways, transcription factors and transmembrane receptors that contribute to setting up these diverse MbDN subpopulations. A better insight into the processes that establish diversity in MbDNs will ultimately improve the understanding of the architecture and function of the dopaminergic system in the adult brain. PMID:26431946

  7. The Dopaminergic System in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rodrigo; Contreras, Francisco; Zouali, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroimmune communications mediated by dopamine. Studies of dendritic cells (DCs) revealed that they express the whole machinery to synthesize and store dopamine, which may act in an autocrine manner to stimulate dopamine receptors (DARs). Depending on specific DARs stimulated on DCs and T cells, dopamine may differentially favor CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 or Th17 inflammatory cells. Regulatory T cells can also release high amounts of dopamine that acts in an autocrine DAR-mediated manner to inhibit their suppressive activity. These dopaminergic regulations could represent a driving force during autoimmunity. Indeed, dopamine levels are altered in the brain of mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lupus, and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The distorted expression of DARs in peripheral lymphocytes of lupus and MS patients also supports the importance of dopaminergic regulations in autoimmunity. Moreover, dopamine analogs had beneficial therapeutic effects in animal models, and in patients with lupus or RA. We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. PMID:24711809

  8. Desire, disease, and the origins of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Sillitoe, Roy V; Vogel, Michael W

    2008-03-01

    The dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain region of the central nervous system project an extensive network of connections throughout the forebrain, including the neocortex. The midbrain-forebrain dopaminergic circuits are thought to regulate a diverse set of behaviors, from the control of movement to modulation of cognition and desire--because they relate to mood, attention, reward, and addiction. Defects in these pathways, including neurodegeneration, are implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, and Parkinson disease. Based on the importance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons to normal and pathological brain function, there is considerable interest in the molecular mechanisms that regulate their development. The goal of this short review is to outline new methods and recent advances in identifying the molecular networks that regulate midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation and fate. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are descended from progenitor cells located near the ventral midline of the neural tube floor plate around the cephalic flexure. It is now clear that their initial formation is dependent on interactions between the signaling molecules Sonic hedgehog, WINGLESS 1, and FIBROBLAST growth factor 8, but there is still an extensive wider network of molecular interactions that must be resolved before the complete picture of dopaminergic neuron development can be described. PMID:18283047

  9. Impaired water maze learning performance without altered dopaminergic function in mice heterozygous for the GDNF mutation.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R; McNamara, A; Choi-Lundberg, D L; Armanini, M; Ross, J; Powell-Braxton, L; Phillips, H S

    2001-10-01

    Exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent survival-promoting effects on dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway that is implicated in Parkinson's disease and also protects neurons in forebrain ischemia of animal models. However, a role for endogenous GDNF in brain function has not been established. Although mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the GDNF gene have been generated, these mice die within hours of birth because of deficits in kidney morphogenesis, and, thus, the effect of the absence of GDNF on brain function could not be studied. Herein, we sought to determine whether adult mice, heterozygous for a GDNF mutation on two different genetic backgrounds, demonstrate alterations in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or in cognitive function. While both neurochemical and behavioural measures suggested that reduction of GDNF gene expression in the mutant mice does not alter the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, it led to a significant and selective impairment of performance in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. A standard panel of blood chemistry tests and basic pathological analyses did not reveal alterations in the mutants that could account for the observed performance deficit. These results suggest that endogenous GDNF may not be critical for the development and functioning of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system but it plays an important role in cognitive abilities. PMID:11683907

  10. Tricyclic antidepressant treatment evokes regional changes in neurotrophic factors over time within the intact and degenerating nigrostriatal system

    PubMed Central

    Paumier, Katrina L.; Sortwell, Caryl E.; Madhavan, Lalitha; Terpstra, Brian; Daley, Brian F.; Collier, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to alleviating depression, trophic responses produced by antidepressants may regulate neural plasticity in the diseased brain, providing not only symptomatic benefit but potentially slowing the rate of disease progression in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recent in vitro and in vivo data provide evidence that neurotrophic factors such as brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may be key mediators of the therapeutic response to antidepressants. As such, we conducted a cross-sectional time-course study to determine whether antidepressant-mediated changes in neurotrophic factors occur in relevant brain regions in response to amitriptyline (AMI) treatment before and after intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA). Adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven cohorts and given daily injections (i.p.) of AMI (5mg/kg) or saline throughout the duration of the study. In parallel, various cohorts of intact or parkinsonian animals were sacrificed at specific time points to determine the impact of AMI treatment on trophic factor levels in the intact and degenerating nigrostriatal system. The left and right hemispheres of the substantia nigra, striatum, frontal cortex, piriform cortex, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex were dissected and BDNF and GDNF levels were measured with ELISA. Results show that chronic AMI treatment elicits effects in multiple brain regions and differentially regulates levels of BDNF and GDNF depending on the region. Additionally, AMI halts the progressive degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons elicited by an intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesion. Taken together, these results suggest that AMI treatment elicits significant trophic changes important to DA neuron survival within both the intact and degenerating nigrostriatal system. PMID:25681575

  11. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  12. Retrograde axonal transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the adult nigrostriatal system suggests a trophic role in the adult.

    PubMed Central

    Tomac, A; Widenfalk, J; Lin, L F; Kohno, T; Ebendal, T; Hoffer, B J; Olson, L

    1995-01-01

    The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from axotomy-induced cell death. However, evidence for a role for endogenous GDNF as a target-derived trophic factor in adult midbrain dopaminergic circuits requires documentation of specific transport from the sites of synthesis in the target areas to the nerve cell bodies themselves. Here, we demonstrate that GDNF is retrogradely transported by mesencephalic dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. The pattern of retrograde transport following intrastriatal injections indicates that there may be subpopulations of neurons that are GDNF responsive. Retrograde axonal transport of biologically active 125I-labeled GDNF was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled GDNF but not by an excess of cytochrome c. Specificity was further documented by demonstrating that another TGF-beta family member, TGF-beta 1, did not appear to affect retrograde transport. Retrograde transport was also demonstrated by immunohistochemistry by using intrastriatal injections of unlabeled GDNF. GDNF immunoreactivity was found specifically in dopamine nerve cell bodies of the substantia nigra pars compacta distributed in granules in the soma and proximal dendrites. Our data implicate a specific receptor-mediated uptake mechanism operating in the adult. Taken together, the present findings suggest that GDNF acts endogenously as a target-derived physiological survival/maintenance factor for dopaminergic neurons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7667281

  13. Long-term effects of irradiation with iron-56 particles on the nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Rice, Onarae V; Grande, Alicia V; Dehktyar, Natasha; Bruneus, Magalie; Robinson, John K; Gatley, Samuel J

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to heavy ions during a Mars mission might damage the brain, thus compromising mission success and the quality of life of returning astronauts. Several workers have suggested that the dopamine system is particularly sensitive to heavy ion radiation, but direct evidence for this notion is lacking. We examined measures of brain dopamine viability at times up to 15 months after acute exposure of rats to (56)Fe (1.2-2.4 Gy). No effects were seen in brain sections stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, the classical marker for dopamine cells and nerve terminals. Locomotion stimulated by cocaine, which directly activates the dopamine system, was reduced at 6 months but not at 12 months. Furthermore, in a visually cued lever-pressing test, reaction times, which are prolonged by dopamine system damage, were identical in irradiated and control animals. However, learning times were increased by irradiation. Our data suggest that the midbrain dopamine system is not especially sensitive to damage by (56)Fe particles at doses much higher than would be associated with travel to and from Mars. PMID:19259693

  14. [Anhedonia--a general nosology surmounting correlate of a dysfunctional dopaminergic reward system?].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    The dopaminergic reward system is activated by primary rewarding factors such as food, sexual activity and parental care. Its activation enhances the occurrence of behaviors which induced the stimulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Indications of a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system are found in major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders. It has been hypothesized that dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system is associated with anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure. However, animal studies indicate that a reduction of central dopaminergic neurotransmission is associated with a decrease in incentive salience of reward-indicating stimuli and not with anhedonia per se. Sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, on the other hand, seems to induce cue-dependent craving in addicted patients. In schizophrenia, phasic, stimulus-dependent dopamine release in the striatum may play a role in the abnormal attribution of salience to previously neutral stimuli. PMID:10407834

  15. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  16. Renal dopaminergic system: Pathophysiological implications and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Rosón, María Inés; Rodríguez Fermepin, Martín; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and redox balance in the kidney are regulated by an intricate interaction between local and systemic anti-natriuretic and natriuretic systems. Intrarenal dopamine plays a central role on this interactive network. By activating specific receptors, dopamine promotes sodium excretion and stimulates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal inflammation, can be associated with impaired action of renal dopamine including alteration in biosynthesis, dopamine receptor expression and signal transduction. Given its properties on the regulation of renal blood flow and sodium excretion, exogenous dopamine has been postulated as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent renal failure in critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to update and discuss on the most recent findings about renal dopaminergic system and its role in several diseases involving the kidneys and the potential use of dopamine as a nephroprotective agent. PMID:25949933

  17. Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Suryanarayana, Shreyas M; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2014-12-01

    The dopaminergic system influences motor behavior, signals reward and novelty, and is an essential component of the basal ganglia in all vertebrates including the lamprey, one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates. The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals. The nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, a homologue of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) is present in lamprey, but only scarce data exist about its connectivity. Likewise, the D2 receptor is expressed in the striatum, but little is known about its localization in other brain areas. We used in situ hybridization and tracer injections, both in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, to characterize the SNc/VTA efferent and afferent connectivity, and to relate its projection pattern with D2 receptor expression in particular. We show that most features of the dopaminergic system are highly conserved. As in mammals, the direct pallial (cortex in mammals) input and the basal ganglia connectivity with the SNc/VTA are present as part of the evaluation system, as well as input from the tectum as the evolutionary basis for salience/novelty detection. Moreover, the SNc/VTA receives sensory information from the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, octavolateral area, and dorsal column nucleus, and it innervates, apart from the nigrostriatal pathway, several motor-related areas. This suggests that the dopaminergic system also contributes to the control of different motor centers at the brainstem level. PMID:24942187

  18. The Amygdalo-Nigrostriatal Network Is Critical for an Optimal Temporal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Es-seddiqi, Mouna; El Massioui, Nicole; Samson, Nathalie; Brown, Bruce L.; Doyère, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The amygdalo-nigrostriatal (ANS) network plays an essential role in enhanced attention to significant events. Interval timing requires attention to temporal cues. We assessed rats having a disconnected ANS network, due to contralateral lesions of the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CEm) and dopaminergic afferents to the lateral striatum,…

  19. Functional properties and synaptic integration of genetically labelled dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal grafts.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Merab

    2005-05-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, rich in dopaminergic neurons, can reverse symptoms in Parkinson's disease. For development of effective cell replacement therapy, other sources of dopaminergic neurons, e.g. derived from stem cells, are needed. However, the electrophysiological properties grafted cells need to have in order to induce substantial functional recovery are poorly defined. It has not been possible to prospectively identify and record from dopaminergic neurons in fetal transplants. Here we used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous and grafted dopaminergic neurons. We transplanted ventral mesencephalic tissue from E12.5 transgenic mice into striatum of neonatal rats with or without lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The transplanted cells exhibited intrinsic electrophysiological properties typical of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, i.e. broad action potentials, inward rectifying currents with characteristic 'sag', and spontaneous action potentials. The grafted dopaminergic neurons also received functional excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from the host brain, as shown by the presence of both spontaneous and stimulation-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Occurrence of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory currents was lower, and of spontaneous action potentials was higher, in neurons placed in the dopamine-depleted striatum than of those in the intact striatum. Our findings define specific electrophysiological characteristics of transplanted fetal dopaminergic neurons, and we provide the first direct evidence of functional synaptic integration of these neurons into host neural circuitries. PMID:15926926

  20. The Dopaminergic System in the Aging Brain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    White, Katherine E.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Hirth, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease are characterized by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analyzed the DA system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. DA neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH > mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that DA neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, DA neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity, and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH > Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct DA behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, DA neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH > mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labeling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of DA neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. PMID:21165178

  1. Aging-Related Changes in the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and the Response to MPTP in Nonhuman Primates: Diminished Compensatory Mechanisms as a Prelude to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Timothy J.; Lipton, Jack; Daley, Brian F.; Palfi, Stephane; Chu, Yaping; Sortwell, Caryl; Bakay, Roy A.E.; Sladek, John R.; Kordower, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    Aging is the most prominent risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Yet, consensus of how advancing age may predispose the dopamine (DA) system to parkinsonism is lacking. Three age-ranges of female rhesus monkeys, 8–9, 15–17 and 21–31 years, received unilateral DA depletion with intracarotid 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Morphological and biochemical analyses of DA-depleted and intact hemispheres revealed three primary findings: 1) The intact striatum exhibited age-related declines in dopamine (DA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) that were present by middle-age; 2) In the MPTP-treated striatum, the compensatory increase in DA activity was absent in old monkeys; and, 3) Age-associated morphological changes included declines in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive fibers in striatum, decreased nigral soma size and optical density of TH, but no significant loss of neurons. These findings suggest that aging produces changes in the nigrostriatal DA system that approach the threshold for expression of parkinsonian features, and that progressive impairment of plasticity may be central to the role of aging in development of parkinsonism. PMID:17254792

  2. Protective Effects of Valproic Acid on the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sarah K.; Schneider, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of animal models (including the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model) to mimic dopaminergic (DAergic) cell loss and striatal DA depletion, as seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD), has implicated a multitude of factors that might be associated with DAergic cell death in PD including excitotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. All of these factors have been shown to be reduced by administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) resulting in some degree of neuroprotection in various models of neurodegenerative disease including in Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, there is limited information of effects of HDACis in PD models. We have previously shown HDACis to be partially protective against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) mediated cell loss in vitro. The present study was conducted to extend these findings to an in vivo PD model. The HDACi valproic acid (VPA) was co-administered with MPTP for 5 days to male FVBn mice and continued for an additional 2 weeks, throughout the period of active neurodegeneration associated with MPTP-mediated DAergic cell loss. VPA was able to partially prevent striatal dopamine depletion and almost completely protect against substantia nigra DAergic cell loss. These results suggest that VPA may be a potential disease modifying therapy for PD. PMID:21846494

  3. Influence of glutamate on the content and metabolism of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system of rats distinguished by capacity for learning.

    PubMed

    Karpova, I V; Yakimovskii, A F

    1994-01-01

    The effect of repeated (over the course of nine days) intrastriatal microinjections of glutamate (5 or 0.5 micrograms in 0.75 microliters of physiological solution daily) were investigated in 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-nine rats were preliminarily trained in a Skinner box using food reinforcement. It was demonstrated that the administration of glutamate to rats not subjected to training increases the content of homovanillic acid in the striatum. A similar influence in rats that are capable of learning leads to an increase in the content of dopamine and a decrease in the level of homovanillic acid in this nucleus, while it does not induce changes in the biochemical indicators under investigation in those rats that are incapable of learning. Microinjections of glutamate also do not alter the capacity for learning in any of the groups of animals. The possible causes for the different influence of intrastriatal microinjections of glutamate on the activity of the nigrostriatal system of rats differing by capacity for learning are discussed. PMID:7808643

  4. Dynamics of the dopaminergic system as a key component to the understanding of depression.

    PubMed

    Yadid, Gal; Friedman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    For decades, clinical treatment of depression has usually involved antidepressants that target noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Over the past half century, no genuinely ground-breaking progress has been made in the pharmacological development of antidepressant drugs. Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are involved in hedonia and motivation, two core symptoms of depression. However, their role in the pathophysiology of depression and their manipulation to treat depression has received little attention. Recent findings indicate the potential usefulness of monitoring limbic dopaminergic dynamics in combination with mathematical analysis. In this chapter comprehensive review of data from animal models, genetics, neuroimaging and human clinical trials that strengthen the case for dopaminergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of major depression. This chapter focuses on recent convergence of data describing the fluctuation in activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and discusses its crucial role in manifestation of depressive-like behavior. Decoding the functionality of the dopaminergic system is important to the understanding of depression and the development of future efficient antidepressant treatments. PMID:18772037

  5. Differential sensitivity of cranial and limb motor function to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Plowman, Emily K; Maling, Nicholas; Rivera, Benjamin J; Larson, Krista; Thomas, Nagheme J; Fowler, Stephen C; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Shrivastav, Rahul; Kleim, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-15

    The present study determined the differential effects of unilateral striatal dopamine depletion on cranial motor versus limb motor function. Forty male Long Evans rats were first trained on a comprehensive motor testing battery that dissociated cranial versus limb motor function and included: cylinder forepaw placement, single pellet reaching, vermicelli pasta handling; sunflower seed opening, pasta biting acoustics, and a licking task. Following baseline testing, animals were randomized to either a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n=20) or control (n=20) group. Animals in the 6-OHDA group received unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusions to induce striatal dopamine depletion. Six-weeks following infusion, all animals were re-tested on the same battery of motor tests. Near infrared densitometry was performed on sections taken through the striatum that were immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Animals in the 6-OHDA condition showed a mean reduction in TH staining of 88.27%. Although 6-OHDA animals were significantly impaired on all motor tasks, limb motor deficits were more severe than cranial motor impairments. Further, performance on limb motor tasks was correlated with degree of TH depletion while performance on cranial motor impairments showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that limb motor function may be more sensitive to striatal dopaminergic depletion than cranial motor function and is consistent with the clinical observation that therapies targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease are more effective for limb motor symptoms than cranial motor impairments. PMID:23018122

  6. Nicotine-induced acute hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic system in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Guo, Jing; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2016-09-22

    Short-term exposure to nicotine induces positive effects in mice, monkeys and humans, including mild euphoria, hyperactivity, and enhanced cognition. However, the underlying neural basis and molecular mechanisms for these effects remain poorly understood. Here, using a video recording system, we find that acute nicotine administration induces locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila, similar to observations made in higher model organisms. Suppressing dopaminergic neurons or down-regulating dopamine 1-like receptor (DopR) abolishes this acute nicotine response, but surprisingly, does so only in male flies. Using a GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) approach, we show that dopaminergic neurons possess potential synaptic connections with acetylcholinergic neurons in wide regions of the brain. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurons are widely activated upon nicotine perfusion in both sexes, while the response curve differs significantly between the sexes. Moreover, knockdown of the β1 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in dopaminergic neurons abolishes the acute nicotine response only in male flies, while panneural knock-down occurs in both sexes. Taken together, our results reveal that in fruit flies, dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine-induced acute locomotor hyperactivity in a sexually dimorphic manner, and Drosophila β1 nAChR subunit plays a crucial role in this nicotine response. These findings provide important insights into the molecular and neural basis of acute nicotine effects, and the underlying mechanisms may play conserved roles across species. PMID:27365175

  7. Acute and Long-Term Response of Dopamine Nigrostriatal Synapses to a Single Low Dose Episode of 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Mediated Chemical Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Akopian, Garnik; Ring, Justin; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Andersen, Julie K.; Vittozzi-Wong, Philip; Wang, Kristie; Farley, Cristal M.; Charntikov, Sergios; Mitroi, Danut; Beal, M. Flint; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to determine the persistence of striatal dopaminergic dysfunction after a mild chemically-induced hypoxic event in Fisher 344 rats. To this end, we gave a single injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 16.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to 2 month old male F344 rats and measured various indices of striatal dopaminergic functioning and lipid peroxidation over a 3 month span. Separate groups of rats were used to measure rod walking, evoked dopamine (DA) release, DA content, MDA accumulation, DA receptor binding, and tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The results showed that 3-NP exposure reduced most measures of DA functioning including motoric ability, DA release, and D2 receptor densities for 1 to 3 months post drug administration. Interestingly, DA content was reduced 1 week after 3-NP exposure, but rose to 147% of control values 1 month after 3-NP treatment. MDA accumulation, a measure of lipid peroxidation activity, was increased 24 hr and 1 month after 3-NP treatment. 3-NP did not affect tyrosine hydroxylase activity, suggesting that alterations in DA functioning were not the result of nigrostriatal terminal loss. These data demonstrate that a brief mild hypoxic episode caused by 3-NP exposure has long-term detrimental effects on the functioning of the nigrostriatal DA system. PMID:20730800

  8. HUMAN NEURAL STEM CELLS MIGRATE ALONG THE NIGROSTRIATAL PATHWAY IN A PRIMATE MODEL OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Teng, Yang D.; Redmond, D. Eugene; Elsworth, John D.; Roth, Robert H,; Cornelius, Shannon K.; Sladek, John. R.; Snyder, Evan Y.

