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Sample records for nikolai vasiliev alar

  1. Alar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alar ; CASRN 1596 - 84 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  2. Towards the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we show that using frame-like gauge invariant formulation for the massive bosonic and fermionic fields in three dimensions the free Lagrangians for these fields can be rewritten in the explicitly gauge invariant form in terms of the appropriately chosen set of gauge invariant objects. This in turn opens the possibility to apply the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism to the investigation of possible interactions of such fields.

  3. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  4. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

  5. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. PMID:21404164

  6. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  7. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26313821

  8. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  9. Correction of Alar Retraction Based on Frontal Classification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Sung Wan; Bartlett, Erica; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    Among the various types of alar deformations in Asians, alar retraction not only has the highest occurrence rate, but is also very complicated to treat because the ala is supported only by cartilage and its soft tissue envelope cannot be easily stretched. As patients' knowledge of aesthetic procedures is becoming more extensive due to increased information dissemination through various media, doctors must give more accurate, logical explanations of the procedures to be performed and their anticipated results, with an emphasis on relevant anatomical features, accurate diagnoses, detailed classifications, and various appropriate methods of surgery. PMID:26648808

  10. Expedition Six crew member Nikolai Budarin at pad before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition Six crew member Nikolai Budarin, of the Russian Space Agency, pauses in front of Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to his launch. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  11. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin relaxes during suitup for launch. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

  12. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  13. Reconstruction of Congenital Isolated Alar Defect Using Mutaf Triangular Closure Technique in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil

    2016-06-01

    Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary. PMID:27192642

  14. Are We Doing Everything We Should for the Health of Our Children? An Interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov addressing the presidential program "Russia's Children" that is made up of nine subprograms: Children of Chernobyl, Children of the North, Family Planning, The Baby-food Industry, Orphaned Children, Handicapped Children, Gifted Children, Children of Refugee Families, and Children's Summer…

  15. Alar-spanning suture for tip contouring in closed approach rhinoplasty for African-Caucasian noses.

    PubMed

    Cedin, Antonio Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The alar-spanning suture is one of the easiest techniques for correcting the width of the alar complex that reduces the bulbous tip of African-Caucasian patients. This conservative technique does not weaken the lateral crura and yields long- term predictable results. Rhinoplastic surgeons should keep in mind this useful and reliable tool in their options for refinement of these challenging wide tips and not create so dramatic a change that the appearance is not consonant with the patient's ethnic heritage. Despite cosmetic surgeons usually performing it through an external columellar incision approach, it is possible, in many cases, to do it in a closed access, and thus avoid the risk of hyperpigmentation or hypertrophic scarring. PMID:23761120

  16. Management of the droopy tip: a comparison of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-10-01

    The droopy tip is a common nasal deformity in which the tip is inferiorly rotated. Five hundred consecutive rhinoplasty cases were studied to assess the incidence and causes of the droopy tip deformity and to evaluate the role of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques--lateral crural steal, lateral crural overlay, and tongue in groove--in correcting such a deformity. The external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Only one of the three alar cartilage-modifying techniques was used in each case, and the degree of tip rotation and projection was measured both preoperatively and postoperatively. The incidence of droopy tip was 72 percent, and the use of an alar cartilage-modifying technique was required in 85 percent of these cases to achieve the desired degree of rotation. The main causes of droopy tip included inferiorly oriented alar cartilages (85 percent), overdeveloped scrolls of upper lateral cartilages (73 percent), high anterior septal angle (65 percent), and thick skin of the nasal lobule (56 percent). The lateral crural steal technique increased nasal tip rotation and projection, the lateral crural overlay technique increased tip rotation and decreased tip projection, and the tongue-in-groove technique increased tip rotation without significantly changing the amount of projection. The lateral crural overlay technique resulted in the highest degrees of rotation, followed by the lateral crural steal and finally the tongue-in-groove technique. According to these results, the lateral crural steal technique is best indicated in cases with droopy underprojected nasal tip, the lateral crural overlay technique in cases of droopy overprojected nasal tip, and the tongue-in-groove technique in cases where the droopy nasal tip is associated with an adequate amount of projection. PMID:14504527

  17. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  18. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin in White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (left) Rene Arriens, United Space Alliance mechanical technician, (right) Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist, and (background) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  19. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for the second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is stoic as he suits up for a second launch attempt on mission STS-113. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 7:50 p.m. EST.

  20. Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin smiles during fit check of his helmet, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  1. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. S-1 and S-2-alar-iliac screw fixation via intraoperative navigation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Jakoi, Andre M; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Adult deformity patients often require fixation to the sacrum and pelvis for construct stability and improved fusion rates. Although certain sacropelvic fixation techniques can be challenging, the availability of intraoperative navigation has made many of these techniques more feasible. In this video case presentation, the authors demonstrate the techniques of S-1 bicortical screw and S-2-alar-iliac screw fixation under intraoperative navigation in a 67-year-old female. This instrumentation placement was part of an overall T-10-pelvis construct for the correction of adult spinal deformity. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/3HZo-80jQr8 . PMID:27364427

  3. Rhinoplasty. The difficult nasal tip: total resection of the alar cartilages.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Camps, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to reconstruct and make nasal tips more attractive. Sometimes we cannot find the best way unless we at least remove all surplus from the tip. This may occur in primary or secondary rhinoplasty. In principle, anything is possible when relocating and reconstructing. However, sometimes we face reality when we uncover the tip: broken or bulging cartilages that are difficult to put right. For this reason, in 1987 we thought of totally resectioning the alar cartilages in a case of secondary rhinoplasty with an unsightly appearance. After a year the result was seen to be correct from an aesthetic and a functional perspective and is still so today. Aesthetically, it kept its shape and did not collapse with nasal respiratory failure. We covered the end of the crus medialis with a small, temporary, one- to two-layered fascia patch. Except in exceptional cases, we now use this procedure: Total sectioning of the alar cartilages including the domes, or maintenance of them by preserving the fibroadipose tip tissue with a suture in the middle of the end of the crus medialis and by covering this with temporary fascia, which usually has two layers depending on the thickness of the skin of the tip. This procedure is indicated mainly in secondary rhinoplasty when the cartilages of the tip are completely destroyed, and in primary rhinoplasty when the tip is excessively wide and bulbous. Our philosophy is, therefore, elegance and beauty of the nasal tip with a solid and equilateral base without prejudices. PMID:18797961

  4. Contributions of the surgeon Nikolai Korotkov (1874-1920) to the management of extremity vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Igor M; Reva, Viktor A; Fomin, Nikolai F; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2016-02-01

    The Russian military surgeon Nikolai Korotkov is known worldwide, mainly among internists and cardiovascular specialists, as the discoverer of the auscultatory method of measuring arterial blood pressure in 1905. This article reveals him as one of the first military vascular surgeons to carefully investigate, analyze, and register cases of vascular injury during his voluntarily trips to the Russian Far East in 1900 to 1901 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905. Examining 44 patients with extremity arterial and arterial-venous pseudoaneurysms following war-related injury, he routinely performed a measure termed the "arterial pressure index" using "Korotkov sounds." This pioneering approach to assessing extremity perfusion was the precursor to the modern-day ankle-brachial and injured extremity indices, and it initiated the quantitative assessment of the compensatory ability of the vascular system to restore circulation following axial artery ligation. Because of high thrombosis rates following direct vessel repair during his day, he proposed use of pharmacologic substances such as digitalis and amyl nitrite to improve extremity perfusion. As evidence of his innovative nature, Korotkov even proposed the use of "oxygenated nutrient solutions" in the future to improve extremity circulation. More than 100 years after his work, as continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, contrast angiography, and computed tomography are ubiquitous as diagnostic tools, the practice of surgery would be well served to recall Korotkov's foundational work and the rule of thumb for any physician: examine the patient. PMID:26545260

  5. Is Early Nasal Shaping With a Limited Alar Base Incision Possible in the Repair of Cleft Lips?

    PubMed

    Kapi, Emin; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Ozer, Torun; Celik, Mehmet Yusuf

    2016-05-01

    The repair of cleft lips has an important place in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In the treatment of these deformities, the aim was to restore the normal lip morphology in the cleft area as well as repairing any coexisting nasal deformities. Various methods are in use for this purpose. One of the most commonly employed surgical methods is Millard repair. However, this method may lead to additional scarring in the alar base on the cleft side subsequent to the incision. In this study, the results obtained from a group who have been applied alar base incisions during the modified Millard repair are compared to a group who have undergone intranasal wide dissections.The patients enrolled in the study were randomized into 2 groups. The first group were applied the modified Millard repair. In the second group, the rotation, advancement, and C-flaps were prepared according to Millard surgical repair technique; however, instead of an alar base and nasofacial groove incision on the cleft side, a nasal and maxillary supraperiosteal wide dissection was made through the incision in the mucosa of the nostril.The intranasal dissection performed during the study was observed to provide the targeted outcome and a more satisfactory cosmetic result through the modified Millard repair. In conclusion, the authors are of the opinion that the limited alar base incision and the wide supraperiosteal dissection performed in patients with cleft lips is an alternative method that can be employed in a wide range of patients. PMID:27092908

  6. A centenary of auscultatory blood pressure measurement: a tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff.

    PubMed

    Paskalev, Dobrin; Kircheva, Anna; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled 'On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure'. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff's method for blood pressure determining. PMID:16340219

  7. Toward less misleading comparisons of uncertain risks: the example of aflatoxin and alar.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, A M