    2008-01-01

    Although evidence of damage-directed neural stem cell (NSC) migration has been well-documented in the rodent, to our knowledge it has never been confirmed or quantified using human NSC (hNSC) in an adult non-human primate modeling a human neurodegenerative disease state. In this report, we attempt to provide that confirmation, potentially advancing basic stem cell concepts toward clinical relevance. hNSC were implanted into the caudate nucleus (bilaterally) and substantia nigra (unilaterally) of 7, adult St. Kitts African green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) with previous exposure to systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a neurotoxin that disrupts the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. A detailed quantitative analysis of hNSC migration patterns at two time points (4 and 7 months) following transplantation was performed. Density contour mapping of hNSCs along the dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes of the brain suggested that >80% of hNSCs migrated from the point of implantation to and along the impaired nigrostriatal pathway. Although 2/3 of hNSC were transplanted within the caudate, <1% of 3×106 total injected donor cells were identified at this site. The migrating hNSC did not appear to be pursuing a neuronal lineage. In the striatum and nigrostriatal pathway, but not in the substantia nigra, some hNSC were found to have taken a glial lineage. The property of neural stem cells to allign themselves along a neural pathway rendered dysfunctional by a given disease is potentially a valuable clinical tool. PMID:18394605

  9. Nigrostriatal alterations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II dominant negative mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, J.; Harvey, B. K.; Ebendal, T.; Hoffer, B.; Wang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background We previously demonstrated that exogenous application of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated neurodegeneration in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the endogenous neurotrophic properties of BMP Receptor II in dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. Methods Adult male BMPRII dominant negative (BMPRIIDN) mice and their wild type controls (WT) were placed in the activity chambers for 3 days to monitor locomotor activity. Animals were sacrificed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining. A subgroup of BMPRIIDN and WT mice were injected with high doses of methamphetamine (MA) and were sacrificed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry at 4 days after injection. Results BMPRIIDN mice had lower locomotor activity than the WT. There is a significant decrease in TH neuronal number in substantia nigra compacta, TH fiber density in the substantia nigra reticulata, and TH immunoreactivity in striatum in the BMPRIIDN mice, suggesting that deficiency in endogenous BMP signaling reduces dopaminergic innervation and motor function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Administration of MA increased TUNEL labeling in the substantia nigra in the BMPRIIDN mice. Conclusions Endogenous BMPs have trophic effects on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Deficiency in BMP signaling increases vulnerability to insults induced by high doses of MA. PMID:18642641

  10. HIV Subtypes B and C gp120 and Methamphetamine Interaction: Dopaminergic System Implicates Differential Neuronal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Atluri, Venkata S R; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Agudelo, Marisela; Perez, Suray; Yoo, Changwon; Raymond, Andrea D; Ding, Hong; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2015-01-01

    HIV subtypes or clades differentially induce HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and substance abuse is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 plays a major role in binding and budding in the central nervous system (CNS) and impacts dopaminergic functions. However, the mechanisms utilized by HIV-1 clades to exert differential effects and the methamphetamine (METH)-associated dopaminergic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that clade B and C gp120 structural sequences, modeling based analysis, dopaminergic effect, and METH potentiate neuronal toxicity in astrocytes. We evaluated the effect of clade B and C gp120 and/or METH on the DRD-2, DAT, CaMKs and CREBP transcription. Both the structural sequence and modeling studies demonstrated that clade B gp120 in V1-V4, α -2 and N-glycosylated sites are distinct from clade C gp120. The distinct structure and sequence variation of clade B gp120 differentially impact DRD-2, DAT, CaMK II and CaMK IV mRNA, protein and intracellular expression compared to clade C gp120. However, CREB transcription is upregulated by both clade B and C gp120, and METH co-treatment potentiated these effects. In conclusion, distinct structural sequences of HIV-1 clade B and C gp120 differentially regulate the dopaminergic pathway and METH potentiates neurotoxicity. PMID:26057350

  11. HIV Subtypes B and C gp120 and Methamphetamine Interaction: Dopaminergic System Implicates Differential Neuronal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V. K.; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Atluri, Venkata S. R.; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Agudelo, Marisela; Perez, Suray; Yoo, Changwon; Raymond, Andrea D.; Ding, Hong; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

    2015-01-01

    HIV subtypes or clades differentially induce HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and substance abuse is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 plays a major role in binding and budding in the central nervous system (CNS) and impacts dopaminergic functions. However, the mechanisms utilized by HIV-1 clades to exert differential effects and the methamphetamine (METH)-associated dopaminergic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that clade B and C gp120 structural sequences, modeling based analysis, dopaminergic effect, and METH potentiate neuronal toxicity in astrocytes. We evaluated the effect of clade B and C gp120 and/or METH on the DRD-2, DAT, CaMKs and CREBP transcription. Both the structural sequence and modeling studies demonstrated that clade B gp120 in V1-V4, α -2 and N-glycosylated sites are distinct from clade C gp120. The distinct structure and sequence variation of clade B gp120 differentially impact DRD-2, DAT, CaMK II and CaMK IV mRNA, protein and intracellular expression compared to clade C gp120. However, CREB transcription is upregulated by both clade B and C gp120, and METH co-treatment potentiated these effects. In conclusion, distinct structural sequences of HIV-1 clade B and C gp120 differentially regulate the dopaminergic pathway and METH potentiates neurotoxicity. PMID:26057350

  12. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Lins Pessoa, Hugo de

    2010-05-01

    Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones. PMID:20535374

  13. Neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure induces loss of dopaminergic neurons in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Dai, Hongmei; Deng, Yuanying; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Hu, Zhiping; Bing, Guoying; Zhao, Lingling

    2015-10-01

    Increasing epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide with developmental neurotoxicity. Its neurotoxicity, notably on the monoamine system, suggests that exposure of CPF may induce dopaminergic neuronal injury. We investigated whether neonatal exposure to CPF contributes to initiation and progression of dopaminergic neurotoxicity and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. The newborn rats were administrated 5 mg/kg CPF subcutaneously from postnatal day (PND) 11 to PND 14 daily. The effect of CPF on dopaminergic neurons, microglia, astrocyte, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p. 65 and p. 38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was analyzed in the substantia nigra of rats at 12h, 24h, 72 h, 16d and 46 d after exposure. CPF-treated rats exhibited significant reduction of dopaminergic neurons at 16d and 46 d after exposure, and a significant increase in the expression of microglia and astrocytes in the substantia nigra after CPF exposure. Intense activation of NF-κB p. 65 and p. 38 MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways was observed. Our findings indicate that neonatal exposure to CPF may induce long-term dopaminergic neuronal damage in the substantia nigra mediated by the activation of inflammatory response via NF-κB p. 65 and p. 38 MAPK pathways in the nigrostriatal system. PMID:26215101

  14. Functional Interplay between Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Neuronal Systems during Development and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dymecki, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The complex integration of neurotransmitter signals in the nervous system contributes to the shaping of behavioral and emotional constitutions throughout development. Imbalance among these signals may result in pathological behaviors and psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, a better understanding of the interplay between neurotransmitter systems holds potential to facilitate therapeutic development. Of particular clinical interest are the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, as both modulate a broad array of behaviors and emotions and have been implicated in a wide range of affective disorders. Here we review evidence speaking to an interaction between the dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal systems across development. We highlight data stemming from developmental, functional, and clinical studies, reflecting the importance of this transmonoaminergic interplay. PMID:25747116

  15. The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) genes belong to the three amino acid loop extension family of homeodomain proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes with other homeodomain transcription factors, thereby modulating target specificity, DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of their molecular associates. Results Here, we provide evidence that Pbx1 is expressed in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic day 11 into adulthood and determines some of the cellular properties of this neuronal population. In Pbx1-deficient mice, the mesencephalic dopaminergic axons stall during mid-gestation at the border between di- and telencephalon before entering the ganglionic eminence, leading to a loose organization of the axonal bundle and partial misrouting. In Pbx1-deficient dopaminergic neurons, the high affinity netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colon cancer (DCC), is down-regulated. Interestingly, we found several conserved Pbx1 binding sites in the first intron of DCC, suggesting a direct regulation of DCC transcription by Pbx1. Conclusions The expression of Pbx1 in dopaminergic neurons and its regulation of DCC expression make it an important player in defining the axonal guidance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, with possible implications for the normal physiology of the nigro-striatal system as well as processes related to the degeneration of neurons during the course of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22748019

  16. Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

  17. In Search of Concomitant Alterations of Dopaminergic and Neurotensinergic Systems in Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina; Antonelli, Marta C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present article is to review experimental evidence which suggest joint involvement of both the dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems in stress conditions. At present, the concept of stress refers to an environmental demand exceeding the normal regulatory ability of an organism, particularly during unpredictable and uncontrollable situations. Chronic stress yields devastating effects including cognitive and working memory dysfunctions, for which neurotransmission mediated by the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline is crucial. Catecholamine synthesis depends on the rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, whose expression is associated with working memory and the response to chronic stress. Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide widely distributed in the nervous system, at both central and peripheral levels, which behaves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. It mediates diverse biological actions including reward, locomotion, pain modulation and stress. Neurotensin and its high affinity NTS1 receptor are densely localized in areas that process emotion (amygdala nucleus), cognition (such as hippocampal nuclei and cortical areas) and the response to stress (hypothalamic nucleus). Experimental evidence indicates a crosstalk between the dopaminergic and the neurotensinergic systems either from an anatomical or a biochemical point of view. It is suggested that a concomitant alteration of dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems takes place in diverse stress conditions. PMID:26869038

  18. Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulou, D.; Armata, I. A.; Mitsacos, A.; Shashidharan, P.; Giompres, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice exhibiting hyperkinesia (affected) transgenic mice not showing movement abnormalities (unaffected), and non-transgenic littermates A decrease in the density of striatal D2 binding sites, measured by [3H]raclopride binding, and D2 mRNA expression in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was revealed in affected an unaffected transgenic mice when compared with non-transgenic. No difference in D1 receptor binding and DAT binding, measured by [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]WIN35428 binding, respectively, was found in striatum of transgenic animals. In SNpc, increased levels of DAT binding sites were observed in affected and unaffected animals compared to non-transgenic, whereas no change in DAT mRNA expression was found. Our results show selective neurochemical changes in the basal ganglia dopaminergic system, suggesting a possible involvement in the pathophysiology of dystonialike motor hyperactivity. PMID:21136125

  19. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Dopaminergic System: A Positive Friendly Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabolism by the kidney is accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Renal dopamine plays a central role in this interactive network. The natriuretic hormones, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide, mediate some of their effects by affecting the renal dopaminergic system. Renal dopaminergic tonus can be modulated at different steps of dopamine metabolism (synthesis, uptake, release, catabolism, and receptor sensitization) which can be regulated by the atrial natriuretic peptide. At tubular level, dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide act together in a concerted manner to promote sodium excretion, especially through the overinhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In this way, different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome or hypertension, are associated with impaired action of renal dopamine and/or atrial natriuretic peptide, or as a result of impaired interaction between these two natriuretic systems. The aim of this review is to update and comment on the most recent evidences demonstrating how the renal dopaminergic system interacts with atrial natriuretic peptide to control renal physiology and blood pressure through different regulatory pathways. PMID:25013796

  20. Differential activation of dopaminergic systems in rat brain basal ganglia by morphine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Iwase, Y; Saeki, T; Iwata, N; Murata, A; Masukawa, D; Suzuki, T

    2016-05-13

    Typical abused drug-induced behavioral changes are ordinarily mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and even the phenotypes of behavior are different from each other. However, the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral changes induced by these abused drugs have not yet been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms that underlie how abused drugs induce distinct behavioral changes using neurochemical as well as behavioral techniques in rats. Methamphetamine (2mg/kg) more potently increased dopamine release from the striatum more than that from the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, the administration of morphine (10mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the release of dopamine from the nucleus accumbens, but not the striatum, which is accompanied by a decrease in the release of GABA in the ventral tegmental area. These findings indicate that morphine and methamphetamine differentially regulate dopaminergic systems to produce behavioral changes, even though both drugs have abuse potential through activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. PMID:26820597

  1. Working memory training impacts the mean diffusivity in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    Dopaminergic transmission plays a critical role in working memory (WM). Mean diffusivity (MD) is a sensitive and unique neuroimaging tool for detecting microstructural differences particularly in the areas of the dopaminergic system. Despite previous investigation of the effects of WM training (WMT) on dopamine receptor binding potentials, the effects of WMT on MD remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these effects in young adult subjects who either underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention or no-intervention periods, subjects underwent scanning sessions in diffusion-weighted imaging to measure MD. Compared with no intervention, WMT resulted in an increase in MD in the bilateral caudate, right putamen, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, the increase in performance on WMT tasks was significantly positively correlated with the mean increase in MD in the clusters of the left DLPFC and of the right ACC. These results suggest that WMT caused microstructural changes in the regions of the dopaminergic system in a way that is usually interpreted as a reduction in neural components. PMID:25023736

  2. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mazul, B; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Miklić, P; Sumajstorcić, J

    1997-03-01

    Since superior protection against different gastrointestinal and liver lesions and antiinflammatory and analgesic activities were noted for pentadecapeptide BPC (an essential fragment of an organoprotective gastric juice protein named BPC), the beneficial mechanism of BPC 157 and its likely interactions with other systems were studied. Hence its beneficial effects would be abolished by adrenal gland medullectomy, the influence of different agents affecting alpha, beta, and dopamine receptors on BPC 157 gastroprotection in 48 h restraint stress was further investigated. Animals were pretreated (1 hr before stress) with saline (controls) or BPC 157 (dissolved in saline) (10 microg or 10 ng/kg body wt intraperitoneally or intragastrically) applied either alone to establish basal conditions or, when manipulating the adrenergic or dopaminergic system, a simultaneous administration was carried out with various agents with specific effects on adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors [given in milligrams per kilogram intraperitoneally except for atenolol, which was given subcutaneously] phentolamine (10.0), prazosin (0.5), yohimbine (5.0), clonidine (0.1) (alpha-adrenergic domain), propranolol (1.0), atenolol (20.0) (beta-adrenergic domain), domperidone (5.0), and haloperidol (5.0) (peripheral/central dopamine system). Alternatively, agents stimulating adrenergic or dopaminergic systems--adrenaline (5.0) or bromocriptine (10.0)--were applied. A strong protection, noted following intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of BPC 157, was fully abolished by coadministration of phentolamine, clonidine, and haloperidol, and consistently not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, or domperidone. Atenolol abolished only intraperitoneal BPC 157 protection, whereas propranolol affected specifically intragastric BPC 157 protection. Interestingly, the severe course of lesion development obtained in basal conditions, unlike BPC 157 gastroprotection, was not influenced by the application of

  3. Quantitative morphological comparison of axon-targeting strategies for gene therapies directed to the nigro-striatal projection.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, S; Kareva, T; Kholodilov, N; Burke, R E

    2014-02-01

    Cellular targeting of mRNAs and proteins to axons is essential for axon growth during development and is likely to be important for adult maintenance as well. Given the importance and potency of these axon-targeting motifs to the biology of axons, it seems possible that they can be used in the design of transgenes that are intended to enhance axon growth or maintenance, so as to improve potency and minimize off-target effects. To investigate this possibility, it is first essential to assess known motifs for their efficacy. We have therefore evaluated four axon-targeting motifs, using adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene delivery in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic system, a projection that is predominantly affected in Parkinson's disease. We have tested two mRNA axonal zipcodes, the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of β-actin and 3' UTR of tau, and two axonal-targeting protein motifs, the palmitoylation signal sequence in GAP-43 and the last 15 amino acids in the amyloid precursor protein, to direct the expression of the fluorescent protein Tomato in axons. These sequences, fused to Tomato, were able to target its expression to dopaminergic axons. Based on quantification of Tomato-positive axons, and the density of striatal innervation, we conclude that the C-terminal of the amyloid precursor protein is the most effective axon-targeting motif. PMID:24305419

  4. Clinical Investigation of the Dopaminergic System with PET and FLUORINE-18-FLUORO-L-DOPA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Terrence Rayford

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a tool that provides quantitative physiological information. It is valuable both in a clinical environment, where information is sought for an individual, and in a research environment, to answer more fundamental questions about physiology and disease states. PET is particularly attractive compared to other nuclear medicine imaging techniques in cases where the anatomical regions of interest are small or when true metabolic rate constants are required. One example with both of these requirements is the investigation of Parkinson's Disease, which is characterized as a presynaptic motor function deficit affecting the striatum. As dopaminergic neurons die, the ability of the striatum to affect motor function decreases. The extent of functional neuronal damage in the small sub-structures may be ascertained by measuring the ability of the caudate and putamen to trap and store dopamine, a neurotransmitter. PET is able to utilize a tracer of dopamine activity, ^ {18}F- scL-DOPA, to quantitate the viability of the striatum. This thesis work deals with implementing and optimizing the many different elements that compose a PET study of the dopaminergic system, including: radioisotope production; conversion of aqueous ^{18}F ^-into [^ {18}F]-F2; synthesis of ^{18}F- scL -DOPA; details of the PET scan itself; measurements to estimate the radiation dosimetry; accurate measurement of a plasma input function; and the quantitation of dopaminergic activity in normal human subjects as well as in Parkinson's Disease patients.

  5. Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions within dopaminergic neurons triggers neuroprotective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Perier, Celine; Bender, Andreas; García-Arumí, Elena; Melià, Ma Jesus; Bové, Jordi; Laub, Christoph; Klopstock, Thomas; Elstner, Matthias; Mounsey, Ross B; Teismann, Peter; Prolla, Tomas; Andreu, Antoni L; Vila, Miquel

    2013-08-01

    Acquired alterations in mitochondrial DNA are believed to play a pathogenic role in Parkinson's disease. In particular, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions has been observed in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and aged individuals. Also, mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma result in multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions that can be associated with levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and severe substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, whether mitochondrial DNA deletions play a causative role in the demise of dopaminergic neurons remains unknown. Here we assessed the potential pathogenic effects of mitochondrial DNA deletions on the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system by using mutant mice possessing a proofreading-deficient form of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLGD257A), which results in a time-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in several tissues, including the brain. In these animals, we assessed the occurrence of mitochondrial DNA deletions within individual substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons, by laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and determined the potential deleterious effects of such mitochondrial DNA alterations on mitochondrial function and dopaminergic neuronal integrity, by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry and quantitative morphology. Nigral dopaminergic neurons from POLGD257A mice accumulate mitochondrial DNA deletions to a similar extent (∼40-60%) as patients with Parkinson's disease and aged individuals. Despite such high levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions, the majority of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons from these animals did not exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction or degeneration. Only a few individual substantia nigra pars compacta neurons appeared as cytochrome c oxidase-negative, which exhibited higher levels of mitochondrial DNA

  6. Recent Advances in Imaging of Dopaminergic Neurons for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lie-Hang; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Tseng, Yu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is the most intensely studied monoaminergic neurotransmitter. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in regulating several aspects of basic brain function, including motor, behavior, motivation, and working memory. To date, there are numerous positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers available for targeting different steps in the process of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which permits us to quantify dopaminergic activity in the living human brain. Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system causes Parkinson's disease (PD) and related Parkinsonism. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that has been classically associated with the reinforcing effects of drug abuse. Abnormalities within the dopamine system in the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine receptors play an important role in schizophrenia and the effect of neuroleptics is through blockage of dopamine D2 receptors. This review will concentrate on the radiotracers that have been developed for imaging dopaminergic neurons, describe the clinical aspects in the assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders, and suggest future directions in the diagnosis and management of such disorders. PMID:22570524

  7. An update on the connections of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex.

    PubMed

    Yetnikoff, L; Lavezzi, H N; Reichard, R A; Zahm, D S

    2014-12-12

    This review covers the intrinsic organization and afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex, comprising the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field, which house, respectively, the A9, A10 and A8 groups of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In addition, A10dc (dorsal, caudal) and A10rv (rostroventral) extensions into, respectively, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and supramammillary nucleus are discussed. Associated intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex that utilize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and neuropeptides and various co-expressed combinations of these compounds are considered in conjunction with the dopamine-containing systems. A framework is provided for understanding the organization of massive afferent systems descending and ascending to the midbrain dopaminergic complex from the telencephalon and brainstem, respectively. Within the context of this framework, the basal ganglia direct and indirect output pathways are treated in some detail. Findings from rodent brain are briefly compared with those from primates, including humans. Recent literature is emphasized, including traditional experimental neuroanatomical and modern gene transfer and optogenetic studies. An attempt was made to provide sufficient background and cite a representative sampling of earlier primary papers and reviews so that people new to the field may find this to be a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject. PMID:24735820

  8. An update on the connections of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex

    PubMed Central

    Yetnikoff, Leora; Lavezzi, Heather N.; Reichard, Rhett A.; Zahm, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    This review covers the intrinsic organization and afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex, comprising the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field, which house, respectively, the A9, A10 and A8 groups of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In addition, A10dc (dorsal, caudal) and A10rv (rostroventral) extensions into, respectively, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and supramammillary nucleus are discussed. Associated intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex that utilize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and neuropeptides and various co-expressed combinations of these compounds are considered in conjunction with the dopamine-containing systems. A framework is provided for understanding the organization of masssive afferent systems descending and ascending to the midbrain dopaminergic complex from the telencephalon and brainstem, respectively. Within the context of this framework, the basal ganglia direct and indirect output pathways are treated in some detail. Findings from rodent brain are briefly compared with those from primates, including human. Recent literature is emphasized, including traditional experimental neuroanatomical and modern gene transfer and optogenetic studies. An attempt was made to provide sufficient background and cite a representative sampling of earlier primary papers and reviews so that people new to the field may find this to be a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject. PMID:24735820

  9. Differential Contribution of Lipoxygenase Isozymes to Nigrostriatal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Vivian P.; Holman, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    The 5- and 12/15- lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes have been implicated to contribute to disease development in CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. These LOX isozymes are distinct in function, with differential effects on neuroinflammation, and the impact of the distinct isozymes in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not as yet been evaluated. To determine whether the isozymes contribute differently to nigrostriatal vulnerability, the effects of 5- and 12/15-LOX deficiency on dopaminergic tone under na ve and toxicant-challenged conditions were tested. In na ve mice deficient in 5-LOX expression, a modest but significant reduction (18.0% reduction vs. wildtype (WT)) in striatal dopamine (DA) was detected (n=6-8 per genotype). A concomitant decline in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme was also revealed in null 5-LOX vs. WT mice (26.2%); however, no changes in levels of DA or TH immunoreactivity were observed in null 12/15-LOX vs. WT mice. When challenged with the selective dopaminergic toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), WT mice showed marked reduction in DA (31.9%) and robust astrocytic and microglial activation as compared to saline-treated animals. In contrast, null 5-LOX littermates demonstrated no significant striatal DA depletion or astrogliosis (as noted by Western blot analyses for GFAP immunoreactivity). In na ve null 12/15-LOX mice, no significant change in striatal DA values was observed compared to WT, and following MPTP treatment, the transgenics revealed striatal DA reduction similar to the challenged WT mice. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that: (i) LOX isozymes are involved in the maintenance of normal dopaminergic function in the striatum, and (ii) the 5- and 12/15-LOX isozymes contribute differentially to striatal vulnerability in response to neurotoxicant challenge. PMID:23079635

  10. Brain dopaminergic system changes in drug addiction: a review of positron emission tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Hou, Haifeng; Wang, Chunyan; Jia, Shaowei; Hu, Shu; Tian, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for in vivo measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the human brain. In this article, we review the major findings from PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, including presynaptic DA synthesis, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, the DA transporter, and postsynaptic DA receptors. These results have corroborated the role of DA in addiction and increased the understanding of its underlying mechanisms. PMID:25260796

  11. Naringin treatment induces neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease in vivo, but not enough to restore the lesioned dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Deok; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with naringin, a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, attenuated neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in vivo. In order to investigate whether its effects are universally applied to a different model of PD and whether its treatment induces restorative effects on the lesioned nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projection, we observed the effects of pre-treatment or post-treatment with naringin in a mouse model of PD. For neuroprotective effects, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was unilaterally injected into the striatum of mouse brains for a neurotoxin model of PD in the presence or absence of naringin by daily intraperitoneal injection. Our results showed that naringin protected the nigrostriatal DA projection from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, similar to the effects in rat brains, this treatment induced the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is well known as an important survival factor for DA neurons, and inhibited microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of mouse brains treated with 6-OHDA. However, there was no significant change of DA phenotypes in the SN and striatum post-treated with naringin compared with 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, despite the treatment being continued for 12 weeks. These results suggest that post-treatment with naringin alone may not be enough to restore the nigrostriatal DA projection in a mouse model of PD. However, our results apparently suggest that naringin is a beneficial natural product to prevent DA degeneration, which is involved in PD. PMID:26878791

  12. Hesr1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral alterations through the dopaminergic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Satoshi; Minami, Natsumi; Kokubo, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Yasumatsu, Hiroshi; Sasagawa, Noboru; Saga, Yumiko; Tsukahara, Toshifumi; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2006-11-15

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional factor Hesr1 gene (hairy and enhancer of split-related 1, also called Hey1/HRT1/CHF2/HERP2) has been identified and characterized as a member of the subfamily of hairy/Enhancer of split, and shown to be involved in cardiovascular and neural development. We report that HESR1 binds directly to a part of the 3' non-coding region of the human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and represses the endogenous DAT1 gene in HEK293 cells. To investigate functions of the HESR1 gene in the dopaminergic nervous system in vivo, we analyzed the expressions of dopamine-related genes in the postnatal day 0 whole brains of Hesr1 knockout mice by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Several dopamine-related genes, such as DAT, dopamine receptors D1, D2, D4, and D5, were significantly upregulated. Moreover, young adults of Hesr1 knockout mice showed a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity and a reduction in exploratory behavior or behavioral responses to novelty in the open-field, and elevated plus-maze tests. These results indicate that the HESR1 gene is related to neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral traits through the dopaminergic nervous system. PMID:16998899

  13. Addiction pharmacogenetics: a systematic review of the genetic variation of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Michelle A; Bauer, Isabelle E; Soares, Jair C; Graham, David P; Nielsen, David A

    2015-10-01

    Substance use disorders have significant personal, familial, and societal consequences. Despite the serious consequences of substance use, only a few therapies are effective in treating substance use disorders, thus highlighting a need for improved treatment practices. Substance use treatment response depends on multiple factors such as genetic, biological, and social factors. It is essential that each component is represented in treatment plans. The dopaminergic system plays a critical role in the pharmacotherapy for addictions, and an understanding of the role of variation of genes involved in this system is essential for its success. This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement guidelines. A computerized literature search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus (all databases). Articles published up to April 2015 that examined the role of dopaminergic gene variation in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine use disorders were reviewed. Search terms were dopamine, gene, polymorphism, substance abuse, treatment, and response. Polymorphisms of the DRD2, ANKK1, DAT1, DBH, and DRD4 genes have been found to moderate the effects of pharmacotherapy of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine use disorders. The integration of genetic information with clinical data will inform health professionals of the most efficacious pharmacotherapeutic intervention for substance use disorders. More studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:26146874

  14. Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gaven, Florence; Marin, Philippe; Claeysen, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons represent less than 1% of the total number of neurons in the brain. This low amount of neurons regulates important brain functions such as motor control, motivation, and working memory. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). This progressive neuronal loss is unequivocally associated with the motors symptoms of the pathology (bradykinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity). The main agent responsible of dopaminergic neuron degeneration is still unknown. However, these neurons appear to be extremely vulnerable in diverse conditions. Primary cultures constitute one of the most relevant models to investigate properties and characteristics of dopaminergic neurons. These cultures can be submitted to various stress agents that mimic PD pathology and to neuroprotective compounds in order to stop or slow down neuronal degeneration. The numerous transgenic mouse models of PD that have been generated during the last decade further increased the interest of researchers for dopaminergic neuron cultures. Here, the video protocol focuses on the delicate dissection of embryonic mouse brains. Precise excision of ventral mesencephalon is crucial to obtain neuronal cultures sufficiently rich in dopaminergic cells to allow subsequent studies. This protocol can be realized with embryonic transgenic mice and is suitable for immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, second messenger quantification, or neuronal death/survival assessment. PMID:25226064

  15. The Dopaminergic Reward System and Leisure Time Exercise Behavior: A Candidate Allele Study

    PubMed Central

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Dolan, Conor V.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Ehli, Erik A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul; Davies, Gareth E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hudziak, James J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Twin studies provide evidence that genetic influences contribute strongly to individual differences in exercise behavior. We hypothesize that part of this heritability is explained by genetic variation in the dopaminergic reward system. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in DRD1: rs265981, DRD2: rs6275, rs1800497, DRD3: rs6280, DRD4: rs1800955, DBH: rs1611115, rs2519152, and in COMT: rs4680) and three variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs in DRD4, upstream of DRD5, and in DAT1) were investigated for an association with regular leisure time exercise behavior. Materials and Methods. Data on exercise activities and at least one SNP/VNTR were available for 8,768 individuals aged 7 to 50 years old that were part of the Netherlands Twin Register. Exercise behavior was quantified as weekly metabolic equivalents of task (MET) spent on exercise activities. Mixed models were fitted in SPSS with genetic relatedness as a random effect. Results. None of the genetic variants were associated with exercise behavior (P > .02), despite sufficient power to detect small effects. Discussion and Conclusions. We did not confirm that allelic variants involved in dopaminergic function play a role in creating individual differences in exercise behavior. A plea is made for large genome-wide association studies to unravel the genetic pathways that affect this health-enhancing behavior. PMID:24734235

  16. Molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    In insects, dopamine modulates various aspects of behavior such as learning and memory, arousal and locomotion, and is also a precursor of melanin. To elucidate the molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer, we identified genes involved in dopamine biosynthesis, signal transduction, and dopamine re-uptake in the cricket. Complementary DNA of two isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which convert tyrosine into L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, was isolated from the cricket brain cDNA library. In addition, four dopamine receptor genes (Dop1, Dop2, Dop3, and DopEcR) and a high-affinity dopamine transporter gene were identified. The two TH isoforms contained isoform-specific regions in the regulatory ACT domain and showed differential expression patterns in different tissues. In addition, the dopamine receptor genes had a receptor subtype-specific distribution: the Dop1, Dop2, and DopEcR genes were broadly expressed in various tissues at differential expression levels, and the Dop3 gene was restrictedly expressed in neuronal tissues and the testicles. Our findings provide a fundamental basis for understanding the dopaminergic regulation of diverse physiological processes in the cricket. PMID:23539475

  17. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  18. Anatomical and functional reconstruction of the nigrostriatal pathway by intranigral transplants.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Afsaneh; Decressac, Mickael; Frappé, Isabelle; Fernagut, Pierre Olivier; Prestoz, Laetitia; Besnard, Stephan; Jaber, Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    The main transplantation strategy in Parkinson's disease has been to place dopaminergic grafts not in their ontogenic site, the substantia nigra, but in their target area, the striatum with contrasting results. Here we have used green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse embryos as donors of ventral mesencephalic cells for transplantation into the pre-lesioned substantia nigra of an adult wild-type host. This allows distinguishing the transplanted cells and their projections from those of the host. Grafted cells integrated within the host mesencephalon and expressed the dopaminergic markers tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter. Most of the dopaminergic cells within the transplant expressed the substantia nigra marker Girk2 while a lesser proportion expressed the ventral tegmental area marker calbindin. Mesencephalic transplants developed projections through the medial forebrain bundle to the striatum, increased striatal dopamine levels and restored normal behavior. Interestingly, only mesencephalic transplants were able to restore the nigrostriatal projections as dopamine neurons originating from embryonic olfactory bulb transplants send projections only in the close vicinity of the transplantation site that did not reach the striatum. Our results show for the first time the ability of intranigral foetal dopaminergic neurons grafts to restore the damaged nigrostriatal pathway in adult mice. Together with our previous findings of efficient embryonic transplantation within the pre-lesioned adult motor cortex, these results demonstrate that the adult brain is permissive to specific and long distance axonal growth. They further open new avenues in cell transplantation therapies applied for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:19616502

  19. Running wheel exercise enhances recovery from nigrostriatal dopamine injury without inducing neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, S J; Gross, N B; Fricks, A N; Casiano, B D; Nguyen, T B; Marshall, J F

    2007-02-01

    Forced use of the forelimb contralateral to a unilateral injection of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine can promote recovery of motor function in that limb and can significantly decrease damage to dopamine terminals. The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether a form of voluntary exercise, wheel running, would improve motor performance in rats with such lesions, and (2) whether any beneficial effects of wheel running are attributable to ameliorating the dopaminergic damage. In experiment 1, rats were allowed to run in exercise wheels or kept in home cages for 2 1/2 weeks, then given stereotaxic infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine into the left striatum. The rats were replaced into their original environments (wheels or home cages) for four additional weeks, and asymmetries in forelimb use were quantified at 3, 10, 17, and 24 days postoperatively. After killing, dopaminergic damage was assessed by both quantifying 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) binding to striatal dopamine transporters and counting tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. Exercised 6-hydroxydopamine-infused rats showed improved motor outcomes relative to sedentary lesioned controls, effects that were most apparent at postoperative days 17 and 24. Despite this behavioral improvement, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of striatal dopamine transporters and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells in exercised and sedentary groups did not differ. Since prior studies suggested that forced limb use improves motor performance by sparing nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine damage, experiment 2 used a combined regimen of forced plus voluntary wheel running. Again, we found that the motor performance of exercised rats improved more rapidly than that of sedentary controls, but that there were no differences between these groups in the damage produced by 6-hydroxydopamine. It appears that voluntary

  20. The Association Between Genetic Variants in the Dopaminergic System and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lizhuo; Bao, Yijun; He, Songbai; Wang, Gang; Guan, Yanlei; Ma, Dexuan; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Zhang, Dewei; Liu, Qiwen; Wang, Yunjie; Yang, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex mental disorder and can severely interfere with the normal life of the affected people. Previous studies have examined the association of PTSD with genetic variants in multiple dopaminergic genes with inconsistent results. To perform a systematic literature search and conduct meta-analysis to examine whether genetic variants in the dopaminergic system is associated with PTSD. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, and HuGE. The studies included subjects who had been screened for the presence of PTSD; the studies provided data for genetic variants of genes involved in the dopaminergic system; the outcomes of interest included diagnosis status of PTSD; and the studies were case–control studies. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association. We used random-effects model in all the meta-analyses. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I2, and publication bias was evaluated using Egger test. Findings from meta-analyses were confirmed using random-effects meta-analyses under the framework of generalized linear model (GLM). A total of 19 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analyses. We found that rs1800497 in DRD2 was significantly associated with PTSD (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.15–3.33; P = 0.014). The 3′-UTR variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in SLC6A3 also showed significant association with PTSD (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.35; P = 0.010), but there was no association of rs4680 in COMT with PTSD (P = 0.595). Sample size is limited for some studies; type and severity of traumatic events varied across studies; we could not control for potential confounding factors, such as age at traumatic events and gender; and we could not examine gene–environment interaction due to lack of data. We found that rs1800497 in DRD2 and the VNTR in SLC6A3 showed significant association with PTSD. Future studies controlling for confounding factors, with large

  1. Dose-dependent on reversible effects of lead on rat dopaminergic system

    SciTech Connect

    Memo, M.; Lucchi, L.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1981-02-16

    It has been suggested that hyperactivity and mental retardation, the most serious clinical aspects observed in children during lead intoxication, may occur as consequence of specific alterations of neurotransmitter functions. In our experiments we indicate that the behavioural patterns observed in chronically lead exposed rats may be correlated with an impairment of the dopaminergic system. Performing our study at two different levels of lead exposure, we found a dose-dependent change in dopamine turnover. Moreover, 30 days after the last assumption of lead we observed a complete disappearance of these neurochemical variations. Our findings suggest that lead affects dopamine function in different brain areas in reversible manner, inducing effects which are dose-dependent.

  2. SIRT3 attenuates MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration via enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Peritore, Carina; Ginsberg, Jessica; Kayhan, Merve; Donmez, Gizem

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, which is characterized by progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. There is a growing consensus that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role in PD pathogenesis. Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is the major mitochondria NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that acts as a regulator of mitochondrial protein function; it is essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Although SIRT3 was reported to have anti-oxidative stress activity in an in vitro study, there is no explicit in vivo evidence for the involvement of SIRT3 in the etiology of PD. The present study shows that SIRT3 null mice do not exhibit motor and non-motor deficits compared with wild-type controls. However, SIRT3 deficiency dramatically exacerbated the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice. SIRT3 null mice exposed to MPTP also exhibited decreased superoxide dismutase 2, a specific mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, and reduced glutathione peroxidase expression compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these findings strongly support that SIRT3 has a possible role in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration via preserving free radical scavenging capacity in mitochondria. PMID:25555707

  3. Dopaminergic system and dream recall: An MRI study in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Lanteri, Olimpia; Piras, Fabrizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Assogna, Francesca; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the role of the dopamine system [i.e., subcortical-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network] in dreaming, by studying patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a model of altered dopaminergic transmission. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were extracted by 3T-MR images of 27 PD patients and 27 age-matched controls, who were asked to fill out a dream diary upon morning awakening for one week. PD patients do not substantially differ from healthy controls with respect to the sleep, dream, and neuroanatomical measures. Multivariate correlational analyses in PD patients show that dopamine agonist dosage is associated to qualitatively impoverished dreams, as expressed by lower bizarreness and lower emotional load values. Visual vividness (VV) of their dream reports positively correlates with volumes of both the amygdalae and with thickness of the left mPFC. Emotional load also positively correlates with hippocampal volume. Beside the replication of our previous finding on the role of subcortical nuclei in dreaming experience of healthy subjects, this represents the first evidence of a specific role of the amygdala-mPFC dopaminergic network system in dream recall. The association in PD patients between higher dopamine agonist dosages and impoverished dream reports, however, and the significant correlations between VV and mesolimbic regions, however, provide an empirical support to the hypothesis that a dopamine network plays a key role in dream generation. The causal relation is however precluded by the intrinsic limitation of assuming the dopamine agonist dosage as a measure of the hypodopaminergic state in PD. Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26704150

  4. In vivo measures of nigrostriatal neuronal response to unilateral MPTP treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, LinLin; Karimi, Morvarid; Brown, Chris A; Loftin, Susan K; Perlmutter, Joel S

    2014-07-01

    A single unilateral intracarotid infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into non-human primates causes injury to the nigrostriatal pathway including nigral cell bodies, axons and striatal terminal fields. In this model, motor parkinsonism correlates well with the loss of nigral dopaminergic cell bodies but only correlates with in vitro measures of nigrostriatal terminal fields when nigral cell loss does not exceed 50%. The goals of this study are to determine the relationship of motor parkinsonism with the degree of injury to nigrostriatal axons, as reflected by in vitro fiber length density measures, and compare in vivo with in vitro measures of striatal terminal fields. We determined axon integrity by measuring fiber length density with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistology and dopamine transporter (DAT) density with DAT immunohistology. We then calculated the terminal arbor size and compared these measures with previously published data of quantified in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) measures of presynaptic dopaminergic neurons, autoradiographic measures of DAT and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2), striatal dopamine, nigral cell counts, and parkinsonian motor ratings in the same animals. Our data demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro measures of striatal terminal fields correlate with each other regardless of the method of measurement. PET-based in vivo striatal measures accurately reflect in vitro measures of DAT and VMAT2. Terminal arbor size and other terminal field measures correlate with nigral TH immunoreactive (TH-ir) cell counts only when nigral TH-ir cell loss does not exceed 50%. Fiber length density was the only striatal measure that linearly correlated with motor ratings (Spearman: r=-0.81, p<0.001, n=16). PMID:24845719

  5. Neural ablation of the PARK10 candidate Plpp3 leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits without neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Sandra; Martínez-Silva, Ana Valeria; Montiel, Teresa; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Massieu, Lourdes; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a variety of motor symptoms. The gene coding for the phospholipid phosphatase 3, PLPP3 (formerly PPAP2B or LPP3), maps within the PARK10 locus, a region that has been linked with increased risk to late-onset PD. PLPP3 modulates the levels of a range of bioactive lipids controlling fundamental cellular processes within the central nervous system. Here we show that PLPP3 is enriched in astroglial cells of the adult murine ventral midbrain. Conditional inactivation of Plpp3 using a Nestin::Cre driver results in reduced mesencephalic levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), a well-known mediator of pro-survival responses. Yet, adult PLPP3-deficient mice exhibited no alterations in the number of dopaminergic neurons or in the basal levels of striatal extracellular dopamine (DA). Potassium-evoked DA overflow in the striatum, however, was significantly decreased in mutant mice. Locomotor evaluation revealed that, although PLPP3-deficient mice exhibit motor impairment, this is not progressive or responsive to acute L-DOPA therapy. These findings suggest that disruption of Plpp3 during early neural development leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits in the absence of nigrostriatal degeneration, and without causing an age-related locomotor decline consistent with PD. PMID:27063549

  6. Neural ablation of the PARK10 candidate Plpp3 leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits without neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-López, Sandra; Martínez-Silva, Ana Valeria; Montiel, Teresa; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Massieu, Lourdes; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a variety of motor symptoms. The gene coding for the phospholipid phosphatase 3, PLPP3 (formerly PPAP2B or LPP3), maps within the PARK10 locus, a region that has been linked with increased risk to late-onset PD. PLPP3 modulates the levels of a range of bioactive lipids controlling fundamental cellular processes within the central nervous system. Here we show that PLPP3 is enriched in astroglial cells of the adult murine ventral midbrain. Conditional inactivation of Plpp3 using a Nestin::Cre driver results in reduced mesencephalic levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), a well-known mediator of pro-survival responses. Yet, adult PLPP3-deficient mice exhibited no alterations in the number of dopaminergic neurons or in the basal levels of striatal extracellular dopamine (DA). Potassium-evoked DA overflow in the striatum, however, was significantly decreased in mutant mice. Locomotor evaluation revealed that, although PLPP3-deficient mice exhibit motor impairment, this is not progressive or responsive to acute L-DOPA therapy. These findings suggest that disruption of Plpp3 during early neural development leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits in the absence of nigrostriatal degeneration, and without causing an age-related locomotor decline consistent with PD. PMID:27063549

  7. Chronic low-dose melatonin treatment maintains nigrostriatal integrity in an intrastriatal rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carriere, Candace H; Kang, Na Hyea; Niles, Lennard P

    2016-02-15

    Parkinson's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder which primarily involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and related projections in the striatum. The pesticide/neurotoxin, rotenone, has been shown to cause systemic inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity in nigral dopaminergic neurons, with consequent degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, as observed in Parkinson's disease. A novel intrastriatal rotenone model of Parkinson's disease was used to examine the neuroprotective effects of chronic low-dose treatment with the antioxidant indoleamine, melatonin, which can upregulate neurotrophic factors and other protective proteins in the brain. Sham or lesioned rats were treated with either vehicle (0.04% ethanol in drinking water) or melatonin at a dose of 4 µg/mL in drinking water. The right striatum was lesioned by stereotactic injection of rotenone at three sites (4 μg/site) along its rostrocaudal axis. Apomorphine administration to lesioned animals resulted in a significant (p<0.001) increase in ipsilateral rotations, which was suppressed by melatonin. Nine weeks post-surgery, animals were sacrificed by transcardial perfusion. Subsequent immunohistochemical examination revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity within the striatum and substantia nigra of rotenone-lesioned animals. Melatonin treatment attenuated the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum and abolished it in the substantia nigra. Stereological cell counts indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of rotenone-lesioned animals, which was confirmed by Nissl staining. Importantly, chronic melatonin treatment blocked the loss of dopamine neurons in rotenone-lesioned animals. These findings strongly support the therapeutic potential of long-term and low-dose melatonin treatment in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26740407

  8. Low doses of single or combined agrichemicals induces α-synuclein aggregation in nigrostriatal system of mice through inhibition of proteasomal and autophagic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Su, Cen; Niu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (SNCA) genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The agrichemicals paraquat, maneb and chlorpyrifos selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. We analyzed the ability of low dose paraquat, maneb and chlorpyrifos, separately or combined together, to induce synucleinopathy in wild type mice. Paraquat and maneb applied together did not increase α-Synuclein (α-Syn) levels. By contrast, paraquat and chlorpyrifos together resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn in striata in mice. Therefore, co-treatment with chlorpyrifos enhanced the effects of paraquat. Paraquat, and its co-treatment with maneb or chlorpyrifos, inhibited all soluble proteasomal expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and chlorpyrifos treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Atg 12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in all the treated animals. These results suggest that a combination of paraquat and chlorpyrifos is much more toxic than paraquat alone or combined with maneb. These effects are likely via inhibitory effects of these toxins on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn. Our study provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals. PMID:26884967

  9. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The brain dopaminergic (DA) system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification. Methods & Results Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF) and TH-rtTA (tet-ON) mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time. Conclusion These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases. PMID:26291828

  10. New facts and the concept of physiological regulation of the dopaminergic system function and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Krzymowski, T; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2015-06-01

    We present the main results of the study and justification of our opinion on the role of dopamine (DA) retrograde transfer in the cavernous sinus in the regulation of the dopaminergic (DArgic) system activity. We are convinced that under physiological conditions DA - which is continuously retrograde transferred in the cavernous sinus from venous brain effluent to arterial blood supplying the brain and carried by the arterial blood to endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes of striatal DArgic cell groups - can inhibit dopamine transporter (DAT) expression by a down-regulation mechanism. A new concept of the genesis of DArgic system dysfunction with involvement of DA retrograde transfer in the cavernous sinus is presented. We suggest that future research that aims to explain the genesis of hypo- or hyperfunction of the DArgic system, and DArgic system dysfunction causing Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and many other psychiatric disorders, must involve two areas: 1) the cavernous sinus, where DA is taken up, and transferred from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood supplying the brain. To regulate this process pharmacologically, understanding the mechanism and explanation of what determines its course is necessary; 2) brain DArgic structures, whose activity is regulated primarily by the action of DAT. It is essential to clarify whether the expression of the DAT is regulated directly by DA reaching the presynaptic membrane or by any factor secreted by specific perivascular glial cells (astrocytes) under the influence of DA and DA metabolites. PMID:26084215

  11. Are Striatal Tyrosine Hydroxylase Interneurons Dopaminergic?

    PubMed Central

    Xenias, Harry S.; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH–Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP–TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP–TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons. PMID:25904808

  12. Signaling Pathways Involved in Renal Oxidative Injury: Role of the Vasoactive Peptides and the Renal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina Mikusic, N. L.; Kravetz, M. C.; Kouyoumdzian, N. M.; Della Penna, S. L.; Rosón, M. I.; Fernández, B. E.; Choi, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation. PMID:25436148

  13. Sex-related differences in striatal dopaminergic system after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiupeng; Cao, Shengwu; Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Ji, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated alterations in the dopamine (DA) system after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Additionally, the existence of significant sex-related differences in the dopaminergic system has long been recognized. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether TBI would differentially alter, in female and male mice, the expression and the function of the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2), an important DA transporter. After controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, female mice showed significantly lower striatal DA concentrations and K(+)-evoked DA output. By contrast, no significant sex-related differences were observed in the mRNA and protein levels of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT-2 and the methamphetamine (MA)-evoked DA output. These results demonstrated clear sex-related differences in striatal VMAT-2 function in response to TBI and suggested that female mice may be more sensitive to the TBI-induced inhibition of the VMAT-2 function, as indicated by the greater degree of deficits observed when the VMAT-2 DA-storage function was inhibited by TBI. Moreover, the TBI-induced suppression of locomotion was more pronounced than female mice. Such findings highlight the need for sex-specific considerations when examining differences among brain injury conditions. PMID:27210290

  14. The role of the MYD88-dependent pathway in MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence supports a significant role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, with several inflammatory pathways being suggested as playing a role in the dopaminergic degeneration seen in humans and animal models of the disease. These include tumor necrosis factor, prostaglandins and oxidative-related stress components. However, the role of innate immunity has not been established in PD. Methods Based on the fact that the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) is the most common adaptor protein implicated in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, critical in the innate immune response, we undertook a study to investigate the potential contribution of this specific pathway to MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration using MyD88 knock out mice (MyD88-/-), following our observations that the MyD88-dependent pathway was critical for MPTP dopaminergic toxicity in the enteric nervous system. Post-mortem analyses assessing nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and inflammation were performed using HPLC, western blots, autoradiography and immunofluorescence. Results Our results demonstrate that MyD88-/- mice are as vulnerable to MPTP-induced dopamine and DOPAC striatal depletion as wild type mice. Furthermore, MyD88-/- mice show similar striatal dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase loss, as well as dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta in response to MPTP. To evaluate the extent of the inflammatory response created by the MPTP regimen utilized, we further performed bioluminescence imaging using TLR2-luc/gfp transgenic mice and microglial density analysis, which revealed a modest brain microglial response following MPTP. This was accompanied by a significant astrocytic reaction in the striatum, which was of similar magnitude both in wild type and MyD88-/- mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that subacute MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration observed in the central nervous

  15. Sigma-1 receptor deficiency reduces MPTP-induced parkinsonism and death of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J; Sha, S; Zhou, L; Wang, C; Yin, J; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been reported to be decreased in nigrostriatal motor system of Parkinson's disease patients. Using heterozygous and homozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R+/− and σ1R−/−) mice, we investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-impaired nigrostriatal motor system. The injection of MPTP for 5 weeks in wild-type mice (MPTP-WT mice), but not in σ1R+/− or σ1R−/− mice (MPTP-σ1R+/− or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice), caused motor deficits and ~40% death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta with an elevation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) NR2B phosphorylation. The σ1R antagonist NE100 or the NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 could alleviate the motor deficits and the death of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-WT mice. By contrast, MPTP-σ1R+/− mice treated with the σ1R agonist PRE084 or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice treated with the NMDAr agonist NMDA appeared to have similar motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons as MPTP-WT mice. The pharmacological or genetic inactivation of σ1R suppressed the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in substantia nigra, which was corrected by NMDA. The activation of σ1R by PRE084 enhanced the DAT expression in WT mice or σ1R+/− mice. By contrast, the level of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in σ1R+/− mice or σ1R−/− mice had no difference from WT mice. Interestingly, MPTP-WT mice showed the reduction in the levels of DAT and VMAT2, but MPTP-σ1R−/− mice did not. The inactivation of σ1R by NE100 could prevent the reduction of VMAT2 in MPTP-WT mice. In addition, the activation of microglia cells in substantia nigra was equally enhanced in MPTP-WT mice and MPTP-σ1R−/− mice. The number of activated astrocytes in MPTP-σ1R−/− mice was less than that in MPTP-WT mice. The findings indicate that the σ1R deficiency through suppressing NMDAr function and DAT expression can reduce MPTP-induced death of