    1995-01-01

    Critics of comparative risk assessment (CRA), the increasingly common practice of juxtaposing disparate risks for the purpose of declaring which one is the "larger" or the "more important," have long focused their concern on the difficulties in accommodating the qualitative differences among risks. To be sure, people may disagree vehemently about whether "larger" necessarily implies "more serious," but the attention to this aspect of CRA presupposes that science can in fact discern which of two risks has the larger statistical magnitude. This assumption, encouraged by the indiscriminate calculation of risk ratios using arbitrary point estimates, is often incorrect: the fact that environmental and health risks differ in unknown quantitative respects is at least as important a caution to CRA as the fact that risks differ in known qualitative ways. To show how misleading CRA can be when uncertainty is ignored, this article revisits the claim that aflatoxin contamination of peanut butter was "18 times worse" than Alar contamination of apple juice. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the number 18 is shown to lie within a distribution of plausible risk ratios that ranges from nearly 400:1 in favor of aflatoxin to nearly 40:1 in the opposite direction. The analysis also shows that the "best estimates" of the relative risk of aflatoxin to Alar are much closer to 1:1 than to 18:1. The implications of these findings for risk communication and individual and societal decision-making are discussed, with an eye toward improving the general practice of CRA while acknowledging that its outputs are uncertain, rather than abandoning it for the wrong reasons. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7607139

  8. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  9. A novel approach to navigated implantation of S-2 alar iliac screws using inertial measurement units.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregory F; Walti, Jonas; Mariani, Luigi; Cattin, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The authors report on a novel method of intraoperative navigation with inertial measurement units (IMUs) for implantation of S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws in sacropelvic fixation of the human spine and its application in cadaveric specimens. METHODS Screw trajectories were planned on a multiplanar reconstruction of the preoperative CT scan. The pedicle finder and screwdriver were equipped with IMUs to guide the axial and sagittal tilt angles of the planned trajectory, and navigation software was developed. The entry points were chosen according to anatomical landmarks on the exposed spine. After referencing, the sagittal and axial orientation of the pedicle finder and screwdriver were wirelessly monitored on a computer screen and aligned with the preoperatively planned tilt angles to implant the S2AI screws. The technique was performed without any intraoperative imaging. Screw positions were analyzed on postoperative CT scans. RESULTS Seventeen of 18 screws showed a good S2AI screw trajectory. Compared with the postoperatively measured tilt angles of the S2AI screws, the IMU readings on the screwdriver were within an axial plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 2 (11%) of the screws and within a sagittal plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 3 (17%) of the screws. CONCLUSIONS IMU-based intraoperative navigation may facilitate accurate placement of S2AI screws. PMID:26565762

  10. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  11. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  12. Technique and nuances of an S-2 alar iliac screw for lumbosacral fixation in patients with transitional and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Vogel, Todd D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berven, Sigurd; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screw fixation has recently been recognized as a useful technique for pelvic fixation. The authors demonstrate two cases where S2AI fixation was indicated: one case was a sacral insufficiency fracture following a long-segment fusion in a patient with a transitional S-1 vertebra; the other case involved pseudarthrosis following lumbosacral fixation. S2AI screws offer rigid fixation, low profile, and allow easy connection to the lumbosacral rod. The authors describe and demonstrate the surgical technique and nuances for the S2AI screw in a case with transitional S-1 anatomy and in a case with normal S-1 anatomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Sj21lk13_aw . PMID:27364429

  13. Supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach for the complete resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors and postoperative voice quality.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Nito, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujimaki, Yoko; Yamauchi, Akihito; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Various surgical approaches for the treatment of laryngeal submucosal tumors have been reported. Endoscopic excision is indicated for small lesions, while external approaches are recommended for larger tumors. This report introduces a supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach (STACA), which has strong advantages for the preservation of the laryngeal framework and voice recovery after surgery. Case series with chart review. Four patients with laryngeal submucosal tumors in the paraglottic space underwent complete tumor removal through STACA. Medical charts were reviewed to evaluate patient background, major complaints, tumor type, tumor size, the time period from operation to tracheostomy closure, tumor recurrence, and the difference between pre- and postoperative voice quality. Voice quality was assessed using the GRBAS score, maximum phonation time (MPT) and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) 6 months after surgery. All patients were females between 43 and 67 years of age. Two patients had schwannoma, one laryngocele, and one lipoma. Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm. The main complaints were hoarseness in all patients, and dyspnea in one. The periods of time from surgery to oral intake and tracheostomy closure were 3.5 and 7 days, respectively. No patient developed recurrence during a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. The postoperative GRBAS scores, MPT and VHI-10 improved in all patients. STACA has advantages including minimal trauma, no deformity to the laryngeal framework, and good voice qualities after the resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors. PMID:26048355

  14. Nostril and alar reshaping.

    PubMed

    Planas, J; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors recommend, when necessary, the use of external excisions for correcting variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae in the cleft lip-nose deformity, in primary rhinoplasties, and in secondary rhinoplasties. Their experience in the use of external incisions was originally stimulated by Millard's paper of 1960 which recommended different types of remodeling external excisions in his analysis of how to handle variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae. PMID:8517221

  15. Higher spin interactions in four-dimensions: Vasiliev versus Fronsdal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Kessel, Pan; Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    We consider four-dimensional higher-spin (HS) theory at the first nontrivial order corresponding to the cubic action. All HS interaction vertices are explicitly obtained from Vasiliev’s equations. In particular, we obtain the vertices that are not determined solely by the HS algebra structure constants. The dictionary between the Fronsdal fields and HS connections is found and the corrections to the Fronsdal equations are derived. These corrections turn out to involve derivatives of arbitrary order. We observe that the vertices not determined by the HS algebra produce naked infinities, when decomposed into the minimal derivative vertices and improvements. Therefore, standard methods can only be used to check a rather limited number of correlation functions within the HS AdS/CFT duality. A possible resolution of the puzzle is discussed.

  16. On big crunch solutions in Prokushkin-Vasiliev theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, Carlo; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-01-01

    We construct simple solutions of three-dimensional higher spin gravity interacting with matter in which only the scalar and spin-two fields are excited. They preserve Lorentz symmetry and are similar to the four-dimensional solutions constructed by Sezgin and Sundell, with the difference that the additional twisted sectors of the three-dimensional theory are excited. Furthermore, the three-dimensional system contains an extra parameter λ which allows us to vary the mass of the scalar. Among other reasons, the resulting solutions are interesting for the holographic study of cosmological singularities: they describe the growth of a Coleman-De Luccia bubble in anti-de Sitter space, ending in a big crunch singularity. We initiate the holographic study of these solutions, finding evidence for their interpretation within a multi-trace deformation which renders the dual field theory unstable. The limit λ → 0 is particularly interesting as it captures effects of a running coupling in a large- N interacting fermion model. We also propose a generalization of our solutions, consisting of a dressing with Lorentz-invariant projectors. This additional sector remains non-trivial when the scalar field is turned off.

  17. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style and…

  18. An aid to tailoring the alar cartilages in tip rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cucin, R L

    1980-06-01

    An aid to achieving a more precisely symmetric and individualized result in tip rhinoplasty is presented as an aid to both neophytes and experienced surgeons. It is thought to be particularly helpful in teaching variations of tip rhinoplasty and anticipating the results of proper resection. PMID:7384286

  19. [Features of the receptors of the alar system of locusts which have lost their ability to fly].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, N I

    1986-02-01

    Using two species of locusts, Romalia microptera Beavy and Podisma pedestris L., receptors of the wing apparatus are described: campaniform sensillas of the wing, hair receptors of the tegula, chordotonal organ and thorax stretch receptor. A comparative analysis of the receptors mentioned with the homologous sensitive organs, participating in the control of wing movements, is performed in well flying species (Locusta migratoria migratorioides and Schistocerca gregaria). Loss of ability to fly is accompanied with a sharp decrease in the wing campaniform sensillas and in the tegula proprioceptive hairs. Simultaneously, there is loss of connection between the thorax receptors and the wing elements that are present in good flyers. The thorax stretch receptor begins to innervate the longitudinal dorsal muscle, as it is observed in the abdominal segments. The data obtained make it possible to speak about homology of the tergal chordotonal organs and the thorax and abdomen stretch receptors and about the pathways of their evolution, when the insects obtain and loose their ability to fly. PMID:3707362

  20. Analysis of the IMS Location Accuracy in Northern Eurasia and North America Using Regional and Global Pn Travel-time Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    United States Calibration Working Group, Russian Federation/

    - Joint Research Program of Seismic Calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in Northern Eurasia and North America has been signed by the Nuclear Treaty Programs Office (NTPO), Department of Defense USA, and the Special Monitoring Service (SMS) of the Ministry of Defense, Russian Federation (RF). Under the Program historical data from nuclear and large chemical explosions of known location and shot time, together with appropriate geological and geophysical data, has been used to derive regional Pn/P travel-time tables for seismic event location within the lower 48 States of the USA and the European part of the RF. These travel-time tables are up to 5seconds faster in shields than the IASPEI91 tables, and up to 5seconds slower in the Western USA. Relocation experiments using the regional Pn travel-time curves and surrogate networks for the IMS network generally improved locations for regional seismic events. The distance between true and estimated location (mislocation) was decreased from an average of 18.8km for the IASPEI91 tables to 10.1km for the regional Pn travel-time tables. However, the regional travel-time table approach has limitations caused by travel-time variations inside major tectonic provinces and paths crossing several tectonic provinces with substantially different crustal and upper mantle velocity structure.The RF members of the Calibration Working Group (WG): Colonel Vyacheslav Gordon (chairman); Dr. Prof. Marat Mamsurov, and Dr. Nikolai Vasiliev. The US members of the WG: Dr. Anton Dainty (chairman), Dr. Douglas Baumgardt, Mr. John Murphy, Dr. Robert North, and Dr. Vladislav Ryaboy.

  1. [Nikolai Illarionovich Kozlov--a scientist, a doctor, an outstanding organizer of Military Medicine (To the 200th anniversary of the birth)].

    PubMed

    Egorysheva, I V

    2014-11-01

    To Kozlov N.I. (1814-1889) belong numerous achievements in the organization of military medical unit during the Crimean (1853-1856) and the Russian-Turkish (1877-1878) wars, the introduction of women's medical education in Russia, establishment of an improvement system for the military doctors, edition for their medical guidelines, the organization of military health care in Russia. PMID:25816684

  2. A Plea for Scientific Ambitions: Reply to Commentaries from Martin Wieser, Nikolai Veresov, Asger Neumann, and Peter Krøjgaard.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The paper is a reply to commentaries to "Activity theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences" (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). At the same time it is an attempt to reply to more general issues raised by the commentators and an attempt to further develop some general ideas from our paper with a focus on the introduction of the new analytical concepts sense and choice categories. These concepts have been elaborated in an axiomatic frame in (Mammen 2016) and the present paper is thus also pointing forwards to that and supporting it with examples from research on adult human relations of love and affection and on infant cognitive development. A few examples from myth and literature are referred to also. The ambition is to introduce new analytical tools across schools and domains of psychology which open for theoretical inclusion of new phenomena and re-structuring of well-known ones. The hope is to surmount some problems, as e.g. the dilemma between dualism and reductionism, which have been obstacles in the search for conceptual and methodological coherence in psychology. In the first place the hope is also to sharpen the analytical, critical and practical potential of psychology as a science. The ambition is not, here and now, to develop a comprehensive general theory as a container for the huge amount of empirical results collected using very heterogeneous criteria for what belongs to the domain of psychology and very heterogeneous conceptual frames. Here we still need some patience following the lesson from natural science, step by step including new domains as the conceptual and practical frames are expanding, but on the other hand not excluding anything apriori. PMID:27251641

  3. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  4. Identification of bulk coupling constant in higher spin/ABJ correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masazumi

    2015-08-01

    We study the conjectured duality between the Vasiliev higher spin theory on AdS 4 and 3d superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory known as the ABJ theory. We discuss how the parameters in the ABJ theory should be related to the bulk coupling constant in the Vasiliev theory. For this purpose, we compute two-point function of stress tensor in the ABJ theory by using supersymmmetry localization. Our result justifies the proposal by [13] and determine the unknown coefficient in the previous work.

  5. Asteroid Polarimetric Database V6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Vasilyev, S. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine. It is intended to include most asteroid polarimetry available through January 22, 2008.

  6. Asteroid Polarimetric Database V7.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Vasilyev, S. V.

    2012-06-01

    The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine. It is intended to include most asteroid polarimetry available through March 7, 2012.

  7. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  8. ABJ triality: from higher spin fields to strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Minwalla, Shiraz; Sharma, Tarun; Yin, Xi

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev’s higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N=0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U(M) Chan-Paton and N=6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N)k × U(M)-k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t’Hooft coupling is M/N. Analysis of boundary conditions in Vasiliev theory allows us to determine exact relations between the parity breaking phase of Vasiliev theory and the coefficients of two and three point functions in Chern-Simons vector models at large N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS_4\\times {CP}^3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk ’t Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev’s higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions. This is illustrated by the thermal partition function of free ABJ theory on a two sphere at large M and N even in the analytically tractable free limit. In this system the traces or strings of the low temperature phase break up into their Vasiliev particulate constituents at a U(M) deconfinement phase transition of order unity. At a higher temperature of order T=\\sqrt{\\frac{N}{M}} Vasiliev’s higher spin fields themselves break up into more elementary constituents at a U(N) deconfinement temperature, in a process described in the bulk as black hole nucleation. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  9. Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the supertrace, through the existence of a certain ground state projector. We build this projector and check its properties to the first two orders in the number operator and to all orders in the deformation parameter. We then find the relation between the gravitational and internal gauge couplings in the resulting unified three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory for Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity coupled to fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. We also examine the model for integer or half-integer fractional spins, where infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2 ℓ + 1) or gl( ℓ| ℓ + 1) and various real forms thereof.

  10. Topology of future infinity in dS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Belin, Alexandre; Hellerman, Simeon; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Radičević, Ðorđe; Shenker, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    The dS/CFT proposal of Anninos, Hartman, and Strominger relates quantum Vasiliev gravity in dS4 to a large N vector theory in three dimensions. We use this proposal to compute the Wheeler-de Witt wave function of a universe having a particular topology at future infinity. This amplitude is found to grow rapidly with the topological complexity of the spatial slice; this is due to the plethora of states of the Chern-Simons theory that is needed to impose the singlet constraint. Various mechanisms are considered which might ameliorate this growth, but none seems completely satisfactory. We also study the topology dependence in Einstein gravity by computing the action of complex instantons; the wave function then depends on a choice of contour through the space of metrics. The most natural contour prescription leads to a growth with genus similar to the one found in Vasiliev theory, albeit with a different power of Newton's constant.

  11. Higher spin versus renormalization group equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Ivo

    2014-10-01

    We present a variation of earlier attempts to relate renormalization group equations to higher spin equations. We work with a scalar field theory in 3 dimensions. In this case we show that the classical renormalization group equation is a variant of the Vasiliev higher spin equations with Kleinians on AdS4 for a certain subset of couplings. In the large N limit this equivalence extends to the quantum theory away from the conformal fixed points.

  12. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  13. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  14. Nasal Tip Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerkes, Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tip deficiency can be congenital or secondary to previous nasal surgeries. Underdeveloped medial crura usually present with underprojected tip and lack of tip definition. Weakness or malposition of lateral crura causes alar rim retraction and lateral nasal wall weakness. Structural grafting of alar cartilages strengthens the tip framework, reinforces the disrupted support mechanisms, and controls the position of the nasal tip. In secondary cases, anatomic reconstruction of the weakened or interrupted alar cartilages and reconstitution of a stable nasal tip tripod must be the goal for a predictable outcome. PMID:26616702

  15. [E.S.BOTKIN, A SPECIMEN OF FIDELITY TO PROFESSIONAL DUTY AND OATH OF LOYALTY, AN EXAMPLE OF COURAGE AND HONOUR OF THE RUSSIAN DOCTOR].

    PubMed

    Vologdin, A A; Simonenko, V B

    2015-01-01

    Evgeny Sergeevch Botkin, son of the legendary Russian internist Sergey Petrovich Botkin, was a court physician for Tsar Nikolai II. After Nikolai abdicated the throne on 15 March (2 March in the Julian calendar) 1917, E.S. Botkin felt it was his duty to accompany the Romanovs into exile to Siberia and continued to selflessly treat the crown prince Aleksey, other members of the Romanov family and all those who applied for his advice. He was shot together with the Romanovs in the basement room of the Ipatiev house, Ekaterinburg, remaining loyal to professional duty and the word given to the Emperor. PMID:27008749

  16. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  17. Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksnes, Kaare; Gilmore, Alan C.; Green, Daniel W. E.; Marsden, Brian G.; Nakano, Syuichi; Roemer, Elizabeth; Samus, Nikolaj N.; Tichá, Jana

    2007-12-01

    The president proposed the following for the coming triennium: Alan C. Gilmore president, and Nikolai N. Samus vice-president. Members: Brian G. Marsden, Daniel W. E. Green, Syuichi Nakano, Elizabeth Roemer, Jana Tichá, Hitoshi Yamaoka, Kaare Aksnes. Supernova group representative: Hitoshi Yamaoka was invited on to the OC to provide a link with supernova observers.

  18. 36 CFR 13.902 - Subsistence resident zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Cantwell post office as shown on a map available at the park visitor center), Minchumina, Nikolai....902 Section 13.902 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  19. 36 CFR 13.902 - Subsistence resident zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Cantwell post office as shown on a map available at the park visitor center), Minchumina, Nikolai....902 Section 13.902 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  20. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  1. Higher spin holography with Galilean symmetry in general dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yang; Peng, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    We construct Schrödinger-like solutions of the Vasiliev higher spin theory in D\\gt 3 dimension. Symmetries of such solutions and the linearized equation of motion for the scalar on such backgrounds are analyzed. We further propose Galilean invariant bosonic and fermionic field theories that could be dual to the two parity invariant higher spin theories on the Schrödinger-like background respectively. The discussion is phrased mainly in D = 4 dimension, while similar constructions follow straightforwardly in higher dimensions.

  2. Higher spins and matter interacting in dimension three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, Pan; Gómez, Gustavo Lucena; Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The spectrum of Prokushkin-Vasiliev Theory is puzzling in light of the Gaberdiel-Gopakumar conjecture because it generically contains an additional sector besides higher-spin gauge and scalar fields. We find the unique truncation of the theory avoiding this problem to order 2 in perturbations around AdS3. The second-order backreaction on the physical gauge sector induced by the scalars is computed explicitly. The cubic action for the physical fields is determined completely. The subtle issue of the allowed class of pseudo-local field redefinitions is discussed.

  3. An action for matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2016-05-01

    We propose a covariant Hamiltonian action for the Prokushkin and Vasiliev's matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions. The action is formulated on X_4× Z_2 where X_4 is an open manifold whose boundary contains spacetime and Z_2 is a noncommutative twistor space. We examine various consistent truncations to models of BF type in X_4 and Z_2 with B2 terms and central elements. They are obtained by integrating out the matter fields in the presence of a vacuum expectation value ν ∈ R for the zero-form master field. For ν = 0, we obtain a model on X_4 containing Blencowe's action and a model on Z_2 containing the Prokushkin-Segal-Vasiliev action. For generic ν (including ν = 0), we propose an alternative model on X_4 with gauge fields in the Weyl algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra and Lagrange multipliers in the algebra of operators acting in the Fock representation space of the deformed oscillators.

  4. On the Uniqueness of Higher-Spin Symmetries in ADS and Cft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, N.; Ponomarev, D.; Skvortsov, E.; Taronna, M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the uniqueness of higher-spin algebras which are at the core of higher-spin theories in AdS and of CFTs with exact higher-spin symmetry, i.e. conserved tensors of rank greater than two. The Jacobi identity for the gauge algebra is the simplest consistency test that appears at the quartic order for a gauge theory. Similarly, the algebra of charges in a CFT must also obey the Jacobi identity. These algebras are essentially the same. Solving the Jacobi identity under some simplifying assumptions listed out, we obtain that the Eastwood-Vasiliev algebra is the unique solution for d = 4 and d≥7. In 5d, there is a one-parameter family of algebras that was known before. In particular, we show that the introduction of a single higher-spin gauge field/current automatically requires the infinite tower of higher-spin gauge fields/currents. The result implies that from all the admissible non-Abelian cubic vertices in AdSd, that have been recently classified for totally symmetric higher-spin gauge fields, only one vertex can pass the Jacobi consistency test. This cubic vertex is associated with a gauge deformation that is the germ of the Eastwood-Vasiliev's higher-spin algebra.