  16. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection for Polymorphic Genes of the Human Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Taub, Daniel R; Page, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the behavioral and mental health consequences of polymorphisms in genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Along with this, there has been considerable interest in the possibility that these polymorphisms have developed and/or been maintained due to the action of natural selection. Episodes of natural selection on a gene are expected to leave molecular "footprints" in the DNA sequences of the gene and adjacent genomic regions. Here we review the research literature investigating molecular signals of selection for genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. The gene SLC6A4, which codes for a serotonin transport protein, was the one gene for which there was consistent support from multiple studies for a selective episode. Positive selection on SLC6A4 appears to have been initiated ∼ 20-25,000 years ago in east Asia and possibly in Europe. There are scattered reports of molecular signals of selection for other neurotransmitter genes, but these have generally failed at replication across studies. In spite of speculation in the literature about selection on these genes, current evidence from population genomic analyses supports selectively neutral processes, such as genetic drift and population dynamics, as the principal drivers of recent evolution in dopaminergic and serotonergic genes other than SLC6A4. PMID:27375535

  17. The role of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in neurodevelopmental disorders: a focus on epilepsy and seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Prem Prakash; Bozzi, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The embryonic development of the vertebrate Central Nervous System (CNS) requires the induction of transcription factors regulating the expression of specific subsets of genes in restricted CNS regions. Among these transcription factors, homeobox-containing proteins play a crucial role, and altered expression of these factors can impact the embryonic as well as adult CNS functions. Importantly, the homeobox-containing genes Otx2, Engrailed-1 (En1), and Engrailed-2 (En2) have been described to crucially regulate differentiation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons during vertebrate CNS development. Dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons, located in midbrain and hindbrain regions respectively, diffusely innervate several forebrain areas including limbic system, contributing in regulating several physiological functions. Understanding the embryonic development of these neuronal populations is crucial to elucidate their physiological function including brain excitability in the adult brain. New evidence is emerging about the impact of an altered embryonic development of dopamine and serotonin neurons onto seizure susceptibility in the adult life. Methods: In this mini-review, we summarized our kainic acid (KA) induced seizure susceptibility in adult mutant mouse lines with targeted manipulation of Otx2, En1, and En2 genes. Results: Our results demonstrated that altered development of dopamine (DA) neurons does not interfere with KA seizure susceptibility, while increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) hyperinnervation leads to resistance to KA-induced seizure. Conclusion: We propose that developmental alterations of serotonergic but not dopaminergic circuits play a crucial role in controlling seizure susceptibility in the adult life PMID:26191504

  18. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection for Polymorphic Genes of the Human Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Daniel R.; Page, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the behavioral and mental health consequences of polymorphisms in genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Along with this, there has been considerable interest in the possibility that these polymorphisms have developed and/or been maintained due to the action of natural selection. Episodes of natural selection on a gene are expected to leave molecular “footprints” in the DNA sequences of the gene and adjacent genomic regions. Here we review the research literature investigating molecular signals of selection for genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. The gene SLC6A4, which codes for a serotonin transport protein, was the one gene for which there was consistent support from multiple studies for a selective episode. Positive selection on SLC6A4 appears to have been initiated ∼ 20–25,000 years ago in east Asia and possibly in Europe. There are scattered reports of molecular signals of selection for other neurotransmitter genes, but these have generally failed at replication across studies. In spite of speculation in the literature about selection on these genes, current evidence from population genomic analyses supports selectively neutral processes, such as genetic drift and population dynamics, as the principal drivers of recent evolution in dopaminergic and serotonergic genes other than SLC6A4. PMID:27375535

  19. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  20. Subchronic Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) Exposure Produces Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Death of Ventral Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donna W.; Notter, Sarah A.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Dever, Daniel P.; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Opanashuk, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between organochlorine and pesticide exposure to an enhanced risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A common biological phenomenon underlying cell injury associated with both polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and dopaminergic neurodegeneration during aging is oxidative stress (OS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oral PCB exposure, via food ingestion, impairs dopamine systems in the adult murine brain. We determined whether PCB exposure was associated with OS in dopaminergic neurons, a population of cells that selectively degenerate in PD. After 4 weeks of oral exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254, several congeners, mostly ortho substituted, accumulated throughout the brain. Significant increases in locomotor activity were observed within 2 weeks, which persisted after cessation of PCB exposure. Stereologic analyses revealed a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, striatal dopamine levels were elevated, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain dopamine homeostasis, which could contribute to the observed increases in locomotor activity following PCB exposure. Biochemical experiments revealed alterations in OS markers, including increases in SOD and HO-1 levels and the presence of oxidatively modified lipids and proteins. These findings were accompanied by elevated iron levels within the striatal and midbrain regions, perhaps due to the observed dysregulation of transferrin receptors and ferritin levels following PCB exposure. In this study, we suggest that both OS and the uncoupling of iron regulation contribute to dopamine neuron degeneration and hyperactivity following PCB exposure. PMID:22094459

  1. EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON DOPAMINERGIC AND SEROTONERGIC FUNCTION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of trimethyltin (TMT) administration on regional concentrations of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites were determined. Acute administration of 3 or 7 mg/kg TMT (as the chloride) to adult male Long-Evans rats caused alterations in both dopaminergic ...

  2. Abnormal Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Rest and Task Production in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  3. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  4. Suppressed tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system during lactation.

    PubMed

    Wang, H J; Hoffman, G E; Smith, M S

    1993-10-01

    Suckling-induced PRL secretion is regulated in part by a reduction in tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neuronal activity. We have examined the effects of suckling on TIDA activity in the arcuate nucleus by measuring changes in gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. TH gene expression was assessed by performing in situ hybridization, using a 35S-labeled antisense riboprobe for quantitating TH mRNA and analyzing grain density with the aid of an Optimas Bioscan image analysis system. Lactating rats suckled by eight pups were studied on postpartum day 10, and diestrous day 1 rats were used as controls. The results showed that lactation suppressed TH mRNA content throughout the arcuate nucleus to about 10% of diestrous levels. The dramatic reduction in TH mRNA during lactation was specific to the arcuate nucleus, as TH mRNA levels in the zona incerta were similar during lactation and diestrus. The suckling stimulus was the primary signal responsible for the suppression of TH mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, as removal of the pups for 6 h restored TH mRNA content to diestrous levels. By 24 h after pup removal, TH mRNA had reached almost twice diestrous levels. In view of the dramatic reduction in TH mRNA levels during lactation, we examined whether TH protein in the arcuate nucleus was similarly diminished. TH protein was detected by immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to TH. Qualitatively, TH staining was heavier in cell bodies, nerve fibers, and median eminence during diestrus. There was a small, but significant, decrease in TH-positive cell numbers during lactation (14% reduction) compared to those on diestrus. These data provide clear evidence that TH expression is suppressed during lactation, as evidenced by the decrease in TH mRNA and TH protein. The reduction in TH expression most likely contributes to the decrease in dopaminergic tone during lactation. PMID:8104777

  5. PET studies of the presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic system in Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Turjanski, N; Sawle, G V; Playford, E D; Weeks, R; Lammerstma, A A; Lees, A J; Brooks, D J

    1994-01-01

    Dysfunction of the dopaminergic pathway has been postulated to underlie the symptomatology of Tourette's syndrome. Presynaptic functional integrity of dopaminergic terminals was assessed with 18F-dopa PET in 10 patients with Tourette's syndrome, three of whom were drug free and seven of whom were on neuroleptic treatment. Dopamine D2 receptor site density was measured with 11C-raclopride PET in a further group of five drug free patients with Tourette's syndrome. Mean caudate and putamen 18F-dopa influx constants were similar in patients with Tourette's syndrome and controls, and there was no difference in striatal 18F-dopa uptake between the treated and untreated Tourette's syndrome groups. Mean caudate and putamen 11C-raclopride binding potentials in patients with Tourette's syndrome were also similar to control values. The findings suggest that striatal metabolism of exogenous levodopa and the density of striatal D2 receptors are both normal in patients with Tourette's syndrome and that Tourette's syndrome does not arise from a primary dysfunction of dopaminergic terminals. Images PMID:7911827

  6. Direct differentiation of adult ocular progenitors into striatal dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Zhao, Xing; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Destache, Christopher J; Rodriguez-Sierra, Jorge; Thoreson, Wallace B; Ahmad, Hiba; Sorrentino, John; Balasubramanian, Sudha

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease, characterized by motor dysfunction due to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, is one of the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Given there is no current cure, the stem cell approach has emerged as a viable therapeutic option to replace the dopaminergic neurons that are progressively lost to the disease. The success of the approach is likely to depend upon accessible, renewable, immune compatible, and non-tumorigenic sources of neural progenitors from which stable dopaminergic neurons can be generated efficaciously. Here, we demonstrate that neural progenitors derived from limbus, a regenerative and accessible ocular tissue, represent a safe source of dopaminergic neurons. When the limbus-derived neural progenitors were subjected to a well-established protocol of directed differentiation under the influence of Shh and FGF8, they acquired the biochemical and functional phenotype of dopaminergic neurons that included the ability to synthesize dopamine. Their intrastriatal transplantation in the rat model of hemi-Parkinsonism was associated with a reduction in the amphetamine-induced rotation. No tumor formation was observed 6 weeks post-transplantation. Together, these observations posit limbus-derived neural progenitors as an accessible and safe source of dopaminergic neurons for a potential autologous ex-vivo stem cell approach to Parkinson's disease. PMID:26019760

  7. Direct Differentiation of Adult Ocular Progenitors into Striatal Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Zhao, Xing; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Destache, Christopher J.; Rodriguez-Sierra, Jorge; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Ahmad, Hiba; Sorrentino, John; Balasubramanian, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease, characterized by motor dysfunction due to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, is one of the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Given there is no current cure, the stem cell approach has emerged as a viable therapeutic option to replace the dopaminergic neurons that are progressively lost to the disease. The success of the approach is likely to depend upon accessible, renewable, immune compatible, and non-tumorigenic sources of neural progenitors from which stable dopaminergic neurons can be generated efficaciously. Here, we demonstrate that neural progenitors derived from limbus, a regenerative and accessible ocular tissue, represent a safe source of dopaminergic neurons. When the limbus-derived neural progenitors were subjected to a well-established protocol of directed differentiation under the influence of Shh and FGF8, they acquired the biochemical and functional phenotype of dopaminergic neurons that included the ability to synthesize dopamine. Their intrastriatal transplantation in the rat model of hemi-Parkinsonism was associated with a reduction in the amphetamine-induced rotation. No tumor formation was observed 6 weeks post-transplantation. Together, these observations posit limbus-derived neural progenitors as an accessible and safe source of dopaminergic neurons for a potential autologous ex-vivo stem cell approach to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26019760

  8. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Camacho, V. M.; Ávila-García, M. C.; Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [11C ]-DTBZ, [11C ]-RAC, and [18F ]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  9. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Camacho, V. M. Ávila-García, M. C. Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.

    2014-11-07

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ, [{sup 11}C]-RAC, and [{sup 18}F]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  10. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation. PMID

  11. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins. PMID:26929129

  12. Estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor agonists modulate the mesocortical dopaminergic system in gonadectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Miklós; Deli, Levente; Kocsis, Pál; Márk, László; Maász, Gábor; Hrabovszky, Erik; Kalló, Imre; Gajári, Dávid; Vastagh, Csaba; Sümegi, Balázs; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-10-01

    The mesocortical dopaminergic pathway projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to the processing of reward signals. This pathway is regulated by gonadal steroids including estradiol. To address the putative role of estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in the regulation of the rodent mesocortical system, we combined fMRI, HPLC-MS and qRT-PCR techniques. In fMRI experiments adult, chronically ovariectomized rats, treated with either vehicle, estradiol, ERα agonist 16α-lactone-estradiol (LE2) or ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), received a single dose of d-amphetamine-sulphate (10mg/kg, i.p.) and BOLD responses were monitored in the VTA and the PFC. Ovariectomized rats showed no significant response to amphetamine. In contrast, the VTA of ER agonist-substituted ovariectomized rats showed robust amphetamine-evoked BOLD increases. The PFC of estradiol-replaced animals was also responsive to amphetamine. Mass spectroscopic analysis of dopamine and its metabolites revealed a two-fold increase in both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content of the PFC in estradiol-replaced animals compared to ovariectomized controls. qRT-PCR studies revealed upregulation of dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor in the VTA and PFC, respectively, of ER agonist-treated ovariectomized animals. Collectively, the results indicate that E2 and isotype-selective ER agonists can powerfully modulate the responsiveness of the mesocortical dopaminergic system, increase the expression of key genes related to dopaminergic neurotransmission and augment the dopamine content of the PFC. In a broader sense, the findings support the concept that the manifestation of reward signals in the PFC is dependent on the actual estrogen milieu of the brain. PMID:24976584

  13. Investigation of the therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine and the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nouraei, Negin; Zarger, Lauren; Weilnau, Justin N; Han, Jimin; Mason, Daniel M; Leak, Rehana K

    2016-04-01

    The glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is currently being tested on Parkinson's patients for its neuroprotective properties. Our studies have shown that NAC can elicit protection in glutathione-independent manners in vitro. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish an animal model of NAC-mediated protection in which to dissect the underlying mechanism. Mice were infused intrastriatally with the oxidative neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 4μg) and administered NAC intraperitoneally (100mg/kg). NAC-treated animals exhibited higher levels of the dopaminergic terminal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum 10d after 6-OHDA. As TH expression is subject to stress-induced modulation, we infused the tracer FluoroGold into the striatum to retrogradely label nigrostriatal projection neurons. As expected, nigral FluoroGold staining and cell counts of FluoroGold(+) profiles were both more sensitive measures of nigrostriatal degeneration than measurements relying on TH alone. However, NAC failed to protect dopaminergic neurons 3weeks following 6-OHDA, an effect verified by four measures: striatal TH levels, nigral TH levels, nigral TH(+) cell counts, and nigral FluoroGold levels. Some degree of mild toxicity of FluoroGold and NAC was evident, suggesting that caution must be exercised when relying on FluoroGold as a neuron-counting tool and when designing experiments with long-term delivery of NAC-such as clinical trials on patients with chronic disorders. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration are discussed. PMID:26879220

  14. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects. PMID:25403619

  15. The influence of dopaminergic system in medial prefrontal cortex on ketamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-15

    Dopaminergic modulations of glutamate receptors are essential for the prefrontal cortical (PFC) behavioral and cognitive functions. In order to understand the effect of dopamine/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of dopaminergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia by using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC administration of SKF 38393, D1 receptor agonist and quinpirol D2 receptor agonist, alone did not affect memory acquisition. However, amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) significantly decreased by pretreatment of SKF 38393 (2 and 4µg/mouse) and quinpirol (0.3, 1 and 3µg/mouse). Pre-training administration of SCH 23390, D1 receptor antagonist (0.75 and 1μg/mouse, intra-mPFC), and sulpiride D2 receptor antagonist (3μg/mouse, intra-mPFC) impaired memory acquisition. In addition, co-pretreatment of different doses of SCH 23390 and sulpiride with lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. It may be concluded that dopaminergic system of medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. PMID:27041647

  16. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the consolidation of fear conditioning in hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia-Ling; Xue, Li; Wang, Run-Hua; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Hu

    2015-02-01

    The hippocampus, the primary brain structure related to learning and memory, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervations and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Systematic hippocampal dopaminergic dysfunction can cause deficits in spatial working memory and impair consolidation of contextual fear memories. CA3 is involved in the rapid acquisition of new memories and has extensive nerve fibre connections with other brain structures such as CA1, the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A bidirectional fibrous connection between CA3 and the amygdala reflects the importance of CA3 in fear conditioning. The present study evaluated the effects of a 6-OHDA lesion in CA3 on the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. The results showed CA3 involvement in the expression but not the acquisition of conditioned fear. Injection of SCH23390 and quinpirole into the bilateral CA3 attenuated a conditioned fear-related freezing response, whereas SKF38393 and sulpiride were not associated with this effect. The present study found that a 6-OHDA lesion in CA3 up-regulated the expression of GluR1 in BLA and down-regulated NR2B in CA1 and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Our data suggest that dopamine depletion in hippocampal subdivision CA3 may not be necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear, but the expression of conditioned fear is likely dependent on the integrity of mesohippocampal dopaminergic connections. It is probable that both D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors modulate the expression of conditioned fear. Changes in the expression of NR2B and GluR1 indicate that CA3 may modulate the activities of other brain structures. PMID:25446753

  17. Minocycline enhances MPTP toxicity to dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Sugama, Shuei; Chirichigno, Jason W; Gregorio, Jason; Lorenzl, Stefan; Shin, Dong H; Browne, Susan E; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Joh, Tong H; Beal, M Flint; Albers, David S

    2003-10-15

    Minocycline has been shown previously to have beneficial effects against ischemia in rats as well as neuroprotective properties against excitotoxic damage in vitro, nigral cell loss via 6-hydroxydopamine, and to prolong the life-span of transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated whether minocycline would protect against toxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a toxin that selectively destroys nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons and produces a clinical state similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents and primates. We found that although minocycline inhibited microglial activation, it significantly exacerbated MPTP-induced damage to DA neurons. We present evidence suggesting that this effect may be due to inhibition of DA and 1-methyl-4-phenylpridium (MPP+) uptake into striatal vesicles. PMID:14515357

  18. Is the treatment with psychostimulants in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder harmful for the dopaminergic system?

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Manfred; Grünblatt, Edna; Lange, Klaus W

    2013-06-01

    A major concern regarding psychostimulant medication (amphetamine and methylphenidate) in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the potential adverse effects to the developing brain, particularly in regard to dopaminergic brain function. The present review focuses on the pharmacology of these psychostimulants, their mode of action in the human brain and their potential neurotoxic effects to the developing brain in animals, particularly concerning DA brain function. The potential clinical significance of these findings for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents is discussed. Studies on sensitization to psychostimulants' rewarding effects, which is a process expected to increase the risk of substance abuse in humans, are not included. The available findings in non-human primates support the notion that the administration of amphetamine and methylphenidate with procedures simulating clinical treatment conditions does not lead to long-term adverse effects in regard to development, neurobiology or behaviour as related to the central dopaminergic system. PMID:23605387

  19. Evidence for a dopaminergic deficit in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on positron emission scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Snow, B.J.; Bhatt, M.H.; Peppard, R.; Eisen, A.; Calne, D.B. )

    1993-10-23

    Although rare, the chronic neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and idiopathic parkinsonism coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. This suggests that patients with ALS may have subclinical lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. To study this hypothesis, the authors did positron emission tomography with 6-fluorodopa on 16 patients with sporadic ALS and without extrapyramidal disease, and compared the results with age-matched controls. They found a significant progressive fall in 6-fluorodopa uptake with time since diagnosis, and reduced dopaminergic function in 3 patients with ALS of long duration. This supports the hypothesis that ALS and IP may share pathogenesis, and, perhaps, etiology.

  20. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, M; Ketabchi, M; Khakpai, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-01-29

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined in male mice. A one-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 μg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.5 μg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (1 μg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.25 and 0.5 μg/mouse) suppressed the learning of a single-trial passive avoidance task. Also, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold doses of SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed impairment of memory formation. However, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of SKF38393 (0.1 μg/mouse) or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) increased pre-training harmaline (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, SKF Ca blocker (SKF) (0.01 μg/mouse) decrease the amnesia induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg), while co-administration of SKF (0.01 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) or SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) potentiate amnesia caused by harmaline. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition. PMID:25446354

  1. The Association Between Genetic Variants in the Dopaminergic System and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lizhuo; Bao, Yijun; He, Songbai; Wang, Gang; Guan, Yanlei; Ma, Dexuan; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Zhang, Dewei; Liu, Qiwen; Wang, Yunjie; Yang, Jingyun

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex mental disorder and can severely interfere with the normal life of the affected people. Previous studies have examined the association of PTSD with genetic variants in multiple dopaminergic genes with inconsistent results. To perform a systematic literature search and conduct meta-analysis to examine whether genetic variants in the dopaminergic system is associated with PTSD. Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, and HuGE. Study eligibility criteria and participants: The studies included subjects who had been screened for the presence of PTSD; the studies provided data for genetic variants of genes involved in the dopaminergic system; the outcomes of interest included diagnosis status of PTSD; and the studies were case-control studies. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Odds ratio was used as a measure of association. We used random-effects model in all the meta-analyses. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I², and publication bias was evaluated using Egger test. Findings from meta-analyses were confirmed using random-effects meta-analyses under the framework of generalized linear model (GLM). A total of 19 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analyses. We found that rs1800497 in DRD2 was significantly associated with PTSD (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.15-3.33; P = 0.014). The 3'-UTR variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in SLC6A3 also showed significant association with PTSD (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.35; P = 0.010), but there was no association of rs4680 in COMT with PTSD (P = 0.595). Sample size is limited for some studies; type and severity of traumatic events varied across studies; we could not control for potential confounding factors, such as age at traumatic events and gender; and we could not examine gene-environment interaction due to lack of data. We found that rs1800497 in DRD2 and the VNTR in SLC6A3 showed significant

  2. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  3. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    González, Candela R; González, Betina; Matzkin, María E; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Vitullo, Alfredo D; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  4. Non-invasive evaluation of nigrostriatal neuropathology in a proteasome inhibitor rodent model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Predominantly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have focused on alterations in T2 water 1H relaxation or 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS), whilst potential morphological changes and their relationship to histological or behavioural outcomes have not been appropriately addressed. Therefore, in this study we have utilised MRI to scan in vivo brains from rodents bearing a nigrostriatal lesion induced by intranigral injection of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Results Lactacystin induced parkinsonian-like behaviour, characterised by impaired contralateral forelimb grip strength and increased contralateral circling in response to apomorphine. T2-weighted MRI, 3-weeks post-lesion, revealed significant morphological changes in PD-relevant brain areas, including the striatum and ventral midbrain in addition to a decrease in T2 water 1H relaxation in the substantia nigra (SN), but not the striatum. Post-mortem histological analyses revealed extensive dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and α-synuclein aggregation in the SN. However, extensive neuronal loss could also be observed in extra-nigral areas, suggesting non-specific toxicity of lactacystin. Iron accumulation could also be observed throughout the midbrain reflecting changes in T2. Importantly, morphological, but not T2 relaxivity changes, were significantly associated with both behavioural and histological outcomes in this model. Conclusions A pattern of morphological changes in lactacystin-lesioned animals has been identified, as well as alterations in nigral T2 relaxivity. The significant relationship of morphological changes with behavioural and histological outcomes in this model raises the possibility that these may be useful non-invasive surrogate markers of nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo. PMID:20051106

  5. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    PubMed

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months). PMID:25723020

  6. Effects of early and late neonatal bromocriptine treatment on hypothalamic neuropeptides, dopaminergic reward system and behavior of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janaine C; Lisboa, Patricia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Pinheiro, Cintia R; Fraga, Mabel C; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Franci, Celso R; Manhães, Alex C; Moura, Egberto G

    2016-06-14

    In humans, bromocriptine (BRO) is used as a treatment for many disorders, such as prolactinomas, even during pregnancy and lactation. Previously we demonstrated that maternal BRO treatment at the end of lactation programs offspring for obesity and several endocrine dysfunctions. Here, we studied the long-term effects of direct BRO injection in neonatal Wistar rats on their dopaminergic pathway, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at adulthood. Male pups were either s.c. injected with BRO (0.1μg/once daily) from postnatal day (PN) 1 to 10 or from PN11 to 20. Controls were injected with methanol-saline. Body mass, food intake, neuropeptides, dopamine pathway parameters, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were analyzed. The dopamine pathway was analyzed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS) at PN180. PN1-10 BRO-treated animals had normal body mass and adiposity but lower food intake and plasma prolactin (PRL). This group had higher POMC in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA, higher dopa decarboxylase (DDc), higher D2R and μu-opioid receptor in the NAc. Concerning behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM), BRO-treated animals displayed more anxiety-like behaviors. PN11-20 BRO-treated showed normal body mass and adiposity but higher food intake and plasma PRL. This group had lower POMC in the ARC, lower TH in the VTA and lower DAT in the NAc. BRO-treated animals showed less anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM. Thus, neonatal BRO injection, depending on the time of treatment, leads to different long-term dysfunctions in the dopaminergic reward system, food intake behavior and anxiety levels, findings that could be partially due to PRL and POMC changes. PMID:27038750

  7. The TaClo concept: 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo), a new toxin for dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, G; God, R; Feineis, D; Wesemann, W; Riederer, P; Rausch, W D; Reichmann, H; Sontag, K H

    1995-01-01

    Due to its structural analogy to the neurotoxin MPTP, "TaClo" (1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline), a compound readily originating in vitro from tryptamine ("Ta") and chloral ("Clo"), is discussed as a potential natural inducer of parkinsonian-like symptoms. Its spontaneous formation in man has to be taken into account after application of the drug chloral hydrate or after exposure to the solvent trichloroethylene. This first representative of chloral-derived heterocycles could now indeed be demonstrated to be formed in vivo after application of its putative precursors to rats. In vivo analysis of the nigrostriatal dopamine metabolism, behavioural studies, and histochemical findings as well as a strong inhibition of the complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain revealed the neurotoxic potential of TaClo on the dopaminergic system. PMID:8821060

  8. Activation of CNTF/CNTFRα signaling pathway by hRheb(S16H) transduction of dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Nam, Jin Han; Jin, Byung Kwan; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of representative neurotrophic factors for the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Its effects are primarily mediated via CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα). It is still unclear whether the levels of CNTFRα change in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but CNTF expression shows the remarkable decrease in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), suggesting that the support of CNTF/CNTFRα signaling pathway may be a useful neuroprotective strategy for the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain. Here, we report that transduction of rat SNpc dopaminergic neurons by adeno-associated virus with a gene encoding human ras homolog enriched in brain (hRheb), with an S16H mutation [hRheb(S16H)], significantly upregulated the levels of both CNTF and CNTFRα in dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the hRheb(S16H)-activated CNTF/CNTFRα signaling pathway was protective against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurotoxicity in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projections. These results suggest that activation of CNTF/CNTFRα signaling pathway by specific gene delivery such as hRheb(S16H) may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD. PMID:25799580

  9. Differential effects of selective lesions of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons on serotonin-type 1 receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, R.; Richard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-type1 receptor binding sites are discretely distributed in rat brain. High densities of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites are especially located in areas enriched with cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation, such as the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum, striatum, septal nuclei, hippocampus and substantia nigra. The possible association of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites with cholinergic or dopaminergic cell bodies and/or nerve fiber terminals was investigated by selective lesions of the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum-cortical and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection. (3H)5-HT1 receptor binding sites are possibly located on cholinergic cell bodies in the ventral pallidum-cortical pathway since (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia innominata/ventral pallidal area was markedly decreased following kainic acid lesions. Fimbriaectomies markedly decreased (3H)5-HT1 binding in the hippocampus, suggesting the presence of 5-HT1 binding sites on cholinergic nerve fiber terminals in the septohippocampal pathway. Lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection did not modify (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia nigra and the striatum, suggesting that 5-HT1 receptors are not closely associated with dopaminergic cell bodies and nerve terminals in this pathway. These results demonstrate differential association between 5-HT1 receptors and cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in rat brain.

  10. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  11. Targeting Wnt signaling at the neuroimmune interface for dopaminergic neuroprotection/repair in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    L’Episcopo, Francesca; Tirolo, Cataldo; Caniglia, Salvo; Testa, Nuccio; Morale, Maria Concetta; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pluchino, Stefano; Marchetti, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling cascade has emerged as an essential system regulating multiple processes in developing and adult brain. Accumulating evidence points to a dysregulation of Wnt signaling in major neurodegenerative pathologies including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and deregulated activation of astrocytes and microglia. This review highlights the emerging link between Wnt signaling and key inflammatory pathways during mDA neuron damage/repair in PD progression. In particular, we summarize recent evidence documenting that aging and neurotoxicant exposure strongly antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mDA neurons and subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroprogenitors via astrocyte–microglial interactions. Dysregulation of the crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways delineate novel mechanisms driving the decline of SVZ plasticity with age and the limited nigrostriatal dopaminergic self-repair in PD. These findings hold a promise in developing therapies that target Wnt/β-catenin signaling to enhance endogenous restoration and neuronal outcome in age-dependent diseases, such as PD. PMID:24431301

  12. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  13. Basal ganglia cholinergic and dopaminergic function in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Warren, Naomi M; Piggott, Margaret A; Greally, Elizabeth; Lake, Michelle; Lees, Andrew J; Burn, David J

    2007-08-15

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In contrast to Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), replacement therapy with dopaminergic and cholinergic agents in PSP has been disappointing. The neurochemical basis for this is unclear. Our objective was to measure dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors in the basal ganglia of PSP and control brains. We measured, autoradiographically, dopaminergic (dopamine transporter, 125I PE2I and dopamine D2 receptors, 125I epidepride) and cholinergic (nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors, 125I 5IA85380 and muscarinic M1 receptors, 3H pirenzepine) parameters in the striatum and pallidum of pathologically confirmed PSP cases (n=15) and controls (n=32). In PSP, there was a marked loss of dopamine transporter and nicotinic alpha4beta2 binding in the striatum and pallidum, consistent with loss of nigrostriatal neurones. Striatal D2 receptors were increased in the caudate and muscarinic M1 receptors were unchanged compared with controls. These results do not account for the poor response to dopaminergic and cholinergic replacement therapies in PSP, and suggest relative preservation of postsynaptic striatal projection neurones bearing D2/M1 receptors. PMID:17534953

  14. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  15. [Polygraphical sleep study on typical absence: relationship between the effect of sodium valproate and nigrostriatal function].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Itoh, M; Hayashi, M; Kohyama, J; Kumada, S; Iwakawa, Y

    1994-05-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of the effect of sodium valproate (VPA) on absence seizures, we performed sleep polygraph recordings in 10 patients with typical absence. VPA was effective in six cases (group A), partially effective in two (group B), and ineffective in two (group C). In 5 of 9 cases, the tonic sleep components were abnormal. In 4 cases, the percentage of slow wave sleep increased before administration of VPA, and did not change remarkably by its administration. In group A and B, twitch movements (TM), one of the phasic sleep components detected in the mentalis muscle on surface EMG, decreased or were unchanged after administration of VPA, especially during the REM period. In contrast, TM increased in group C. We speculate that the changes of TM (especially in the REM periods) after administration of VPA are well related to its effectiveness. Since TMs are thought to be controlled by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the different response of basal ganglia to VPA among cases with absence epilepsy would have some relation to the different effectiveness of VPA in controlling seizures. PMID:8185977

  16. Dopaminergic correlates of metabolic network activity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holtbernd, Florian; Ma, Yilong; Peng, Shichun; Schwartz, Frank; Timmermann, Lars; Kracht, Lutz; Fink, Gereon R; Tang, Chris C; Eidelberg, David; Eggers, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with distinct metabolic covariance patterns that relate to the motor and cognitive manifestations of the disorder. It is not known, however, how the expression of these patterns relates to measurements of nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity from the same individuals. To explore these associations, we studied 106 PD subjects who underwent cerebral PET with both (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (18) F-fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA). Expression values for the PD motor- and cognition-related metabolic patterns (PDRP and PDCP, respectively) were computed for each subject; these measures were correlated with FDOPA uptake on a voxel-by-voxel basis. To explore the relationship between dopaminergic function and local metabolic activity, caudate and putamen FDOPA PET signal was correlated voxel-wise with FDG uptake over the entire brain. PDRP expression correlated with FDOPA uptake in caudate and putamen (P < 0.001), while PDCP expression correlated with uptake in the anterior striatum (P < 0.001). While statistically significant, the correlations were only of modest size, accounting for less than 20% of the overall variation in these measures. After controlling for PDCP expression, PDRP correlations were significant only in the posterior putamen. Of note, voxel-wise correlations between caudate/putamen FDOPA uptake and whole-brain FDG uptake were significant almost exclusively in PDRP regions. Overall, the data indicate that PDRP and PDCP expression correlates significantly with PET indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning obtained in the same individuals. Even so, the modest size of these correlations suggests that in PD patients, individual differences in network activity cannot be explained solely by nigrostriatal dopamine loss. PMID:26037537

  17. The rat striatum responds to nigro-striatal degeneration via the increased expression of proteins associated with growth and regeneration of neuronal circuitry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is marked by degeneration of dopamine neurons projecting from the substantia nigra to the striatum. Although proteins expressed by the target striatum can positively affect the viability and growth of dopaminergic neurons, very little is known about the molecular response of the striatum as nigro-striatal denervation progresses. Here, iTRAQ labelling and MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry have been used to quantitatively compare the striatal proteome of rats before, during, and after 6-OHDA induced dopamine denervation. Results iTRAQ analysis revealed the differential expression of 50 proteins at 3 days, 26 proteins at 7 days, and 34 proteins at 14 days post-lesioning, compared to the unlesioned striatum. While the denervated striatum showed a reduced expression of proteins associated with the loss of dopaminergic input (e.g., TH and DARPP-32), there was an increased expression of proteins associated with regeneration and growth of neurites (e.g., GFAP). In particular, the expression of guanine deaminase (GDA, cypin) – a protein known to be involved in dendritic branching – was significantly increased in the striatum at 3, 7 and 14 days post-lesioning (a finding verified by immunohistochemistry). Conclusions Together, these findings provide evidence to suggest that the response of the normal mammalian striatum to nigro-striatal denervation includes the increased expression of proteins that may have the capacity to facilitate repair and growth of neuronal circuitry. PMID:24834013

  18. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson's disease model induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation. PMID:27619562

  19. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  20. Genes in the dopaminergic system and delinquent behaviors across the life course: the role of social controls and risks

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Menard, Scott; Roettger, Michael E.; Knight, Kelly E.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Smolen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors. PMID:25419014

  1. Genes in the dopaminergic system and delinquent behaviors across the life course: the role of social controls and risks.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Menard, Scott; Roettger, Michael E; Knight, Kelly E; Boutwell, Brian B; Smolen, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors. PMID:25419014

  2. The Effect of Exposure to Atrazine on Dopaminergic Development in Pubertal Male SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Shu; He, Xi; Ma, Kun; Wu, Yan-Ping; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Atrazine (ATR, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. A lack of strong evidence for genetic heritability of idiopathic Parkinson's disease has focused attention on environmental toxicants in the disease etiology, particularly agrichemicals. Parkinson's disease is associated with advanced age and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, but it is unclear whether specific neuronal damage could result from insults during development. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agent, therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 28-day exposure to ATR on the dopaminergic system in pubertal rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with ATR at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal days 27 to 54. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to ATR would disrupt the development of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The content of DA and levodopa (L-DA) were examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, orphan nuclear hormone receptor (Nurr1), Nurr1 interacting protein (NuIP), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of the Cip̲Kip family (p57kip2) were examined in samples of the nigrostriatum by use of fluorescence Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of ATR led to reduced levels of DA and L-DA, genes expression of NuIP, Nurr1, and p57kip2 in animals. PMID:26331294

  3. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894

  4. Repeated alcohol administration during adolescence causes changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems and promotes alcohol intake in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Maria; Boix, Jordi; Felipo, Vicente; Guerri, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period which the risk of drug and alcohol abuse increases. Since mesolimbic dopaminergic system undergoes developmental changes during adolescence, and this system is involved in rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, we addressed the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during juvenile/adolescent period over-activates mesolimbic dopaminergic system inducing adaptations which can trigger long-term enduring behavioural effects of alcohol abuse. We treated juvenile/adolescent or adult rats with ethanol (3 g/kg) for two-consecutive days at 48-h intervals over 14-day period. Here we show that intermittent ethanol treatment during the juvenile/adolescence period alters subsequent ethanol intake. In vivo microdialysis demonstrates that ethanol elicits a similar prolonged dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens of both adolescent and adult animals pre-treated with multiple doses of ethanol, although the basal dopamine levels were higher in ethanol-treated adolescents than in adult-treated animals. Repeated ethanol administration also down-regulates the expression of DRD2 and NMDAR2B phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex of adolescent animals, but not of adult rats. Finally, ethanol treatment during adolescence changes the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum, suggesting chromatin remodelling changes. In summary, our findings demonstrate the sensitivity of adolescent brain to ethanol effects on dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and suggest that abnormal plasticity in reward-related processes and epigenetic mechanisms could contribute to the vulnerability of adolescents to alcohol addiction. PMID:19077056

  5. Protective role of SIRT5 against motor deficit and dopaminergic degeneration in MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Peritore, Carina; Ginsberg, Jessica; Shih, Jennifer; Arun, Siddharth; Donmez, Gizem

    2015-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that results in motor deficits including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Despite decades of intensive study, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to neuronal death, which is the key feature of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria are pivotal organelles that host essential functions in neuronal viability including energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, calcium buffering, redox homeostasis and apoptosis. SIRT5, which localizes in the mitochondrial matrix, is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase. The physiological and pathophysiological functions of SIRT5 in vivo remain elusive although it is known to be an important energy sensor. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT5 in the pathogenesis of PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We present evidence that SIRT5 deficiency, by itself, does not affect motor and non-motor functions; however, lack of SIRT5 exacerbates MPTP-induced motor deficits. Consistently, MPTP-exposed SIRT5 knockout mice exhibited more severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration than that observed in wild-type controls. Furthermore, deletion of SIRT5 leads to a larger decrease, relative to control, in the expression level of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), a mitochondria-specific antioxidant enzyme, after MPTP induction. These findings indicate that SIRT5 ameliorates MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration via preserving mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. PMID:25541039

  6. Cystamine/cysteamine rescues the dopaminergic system and shows neurorestorative properties in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisbani, G; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Gibrat, C; Saint-Pierre, M; Lagacé, M; Badrinarayanan, S; Lavallée-Bourget, M H; Charest, J; Chabrat, A; Boivin, L; Lebel, M; Bousquet, M; Lévesque, M; Cicchetti, F

    2015-10-01

    The neuroprotective properties of cystamine identified in pre-clinical studies have fast-tracked this compound to clinical trials in Huntington's disease, showing tolerability and benefits on motor symptoms. We tested whether cystamine could have such properties in a Parkinson's disease murine model and now provide evidence that it can not only prevent the neurodegenerative process but also can reverse motor impairments created by a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion 3 weeks post-surgery. Importantly, we report that cystamine has neurorestorative properties 5 weeks post-lesion as seen on the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons which is comparable with treatments of cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine used in the clinic, as well as rasagiline, increasingly prescribed in early parkinsonism. All three compounds induced neurite arborization of the remaining dopaminergic cells which was further confirmed in ex vivo dopaminergic explants derived from Pitx3-GFP mice. The disease-modifying effects displayed by cystamine/cysteamine would encourage clinical testing. PMID:26232588

  7. Parkinson's disease-linked mutations in VPS35 induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsika, Elpida; Glauser, Liliane; Moser, Roger; Fiser, Aris; Daniel, Guillaume; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Lees, Andrew; Troncoso, Juan C; Lewis, Patrick A; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Schneider, Bernard L; Moore, Darren J

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 homolog (VPS35) gene at the PARK17 locus, encoding a key component of the retromer complex, were recently identified as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we explore the pathogenic consequences of PD-associated mutations in VPS35 using a number of model systems. VPS35 exhibits a broad neuronal distribution throughout the rodent brain, including within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In the human brain, VPS35 protein levels and distribution are similar in tissues from control and PD subjects, and VPS35 is not associated with Lewy body pathology. The common D620N missense mutation in VPS35 does not compromise its protein stability or localization to endosomal and lysosomal vesicles, or the vesicular sorting of the retromer cargo, sortilin, SorLA and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, in rodent primary neurons or patient-derived human fibroblasts. In yeast we show that PD-linked VPS35 mutations are functional and can normally complement VPS35 null phenotypes suggesting that they do not result in a loss-of-function. In rat primary cortical cultures the overexpression of human VPS35 induces neuronal cell death and increases neuronal vulnerability to PD-relevant cellular stress. In a novel viral-mediated gene transfer rat model, the expression of D620N VPS35 induces the marked degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and axonal pathology, a cardinal pathological hallmark of PD. Collectively, these studies establish that dominant VPS35 mutations lead to neurodegeneration in PD consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism, and support a key role for VPS35 in the development of PD. PMID:24740878

  8. When control fails: influence of the prefrontal but not striatal dopaminergic system on behavioural flexibility in a change detection task.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefanie; Arning, Larissa; Pinnow, Marlies; Wascher, Edmund; Epplen, Jörg T; Beste, Christian

    2012-02-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the neurobiological foundations of attention. To examine whether attentional processes in a change detection task are modulated by dopamine signalling, we investigated the influence of two polymorphisms, i.e. Val158Met (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR, rs28363170) in the dopamine transporter (DAT1). The COMT Met allele, which results in lower enzyme activity and therefore probably enhanced PFC dopamine signalling, was significantly associated with task-performance and modulated executive control: Homozygous Met/Met allele carriers had difficulties when performing a change detection task, particularly showing the greatest difficulties in case cognitive and behavioural flexibility was necessary and the required reaction was not part of the subject's primary task set. Contrary, no difference between the two genotype groups were evident, when an attentional conflict emerged and attentional control was needed for adequate responding. No association with variation in DAT1 was observed. The results indicate a dissociation of the prefrontal and striatal dopamine system for attentional control and behavioural flexibility in a change detection task: While prefrontal dopamine turnover seems to modulate performance, putatively via difficulties in set shifting leading to behavioural inflexibility in COMT Met allele carriers, striatal dopamine turnover seems less important in this regard. With respect to other studies examining mechanisms of attentional functions in different paradigms, the results suggest that behavioural flexibility and attentional control as two executive subprocesses are differentially influenced by genetic polymorphisms within the dopaminergic system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22067551

  9. Myricitrin Ameliorates 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the Substantia Nigra of Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Deok; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, resulting from the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. The cause of DA neuronal loss in PD is still unclear; however, accumulating evidence suggests that treatment with certain flavonoids can induce neuroprotective properties, such as activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models of PD. The bioflavonoid myricitrin is well known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it is unclear whether systemic treatment with myricitrin can protect neurons against neurotoxin-induced DA degeneration in vivo via the preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the induction of mTORC1 activation. Our results found no significant neuroprotective effect of 30 mg/kg myricitrin on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. However, myricitrin treatment with 60 mg/kg protected DA neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, myricitrin treatment preserved TH enzyme activity and mTORC1 activation in nigral DA neurons in the SN of 6-OHDA-treated mice, and its treatment suppressed an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α expression in activated microglia. These results suggest that myricitrin may have neuroprotective properties linked to mTORC1 activation, preservation of TH enzyme activity, and anti-neuroinflammation for preventing DA neuronal degeneration in vivo. PMID:26991235

  10. Ether-à-go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel expression in dopaminergic neurons of basal ganglia is modulated by 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, N R; Mitkovski, M; Stühmer, W; Pardo, L A; Del Bel, E A

    2012-04-01

    The ether à go-go (Eag) gene encodes the voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) ion channel Kv10.1, whose function still remains unknown. As dopamine may directly affect K(+) channels, we evaluated whether a nigrostriatal dopaminergic lesion induced by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) would alter Eag1-K(+) channel expression in the rat basal ganglia and related brain regions. Male Wistar rats received a microinjection of either saline or 6-OHDA (unilaterally) into the medial forebrain bundle. The extent of the dopaminergic lesion induced by 6-OHDA was evaluated by apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. The 6-OHDA microinjection caused a partial or complete lesion of dopaminergic cells, as well as a reduction of Eag1+ cells in a manner proportional to the extent of the lesion. In addition, we observed a decrease in TH immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral striatum. In conclusion, the expression of the Eag1-K(+)-channel throughout the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain, its co-localization with dopaminergic cells and its reduction mirroring the extent of the lesion highlight a physiological circuitry where the functional role of this channel can be investigated. The Eag1-K(+) channel expression in dopaminergic cells suggests that these channels are part of the diversified group of ion channels that generate and maintain the electrophysiological activity pattern of dopaminergic midbrain neurons. PMID:22048886

  11. Targeting the-Dopaminergic Nervous System: Altering Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish (Dania rerio) are becoming an important model system in studying the effects of environmental chemicals on behavior. In order to develop a rapid in vivo screen to prioritize toxic chemicals, we have begun assessing the acute locomotor effects of drugs that act on the do...