  5. [Nicolai Guleke--the founder and pioneer of neurosurgery in Thuringia].

    PubMed

    Dube, W; Besel, R; Maier, F

    1989-01-01

    After the representation of the biographical data and stages of development in the life of Prof. Nikolai Guleke (25th April 1878 to 4th April 1958) it is shown on the basis of his services as a director of the Surgical University Clinic in Jena how he deserved particularly well of the development of neurosurgery. Besides his skills in the surgical-technical field his close co-operation with the then director of the Neurological Clinic of the Jena University, Hans Berger, is appreciated as well as his scientific work, summarised in Volume III/1 of the ten volumes comprising surgical teachings by Kirschner "Interventions in the Cranium, Brain, at the Vertebral Column, the Spinal cord and the Branches of the N. trigeminus". Nikolai Guleke is considered to be an outstanding personality in the history of surgery of our country. PMID:2701914

  6. International Space Station Expedition 6 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The crewmembers of Expedition Six consists of Commander Ken Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit, and Nikolai Budarin. The main goal for expedition six is to perform scientific research and international cooperation. The various areas of training shown include hands on review of The International Space Station Mockups, Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training, and International Space Station Training. A photo session of the astronauts is also presented.

  7. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life. PMID:25549410

  8. Subcutaneous Nasolabial Flap for Eliminating Depressed Nasal Floor in Adult Cleft Rhinoplasty: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Torabizadeh Siraji, Arman

    2015-06-01

    Depressed nasal floor extension into the nostril in cleft patients is difficult to solve. Suggested ways for solving this problem need skin incisions other than routine open rhinoplasty incisions. Nasolabia subcutaneous flap makes the infrastructure in depressed nasal floor in cleft patients. Alar advancement and medial nasal floor triangular flap cover it. PMID:26180711

  9. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  10. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  11. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  12. Conditional cell ablation via diphtheria toxin reveals distinct requirements for the basal plate in the regional identity of diencephalic subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bumwhee; Lam, Duc Tri; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Jaeseung; Jeong, Yongsu

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian diencephalon is the caudal derivative of the embryonic forebrain. Early events in diencephalic regionalization include its subdivision along the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes. The prosomeric model by Puelles and Rubenstein (1993) suggests that the alar plate of the posterior diencephalon is partitioned into three different prosomeres (designated p1-p3), which develop into the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus, respectively. Here, we report the developmental consequences of genetic ablation of cell populations from the diencephalic basal plate. The strategy for conditionally regulated cell ablation is based on the targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin gene (DTA) to the diencephalic basal plate via tamoxifen- induced, Cre-mediated recombination of the ROSA(DTA) allele. We show that activation of DTA leads to specific cell loss in the basal plate of the posterior diencephalon, and disrupted early regionalization of distinct alar territories. In the basal plate-deficient embryos, the p1 alar plate exhibited reduced expression of subtype-specific markers in the pretectum, whereas p2 alar plate failed to further subdivide into two discrete thalamic subpopulations. We also show that these defects lead to abnormal nuclear organization at later developmental stages. Our data have implications for increased understanding of the interactive roles between discrete diencephalic compartments. PMID:25950659

  13. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  14. Repair of "coup de sabre," a linear form of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sengezer, M; Deveci, M; Selmanpakoglu, N

    1996-10-01

    A case of coup de sabre, a linear form of scleroderma, is presented. Treatment consisted of soft-tissue expansion and autologous bone grafting to the forehead, a composite graft for alar reconstruction, and a scalp graft for eyebrow reconstruction. None of the linear scleroderma cases reported in the literature consisted of bony reconstruction. PMID:8905054

  15. On matter coupled to the higher spin square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-09-01

    Gaberdiel and Gopakumar recently proposed that the tensionless limit of string theory on {{AdS}}3× {S}3× {T}4 takes the form of a higher spin theory with a gauge algebra that is referred to as the higher spin square (hss). In this note, we formulate the linearized Vasiliev-type equations which describe a matter field coupled to the hss. We study the particle spectrum of this field and show that it accounts for the entire untwisted sector of the dual symmetric orbifold CFT, thereby confirming a conjecture by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. In doing so, we pinpoint the group-theoretic data which determine the spectrum of a matter field coupled to a general higher spin algebra, which we illustrate by revisiting the theory based on the {hs}[1/2] algebra.

  16. A fiber approach to harmonic analysis of unfolded higher-spin field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, C.; Sundell, P.

    2008-10-01

    In Vasiliev's unfolded formulation of higher-spin dynamics the standard fields are embedded on-shell into covariantly constant master fields valued in Lorentz-covariant slices of the star-product algebra Script A of functions on the singleton phase space. Correspondingly, the harmonic expansion is taken over compact slices of Script A that are unitarizable in a rescaled trace-norm rather than the standard Killing norm. Motivated by the higher-derivative nature of the theory, we examine indecomposable unitarizable Harish-Chandra modules consisting of standard massless particles plus linearized runaway solutions. This extension arises naturally in the above fiber approach upon realizing compact-weight states as non-polynomial analytic functions in Script A.

  17. MIR 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Veteran Russian cosmonaut and STS-71 crew member Anatoly Y. Solovyev looks relaxed and at ease as he dons his launch/entry suit with assistance from a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. His fourth trip into space will be both historic and unusual for Solovyev. He and fellow crew member Nikolai Budarin are scheduled to transfer to the Mir Space Station during STS-71 and remain there, meaning they will begin their spaceflight in one country, the United States, and complete it with a return trip home to another, Russia. Solovyev is assigned as the Mir 19 mission commander, while Budarin is the Mir 19 flight engineer.

  18. New Journal Editors Appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    New editors have been appointed for Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR)-Solid Earth, Reviews of Geophysics, JGR-Space Physics, Paleoceanography, and Tectonics. At GRL, new editors Noah Diffenbaugh (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Paolo D’Odorico (University of Virginia, Charlottesville), Ruth Harris (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.), Wolfgang Knorr (University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), Geoffrey Tyndall (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.), and Michael Wysession (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.) have joined Editor-in-Chief Eric Calais and other editors Margaret Chen, Fabio Florindo, Anne Müller, Nikolai Ostgaard, Eric Rignot, and Meric Srokosz.

  19. STS-71 Anatoly Y. Solovyev arrives in T-38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Mir 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev gets to ride shotgun behind STS-71 Mission Commander Robert 'Hoot' Gibson for the trip from Johnson Space Center, Houston, to KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. All seven STS-71 crew members zoomed into KSC in the T- 38 aircraft traditionally flown by the astronaut corps. Earlier in the day, the countdown clock began ticking toward Friday's scheduled liftoff of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at 5:08 p.m. EDT, June 23. During the STS-71 mission, Solovyev and fellow Mir 19 crew member Nikolai M. Budarin will transfer from Atlantis to Mir and remain there.

  20. STS-113 Flight Day 10 Highlights Replay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 10 are shown. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the International Space Station (ISS). A panoramic view of the undocking of the Space Shuttle Endeavor from the International Space Station is also presented.

  1. STS-113 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The first flight day of the STS-113 begins with a live shot of the Space Shuttle Endeavor at the Kennedy Space Center. The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria, and John Herrington. The STS-113 crewmembers are accompanied Expedition 6 astronauts Kenneth Bowersox, Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin. The purpose of this flight is to carry the P1 truss segment to the International Space Station along with the Expedition 6 flight crew. The crewmembers are shown getting suited for the space flight. Countdown and lift off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor is also shown.

  2. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  3. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Mission Commander James Wetherbee and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and astronaut Donald Pettit of the Expedition 6 crew. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  4. AGU members elected to Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six AGU members are among the sixty new members and fifteen foreign associates elected on April 27 to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.AGU members elected were AGU Past-President G. Brent Dalrymple of USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.; Donald J . DePaolo, University of California, Berkeley; Ho-Kwang (David) Mao, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C.; Mario J . Molina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; and Alexandra Navrotsky, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. Elected as foreign associates were Nikolai V. Sobolev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, and Friedrich H. Busse, University of Bayreuth, Germany.

  5. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart; astronaut Donald Pettit; Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington; and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  6. Rocketry, film and fiction: the road to Sputnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-07-01

    The launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 was fuelled by science fiction as well as science fact. The field of early rocketry included the work of Russians Nikolai Rynin and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, American Robert Goddard, and German engineers Herman Oberth and Wernher Von Braun. All were directly inspired and influenced by early science fiction that heralded a space age decades ahead of time. The work of these pioneers led directly to the development of the technology needed to boost Sputnik skyward. After the launch of Sputnik, the context of the nuclear arms race opened the floodgates for a new wave of apocalyptic fiction.

  7. Technique in Cleft Rhinoplasty: The Foundation Graft.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Schwan, Franziska; Haubner, Frank; Suárez, Gustavo A; Vielsmeier, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    Secondary cleft rhinoplasty represents a particular surgical challenge. The authors have identified the deficit in skeletal projection of the cleft-sided piriform rim as an important contributor to the pathology. A graft is described to augment the piriform crest on the cleft side. This foundation graft is suture fixated to the piriform crest after complete release of all soft tissue attachments to the alar base. The foundation graft is articulated with a long alar strut graft, which allows for powerful projection of the cleft-sided nasal tip. An advancement flap of vestibular skin is described to correct the vestibular stenosis. A transplant of diced cartilage in fascia is added to augment maxillary soft tissue volume. Subjective and objective measures of form and function are presented in a retrospective series of five cases, illustrating the efficacy of the techniques described. PMID:27097143

  8. Further characterization of Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sood, S M; Slattery, C W; Filley, S J; Wu, M X; Hill, K A

    1996-04-15

    Selected physical and thermodynamic parameters for Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have been determined primarily to assess the quaternary structure of this enzyme. The extinction coefficient (epsilon) at 280 nm was determined experimentally to be 0.71 ml mg-1 cm-1, and the partial specific volume (nu) was calculated from the amino acid composition to be 0.73 ml g-1. From viscosity experiments the intrinsic viscosity (eta) of AlaRS was extrapolated to be 3.4 ml g-1 and the degree of hydration (delta 1) estimated to be 0.67 gH2O g(-1)(AlaRS). Laser light-scattering studies indicated some heterogeneity; a radius of 6.3 nm was calculated for the major fraction with a diffusion coefficient (D20,W) of 3.89 x 10(-7) cm2 s-1. In 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 20 mM KCl, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and at a protein concentration of 4.2 mg ml-1 the sedimentation coefficient (S20,W) was 6.36 S; this value increased slightly when the protein concentration was decreased. The combination of S20,W and D20,W under these conditions yielded a molecular weight of approximately 186,000 Da, corresponding to a dimer. The S20,W was virtually independent of temperature in the range of 10-37 degrees C, while an Arrhenius plot of aminoacylation activity was biphasic. The isoelectric point was determined experimentally to be 4.9. Sedimentation equilibrium data were best fit to a decamer association complex in which dimeric AlaRS is the predominant species at 25 degrees C. PMID:8645007

  9. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell. PMID:24659451

  10. Regional expression of Pax7 in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Pax7 is a member of the highly conserved Pax gene family that is expressed in restricted zones of the central nervous system (CNS) during development, being involved in early brain regionalization and the maintenance of the regional identity. Using sensitive immunohistochemical techniques we have analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of Pax7 expression in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, during development. Pax7 expression was first detected in early embryos in the basal plate of prosomere 3, roof and alar plates of prosomere 1 and mesencephalon, and the alar plate of rhombomere 1. As development proceeded, Pax7 cells were observed in the hypothalamus close to the catecholaminergic population of the mammillary region. In the diencephalon, Pax7 was intensely expressed in a portion of the basal plate of prosomere 3, in the roof plate and in scattered cells of the thalamus in prosomere 2, throughout the roof of prosomere 1, and in the commissural and juxtacommissural domains of the pretectum. In the mesencephalon, Pax7 cells were localized in the optic tectum and, to a lesser extent, in the torus semicircularis. The rostral portion of the alar part of rhombomere 1, including the ventricular layer of the cerebellum, expressed Pax7 and, gradually, some of these dorsal cells were observed to populate ventrally the interpeduncular nucleus and the isthmus (rhombomere 0). Additionally, Pax7 positive cells were found in the ventricular zone of the ventral part of the alar plate along the rhombencephalon and the spinal cord. The findings show that the strongly conserved features of Pax7 expression through development shared by amniote vertebrates are also present in the anamniote amphibians as a common characteristic of the brain organization of tetrapods. PMID:24399938

  11. Molecular Regionalization of the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Martinez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The anatomic complexity of the diencephalon depends on precise molecular and cellular regulative mechanisms orchestrated by regional morphogenetic organizers at the neural tube stage. In the diencephalon, like in other neural tube regions, dorsal and ventral signals codify positional information to specify ventro-dorsal regionalization. Retinoic acid, Fgf8, BMPs, and Wnts signals are the molecular factors acting upon the diencephalic epithelium to specify dorsal structures, while Shh is the main ventralizing signal. A central diencephalic organizer, the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), appears after neurulation in the central diencephalic alar plate, establishing additional antero-posterior positional information inside diencephalic alar plate. Based on Shh expression, the ZLI acts as a morphogenetic center, which cooperates with other signals in thalamic specification and pattering in the alar plate of diencephalon. Indeed, Shh is expressed first in the basal plate extending dorsally through the ZLI epithelium as the development proceeds. Despite the importance of ZLI in diencephalic morphogenesis the mechanisms that regulate its development remain incompletely understood. Actually, controversial interpretations in different experimental models have been proposed. That is, experimental results have suggested that (i) the juxtaposition of the molecularly heterogeneous neuroepithelial areas, (ii) cell reorganization in the epithelium, and/or (iii) planar and vertical inductions in the neural epithelium, are required for ZLI specification and development. We will review some experimental data to approach the study of the molecular regulation of diencephalic regionalization, with special interest in the cellular mechanisms underlying planar inductions. PMID:22654731

  12. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Madrigal, M Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  13. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  14. Internal Nasal Valve Incompetence Is Effectively Treated Using Batten Graft Functional Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, J. C.; Buchanan, M. A.; Frosh, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Internal nasal valve incompetence (INVI) has been treated with various surgical methods. Large, single surgeon case series are lacking, meaning that the evidence supporting a particular technique has been deficient. We present a case series using alar batten grafts to reconstruct the internal nasal valve, all performed by the senior author. Methods. Over a 7-year period, 107 patients with nasal obstruction caused by INVI underwent alar batten grafting. Preoperative assessment included the use of nasal strips to evaluate symptom improvement. Visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of nasal blockage (NB) and quality of life (QOL) both pre- and postoperatively were performed and analysed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results. Sixty-seven patients responded to both pre- and postoperative questionnaires. Ninety-one percent reported an improvement in NB and 88% an improvement in QOL. The greatest improvement was seen at 6 months (median VAS 15 mm and 88 mm resp., with a P value of <0.05 for both). Nasal strips were used preoperatively and are a useful tool in predicting patient operative success in both NB and QOL (odds ratio 2.15 and 2.58, resp.). Conclusions. Alar batten graft insertion as a single technique is a valid technique in treating INVI and produces good outcomes. PMID:23653651

  15. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-01

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. PMID:22284991

  16. Paleogeographic implications of high latitude and middle latitude affinities of the ammonoid Uraloceras

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. ); Nassichuk, W.W. ); Snyder, W.S.

    1991-02-01

    The ammonoid genus Uraloceras characterized a Lower Permian Boreal paleogeographic realm. Reported Lower Permian Pangaean uraloceras occurrences have a Boreal or high-latitude distribution. Additional Lower Permian occurrences in Alaska, dominated by Boreal species, are compatible with and reinforce the Boreal distribution of the genus. In contrast, a new Uraloceras species from Nevada and from the Yukon, as well as representatives of the genus form Nei Monggol, inhabited regions of lower latitudes. The latter ammonoid faunas, geographically and paleoecologically transitional between boreal and equatorial realms, include the genus Uraloceras as well as abundant other ammonoid taxa and representatives of equatorial perinitid ammonoids. The lower assemblage of Wrangellia terrane in eastern Alaska, consisting of the Lower Permian Mankomen Group (Slana Spur and Eagle Creek formations), contains abundant Uraloceras and Paragastrioceras of high-latitude affinities. Published paleomagnetic data indicate that the Nikolai Greenstone is of equatorial origin, with paleolatitudes 10 to 17{degree}. The Nikolai Greenstone seems to have a far-traveled history incompatible with ammonoid evidence suggesting cool-water setting on the Pangaean continental shelf. A reinterpretation for the origin of Wrangellia or its magnetic signature may be in order. Alternative hypotheses suggest that the Eagle Creek Uraloceras-Paragastrioceras Boreal fauna was scraped off the craton at higher latitudes (possible 30-45{degree}) and carried with Wrangellia to its present location.

  17. The Triassic Chitistone Limestone, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska: stressing detailed descriptions of sabkha facies and other rocks in lower parts of the Chitistone and their relations to Kennecott-type copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; MacKevett, E.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent investigations show that sabkha deposits were important in the genesis of Kennecott-type copper ore. Massive chalcocite-rich lodes at Kennecott and nearby deposits formed in the lower 110 meters of the Upper Triassic Chitistone Limestone. The Chitistone and superimposed Upper Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks formed in a marine basin on and surrounded by the Nikolai Greenstone, a thick, extensive, largely subaerial succession of tholeiitic basalt with intrinsically high copper content. Lowermost 110 meters of the Chitistone contains three incomplete upward-shoaling lime mud cyclic sequences that each consist of shallow subtidal limestone grading upward to intertidal stromatolitic fine-grained dolomite. The youngest cycle contains well-developed sabkha features and dolomitic pisolitic and laminate crust caliches and underlies shallow-marine limestone. The ore deposits are related to the youngest supratidal cycle. This carbonate cycle represents a regional sabkha facies that developed between 90-110 meters above the Nikolai Greenstone. This facies, which contained abundant gypsum-anhydrite, was exposed to vadose weathering that leached much gypsum-anhydrite and developed a vuggy zone interbedded with porous dolomitic caliche zones. Subsequent marine deposition capped the porous zone with an impermeable seal. The youngest sabkha horizon served as a permeable conduit for the ore-forming solution and was instrumental in localizing the major Kennecott-type ores.

  18. In memory of V L Ginzburg (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division (PSD) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, took place in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 27 October 2010.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Rubakov V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider"; (3) Gurevich A V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow), Zelenyi L M (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Intense gamma bursts in Earth's atmosphere (TGE) and the mission 'Chibis'"; (4) Vasiliev M A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Higher-spin theory"; (5) Maksimov E G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "What is and what is not known about HTSC"; (6) Pudalov V M (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow, and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) "V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors'". Papers based on talks 2, 4, and 6 are published below.For several reasons, L P Pitaevskii was unable to attend the session. He presented a paper dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, which is published in this issue of Physics-Uspekhi (p. 625). • Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider, V A Rubakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 633-641 • V L Ginzburg and higher-spin fields, M A Vasiliev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 641-648 • V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors', V M Pudalov, O E Omel'yanovskii, E P Khlybov, A V Sadakov, Yu F El'tsev, K V Mitsen, O M Ivanenko, K S Pervakov, D R Gizatulin, A S Usol'tsev, A S Dormidontov, S Yu Gavrilkin, A Yu Tsvetkov, Ya G Ponomarev, S A Kuzmichev, M G Mikheev

  19. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  20. Weak annihilation cusp inside the dark matter spike about a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    We reinvestigate the effect of annihilations on the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) in a spherical density spike around a massive black hole. We first construct a very simple, pedagogic, analytic model for an isotropic phase space distribution function that accounts for annihilation and reproduces the "weak cusp" found by Vasiliev for DM deep within the spike and away from its boundaries. The DM density in the cusp varies as r-1 /2 for s -wave annihilation, where r is the distance from the central black hole, and is not a flat "plateau" profile. We then extend this model by incorporating a loss cone that accounts for the capture of DM particles by the hole. The loss cone is implemented by a boundary condition that removes capture orbits, resulting in an anisotropic distribution function. Finally, we evolve an initial spike distribution function by integrating the Boltzmann equation to show how the weak cusp grows and its density decreases with time. We treat two cases, one for s -wave and the other for p -wave DM annihilation, adopting parameters characteristic of the Milky Way nuclear core and typical WIMP models for DM. The cusp density profile for p -wave annihilation is weaker, varying like ˜r-0.34, but is still not a flat plateau.