  12. Increased dopaminergic neuron sensitivity to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in transgenic mice expressing mutant A53T alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wai Haung; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Sziráki, István; Hashim, Audrey; Lafrancois, John; Sershen, Henry; Duff, Karen E

    2008-05-01

    Familial Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to point mutations and duplication of the alpha-synuclein gene and mutant alpha-synuclein expression increases the vulnerability of neurons to exogenous insults. In this study, we analyzed the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the olfactory bulb (OB), and nigrostriatal regions of transgenic mice expressing human, mutant A53T alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn tg) and their non-transgenic (ntg) littermates using a sub-toxic, moderate dose of MPTP to determine if mutant human alpha-synuclein sensitizes the central dopaminergic systems to oxidative stress. We observed that after a single, sub-lethal MPTP injection, dopamine levels were reduced in striatum and SN in both the alpha-syn tg and ntg mice. In the olfactory bulb, a region usually resistant to MPTP toxicity, levels were reduced only in the alpha-syn tg mice. In addition, we identified a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in the alpha-syn transgenic, but not ntg mice. Finally, MPTP treatment of alpha-syn tg mice was associated with a marked elevation in the oxidative product, 3-nitrotyrosine that co-migrated with alpha-synuclein. Cumulatively, the data support the hypothesis that mutant alpha-synuclein sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to neurotoxic insults and is associated with greater oxidative stress. The alpha-syn tg line is therefore useful to study the genetic and environmental inter-relationship in PD. PMID:17999181

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems on salient stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Laricchiuta, Daniela; Musella, Alessandra; Rossi, Silvia; Centonze, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Rewarding effects have been related to enhanced dopamine (DA) release in corticolimbic and basal ganglia structures. The DAergic and endocannabinoid interaction in the responses to reward is described. This study investigated the link between endocannabinoid and DAergic transmission in the processes that are related to response to two types of reward, palatable food and novelty. Mice treated with drugs acting on endocannabinoid system (ECS) (URB597, AM251) or DAergic system (haloperidol) were submitted to approach-avoidance conflict tasks with palatable food or novelty. In the same mice, the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1)-mediated GABAergic transmission in medium spiny neurons of the dorsomedial striatum was analyzed. The endocannabinoid potentiation by URB597 magnified approach behavior for reward (food and novelty) and in parallel inhibited dorsostriatal GABAergic neurotransmission. The decreased activity of CB1 receptor by AM251 (alone or with URB597) or of DAergic D2 receptor by haloperidol had inhibitory effects toward the reward and did not permit the inhibition of dorsostriatal GABAergic transmission. When haloperidol was coadministered with URB597, a restoration effect on reward and reward-dependent motor activity was observed, only if the reward was the palatable food. In parallel, the coadministration led to restoring inhibition of CB1-mediated GABAergic transmission. Thus, in the presence of simultaneous ECS activation and inhibition of DAergic system the response to reward appears to be a stimulus-dependent manner. PMID:24904335

  14. A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Bombi; Park, Hi-Joon; Olausson, Håkan; Enck, Paul; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems. PMID:26602173

  15. A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Bombi; Park, Hi-Joon; Olausson, Håkan; Enck, Paul; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems. PMID:26602173

  16. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure could modify the dopaminergic system in several limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, R; López-Doval, S; Pereiro, N; Lafuente, A

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most representative of a rising class of persistent organic pollutants perfluorochemicals. In the present study, its neurotoxicity was examined using adult male rats orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the dopamine concentration and its metabolism expressed like the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine and homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine were measured in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Gene and protein expression of the dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were also determined in these limbic areas. The obtained results suggest that: (1) PFOS can alter the dopamine system by modifying its neuronal activity and/or its D1 and D2 receptors in the studied brain regions; (2) the dopamine concentration and metabolism seem to be more sensitive against PFOS toxicity in the hippocampus than in the other analyzed brain areas; (3) the inhibited gene and protein expression of the D1 receptors induced by PFOS in the amygdala could be related to several changes in the HPA axis activity, and lastly; (4) the observed alterations on the dopamine system induced by PFOS could be a possible neurotoxicity mechanism of PFOS, leading to many neurological diseases. PMID:26529483

  17. Effects of Tityus serrulatus crude venom on the GABAergic and dopaminergic systems of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dorce, V A; Sandoval, M R

    1994-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of T. serrulatus scorpion venom on dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) concentrations in different regions of the brain. The ratio of homovanillic acid (HVA) to DA, and the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity were determined following intravenous or intracerebral venom injections. The increase in the HVA/DA ratio in the striatum after i.v. or intrastriatal injection could indicate an increase in DA turnover. One hour after i.v. injection of the venom GAD activity was shown to be decreased in the striatum and hypothalamus. After 24 hr GAD activity increased in the striatum and decreased in the hypothalamus and brain stem. These results could indicate different effects of the venom on the GABA system in different areas of the brain. After intrastriatal injection of the scorpion venom, the animals showed stereotyped behavior and rotation activity. Following intrahippocampal injection, myoclonus and orofacial automatisms, which constitute pro-convulsive signals, were observed. These behavioral alterations could be, at least in part, related to the GABA and dopamine alterations caused by the venom, since stereotypy, circling behavior and convulsions are dependent on dopamine and/or GABA. PMID:7725331

  18. Lateral habenula as a link between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems contributes to depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Bei Lin; Li, Ji Cheng; Yang, Ying Ying; Sun, Yan Fei; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons is a key pathological change of Parkinson's disease (PD), and its motor consequences have been widely recognized. Recently, mood disorders associated with PD have begun to attract a great deal of interest, however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. PD is associated with not only degenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra but also changes in serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. The abnormalities in central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. The lateral habenula (LHb) is closely related to the substantia nigra and raphe nuclei, and its hyperactivity is closely related to the pathogenesis of depression. In this study, we screened rats with depressive-like behaviors from PD model animals and found that cytochrome c oxidase activity in the LHb of these rats was twice that seen in the control rats. In the forced swim test, LHb lesions caused a decrease in depressive-like behavior of PD rats as indexed by decreased immobility times and increased climbing times. Additionally, LHb lesions caused an enhance in 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. These results suggest that LHb lesions may improve depressive-like behavior in PD rats by increasing 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. Thus, LHb contributes to the depressive-like behavior in PD rats via mediating the effects of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra on serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. PMID:25499570

  19. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  20. Effects of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial on the dopaminergic system of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Raftogianni, A; Stamatakis, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Kollia, A-M; Stylianopoulou, F

    2014-06-01

    The mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic pathway plays a pivotal role in the reward system. During the neonatal period the mother is the main source of rewarding stimuli. We have developed an experimental model in which rat pups learn a T-maze during the neonatal period (postnatal day (PND) 10-13) using contact with the mother as the reward. One group of animals is allowed contact with the mother (receipt of expected reward, RER) while the other was denied (denial of expected reward, DER). We determined the effects of these two early experiences in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (nAc), the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] by high-performance liquid chromatography and those of D1 and D2 receptors by autoradiographic in vitro binding both on PND 13 and in adulthood. On PND13, 2h after the end of training, the RER experience resulted in higher DA, HVA and D1 receptor levels in the nAc, while the DER in lower DA and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) in the PFC. These results could be related to the reward the RER pups received through the contact with their mother. The RER and DER early experience had long-term sex-dependent effects: The RER-induced activation of the dopaminergic system in the nAc was also evident in adult female rats. In contrast, adult DER males, similar to PND13 animals, had reduced dopamine in the PFC. Our results document that early experiences, a key determinant of adult brain function, affect the dopaminergic system which is disturbed in many psychiatric diseases. PMID:24680882

  1. Grooved Pegboard Test as a Biomarker of Nigrostriatal Denervation in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Constantine, Gregory M; Mathis, Chester A.; Moore, Robert Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recent pharmacotherapy trials in Parkinson' disease (PD) using dopaminergic neuroimaging as outcome parameter failed to show significant relationships between imaging and clinical results. One possible explanation is that there is a non-linear relationship between striatal denervation and motor performance reflecting a statistical "floor" effect in the imaging data with advanced disease. Both the motor manifestations and the striatal dopamine denervation of idiopathic PD, however, are typically asymmetric and more meaningful associations may be found by comparing data from the least denervated striatum with motor performance in the corresponding body side. PD patients (n=28) underwent [11C]β-CFT dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography (PET) and grooved pegboard testing. Voxel-based analysis of DAT PET and bimanual pegboard scores demonstrated significant correlation clusters within the bilateral striata (P<0.001). However, findings were most prominent in the least denervated striatum. There was a significant inverse correlation between pegboard scores of the least affected arm and DAT binding of the least denervated striatum (Rs = −0.69, P<0.0001) but no significant correlation between pegboard scores of the clinically most affected arm and DAT binding of the most denervated striatum (Rs = −0.15, ns). These data indicate that the robustness of the grooved pegboard test as a biomarker for nigrostriatal denervation in PD mainly reflects the relationship between test performance of the clinically least affected limb and the least denervated striatum. These findings indicate that there is both a statistical "floor" and "ceiling" effect for the most affected striatal and body sides that must be considered when employing imaging as an outcome measure in clinical trials in PD. PMID:17714864

  2. Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation alters food preference, anxiety-like behavior and the brain dopaminergic reward system in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Santos-Silva, A P; Lotufo, B M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-10-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is activated by drugs of abuse and palatable food, causing a sense of pleasure, which promotes further consumption of these substances. Children whose parents smoke are more vulnerable to present addictive-like behavior to drugs and food.We evaluated the association between maternal nicotine exposure during lactation with changes in feeding, behavior and in the dopaminergic reward system. On postnatal day (PN) 2,Wistar rat dams were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (N; 6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14 days. On PN150 and PN160, offspring were divided into 4 groups for a food challenge: N and C that received standard chow(SC); and N and C that could freely self-select (SSD) between high-fat and high-sugar diets (HFD and HSD, respectively). Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) arena on PN152–153. On PN170, offspring were euthanized for central dopaminergic analysis. SSD animals showed an increased food intake compared to SC ones and a preference for HFD. However, N-SSD animals consumed relatively more HSD than C-SSD ones. Regarding behavior, N animals showed an increase in the time spent in the EPM center and a reduction in relative activity in the OF center. N offspring presented lower dopamine receptor (D2R) and transporter (DAT) contents in the nucleus accumbens, and lower D2R in the arcuate nucleus. Postnatal exposure to nicotine increases preference for sugar and anxiety levels in the adult progeny possibly due to a decrease in dopaminergic action in the nucleus accumbens and arcuate nucleus. PMID:26048299

  3. Effects of dopaminergic system activation on feeding behavior and growth performance of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a self-feeding approach.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Conde-Siera, Marta; Míguez, Jesús Manuel; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine is synthesized from l-dopa and subsequently processed into norepinephrine and epinephrine. Any excess neurotransmitter can be taken up again by the neurons to be broken down enzymatically into DOPAC. The effect of dopamine on mammalian food intake is controversial. Mice unable to synthesize central dopamine die of starvation. However, studies have also shown that central injection of dopamine inhibits food intake. The effect of dopaminergic system in the fish feeding behavior has been scarcely explored. We report that the inclusion of l-dopa in the diets results in the activation of sea bass central dopaminergic system but also in the significant increase of the hypothalamic serotonin levels. Dietary l-dopa induces a decrease of food intake and feed conversion efficiency that drives a decline of all growth parameters tested. No behavioral effects were observed after l-dopa treatment. l-dopa treatment stimulated central expression of NPY and CRF. It suggests that CRF might mediate l-dopa effects on food intake but also that CRF neurons lie downstream of NPY neurons in the hierarchical forebrain system, thus controlling energy balance. Unexpectedly, dietary administration of haloperidol, a D2-receptor antagonist, cannot block dopamine effects but also induces a decline of the food intake. This decrease seems to be a side effect of haloperidol treatment since fish exhibited a decreased locomotor activity. We conclude that oral l-dopa inhibits sea bass food intake and growth. Mechanism could also involve an increase of hypothalamic serotoninergic tone. PMID:23747830

  4. α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulated by galantamine on nigrostriatal terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated rotational behavior.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Tooyama, Ikuo; Shimohama, Shun; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    significant effect on rotational behavior. These results suggest that galantamine can enhance striatal dopamine release through allosteric modulation of α4 nAChRs on nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. PMID:26911419

  5. Age-related changes in the renal dopaminergic system and expression of renal amino acid transporters in WKY and SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João; Silva, Elisabete; Simão, Sónia; Cabral, José Miguel; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Gomes, Pedro; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in renal dopaminergic activity and expression of amino acid transporters potentially involved in renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aging (from 13 to 91 weeks) was accompanied by increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both WKY and SHR. The sum of urinary dopamine and DOPAC and the urinary dopamine/l-DOPA ratio were increased in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. The urinary dopamine/renal delivery of l-DOPA ratio was increased in both rat strains with aging. LAT2 abundance was increased in aged WKY and SHR. The expression of 4F2hc was markedly elevated in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. ASCT2 was upregulated in both aged WKY and SHR. Plasma aldosterone levels and urinary noradrenaline levels were increased in aged WKY and SHR though levels of both entities were more elevated in aged SHR. Activation of the renal dopaminergic system is more pronounced in aged SHR than in aged WKY and is associated with an upregulation of renal cortical ASCT2 in WKY and of LAT2/4F2hc and ASCT2 in SHR. This activation may be the consequence of a counter-regulatory mechanism for stimuli leading to sodium reabsorption. PMID:21699911

  6. The role of growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) in the induction and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurones: relevance to Parkinson's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2005-09-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which has potent effects on dopaminergic neurones in vitro and in vivo. GDF5 is under investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurones projecting from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. In the rat ventral mesencephalon (VM; the developing SN), GDF5 expression peaks at embryonic day 14, the time at which dopaminergic neurones undergo terminal differentiation. Addition of GDF5 protein to cultures of embryonic rat VM increases the survival and improves the morphology of dopaminergic neurones in these cultures. GDF5 treatment also increases the number of cells which adopt a dopaminergic phenotype in cultures of VM progenitor cells. Intracerebral administration of GDF5 has potent neuroprotective and restorative effects on the nigrostriatal pathway in animal models of PD. Furthermore, addition of GDF5 protein to embryonic rat dopaminergic neuronal transplants improves their survival and function in a rat model of PD. Thus, GDF5 has potential applications to PD therapy as a dopaminergic neuroprotective agent and as a factor that may induce a dopaminergic neuronal fate in unrestricted progenitor cells. PMID:16185246

  7. Adjunctive use of the non-ionic surfactant Poloxamer 188 improves fetal dopaminergic cell survival and reinnervation in a neural transplantation strategy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M; Mukhida, K; Sadi, D; Hong, M; Mendez, I

    2008-01-01

    Although neural transplantation of fetal dopaminergic cells is a promising therapy for Parkinson's disease, poor transplanted cell survival limits its efficacy. In the present study it was hypothesized that the use of Poloxamer 188 (P188), a non-ionic surfactant, during cell preparation and transplantation may protect cells from associated mechanical injury and thus improve transplanted cell survival in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Fetal rat dopaminergic tissue was dissociated in media with or without P188 and then cultured for 1 week or transplanted into the striatum of rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Fetal dopaminergic cell survival and reinnervation of the host brain were examined using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and stereological quantification. The number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in vitro and in vivo was significantly increased by 2.2-fold by incubating fetal dopaminergic cells with P188 during tissue dissociation. Furthermore, the striatal reinnervation in parkinsonian rats that received intrastriatal transplants of P188-exposed dopaminergic cells was significantly enhanced (1.8-fold increase) compared with rats that received non-P188-treated cells. In conclusion, P188 protects fetal dopaminergic cells from mechanical injury by increasing cell survival and enhances dopaminergic fibre outgrowth into the transplanted striatum. Use of P188 may thus be an important adjunct to improve the clinical efficacy of neural transplantation for Parkinson's disease. PMID:18093176

  8. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  9. Proclivity to self-injurious behavior in MRL-lpr mice: implications for autoimmunity-induced damage in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Chun, S; McEvilly, R; Foster, J A; Sakic, B

    2008-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is frequently accompanied by psychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. Although damage of central neurons had been documented, little is known about neurotransmitter systems affected by the autoimmune/inflammatory process. Recent studies on lupus-prone MRL-lpr mice point to imbalanced dopamine function and neurodegeneration in dopamine-rich brain regions. We follow up on anecdotal observations of singly housed mice developing chest wounds. Compulsive grooming and/or skin biting accounted for open lesions, lending itself to the operational term 'self-injurious behavior' (SIB). Low incidence of spontaneous SIB increased significantly after repeated injections of dopamine-2/3 receptor (D2/D3R) agonist quinpirole (QNP). To further probe the dopaminergic circuitry and examine whether SIB is associated with development of lupus-like disease, we compared behavioral responses among cohorts that differed in the immune status. Two-week treatment with QNP (intraperitoneal, 0.5 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) induced SIB in 60% of diseased MRL-lpr mice, and exacerbated their splenomegaly. Although increased grooming and stereotypy were observed in less symptomatic MRL+/+ controls, only one mouse (10%) developed SIB. Similarly, SIB was not seen in young, asymptomatic groups despite dissimilar ambulatory responses to QNP. In situ hybridization revealed treatment-independent upregulation of D2R mRNA in substantia nigra of diseased MRL-lpr mice. The above results suggest that development of systemic autoimmunity alters sensitivity of the dopaminergic system and renders MRL-lpr mice prone to SIB. Although pathogenic factors were not examined, we hypothesize that immune and endocrine mechanisms jointly contribute to early neuronal damage, which underlies behavioral deficiency in the adulthood. PMID:17768421

  10. Lanosterol induces mitochondrial uncoupling and protects dopaminergic neurons from cell death in a model for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, L; Jackson-Lewis, V; Wong, L C; Shui, G H; Goh, A X H; Kesavapany, S; Jenner, A M; Fivaz, M; Przedborski, S; Wenk, M R

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Several lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to its etiology. Other studies have suggested that alterations in sterol homeostasis correlate with increased risk for PD. Whether these observations are functionally related is, however, unknown. In this study, we used a toxin-induced mouse model of PD and measured levels of nine sterol intermediates. We found that lanosterol is significantly (∼50%) and specifically reduced in the nigrostriatal regions of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice, indicative of altered lanosterol metabolism during PD pathogenesis. Remarkably, exogenous addition of lanosterol rescued dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell death in culture. Furthermore, we observed a marked redistribution of lanosterol synthase from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in dopaminergic neurons exposed to MPP+, suggesting that lanosterol might exert its survival effect by regulating mitochondrial function. Consistent with this model, we find that lanosterol induces mild depolarization of mitochondria and promotes autophagy. Collectively, our results highlight a novel sterol-based neuroprotective mechanism with direct relevance to PD. PMID:21818119

  11. Behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes induced by chronic crack-cocaine inhalation in mice: The role of dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Areal, Lorena B; Rodrigues, Livia C M; Andrich, Filipe; Moraes, Livia S; Cicilini, Maria A; Mendonça, Josideia B; Pelição, Fabricio S; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester M; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita G W

    2015-09-01

    Crack-cocaine addiction has increasingly become a public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, no studies have focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying the severe addiction produced by this drug, which seems to differ from powder cocaine in many aspects. This study investigated behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes in mice inhaling crack-cocaine, focusing on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex. Mice were submitted to two inhalation sessions of crack-cocaine a day (crack-cocaine group) during 11 days, meanwhile the control group had no access to the drug. We found that the crack-cocaine group exhibited hyperlocomotion and a peculiar jumping behaviour ("escape jumping"). Blood collected right after the last inhalation session revealed that the anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), a specific metabolite of cocaine pyrolysis, was much more concentrated than cocaine itself in the crack-cocaine group. Most genes related to the endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptor and cannabinoid degradation enzymes were downregulated after 11-day crack-cocaine exposition. These changes may have decreased dopamine and its metabolites levels, which in turn may be related with the extreme upregulation of dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase observed in the prefrontal cortex of these animals. Our data suggest that after 11 days of crack-cocaine exposure, neuroadaptive changes towards downregulation of reinforcing mechanisms may have taken place as a result of neurochemical changes observed on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems. Successive changes like these have never been described in cocaine hydrochloride models before, probably because AEME is only produced by cocaine pyrolysis and this metabolite may underlie the more aggressive pattern of addiction induced by crack-cocaine. PMID:25940765

  12. Not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system involved in albiflorin against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Hou, Xintong; Hu, Xinyu; Lu, Chengyu; Liu, Chungang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Wei; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di

    2015-12-01

    Albiflorin (AF), separated from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, possesses neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on previous results, our present research aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of AF in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. Eight weeks of CUMS process successfully established depression-like rat model, as evidenced by the enhanced immobility time in forced swimming test and the reduced sucrose preference, which were reversed to near normal by AF (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (3 mg/kg; positive drug) treated. Compared to non-treated depression-like rats, the increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HTAA) in serum and hypothalamus, and the reduced expressions of 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor in hypothalamus were observed after AF and fluoxetine oral administration indicating that AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect may be related to the normalization of serotonergic system. Additionally, four-week AF treated rats significantly showed improvement in the reduced dopamine and noradrenalin concentration in serum and hypothalamus as observed on depression-like rats. Altered levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter in hypothalamus reverted to the normal level after treatment with both AF and fluoxetine. All these data demonstrate that not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system is involved in AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect in CUMS-induced rat model of depression. PMID:26475043

  13. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life

  14. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C.; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life

  15. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. PMID:27225351

  16. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Preserves Dopaminergic Neurons in Cellular and Rodent Models of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Redondo, Miriam; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Perez, Concepción; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase 7 plays a major role in down-regulation of protein kinase A activity by hydrolyzing cAMP in many cell types. This cyclic nucleotide plays a key role in signal transduction in a wide variety of cellular responses. In the brain, cAMP has been implicated in learning, memory processes and other brain functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show a novel function of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal death. We found that S14, a heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 7, conferred significant neuronal protection against different insults both in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y and in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. S14 treatment also reduced microglial activation, protected dopaminergic neurons and improved motor function in the lipopolysaccharide rat model of Parkinson disease. Finally, S14 neuroprotective effects were reversed by blocking the cAMP signaling pathways that operate through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition can protect dopaminergic neurons against different insults, and they provide support for the therapeutic potential of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson disease. PMID:21390306

  17. Neuroprotective potential of pleiotrophin overexpression in the striatonigral pathway compared with overexpression in both the striatonigral and nigrostriatal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gombash, SE; Manfredsson, FP; Mandel, RJ; Collier, TJ; Fischer, DL; Kemp, CJ; Kuhn, NM; Wohlgenant, SL; Fleming, SM; Sortwell, CE

    2015-01-01

    Intrastriatal injection of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2/1 (rAAV2/1) to overexpress the neurotrophic factor pleiotrophin (PTN) provides neuroprotection for tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), increases THir neurite density in the striatum (ST) and reverses functional deficits in forepaw use following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxic insult. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene transfer studies suggest that optimal neuroprotection is dependent on the site of nigrostriatal overexpression. The present study was conducted to determine whether enhanced neuroprotection could be accomplished via simultaneous rAAV2/1 PTN injections into the ST and SN compared with ST injections alone. Rats were unilaterally injected in the ST alone or injected in both the ST and SN with rAAV2/1 expressing either PTN or control vector. Four weeks later, all rats received intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA. Rats were euthanized 6 or 16 weeks relative to 6-OHDA injection. A novel selective total enumeration method to estimate nigral THir neuron survival was validated to maintain the accuracy of stereological assessment. Long-term nigrostriatal neuroprotection and functional benefits were only observed in rats in which rAAV2/1 PTN was injected into the ST alone. Results suggest that superior preservation of the nigrostriatal system is provided by PTN overexpression delivered to the ST and restricted to the ST and SN pars reticulata and is not improved with overexpression of PTN within SNpc neurons. PMID:24807806

  18. Differential involvement of brainstem noradrenergic and midbrain dopaminergic nuclei in cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Stefanie; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the parietal cortex, and the thalamus are central cortical nodes in a network underlying cognitive control. However, the role of catecholamine producing midbrain and brainstem structures has rarely been addressed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized differential activation patterns in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)/substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC) with respect to the degree of cognitive control during a Stroop task in healthy subjects. Forty-five healthy subjects were investigated by the manual version of the Stroop task in an event-related fMRI design. We observed significant BOLD activation of both the SN/VTA and LC during the Stroop interference condition (incongruent vs. congruent condition). LC, but not SN/VTA activation significantly correlated with the Stroop interference. Interestingly, a significant linear decrease in BOLD activation during the incongruent condition during the experiment was mainly observed in the fronto-cingulo-striatal network, but not in SN/VTA and LC. Using psychophysiological (PPI) analyses, a significant functional connectivity during cognitive control was observed between SN/VTA and the nigrostriatal/mesolimbic dopaminergic system. For the LC, distinct functional connectivity pattern was observed mainly to the dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC. Both regions revealed significant functional connectivity to the dACC, parietal and occipital regions. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that functional activation patterns in the SN/VTA and the LC are modulated by different demands of cognitive control. In addition, these nuclei exhibit distinguishable functional connectivity patterns to cortical brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2305-2318, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970351

  19. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  20. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP(+)-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in

  1. Chronic Amitriptyline Treatment Attenuates Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Significantly Alters Trophic Support in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Paumier, Katrina L; Sortwell, Caryl E; Madhavan, Lalitha; Terpstra, Brian; Celano, Stephanie L; Green, Joshua J; Imus, Nastassja M; Marckini, Nathan; Daley, Brian; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Collier, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    In addition to alleviating depression, long-term adaptive changes induced by antidepressants may regulate neural plasticity in the diseased brain, providing symptomatic and disease-modifying effects in Parkinson's disease. The present study investigated whether chronic treatment with a frequently prescribed tricyclic antidepressant was neuroprotective in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of parkinsonism. In lesioned animals, chronic amitriptyline (AMI; 5 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a significant sparing of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) compared with saline treatment. Additionally, striatal fibers were preserved and functional motor deficits were attenuated. Although 6-OHDA lesions did not induce anhedonia in our model, the dose of AMI utilized had antidepressant activity as demonstrated by reduced immobility. Recent in vitro and in vivo data provide evidence that trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may be key mediators of the therapeutic response to antidepressants. Therefore, we investigated whether AMI mediates changes in these specific trophic factors in the intact and degenerating nigrostriatal system. Chronic AMI treatment mediates an increase in nigral BDNF both before and during ongoing degeneration, suggesting it may contribute to neuroprotection observed in vivo. However, over time, AMI reduced BDNF levels in the striatum, indicating tricyclic therapy differentially regulates trophic factors within the nigrostriatal system. Combined, these results suggest that AMI treatment attenuates dopamine neuron loss and elicits significant trophic changes relevant to dopamine neuron survival. PMID:25267343