  1. Phase Transitions in Quasi-2D Plasma-Dust Systems: Simulations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Statsenko, Konstantin; Koss, Xeniya; Vasilieva, Elena; Myasnikov, Maxim; Lisin, Evgeny

    2015-11-01

    A nature of phase transition in quasi-2D dusty plasma structures was studied and the influence of the quasi-2D cluster size (a number of particles in it) on the features of the phase transition was investigated. Experiments and numerical simulation was conducted for the systems consisting of small (~ 10) and large (~ 103) number of particles. To investigate the phase state of the system with 7, 18 and 100 particles observed in numerical and laboratory experiments, we used the method based on analysis of dynamic entropy. Numerical modeling of small systems was conducted by the Langevin molecular dynamic method with the Langevin force, responsible for the stochastic nature of the motion of particles with a given kinetic temperature. Phase state of systems with the number of elements in the order of 103, was studied using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Here we present new results of an experimental study of the change of translational and orientational order and topological defects, and the pair interactions at 2D melting of dust cluster in rf discharge plasma. The experimental results have revealed the existence of hexatic phase as well as solid-to-hexatic phase and hexatic-to-liquid transitions. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (O.F. Petrov, M.M.Vasiliev, K.B. Stacenko, X.G. Koss, E.V. Vasilieva, M.I.Myasnikov and E.?.Lisin) through Grant No. 14-12-01440).

  2. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-01

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism. PMID:24147985

  3. Topography of Somatostatin Gene Expression Relative to Molecular Progenitor Domains during Ontogeny of the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Merchan, Paloma; Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferrán, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Díaz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal, and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostrocaudal subdivision into rostral (terminal) and caudal (peduncular) halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst) mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp), Distal-less 5 (Dlx5), Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1). At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2.1-, Shh-, and Otp-positive basal domain. By E13.5, nascent Sst expression was also related to two additional Otp-positive domains within the alar plate and one in the basal plate. In the alar plate, Sst-positive cells were observed in rostral and caudal ventral subdomains of the Otp-positive paraventricular complex. An additional basal Sst-expressing cell group was found within a longitudinal Otp-positive periretromamillary band that separates the retromamillary area from tuberal areas. Apart of subsequent growth of these initial populations, at E13.5 and E15.5 some Sst-positive derivatives migrate tangentially into neighboring regions. A subset of cells produced at the anterobasal nucleus disperses ventralward into the shell of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Cells from the rostroventral paraventricular subdomain reach the suboptic nucleus, whereas a caudal contingent migrates radially into lateral paraventricular, perifornical, and entopeduncular nuclei. Our data provide a topologic map of molecularly defined progenitor areas originating a specific neuron type during early hypothalamic development. Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization. PMID:21441981

  4. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair. PMID:26147027

  5. Nasal tip support: A finite element analysis of the role of the caudal septum during tip depression

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Cyrus T.; Leary, Ryan; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Although minor and major tip support mechanisms have been described in detail, no quantitative models exist to provide support for the relative contributions of the structural properties of the major alar cartilage, the fibrous attachments to surrounding structures, and the rigid support structures in an objective manner. Study Design The finite element method was used to compute the stress distribution in the nose during simple tip compression, and then identify the specific anatomic structures that resist deformation and thus contribute to “tip support”. Additionally, the impact of caudal septal resection on nasal tip support was examined. Method The computer models consisted of three tissue components with anatomically correct geometries for skin and bone derived from CT data. Septum, upper lateral cartilages, and major alar cartilages were fitted within the model using 3D CAD software. 5mm nasal tip compression was performed on the models with caudal septal resection (3mm and 5 mm) and without resection to simulate palpation, then the resulting spatial distribution of stress and displacement was calculated. Results The von Mises stress in the normal model was primarily concentrated along medial crural angle. As caudal septum length was reduced, stress was redistributed to adjacent soft tissue and bone, resulting in less force acting on the septum. In all models, displacement was greatest near the intermediate crura. Conclusions These models are the first step in the comprehensive mechanical analysis of nasal tip dynamics. Our model supports the concept of the caudal septum and major alar cartilage as providing the majority of critical load-bearing support. Level of Evidence N/A PMID:23878007

  6. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  7. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  8. Conserved localization of Pax6 and Pax7 transcripts in the brain of representatives of sarcopterygian vertebrates during development supports homologous brain regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Nerea; Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Bandín, Sandra; López, Jesús M.; González, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Many of the genes involved in brain patterning during development are highly conserved in vertebrates and similarities in their expression patterns help to recognize homologous cell types or brain regions. Among these genes, Pax6 and Pax7 are expressed in regionally restricted patterns in the brain and are essential for its development. In the present immunohistochemical study we analyzed the distribution of Pax6 and Pax7 cells in the brain of six representative species of tetrapods and lungfishes, the closest living relatives of tetrapods, at several developmental stages. The distribution patterns of these transcription factors were largely comparable across species. In all species only Pax6 was expressed in the telencephalon, including the olfactory bulbs, septum, striatum, and amygdaloid complex. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, mainly in prosomeres 1 and 3. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the optic tectum (superior colliculus) and Pax6, but not Pax7, cells were found in the tegmentum. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum and Pax7 labeling was detected in cells of the ventricular zone of the rostral alar plate and in migrated cells in the basal plate, including the griseum centrale and the interpeduncular nucleus. Caudally, Pax6 cells formed a column, whereas the ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Since the observed Pax6 and Pax7 expression patterns are largely conserved they can be used to identify subdivisions in the brain across vertebrates that are not clearly discernible with classical techniques. PMID:25147506

  9. KSC-03PD-1273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Russian Soyuz TMA-2 rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. KSC-03PD-1265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. KSC-03PD-1264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Veteran Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  13. STS-113 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 seventh flight day begins with a view of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station from a camera at the end of the S1 truss. Live footage of Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown aboard the International Space Station. A change of command ceremony is presented to welcome the Expedition Six Crew and to say farewell to the Expedition Five crew. Commander Valery Korzun, Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev, NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit, Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are all are shown during the ceremony.

  14. STS-113 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 5. The crew is seen together with the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station) preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity) the following day, and performing tasks on board the ISS. The changing of valves on the ISS carbon dioxide removal assembly is shown. The STS-113 crew is seen together answering numerous questions from the general public, with Lopez-Alegria answering all but one. There is also a clip of Jay Leno congratulating Wetherbee on his fiftieth birthday. Inside views of the Endeavour orbiter and the ISS modules are shown, as well as a view of the coast of Chile.

  15. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  16. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  17. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  18. STS-113 cosmonaut Budarin during suit check for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin relaxes during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  19. Astronomical Books in Virtual Library of Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, N.; Mijajlovic, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Library of the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade, at the address http://elibrary.matf.bg.ac.rs, contains about 100 digitized books related to astronomy. These books are written mostly by Serbian scientists but there are also translations into Serbian by foreign authors. This article presents a list of books written by the following authors: Rudjer Bo\\vsković, Zaharije Orfelin, Atanasije Stojković, Djordje Stanojević, Milan Andonović, Kosta Stojanović, Nikolai Tsinger, Milutin Milanković, Milan Nedeljković, Pavle Vujević, Vojislav Minković, Zaharije Brkić, Branislav Ševarlić, Jovan Simovljević and Sergei Blažko. Some of these books had the great influence on the development of astronomy, geodesy and mathematical geography in Serbia. The full list of these books is given and a selection of them is presented and commented.

  20. Korotkoff sounds -- the improbable also occurs.

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo; Borgstein, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Very few discoveries have had such a large impact on and relevance to clinical medicine as the noninvasive measurement of the diastolic blood pressure. A number of gifted physiologists and clinicians were ineffectively in search of a noninvasive method to determine the diastolic pressure. Nonetheless, the quantification of the diastolic BP was not achieved by any of these clinical or physiological researchers, but by an unlikely and unexpected figure: Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkoff (1874-1920), a young Russian army surgeon, working under precarious conditions in the hardship of diverse wars. It is easy to dismiss the achievement of Korotkoff as a serendipitous discovery, similar to that of Alexander Fleming in the discovery of penicillin. However, Nassim N. Taleb's recent black swan theory may serve to illustrate his discovery in a new and, perhaps, surprising way. PMID:24343557

  1. Laboratory of N.V. Belov as a school of highly qualified experts

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V. I.

    2011-11-15

    The occasion of Nikolai Vasil'evich Belov's 120th birthday is a good reason for recalling the works of this prominent representative of the pleiad of famous Russian and foreign crystallographers. Not only experts in structural crystallography passed through his school. The number of postgraduates that became candidates of sciences (and some, later, doctors) under the guidance of Belov is amazing. Many of his students organized and headed new laboratories at the Institute of Crystallography and at other institutes. We all remember the original methods proposed by Belov for determining the atomic structure of crystals in periods before and after the time when computers arose. New directions in the study of minerals and the solution of structural problems of crystal chemistry, crystal physics, and materials science continue in the community of crystallographers. They are being actively developed, and not only by Belov's students.

  2. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery. PMID:22164990

  3. Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, I P

    1992-01-01

    On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

  4. Korotkoff Sounds - The Improbable also Occurs

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo; Borgstein, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Very few discoveries have had such a large impact on and relevance to clinical medicine as the noninvasive measurement of the diastolic blood pressure. A number of gifted physiologists and clinicians were ineffectively in search of a noninvasive method to determine the diastolic pressure. Nonetheless, the quantification of the diastolic BP was not achieved by any of these clinical or physiological researchers, but by an unlikely and unexpected figure: Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkoff (1874-1920), a young Russian army surgeon, working under precarious conditions in the hardship of diverse wars. It is easy to dismiss the achievement of Korotkoff as a serendipitous discovery, similar to that of Alexander Fleming in the discovery of penicillin. However, Nassim N. Taleb's recent black swan theory may serve to illustrate his discovery in a new and, perhaps, surprising way. PMID:24343557

  5. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  6. Planeten beobachten. Praktische Anleitung für Amateurbeobachter und solche, die es werden wollen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. D.

    Contents: 1. Amateurastronomie und Planetenbeobachtung (H.-J. Mettig, G. D. Roth). 2. Die visuelle Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 3. Mond- und Planetenphotographie (B. Koch). 4. Die CCD-Bildbearbeitung (R. A. Hillebrecht). 5. Tabellen zur Ermittlung der Belichtungszeiten für Mond- und Planetenaufnahmen (W. Gruschel). 6. Die lichtelektrische Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 7. Die Objekte in Einzeldarstellungen: Merkur (D. Niechoy); Venus (D. Niechoy); Erdmond (G. D. Roth); Mars (C. M. Schambeck); Kleine Planeten (M. Hoffmann, G. D. Roth, J. Meeus); Jupiter (H.-J. Mettig, R. C. Stoyan, A. Nikolai, C. Kowalec, G. Hahn); Saturn (R. C. Stoyan, G. Hahn, H.-J. Mettig); Uranus (R. C. Stoyan); Neptun (R. C. Stoyan); Pluto (R. C. Stoyan). 8. Adressen, Literaturhinweise, Register.

  7. STS-113 crew breakfast before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Nikolai Budarin. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  8. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  9. A Practical Approach to Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Rhinoplasty continues to be one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures. Over the past 25 years, the open approach has increased in popularity and is the focus of this article. The principles for successful rhinoplasty include comprehensive clinical analysis and defining rhinoplasty goals, preoperative consultation and planning, precise operative execution, postoperative management, and critical analysis of one's results. Systematic nasal analysis is critical to establish the goals of surgery. Techniques to address the nasal dorsum, nasal airway, tip complex, alar rims, and bony vault that provide consistent results are discussed. PMID:27018701

  10. Controversies in the Management of Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Tatum, Sherard

    2016-08-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies. For many years, surgeons have been attempting to reduce the severity of the deformity before the surgical repair to achieve a better outcome. The nasoalveolar molding technique uses acrylic nasal stents attached to the vestibular shield of an oral molding plate to mold the nasal alar cartilages into a more normal form and position during the presurgical period. Proponents of nasoalveolar molding claim several benefits, including improved aesthetic outcome, reduced overall costs, and a psychosocial benefit to the family. Research on these outcomes is not conclusive. PMID:27400840

  11. Heminasal agenesis: a reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Zelken, Jonathan; Redett, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Heminasal agenesis is a rare congenital malformation often associated with deformities of the eyes and lacrimal system, midface, and proboscis lateralis. Reconstruction is especially challenging because of missing lining, cartilage, and skin. We present a case of heminasal agenesis in a 5-year-old girl with concomitant hypertelorism, coloboma of the eyelids, and maxillary hypoplasia. The patient underwent facial bipartition for hypertelorism correction and cantilever bone graft. A forehead flap was designed using an anaplastic model from the patient's twin sister. Cartilage harvested from the conchal bowl and rib provided alar and dorsal support. Reconstructive goals, timing, and options are discussed. PMID:24777004

  12. On behalf of tradition: An analysis of medical student and physician beliefs on how anatomy should be taught.

    PubMed

    Marom, Assaf; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Human anatomy, one of the basic medical sciences, is a time-honored discipline. As such, it is taught using traditional methods, cadaveric dissection chief among them. Medical imaging has recently gained popularity as a teaching method in anatomy courses. In light of a general tendency to reduce course hours, this has resulted in a decrease of dissection time and intense debates between traditional and modern approaches to anatomy teaching. In an attempt to explore trends in the attitudes of medical professionals toward the various methods of anatomy teaching, medical imaging in particular, the authors constructed a questionnaire and conducted a nationwide survey among medical students (in all stages at medical school), residents, and specialists in all fields of medicine. The survey results demonstrated indisputable appreciation of traditional methods of anatomy teaching, particularly cadaveric dissection, and showed that specialists believe significantly more strongly than clinical or preclinical students that anatomy and medical imaging should be taught separately. Strong correlations among the components of the traditional approach to anatomy instruction were also found. In light of the results, it was recommended that imaging should be incorporated into anatomy courses with caution, and, as far as possible, not at the expense of dissection time. It was advised that medical imaging has to be taught as a separate course, parallel to a traditional anatomy course. This will allow anatomical principles to be appreciated, which in turn will serve the students when they study radiology. "And we proceed in the following order: in front walks Nikolai with the slides or atlases, I come after him, and after me, his head humbly lowered, strides the cart horse; or else, if necessary, a cadaver is carried in first, after the cadaver walks Nikolai, and so on. At my appearance, the students rise, then sit down, and the murmur of the sea suddenly grows still. Calm ensues

  13. Augmentation rhinoplasty with custom-made S-shape silicone implant in Asians: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Chuangsuwanich, Apirag; Lohsiriwat, Visnu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asians have low nasal dorsum, thick skin envelope, low defined alar cartilage, low projection of nasal tip and broad alar base. Augmentation rhinoplasty with silicone prosthesis has been performed with predictable results, but unfavourable results and complications still present. This series show techniques and results from single surgeon experience. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 548 patients chart during January 1995 to December 2009. All patients underwent custom-made S-shape implant silicone augmentation rhinoplasty operated by a single surgeon. There were three major operative steps: (1) Intra-operative S-shape implant carving; (2) pocket dissection through bilateral rim incision and (3) tension adjustment before closure. All the patients were recorded for early surgical complications and satisfaction. Results: There were 519 women and 29 men. The mean age is 25.5 years (18-56 years). Mean follow-up period was 6 months (1-60 months). The majority of patient were appointed for esthetic augmentation (86.8%). 515 cases (94.9%) showed well satisfaction following the operation. The total complication rate was 6.5% (4.9% deviation, 0.7% extrusion, 0.5% hematoma and 0.3% infection). All the complications were corrected with uneventful sequelae. Conclusion: Augmentation rhinoplasty with custom-made S-shape silicone implant by closed approach provides high satisfaction with acceptable early complication rate. PMID:24459345

  14. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  15. Contemporary Concepts for the Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rohit K.; McGregor, Jyoti; Kelley, Patrick K.; Gruss, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities. PMID:24179448

  16. Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

    2014-04-01

    We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

  17. Differential regulation of the zebrafish orthopedia1 gene during fate determination of diencephalic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Del Giacco, Luca; Sordino, Paolo; Pistocchi, Anna; Andreakis, Nikos; Tarallo, Raffaella; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Cotelli, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Background The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp) is essential in restricting the fate of multiple classes of secreting neurons in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus of vertebrates. However, there is little information on the intercellular factors that regulate Otp expression during development. Results Here, we identified two otp orthologues in zebrafish (otp1 and otp2) and explored otp1 in the context of the morphogenetic pathways that specify neuroectodermal regions. During forebrain development, otp1 is expressed in anterior groups of diencephalic cells, positioned in the preoptic area (PO) (anterior alar plate) and the posterior tuberculum (PT) (posterior basal plate). The latter structure is characterized by Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, suggesting a role for otp1 in the lineage restriction of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons. Disruptions of Hedgehog (HH) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathways point to the ability of SHH protein to trigger otp1 expression in PO presumptive neuroblasts, with the attenuating effect of Dzip1 and FGF8. In addition, our data disclose otp1 as a determinant of CA neurons in the PT, where otp1 activity is strictly dependent on Nodal signaling and it is not responsive to SHH and FGF. Conclusion In this study, we pinpoint the evolutionary importance of otp1 transcription factor in cell states of the diencephalon anlage and early neuronal progenitors. Furthermore, our data indicate that morphogenetic mechanisms differentially regulate otp1 expression in alar and basal plates. PMID:17074092

  18. Ontogenetic Expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the Chicken Subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferran, José L. E.; Sanchez-Arrones, Luisa; Puelles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. PMID:20700498

  19. State-of-the-art three-dimensional analysis of soft tissue changes following Le Fort I maxillary advancement.

    PubMed

    Almukhtar, A; Ayoub, A; Khambay, B; McDonald, J; Ju, X

    2016-09-01

    We describe the comprehensive 3-dimensional analysis of facial changes after Le Fort I osteotomy and introduce a new tool for anthropometric analysis of the face. We studied the cone-beam computed tomograms of 33 patients taken one month before and 6-12 months after Le Fort I maxillary advancement with or without posterior vertical impaction. Use of a generic facial mesh for dense correspondence analysis of changes in the soft tissue showed a mean (SD) anteroposterior advancement of the maxilla of 5.9 (1.7) mm, and mean (SD) minimal anterior and posterior vertical maxillary impaction of 0.1 (1.7) mm and 0.6 (1.45) mm, respectively. It also showed distinctive forward and marked lateral expansion around the upper lip and nose, and pronounced upward movement of the alar curvature and columella. The nose was widened and the nostrils advanced. There was minimal forward change at the base of the nose (subnasale and alar base) but a noticeable upward movement at the nasal tip. Changes at the cheeks were minimal. Analysis showed widening of the midface and upper lip which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. The nostrils were compressed and widened, and the lower lip shortened. Changes at the chin and lower lip were secondary to the limited maxillary impaction. PMID:27325452

  20. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients. PMID:12818057

  1. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn

  2. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  3. Overcooled haloes at z ≥ 10: a route to form low-mass first stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown by Shchekinov and Vasiliev (SV06) that HD molecules can be an important cooling agent in high redshift z ≥ 10 haloes if they undergo mergers under specific conditions so suitable shocks are created. Here, we build upon Prieto et al. who studied in detail the merger-generated shocks, and show that the conditions for HD cooling can be studied by combining these results with a suite of dark matter only simulations. We have performed a number of dark matter only simulations from cosmological initial conditions inside boxes with sizes from 1 to 4 Mpc. We look for haloes with at least two progenitors of which at least one has mass M ≥ Mcr(z), where Mcr(z) is the SV06 critical mass for HD overcooling. We find that the fraction of overcooled haloes with mass between Mcr(z) and 100.2Mcr(z), roughly below the atomic cooling limit, can be as high as ˜0.6 at z ≈ 10 depending on the merger mass ratio. This fraction decreases at higher redshift reaching a value ˜0.2 at z ≈ 15. For higher masses, i.e. above 100.2Mcr(z) up to 100.6Mcr(z), above the atomic cooling limit, this fraction rises to values ≳ 0.8 until z ≈ 12.5. As a consequence, a non-negligible fraction of high redshift z ≳ 10 mini-haloes can drop their gas temperature to the cosmic microwave background temperature limit allowing the formation of low-mass stars in primordial environments.