  2. SPECT brain imaging of the dopaminergic system in Parkinsonism using {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc labeled agents

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yong

    2004-12-01

    SPECT brain imaging of the dopaminergic system using {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc labeled agents, especially the simultaneous imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons, promises to provide accurate diagnosis and differentiation of Parkinsonism. However, there are many degrading factors that affect the quality and quantitative accuracy of the SPECT images. These degrading factors limit the potential clinical applications of brain SPECT imaging. In this work, we studied these degrading factors by developing and validating a Monte Carlo (MC) method that provides accurate SPECT simulation with detailed modeling of the photon interactions inside the collimator detector system. To compensate for the partial volume effect (PVE) in the SPECT images caused by finite spatial resolution, we developed a new PVE compensation method that takes into account the effects of nonlinearity in iterative reconstruction-based compensation for image degrading factors, including attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response. Compensation using the new method greatly improved the quantitative accuracy of brain SPECT images. We have also developed model-based method that can accurately estimate the downscatter and crosstalk contamination in the {sup 123}I imaging and the simultaneous {sup 123}I/{sup 99m}Tc dual-isotope imaging. Based on the model-based method, two different approaches to model-based downscatter and crosstalk contamination compensation were proposed. Both methods are based on iterative reconstruction and include compensation for other imaging degrading factors. The model-based downscatter and crosstalk compensation method provided greatly improved accuracy of activity estimates with little effect on the precision. Finally, optimization of energy windows for simultaneous {sup 123}I/{sup 99m}Tc acquisition was performed to find the energy windows with the best trade-off between minimizing the crosstalk and maximizing the detection efficiency for simultaneous

  3. The dopaminergic system in upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) investigated during bimanual coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt J N; Almeida, Quincy J; Rahimi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) (inability to initiate or sudden discontinue in voluntary movements) have been identified in both unimanual and bimanual tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, ULMB have been observed during rhythmic bimanual coordination when switching between phase patterns which is required (e.g. between in-phase and anti-phase). While sensory-perceptual mechanisms have recently been suggested to be involved in lower limb freezing, there has been no consensus on the mechanism that evokes ULMB or whether motor blocks respond to dopamine replacement like other motor symptoms of PD. The current study investigated the occurrence of ULMB in PD participants without ('off') and with ('on') dopamine replacement using bimanual wrist flexion-extension with external auditory cues. In Experiment 1, coordination was performed in either in-phase (simultaneous flexion and extension) or anti-phase (asymmetrical flexion and extension between the limbs) in one of three sensory conditions: no vision, normal vision or augmented vision. Cycle frequency was increased within each trial across seven cycle frequencies (0.75-2 Hz). In Experiment 2, coordination was initiated in either phase pattern and participants were cued to make an intentional switch between phases in the middle of trials. Trials were performed at one of two cycle frequencies (1 or 2 Hz) and one of two sensory conditions: no vision or normal vision. Healthy age-matched control participants were also investigated in both experiments for the occurrence of motor blocks that were measured using automated detection from a computer algorithm. The results from Experiment 1 indicated that increasing cycle frequency resulted in more ULMB in individuals with PD during continuous coordinated movement, regardless of dopaminergic status, phase pattern or sensory condition. Experiment 2 also confirmed an increased occurrence of ULMB with increased cycle frequency. Furthermore, a large

  4. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016. PMID:26539755

  5. Dietary administration of diquat for 13 weeks does not result in a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Minnema, Daniel J; Travis, Kim Z; Breckenridge, Charles B; Sturgess, Nicholas C; Butt, Mark; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Zadory, Dan; Herberth, Mark T; Watson, Scott L; Cook, Andrew R; Botham, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    Male and female C57BL/6J mice were administered diquat dibromide (DQ∙Br2) in their diets at concentrations of 0 (control), 12.5 and 62.5 ppm for 13 weeks to assess the potential effects of DQ on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Achieved dose levels at 62.5 ppm were 6.4 and 7.6 mg DQ (ion)/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively. A separate group of mice was administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ip as a positive control. The comparative effects of DQ and MPTP on the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and/or striatum were assessed using neurochemical, neuropathological and stereological endpoints. Morphological and stereological assessments were performed by investigators who were "blinded" to dose group. DQ had no effect on striatal dopamine concentration or dopamine turnover. There was no evidence of neuronal degeneration, astrocytic or microglial activation, or a reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) neurons in the SNpc or neuronal processes in the striatum of DQ-treated mice. These results are consistent with the rapid clearance of DQ from the brain following a single dose of radiolabeled DQ. In contrast, MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased striatal dopamine concentration, reduced numbers of TH(+) neurons in the SNpc, and neuropathological changes, including neuronal necrosis, as well as astrocytic and microglial activation in the striatum and SNpc. PMID:26683030

  6. Bridging nigrostriatal pathway with fibroblast growth factor-primed peripheral nerves and fetal ventral mesencephalon transplant recuperates from deficits in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Zhou, Feng C

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway can be reconstructed in hemiparkinsonian rats with a bridge transplantation technique involving fetal ventral mesencephalic transplants and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. In this study, we examined if the nigrostriatal pathway can be restored by combining peripheral nervous tissue with the fetal ventral mesencephalon transplants. Adult rats were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into left median forebrain bundle. Those with marked rotational behavior, which has been previously shown to indicate complete DA dennervtion, were used for transplant treatments. One month after the lesion, fetal ventral mesencephalic cells were transplanted into the nigral region followed by nigral-striatal grafting of peripheral nerves as a bridge. The bridging nerves (sciatic or intercostals) were pretreated with basic fibrous growth factor (nerve+bFGF+) or Hank's saline (nerve+bFGF-). We found that (a) animals receiving transplants of VM and bFGF+ nerve had a reduction in rotational behavior; (b) animals receiving bFGF-- nerve bridge only had a partial improvement in rotation. Reinnervation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) fibers into the striatum was found in both of the above groups with more innervation in the former than in the latter. No TH-ir fibers in lesioned striatum or reduction in rotational behavior were found in animals receiving VM only, or VM plus bFGF. Taken together, our data indicate that peripheral nerve, with the aid of bFGF, greatly facilitates the reconstitution of the TH pathway from nigra to striatum and improves motor function in hemiparkinsonian rats. PMID:17121158

  7. [Psychopathological correlates of dopaminergic dysfunction in alcoholic and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that anhedonia, the loss of pleasure, is associated with a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. In a series of neuroendocrinological and brain imaging studies, we examined pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotransmission in non-human primates and in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. Among alcoholics, we found indicators of a sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which was associated with the relapse risk, but not with anhedonia or depression. Schizophrenics with neuroleptic blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors displayed psychomotor slowing and reduced motivation, but not anhedonia. Primate studies pointed to the importance of a temporocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of phasic dopaminergic dysregulation in the striatum. These observations indicate that a dysfunction of stimulus-dependent dopamine release may be associated with motivational deficits caused by a reduction in incentive salience, but not with anhedonia. PMID:10407835

  8. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone, a key neuronal modulator of locomotion, stimulates upstream migration by means of the dopaminergic system in salmon

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Suzuki, Yuko; Hyung Chang, Joon; Koyama, Teppei; Sato, Miku; Mita, Masatoshi; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Salmon migrate upstream against an opposing current in their natal river. However, the molecular mechanisms that stimulate upstream migratory behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), a newly identified neuronal modulator of locomotion, acts as a key factor for upstream migration in salmon. We first identified 7α-OH PREG and cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase (P4507α), a steroidogenic enzyme producing 7α-OH PREG, in the salmon brain and then found that 7α-OH PREG synthesis in the brain increases during upstream migration. Subsequently, we demonstrated that 7α-OH PREG increases upstream migratory behavior of salmon. We further found that 7α-OH PREG acts on dopamine neurons in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus during upstream migration. Thus, 7α-OH PREG stimulates upstream migratory behavior through the dopaminergic system in salmon. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of fish upstream migration. PMID:26220247

  9. Silibinin prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease via mitochondrial stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujeong; Park, Hee Ra; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The lipophile 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can cross the blood-brain barrier and is subsequently metabolized into toxic1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+) ), which causes mitochondrial dysfunction and the selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons. The present article reports the neuroprotective effects of silibinin in a murine MPTP model of PD. The flavonoid silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and is known to have hepatoprotective, anticancer, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, silibinin effectively attenuated motor deficit and dopaminergic neuronal loss caused by MPTP. Furthermore, in vitro study confirmed that silibinin protects primary cultured neurons against MPP(+) -induced cell death and mitochondrial membrane disruption. The findings of the present study indicate that silibinin has neuroprotective effects in MPTP-induced models of PD rather than antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effects and that the neuroprotection afforded might be mediated by the stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, these findings suggest that silibinin protects mitochondria in MPTP-induced PD models and that it offers a starting point for the development of treatments that ameliorate the symptoms of PD. PMID:25677261

  10. Reconstruction of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lachlan H; Grealish, Shane; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    Transplants of fetal dopamine neurons can be used to restore dopamine neurotransmission in animal models of Parkinson's disease, as well as in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. In these studies the cells are placed in the striatum rather than in the substantia nigra where they normally reside, which may limit their ability to achieve full restoration of motor function. Using a microtransplantation approach, which allows precise placement of small cell deposits directly into the host substantia nigra, and fetal donor cells that express green fluorescent protein under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, we show that dopamine neuroblasts implanted into the substantia nigra of adult mice are capable of generating a new nigrostriatal pathway with an outgrowth pattern that matches the anatomy of the intrinsic system. This target-directed regrowth was closely aligned with the intrinsic striatonigral fibre projection and further enhanced by over-expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatal target. Results from testing of amphetamine-induced rotational behaviour suggest, moreover, that dopamine neurons implanted into the substantia nigra are also capable of integrating into the host circuitry at the functional level. PMID:19674082

  11. Functional Reorganization of the Presynaptic Dopaminergic Terminal in Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Brian P.; Sanberg, Stefan G.; Andersson, Magnus; Mithyantha, Jahnavi; Carroll, F. Ivy; Garris, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Whether dopamine release is compensated during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease is controversial. Here we use in vivo voltammetry in the parkinsonian rat and an electrical stimulation protocol established to fatigue nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to investigate the plasticity of dopamine release mechanisms. Amplitudes of evoked voltammetric signals recorded in intact rat striata decreased with repetitive, high-frequency stimulation (60 Hz, every 5 min. / 60 min.). Strikingly, dopamine levels were maintained during an identical “fatiguing” protocol in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (<40% denervation) striata in the absence of enhanced dopamine synthesis. In contrast, more severely lesioned striata (>55% denervation) also appeared to sustain DA release, however, this was demonstrated in the presence of enhanced synthesis. Sustained release was replicated in intact animals after irreversible blockade of the dopamine transporter via RTI-76, implicating neuronal uptake as a trigger. We further demonstrate through kinetic analysis that lesions and compromised uptake target a “long-term” (time constant of minutes) presynaptic depression, which underlies the maintenance of release. Taken together, our findings identify a denervation-induced maintenance of dopamine release that was independent of activated synthesis and driven by altered uptake. This novel neuroadaptation may contribute to early preclinical normalization of function and help resolve discrepant findings regarding compensatory changes in dopamine release during progression of the parkinsonian state. PMID:21787843

  12. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders H; Smith, Charles D; Slevin, John T; Kryscio, Richard J; Martin, Catherine A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Blonder, Lee X

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD) patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD) patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women) and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women). Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN). DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients. PMID:26793404

  13. Dopaminergic neurotoxins require excitotoxic stimulation in organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Kress, Geraldine J; Reynolds, Ian J

    2005-12-01

    We have investigated the properties of the dopaminergic neurotoxins 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and rotenone using an organotypic culture that included slices of substantia nigra, striatum and cortex maintained for about 20 days in vitro. At this age, the organotypic culture contains dopaminergic neurons, visualized using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, that project into the striatal slice and extend up to 1 mm into the cortical slice. Using TH immunohistochemistry to assess survival of dopaminergic neurons, we found that the three dopaminergic toxins alone were not selectively neurotoxic. However, the addition of a low concentration of N-methyl-d-aspartate together with each individual toxin resulted in profound injury to the dopaminergic neurons, reflected by the loss of cell bodies and the fragmentation of processes. The combined toxicity was completely blocked by MK801. To assess the specificity of the injury, we measured the diameter of cell nuclei in the organotypic culture stained with Hoechst 33342 because the nucleus shrinks when neurons are injured. These measurements showed that the combined toxin treatment selectively injured only the TH immunoreactive cells. Thus, in a model culture system where dopaminergic neurons innervate appropriate targets, excitotoxicity appears to be essential for the manifestation of the toxic actions of 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and rotenone. PMID:15996475

  14. Discovery of nigral dopaminergic neurogenesis in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brad E.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. As a result, intensive efforts have focused upon mechanisms that facilitate the death of mature dopaminergic neurons. Unfortunately, these efforts have been unsuccessful in providing an effective treatment to address neurodegeneration in this disease. Therefore, alternative theories of pathogenesis are being explored. Adult neurogenesis of dopaminergic neurons is an attractive concept that would provide a possible mechanism of neurodegeneration as well as offer an endogenous means to replenish affected neurons. To determine whether dopaminergic neurons experience neurogenesis in adult mice we developed a novel cell lineage tracing model that permitted detection of neurogenesis without many of the issues associated with popular techniques. Remarkably, we discovered that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by Nestin+/Sox2- progenitor cells. What's more, the rate of neurogenesis is similar to the rate of dopaminergic neuron loss reported using a chronic, systemic inflammatory response mouse model. This observation may indicate that neuron loss in Parkinson's disease results from inhibition of neurogenesis. PMID:27482200

  15. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anders H.; Smith, Charles D.; Slevin, John T.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Martin, Catherine A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Blonder, Lee X.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD) patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD) patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women) and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women). Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN). DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients. PMID:26793404

  16. Dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells from human deciduous teeth and their therapeutic benefits for Parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiromi; Matsubara, Kohki; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ito, Mikako; Ohno, Kinji; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and the depletion of striatal dopamine. Here we show that DAergic-neuron-like cells could be efficiently induced from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), and that these induced cells had therapeutic benefits in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat model. In our protocol, EGF and bFGF signaling activated the SHED's expression of proneural genes, Ngn2 and Mash1, and subsequent treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted their maturation into DAergic neuron-like SHEDs (dSHEDs). A hypoxic DAergic differentiation protocol improved cell viability and enhanced the expression of multiple neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and HGF. Engrafted dSHEDs survived in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats, improved the DA level more efficiently than engrafted undifferentiated SHEDs, and promoted the recovery from neurological deficits. Our findings further suggested that paracrine effects of dSHEDs contributed to neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration and to nigrostriatal tract restoration. In addition, we found that the conditioned medium derived from dSHEDs protected primary neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and accelerated neurite outgrowth in vitro. Thus, our data suggest that stem cells derived from dental pulp may have therapeutic benefits for PD. PMID:25863132

  17. Metalloproteinase-9 contributes to inflammatory glia activation and nigro-striatal pathway degeneration in both mouse and monkey models of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Annese, V; Herrero, María-Trinidad; Di Pentima, M; Gomez, A; Lombardi, L; Ros, C M; De Pablos, V; Fernandez-Villalba, E; De Stefano, Maria Egle

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a predominant aspect of neurodegenerative diseases, manifested by glia activation and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Studies on animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggest that sustained neuroinflammation exacerbates degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) nigro-striatal pathway. Therefore, insights into the inflammatory mechanisms of PD may help the development of novel therapeutic strategies against this disease. As extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) could be major players in the progression of Parkinsonism, we investigated, in the substantia nigra and striatum of mice acutely injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), changes in mRNA expression, protein levels, and cell localization of MMP-9. This protease is mainly neuronal, but early after MPTP injection its mRNA and protein levels, as well as the number of MMP-9-expressing microglia and astrocytes, increase concomitantly to a prominent inflammation. Neuroinflammation and MMP-9(+) glia begin to decline within 2 weeks, although protein levels remain higher than control, in association with a partial recovery of DA nigro-striatal circuit. Comparable quantitative studies on MMP-9 knock-out mice, show a significant decrease in both glia activation and loss of DA neurons and fibers, with respect to wild-type. Moreover, in a parallel study on chronically MPTP-injected macaques, we observed that perpetuation of inflammation and high levels of MMP-9 are associated to DA neuron loss. Our data suggest that MMP-9 released by injured neurons favors glia activation; glial cells in turn reinforce their reactive state via autocrine MMP-9 release, contributing to nigro-striatal pathway degeneration. Specific modulation of MMP-9 activity may, therefore, be a strategy to ameliorate harmful inflammatory outcomes in Parkinsonism. PMID:24558048

  18. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. PMID:20699118

  19. Metabolic Covariant Network in Relation to Nigrostriatal Degeneration in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication-Related Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lee, Chen-Chang; Hsu, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Presence of parkinsonian features after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is well known and the severity was found to relate to the pre-synaptic dopaminergic deficits. There is no systemic study to analyse the functional network involved in CO-related Parkinsonism. Forty-five CO-related parkinsonism patients and 25 aged-matched controls completed the 3D T1-weighted imaging and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to assess the structural and functional brain differences between the patients and controls. Spatial covariant networks responsible for distinguishing patients and controls were constructed using independent component analysis. For validation, the pre-synaptic dopaminergic functional network was established by regression model using striatal TRODAT-1 SPECT as the independent variable. The clinical significance of both networks was determined by correlation with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Compared with controls, the spatial covariant signals of FDG-PET were significantly lower in the medial and lateral frontal, caudate nucleus, dorsomedial prefrontal areas, and temporal-parietal regions while the spatial intensities correlated significantly with UPDRS total scores. The functional network that correlated with striatum pre-synaptic dopaminergic uptakes included the midbrain, thalamus, caudate, lateral frontal cortex, ventral striatum, ventral, or dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Both networks overlapped considerably and the topographies reflected structural damage pattern. Our study provides evidence that glucose metabolism in CO-parkinsonism patients pertains to an organized covariant pattern in the cortical regions that is spatially coherent with the cortical map of pre-synaptic dopamine deficits. As the fronto-temporal, striatum, and temporal-parietal areas were involved, the unique metabolic covariant network suggests a different pathophysiology in CO

  20. Dopaminergic function and intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Joutsa, J; Voon, V; Johansson, J; Niemelä, S; Bergman, J; Kaasinen, V

    2015-01-01

    The discounting of delayed rewards, also known as temporal or delay discounting, is intrinsic to everyday decisions and can be impaired in pathological states such as addiction disorders. Preclinical and human studies suggest a role for dopaminergic function in temporal discounting but this relationship has not yet been verified using molecular imaging of the living human brain. Here, we evaluated dopaminergic function in temporal discounting using positron emission tomography (PET) with two different dopaminergic ligands assessing three populations in whom temporal discounting has been shown to be impaired. First, we show using [11C]raclopride PET that in pathological gamblers, greater temporal discounting correlates with decreased ventral striatal binding potential, convergent with translational findings of lower nucleus accumbens D2/D3 receptor density in high-impulsive rodents. Temporal discounting also correlates with lower ventral striatal dopamine release in response to high-reward magnitude suggesting that dopamine-mediated devaluation of larger delayed rewards may drive choice preferences. Second, we show using [18F]fluorodopa PET that in Parkinson's disease, temporal discounting correlates with greater left caudate dopaminergic terminal function. Finally, in subjects with Parkinson's disease and dopamine medication-induced behavioral addictions, temporal discounting is further correlated with greater dopaminergic terminal function in the anterior putamen. These findings provide insights into the relationship between striatal dopamine function and temporal discounting, and its potential role in pathological disorders and mechanisms underlying treatment interventions. PMID:25562841

  1. Development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts: a combined immunohistochemical and autoradiographic study of its time course and environmental influences

    SciTech Connect

    Abrous, N.; Guy, J.; Vigny, A.; Calas, A.; Le Moal, M.; Herman, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a description of some aspects of the development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts, namely, the time course of the glial reaction and its relation to cell division on one hand, and the development of graft-originated innervation and its dependence on adequate matching of the implanted neurons and target site on the other hand. Cell suspensions obtained from the mesencephalon or hypothalamus of embryonic day (ED) 14 rat embryos were implanted into the striatum or lateral hypothalamus of adult rats following the destruction of the nigrostriatal system of the hosts. Animals were sacrificed at different postimplantation times, and the development of the graft was followed by immunohistochemistry by using antisera directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA). Furthermore, the existence of cell division at various times following implantation was examined by performing autoradiography on immunostained sections after prior intraventricular administration of 3H-thymidine to the host. The first stage of the development of intracerebral grafts was characterized by the existence of intense cell division within the grafted tissue, lasting about 2 weeks, and also in the host tissue surrounding the graft, lasting only about 6 days. The cell division in the host tissue was paralleled by the existence of a strong glial reaction which, however, did not extend into the graft itself. Glial reaction in the host tissue gradually decreased at later times and disappeared by 4 weeks postimplantation without leaving behind a noticeable glial scar. The graft itself was, however, transiently filled with a population of reactive astroglial cells between 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation. Within grafts of mesencephalic tissue located in the striatum TH-positive neurons were distributed evenly at short times postimplantation (2-6 days).

  2. Environmental neurotoxic challenge of conditional alpha-synuclein transgenic mice predicts a dopaminergic olfactory-striatal interplay in early PD.

    PubMed

    Nuber, Silke; Tadros, Daniel; Fields, Jerel; Overk, Cassia Rose; Ettle, Benjamin; Kosberg, Kori; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-04-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the first brain regions in Parkinson's disease (PD) to contain alpha-synuclein (α-syn) inclusions, possibly associated with nonmotor symptoms. Mechanisms underlying olfactory synucleinopathy, its contribution to progressive aggregation pathology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss observed at later stages, remain unclear. A second hit, such as environmental toxins, is suggestive for α-syn aggregation in olfactory neurons, potentially triggering disease progression. To address the possible pathogenic role of olfactory α-syn accumulation in early PD, we exposed mice with site-specific and inducible overexpression of familial PD-linked mutant α-syn in OB neurons to a low dose of the herbicide paraquat. Here, we found that olfactory α-syn per se elicited structural and behavioral abnormalities, characteristic of an early time point in models with widespread α-syn expression, including hyperactivity and increased striatal dopaminergic marker. Suppression of α-syn reversed the dopaminergic phenotype. In contrast, paraquat treatment synergistically induced degeneration of olfactory dopaminergic cells and opposed the higher reactive phenotype. Neither neurodegeneration nor behavioral abnormalities were detected in paraquat-treated mice with suppressed α-syn expression. By increasing calpain activity, paraquat induced a pathological cascade leading to inhibition of autophagy clearance and accumulation of calpain-cleaved truncated and insoluble α-syn, recapitulating biochemical and structural changes in human PD. Thus our results underscore the primary role of proteolytic failure in aggregation pathology. In addition, we provide novel evidence that olfactory dopaminergic neurons display an increased vulnerability toward neurotoxins in dependence to presence of human α-syn, possibly mediating an olfactory-striatal dopaminergic network dysfunction in mouse models and early PD. PMID:24509835

  3. Environmental neurotoxic challenge of conditional alpha-synuclein transgenic mice predicts a dopaminergic olfactory-striatal interplay in early PD

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Daniel; Fields, Jerel; Overk, Cassia Rose; Ettle, Benjamin; Kosberg, Kori; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the first brain regions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) to contain alpha-synuclein (α-syn) inclusions, possibly associated with nonmotor symptoms. Mechanisms underlying olfactory synucleinopathy, its contribution to progressive aggregation pathology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss observed at later stages, remain unclear. A second hit, such as environmental toxins, is suggestive for α-syn aggregation in olfactory neurons, potentially triggering disease progression. To address the possible pathogenic role of olfactory α-syn accumulation in early PD, we exposed mice with site-specific and inducible overexpression of familial PD-linked mutant α-syn in OB neurons to a low dose of the herbicide paraquat. Here, we found that olfactory α-syn per se elicited structural and behavioral abnormalities, characteristic of an early time point in models with widespread α-syn expression, including hyperactivity and increased striatal dopaminergic marker. Suppression of α-syn reversed the dopaminergic phenotype. In contrast, paraquat treatment synergistically induced degeneration of olfactory dopaminergic cells and opposed the higher reactive phenotype. Neither neurodegeneration nor behavioral abnormalities were detected in paraquat-treated mice with suppressed α-syn expression. By increasing calpain activity, paraquat induced a pathological cascade leading to inhibition of autophagy clearance and accumulation of calpain-cleaved truncated and insoluble α-syn, recapitulating biochemical and structural changes in human PD. Thus our results underscore the primary role of proteolytic failure in aggregation pathology. In addition, we provide novel evidence that olfactory dopaminergic neurons display an increased vulnerability toward neurotoxins in dependence to presence of human α-syn, possibly mediating an olfactory-striatal dopaminergic network dysfunction in mouse models and early PD. PMID:24509835

  4. Cognitive executive impairment and dopaminergic deficits in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Françoise J; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S; Booij, Jan; Ravina, Bernard M; Lebedev, Alexander V; Pereira, Joana B; Grüner, Renate; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and does directly impact patients' everyday functioning. However, the underlying mechanisms of early cognitive decline are not known. This study explored the association between striatal dopaminergic deficits and cognitive impairment within a large cohort of early, drug-naïve PD patients and tested the hypothesis that executive dysfunction in PD is associated with striatal dopaminergic depletion. A cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 339 PD patients and 158 healthy controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study was analyzed. Each individual underwent cerebral single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and a standardized neuropsychological assessment with tests of memory as well as visuospatial and executive function. SPECT imaging was performed with [(123) I]FP-CIT, and specific binding ratios in left and right putamen and caudate nucleus were calculated. The association between specific binding ratios, cognitive domain scores, and age was analyzed using Pearson's correlations, partial correlation, and conditional process analysis. A small, but significant, positive association between total striatal dopamine transporter binding and the attention/executive domain was found (r = 0.141; P = 0.009) in PD, but this was not significant after adjusting for age. However, in a moderated mediation model, we found that cognitive executive differences between controls and patients with PD were mediated by an age-moderated striatal dopaminergic deficit. Our findings support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit is associated with executive impairment, but not to memory or visuospatial impairment, in early PD. PMID:25284687

  5. Dramatic differences in susceptibility to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia between mice that are aged before or after a nigrostriatal dopamine lesion.

    PubMed

    Bez, Francesco; Francardo, Veronica; Cenci, M Angela

    2016-10-01

    Mice with striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions are widely used as a model to study the effects of neurorestorative, symptomatic, or antidyskinetic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). The standard praxis is to utilize young adult mice with relatively acute 6-OHDA lesions. However, long post-lesion intervals may be required for longitudinal studies of treatment interventions, and the long-term stability of the model's behavioral and cellular phenotypes is currently unknown. In this study, C57Bl/6J mice sustained unilateral striatal 6-OHDA lesions at approx. 2months of age, and were allowed to survive for 1, 10 or 22months. Another group of mice sustained the lesion at the age of 23months and survived for one month thereafter. Baseline and drug-induced motor behaviors were examined using a battery of tests (utilizing also a novel video-based methodology). The extent of nigral dopamine cell loss was stable across post-lesion intervals and ages. However, a prominent sprouting of both dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers was detected in the caudate-putamen in animals that survived until 10 and 22months post-lesion. This phenomenon was associated with a recovery of baseline motor deficits, and with a lack of dyskinetic responses upon treatment with either l-DOPA or apomorphine. By contrast, mice sustaining the lesion at 23months of age showed a striking susceptibility to the dyskinetic effects of both l-DOPA and apomorphine, which was associated with a pronounced drug-induced upregulation of ∆FosB in the ventrolateral striatum. The results reveal a remarkable compensatory capacity of a damaged nigrostriatal pathway in ageing mice, and how this impacts on the response to dopaminergic therapies for PD. PMID:27312773

  6. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP+-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist protects dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons from degeneration in MPTP-treated monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bogenpohl, James W.; Alagille, David; Delevich, Kristen; Tamagnan, Gilles; Votaw, John R.; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

    2011-01-01

    Degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus are important pathological features of Parkinson’s disease. There is an urgent need to develop therapies that slow down the progression of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we tested whether the highly specific metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist, 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) ethynyl] pyridine, reduces dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuronal loss in monkeys rendered parkinsonian by chronic treatment with low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Weekly intramuscular 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine injections (0.2–0.5 mg/kg body weight), in combination with daily administration of 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) ethynyl] pyridine or vehicle, were performed until the development of parkinsonian motor symptoms in either of the two experimental groups (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) ethynyl] pyridine versus 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/vehicle). After 21 weeks of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treatment, all 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/vehicle-treated animals displayed parkinsonian symptoms, whereas none of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) ethynyl] pyridine-treated monkeys were significantly affected. These behavioural observations were consistent with in vivo positron emission tomography dopamine transporter imaging data, and with post-mortem stereological counts of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, as well as striatal intensity measurements of dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, which were all significantly higher in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) ethynyl] pyridine-treated animals than in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/vehicle-treated monkeys. The 3-[(2-methyl-1

  8. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  9. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  10. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    , when analyzed 30 min after the administration of the test drugs, tacrine significantly attenuated the SI-induced decrease in p-CaMKII, p-CREB, and Egr-1 in a manner reversible by scopolamine. Our results suggest that SI-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditioned fear memory were mediated by functional alterations to central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, respectively. PMID:25943484

  11. Preclinical Evidence for a Role of the Nicotinic Cholinergic System in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Perez, Xiomara A

    2015-12-01

    One of the primary deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficits that underlie the motor symptoms associated with the disease. A plethora of animal models have been developed over the years to uncover the molecular alterations that lead to PD development. These models have provided valuable information on neurotransmitter pathways and mechanisms involved. One such a system is the nicotinic cholinergic system. Numerous studies show that nigrostriatal damage affects nicotinic receptor-mediated dopaminergic signaling; therefore therapeutic modulation of the nicotinic cholinergic system may offer a novel approach to manage PD. In fact, there is evidence showing that nicotinic receptor drugs may be useful as neuroprotective agents to prevent Parkinson's disease progression. Additional preclinical studies also show that nicotinic receptor drugs may be beneficial for the treatment of L-dopa induced dyskinesias. Here, we review preclinical findings supporting the idea that nicotinic receptors are valuable therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:26553323

  12. Transplantation of ventral mesencephalic anlagen to hosts with genetic nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Triarhou, L C; Low, W C; Ghetti, B

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the damaged nigrostriatal pathway in experimental models of Parkinson disease have thus far been carried out in animals with neurotoxically induced dopamine deficiency. The present study establishes the weaver (wv/wv) mutant mouse as a genetic model of chronic striatal dopamine denervation by demonstrating a marked decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Moreover, grafts of embryonic ventral mesencephalon taken from genetically normal mice and transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult weaver mutants can survive and grow in the mutant host environment, express tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and reinnervate the target regions of the recipient. These results provide evidence of integration of graft and host tissue and suggest that transplantation of dopamine neurons may be effectively applied to overcome nigrostriatal degeneration of genetic etiology. Images PMID:2877463

  13. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on dopamine system development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glatt, S J; Bolaños, C A; Trksak, G H; Jackson, D

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animal models of maternal drug abuse, yet independent examinations of striatal dopamine (DA) receptors and tissue DA levels have produced equivocal results. The current meta-analysis provides a quantitative review of the literature on these topics, and analyzes potential moderators of the effects of PCOC exposure on these variables. The results indicate that the effects of PCOC exposure on striatal DA levels, D1 and D2 receptor-binding densities, and D2 receptor-binding affinity are negligible when collapsed over age, sex, species, and several other methodological variables. However, effects of PCOC exposure on some dopaminergic measures were significantly influenced by factors such as age and sex. As expected, and as suggested by the selectivity and specificity of PCOC-induced changes reported in the published literature, the direction and magnitude of differences between genders or age groups in this study were not systematic across all dependent measures. Generally, PCOC exposure was more often linked to decreases, rather than increases, in the selected dependent measures. These findings indicate that PCOC exposure produces selective alterations in striatal dopaminergic system function which do not appear under all experimental circumstances, but which may be important factors in behavioral alterations seen in selected groups after PCOC exposure. PMID:11106856

  14. A progressive dopaminergic phenotype associated with neurotoxic conversion of α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Harmuth, Florian; Kohl, Zacharias; Adame, Anthony; Trejo, Margaritha; Schönig, Kai; Zimmermann, Frank; Bauer, Claudia; Casadei, Nicolas; Giel, Christiane; Calaminus, Carsten; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jensen, Poul H.; Müller, Christian P.; Amato, Davide; Kornhuber, Johannes; Teismann, Peter; Yamakado, Hodaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer; Riess, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of soluble α-synuclein into insoluble and fibrillar inclusions is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. Accumulating evidence points towards a relationship between its generation at nerve terminals and structural synaptic pathology. Little is known about the pathogenic impact of α-synuclein conversion and deposition at nigrostriatal dopaminergic synapses in transgenic mice, mainly owing to expression limitations of the α-synuclein construct. Here, we explore whether both the rat as a model and expression of the bacterial artificial chromosome construct consisting of human full-length wild-type α-synuclein could exert dopaminergic neuropathological effects. We found that the human promoter induced a pan-neuronal expression, matching the rodent α-synuclein expression pattern, however, with prominent C-terminally truncated fragments. Ageing promoted conversion of both full-length and C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species into insolube and proteinase K-resistant fibres, with strongest accumulation in the striatum, resembling biochemical changes seen in human Parkinson’s disease. Transgenic rats develop early changes in novelty-seeking, avoidance and smell before the progressive motor deficit. Importantly, the observed pathological changes were associated with severe loss of the dopaminergic integrity, thus resembling more closely the human pathology. PMID:23413261

  15. A progressive dopaminergic phenotype associated with neurotoxic conversion of α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Nuber, Silke; Harmuth, Florian; Kohl, Zacharias; Adame, Anthony; Trejo, Margaritha; Schönig, Kai; Zimmermann, Frank; Bauer, Claudia; Casadei, Nicolas; Giel, Christiane; Calaminus, Carsten; Pichler, Bernd J; Jensen, Poul H; Müller, Christian P; Amato, Davide; Kornhuber, Johannes; Teismann, Peter; Yamakado, Hodaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer; Riess, Olaf

    2013-02-01

    Conversion of soluble α-synuclein into insoluble and fibrillar inclusions is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Accumulating evidence points towards a relationship between its generation at nerve terminals and structural synaptic pathology. Little is known about the pathogenic impact of α-synuclein conversion and deposition at nigrostriatal dopaminergic synapses in transgenic mice, mainly owing to expression limitations of the α-synuclein construct. Here, we explore whether both the rat as a model and expression of the bacterial artificial chromosome construct consisting of human full-length wild-type α-synuclein could exert dopaminergic neuropathological effects. We found that the human promoter induced a pan-neuronal expression, matching the rodent α-synuclein expression pattern, however, with prominent C-terminally truncated fragments. Ageing promoted conversion of both full-length and C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species into insolube and proteinase K-resistant fibres, with strongest accumulation in the striatum, resembling biochemical changes seen in human Parkinson's disease. Transgenic rats develop early changes in novelty-seeking, avoidance and smell before the progressive motor deficit. Importantly, the observed pathological changes were associated with severe loss of the dopaminergic integrity, thus resembling more closely the human pathology. PMID:23413261

  16. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  17. Effect of dopaminergic medication on speech dysfluency in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tykalová, Tereza; Rusz, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžičková, Hana; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-08-01

    Although speech dysfluencies have been hypothesized to be associated with abnormal function of dopaminergic system, the effects of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the long-term effect of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in PD. Fourteen de novo PD patients with no history of developmental stuttering and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. PD subjects were examined three times; before the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and twice in following 6 years. The percentage of dysfluent words was calculated from reading passage and monolog. The amount of medication was expressed by cumulative doses of L-dopa equivalent. After 3-6 years of dopaminergic therapy, PD patients exhibited significantly more dysfluent events compared to healthy subjects as well as to their own speech performance before the introduction of dopaminergic therapy (p < 0.05). In addition, we found a strong positive correlation between the increased occurrence of dysfluent words and the total cumulative dose of L-dopa equivalent (r = 0.75, p = 0.002). Our findings indicate an adverse effect of prolonged dopaminergic therapy contributing to the development of stuttering-like dysfluencies in PD. These findings may have important implication in clinical practice, where speech fluency should be taken into account to optimize dopaminergic therapy. PMID:25583417

  18. Correlation between automated writing movements and striatal dopaminergic innervation in patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Wieland; Eggers, Birk; Barthel, Henryk; Clark, Daniel; Villmann, Thomas; Hesse, Swen; Grahmann, Friedrich; Kühn, Hans-Jürgen; Sabri, Osama; Wagner, Armin

    2002-08-01

    Handwriting defects are an early sign of motor impairment in patients with Wilson's disease. The basal ganglia being the primary site of copper accumulation in the brain suggests a correlation with lesions in the nigrostiatal dopaminergic system. We have analysed and correlated striatal dopaminergic innervation using [(123)I]beta-CIT-SPECT and automated handwriting movements in 37 patients with Wilson's disease. There was a significant correlation of putaminal dopaminergic innervation with fine motor ability (p < 0,05 for NIV [number of inversion in velocity], NIA [number of inversion in acceleration], frequency). These data suggest that loss of dorsolateral striatal dopaminergic innervation has a pathophysiological function for decreased automated motor control in Wilson's disease. Furthermore analysis of automated handwriting movements could be useful for therapy monitoring and evaluation of striatal dopaminergic innervation. PMID:12195459

  19. [Dopaminergic neuroprotection and reconstruction of neural network tiara].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder in whose brain massive loss of dopaminergic neurons and formation of Lewy bodies occur in the substantia nigra (SN). L-Dihydroxyphenylamine (L-DOPA) substitution is still considered the gold standard of antiparkinsonian drug therapy. However, there has been little information available on neuroprotective and regenerative therapies. Recently, we have found that pramipexole and talipexole (D(2)/D(3)-dopaminergic agonists) inhibit dopaminergic neurotoxin-induced production of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death. In addition, treatment with these drugs induces enhancement of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of α-synuclein aggregation. Interestingly, recent study suggests that pramipexole treatment delays the progression of early PD symptom. On the other hand, we investigated the transplantation strategy for PD by assessing whether double-transplants of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neurons in the striatum (ST) and SN, or subthalamic nucleus (STN), induce functional recovery in rat hemi-parkinsonian model. The study indicates that both the involvement of ST as a place of transplantation and the number of ES cell-derived neurons are essential factors for efficacy on PD animal model. Interestingly, an invertebrate planarian can regenerate complete organs, including a well-organized central nervous system (brain), within about 7 days. The regeneration process of the planarian dopaminergic neural network (tiara) may be divided into five steps: 1) anterior blastema formation, 2) brain rudiment formation, 3) brain pattern formation, 4) the formation of dopaminergic tiara, and 5) functional recovery of dopaminergic motor regulation, with several kinds of genes and molecular cascades acting at each step. PMID:20930477

  20. Intrastriatal injection of pre-formed mouse α-synuclein fibrils into rats triggers α-synuclein pathology and bilateral nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Paumier, Katrina L; Luk, Kelvin C; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Kanaan, Nicholas M; Lipton, Jack W; Collier, Timothy J; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Kemp, Christopher J; Celano, Stephanie; Schulz, Emily; Sandoval, Ivette M; Fleming, Sheila; Dirr, Elliott; Polinski, Nicole K; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M; Sortwell, Caryl E

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that intrastriatal injections of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into mice induce Parkinson's disease (PD)-like Lewy body (LB) pathology formed by aggregated α-syn in anatomically interconnected regions and significant nigrostriatal degeneration. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether exogenous mouse α-syn pre-formed fibrils (PFF) injected into the striatum of rats would result in accumulation of LB-like intracellular inclusions and nigrostriatal degeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of either non-fibrillized recombinant α-syn or PFF mouse α-syn in 1- or 2- sites and were euthanized at 30, 60 or 180 days post-injection (pi). Both non-fibrillized recombinant α-syn and PFF α-syn injections resulted in phosphorylated α-syn intraneuronal accumulations (i.e., diffuse Lewy neurite (LN)- and LB-like inclusions) with significantly greater accumulations following PFF injection. LB-like inclusions were observed in several areas that innervate the striatum, most prominently the frontal and insular cortices, the amygdala, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). α-Syn accumulations co-localized with ubiquitin, p62, and were thioflavin-S-positive and proteinase-k resistant, suggesting that PFF-induced pathology exhibits properties similar to human LBs. Although α-syn inclusions within the SNpc remained ipsilateral to striatal injection, we observed bilateral reductions in nigral dopamine neurons at the 180-day time-point in both the 1- and 2-site PFF injection paradigms. PFF injected rats exhibited bilateral reductions in striatal dopaminergic innervation at 60 and 180 days and bilateral decreases in homovanillic acid; however, dopamine reduction was observed only in the striatum ipsilateral to PFF injection. Although the level of dopamine asymmetry in PFF injected rats at 180 days was insufficient to elicit motor deficits in amphetamine-induced rotations or forelimb use in the

  1. Is there room for new non-dopaminergic treatments in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Pilleri, Manuela; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-02-01

    The contribution of non-dopaminergic degeneration to disability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still debated. It has been argued that no additional advance can be expected in the management of PD by the development of new dopaminergic agents and suggested that future research should mainly focus on therapies targeting the non-dopaminergic systems involved in the pathogenesis of levodopa resistant motor and non-motor symptoms. We believe this is only partially true and the achievement of a stable dopaminergic restoration and modulation of the dopaminergic system is still an important, unmet need of current pharmacological therapies in PD. Currently available oral levodopa and dopamine agonist medications provide insufficient benefit, as the therapeutic window progressively narrows and motor fluctuations eventually develop in most patients. Conversely, the application of infusion and surgical therapies is limited by selective indications and possible irreversible adverse events and device-related problems. Research of new, safer and less invasive strategies, able to modulate the dopaminergic circuits, would certainly improve the management of motor complications, and most importantly such treatments would be also beneficial to axial and non-motor symptoms, which are universally regarded as the major cause of PD functional disability. Indeed, gait and balance problems may improve with dopaminergic treatment in most patients and they become unresponsive only at the very late stages of the disease. Moreover, several non-motor disturbances, including cognition and depression are often linked to oscillation of dopamine concentrations, and are frequently relieved by treatments providing continuous dopaminergic delivery. Finally, drug trials testing non-dopaminergic treatments for motor and non-motor symptoms of PD provided so far disappointing results. Despite the impressive advances of PD therapeutic strategy, we think there is still need for safe, non-invasive and easily

  2. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  3. Adolescent exposure to MDMA induces dopaminergic toxicity in substantia nigra and potentiates the amyloid plaque deposition in the striatum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sonia; Ramon, Carla; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Camins, Antonio; Escubedo, Elena

    2016-09-01

    MDMA is one of the most used drugs by adolescents and its consumption has been associated with many psychobiological problems, among them psychomotor problems. Moreover, some authors described that early exposure to MDMA may render the dopaminergic neurons more vulnerable to the effects of future neurotoxic insults. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and a percentage of the patients have predisposition to suffer nigrostriatal alterations, developing extrapyramidal signs. Nigrostriatal dysfunction in the brain of aged APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1), a mouse model of familiar AD (FAD), has also been described. The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences of adolescent exposure to MDMA in APP/PS1 mice, on nigrostriatal function on early adulthood. We used a MDMA schedule simulating weekend binge abuse of this substance. Our MDMA schedule produced a genotype-independent decrease in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that remained at least 3months. Shortly after the injury, wild-type animals showed a decrease in the locomotor activity and apparent DA depletion in striatum, however in the APP/PS1 mice neither the locomotor activity nor the DA levels were modified, but a reduction in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and a higher levels of oxidative stress were observed. We found that these disturbances are age-related characteristics that this APP/PS1 mice develops spontaneously much later. Therefore, MDMA administration seems to anticipate the striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in this FAD model. The most important outcome lies in a potentiation, by MDMA, of the amyloid beta deposition in the striatum. PMID:27344237

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E.; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  5. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  6. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nevue, Alexander A; Elde, Cameron J; Perkel, David J; Portfors, Christine V

    2015-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  7. Pharmacological imaging as a tool to visualise dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Schrantee, A; Reneman, L

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine abnormalities underlie a wide variety of psychopathologies, including ADHD and schizophrenia. A new imaging technique, pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), is a promising non-invasive technique to visualize the dopaminergic system in the brain. In this review we explore the clinical potential of phMRI in detecting dopamine dysfunction or neurotoxicity, assess its strengths and weaknesses and identify directions for future research. Preclinically, phMRI is able to detect severe dopaminergic abnormalities quite similar to conventional techniques such as PET and SPECT. phMRI benefits from its high spatial resolution and the possibility to visualize both local and downstream effects of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In addition, it allows for repeated measurements and assessments in vulnerable populations. The major challenge is the complex interpretation of phMRI results. Future studies in patients with dopaminergic abnormalities need to confirm the currently reviewed preclinical findings to validate the technique in a clinical setting. Eventually, based on the current review we expect that phMRI can be of use in a clinical setting involving vulnerable populations (such as children and adolescents) for diagnosis and monitoring treatment efficacy. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. PMID:23851258

  8. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  9. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases nigrostriatal dopamine release in vitro: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Stephen J; Trksak, George H; Cohen, Ori S; Simeone, Benjamin P; Jackson, Denise

    2004-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure, age, sex, and estrous phase on the functional development of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Striatal tissue was obtained from prepubescent and adult rats of both sexes after bidaily exposure to saline (1 ml/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg/ml saline) from embryonic days 15-21. Tissue levels, basal release, and electrically evoked (1 or 8 Hz) overflow of endogenous DA and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), as well as their efflux in response to superfusion with the DA transport blocker, nomifensine (10 microM), were measured from superfused striatal slices. Generally, these measures were highest in tissue from males and adults. Tissue DA and DOPAC levels and the rate of DA turnover were unaffected by PCOC exposure. Slices from PCOC-exposed juvenile and adult male rats exhibited significantly reduced basal and electrically evoked DA release at both stimulation intensities, in conjunction with higher levels of presynaptic DA reuptake. Female rats were largely spared from the effects of PCOC exposure, and measures did not vary with estrous phase. These findings demonstrate that the effects of PCOC exposure on various parameters of nigrostriatal DA neuronal function are not uniform across age, sex, or phases of the estrous cycle. These novel alterations in nigrostriatal DA transmission are in need of independent replication, but they may have profound implications for behavioral activities regulated by these neurons and, thus, may provide a basis for sex-selective effects of PCOC in exposed humans. Possible mechanisms of deleterious effects of PCOC exposure in select groups are discussed. PMID:15170820

  10. Prevalence of impaired odor identification in Parkinson disease with imaging evidence of nigrostriatal denervation.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Jacob; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kotagal, Vikas; Albin, Roger L; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Frey, Kirk A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2016-04-01

    There is wide variability in the reported prevalence rates of abnormal smell in Parkinson disease (PD). This study assessed the prevalence of abnormal smell, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), in 183 patients with PD with confirmed PET imaging evidence of nigrostriatal denervation. Impaired olfaction in this sample was nearly universal (97.8 %). Wide-ranging prior olfactory impairment estimates may reflect not only uncertainty regarding diagnostic classification, but also the use of inaccurate normative data and differences in olfactory tests used. PMID:26911386