  4. Tumor suppressor p53 and its homologue p73alpha affect cell migration.

    PubMed

    Sablina, Anna A; Chumakov, Peter M; Kopnin, Boris P

    2003-07-25

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in the negative control of growth and survival of abnormal cells. Previously we demonstrated that in addition to these functions, p53 expression affects cell morphology and lamellar activity of the cell edge (Alexandrova, A., Ivanov, A., Chumakov, P. M., Kopnin, P. B., and Vasiliev, J. M. (2000) Oncogene 19, 5826-5830). In the present work we studied the effects of p53 and its homologue p73alpha on cell migration. We found that loss of p53 function correlated with decreased cell migration that was analyzed by in vitro wound closure test and Boyden chamber assay. The decreased motility of p53-deficient cells was observed in different cell contexts: human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ), human colon and lung carcinoma cell lines (HCT116 and H1299, respectively), as well as mouse normal fibroblasts from lung and spleen, peritoneal macrophages, and keratinocytes. On the other hand, overexpression of the p53 family member p73alpha stimulated cell migration. Changes in cell migration correlated directly with transcription activation induced by p53 or p73alpha. Noteworthy, p53 modulated cell motility in the absence of stress. The effect of p53 and p73alpha on cell migration was mediated through the activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Rac1 pathway. This p53/p73 function was mainly associated with some modulation of intracellular signaling rather than with stimulation of production of secreted motogenic factors. The identified novel activity of the p53 family members might be involved in regulation of embryogenesis, wound healing, or inflammatory response. PMID:12750388

  5. Deformed twistors and higher spin conformal (super-)algebras in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, Karan; Günaydin, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Massless conformal scalar field in d = 4 corresponds to the minimal unitary representation (minrep) of the conformal group SU(2, 2) which admits a one-parameter family of deformations that describe massless fields of arbitrary helicity. The minrep and its deformations were obtained by quantization of the nonlinear realization of SU(2, 2) as a quasiconformal group in arXiv:0908.3624. We show that the generators of SU(2,2) for these unitary irreducible representations can be written as bilinears of deformed twistorial oscillators which transform nonlinearly under the Lorentz group and apply them to define and study higher spin algebras and superalgebras in AdS 5. The higher spin (HS) algebra of Fradkin-Vasiliev type in AdS 5 is simply the enveloping algebra of SU(2, 2) quotiented by a two-sided ideal (Joseph ideal) which annihilates the minrep. We show that the Joseph ideal vanishes identically for the quasiconformal realization of the minrep and its enveloping algebra leads directly to the HS algebra in AdS 5. Furthermore, the enveloping algebras of the deformations of the minrep define a one parameter family of HS algebras in AdS 5 for which certain 4 d covariant deformations of the Joseph ideal vanish identically. These results extend to superconformal algebras SU(2, 2| N) and we find a one parameter family of HS superalgebras as enveloping algebras of the minimal unitary supermultiplet and its deformations. Our results suggest the existence of a family of (supersymmetric) HS theories in AdS 5 which are dual to free (super)conformal field theories (CFTs) or to interacting but integrable (supersymmetric) CFTs in 4 d. We also discuss the corresponding picture in HS algebras in AdS 4 where the corresponding 3 d conformal group admits only two massless representations (minreps), namely the scalar and spinor singletons.

  6. Deformed twistors and higher spin conformal (super-)algebras in six dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, Karan; Günaydin, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Massless conformal scalar field in six dimensions corresponds to the minimal unitary representation (minrep) of the conformal group SO(6, 2). This minrep admits a family of "deformations" labelled by the spin t of an SU(2) T group, which is the 6 d analog of helicity in four dimensions. These deformations of the minrep of SO(6 , 2) describe massless conformal fields that are symmetric tensors in the spinorial representation of the 6 d Lorentz group. The minrep and its deformations were obtained by quantization of the nonlinear realization of SO(6 , 2) as a quasiconformal group in arXiv:1005.3580. We give a novel reformulation of the generators of SO(6 , 2) for these representations as bilinears of deformed twistorial oscillators which transform nonlinearly under the Lorentz group SO(5 , 1) and apply them to define higher spin algebras and superalgebras in AdS 7. The higher spin (HS) algebra of Fradkin-Vasiliev type in AdS 7 is simply the enveloping algebra of SO(6 , 2) quotiented by a two-sided ideal (Joseph ideal) which annihilates the minrep. We show that the Joseph ideal vanishes identically for the quasiconformal realization of the minrep and its enveloping algebra leads directly to the HS algebra in AdS 7. Furthermore, the enveloping algebras of the deformations of the minrep define a discrete infinite family of HS algebras in AdS 7 for which certain 6 d Lorentz covariant deformations of the Joseph ideal vanish identically. These results extend to superconformal algebras OSp(8*|2 N ) and we find a discrete infinite family of HS superalgebras as enveloping algebras of the minimal unitary supermultiplet and its deformations. Our results suggest the existence of a discrete family of (supersymmetric) HS theories in AdS 7 which are dual to free (super)conformal field theories (CFTs) or to interacting but integrable (supersymmetric) CFTs in 6 d.

  7. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  8. Intra And Extra Nasal Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selking, Stuart G.

    1988-06-01

    The author describes his experience with 400 intranasal laser surgical procedures done with the carbon dioxide laser and the surgical microscope. Procedures include excision and vaporization of polyps, turbinates, tumors, telangiectasia, synechia, nasal stenosis, intranasal cysts, papillomata, and septal spurs. The author describes a suction speculum and drape of his own design which provide smoke free access to the internal nose, and protection of the alar rim and the face from laser energy. Relief of obstruction is comparable to that obtained from the more traditional means of intranasal surgery. Intraoperative and early and delayed post operative bleeding is less with laser surgery than with any other means. Avoidance of technical problems is emphasized in this manuscript, since intranasal laser surgery is in some respects difficult to perform. Included are practical suggestions about patient positioning, use of protective devices, and patient selection.

  9. Preoperative non-surgical over-correction of cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, K; Hirose, T

    1991-01-01

    Alar cartilage, which is elastic like auricular cartilage, is correctable in the early neonatal period. Taking advantage of this correctability, we have performed preoperative non-surgical over-correction for cleft lip nasal deformity of incomplete and complete cleft lips with a Simonart's band. The device for this correction was made by processing a nostril retainer into a nostril over-corrector which utilises a spring of silicone rubber, works like a tissue expander and is supported by the nostril floor. Twenty cases are reviewed whose follow-up lasted more than 19 months. The earlier the non-surgical over-correction began, the more satisfactory were the results that were obtained. PMID:1993238

  10. Restoration of facial symmetry in a patient with bell palsy using a modified maxillary complete denture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Gautam; Nath, Dilip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Permanent facial paralysis can be devastating for a patient. Modern society's emphasis on appearance and physical beauty contributes to this problem and often leads to isolation of patients embarrassed by their appearance. Lagophthalmos with ocular exposure, loss of oral competence with resultant drooling, alar collapse with nasal airway obstruction, and difficulties with mastication and speech production are all potential consequences of facial paralysis. Affected patients are confronted with both a cosmetic defect and the functional deficits associated with loss of facial nerve function. In this case history report, a modified maxillary complete denture permitted a patient with Bell palsy to carry on daily activities with minimal facial distortion, pain, speech difficulty, and associated emotional trauma. PMID:22545260

  11. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide. PMID:26468831

  12. Rhinoplasty in the patient of African descent.

    PubMed

    Harris, Monte O

    2010-02-01

    We are in the midst of truly changing times, as patients of African descent actively embrace facial cosmetic surgery. Gaining surgical consistency in patients of African descent has proven to be elusive and unpredictable for many rhinoplasty surgeons. Surgical success relies on the surgeon's ability precisely to identify anatomic variables and reconcile these anatomic realities with the patient's expectations for aesthetic improvement and ethnic identity. An appreciation for underlying heritage provides a link culturally to connect with prospective patients and serves as a tool for establishing realistic aesthetic goals. This article highlights the significance of exploring ancestry in the rhinoplasty consultation; identifies key anatomic variables in the nasal tip, dorsum, and alar base; and reviews surgical logic that has facilitated the achievement of consistent, balanced aesthetic outcomes. PMID:20206100

  13. Humans are born too soon: impact on pediatric otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2005-01-01

    Humans are born 12 months too early. Gestation should be 21 months. Humans evolved to become the pre-eminent animal in the world, but our big brain, bipedalism, and small female pelvic outlet have caused us to pay the price of being born too soon with all of its disadvantages. Early birth has an impact on diseases and disorders encountered by the otolaryngologist, including otitis media, laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, congenital vocal cord paralysis, subglottic and tracheal stenosis, gastroesophageal reflux, congenital micrognathia, and congenital nasal alar collapse. Many of these conditions improve or resolve completely in the first year of life as an infant's immune system and anatomy matures. Knowledge of this evolutionary process can help us understand why some infants will grow out of certain diseases and disorders encountered in pediatric otolaryngology, while others will not. PMID:15627440

  14. Laser turbinectomy as an adjunct to rhinoseptoplasty.

    PubMed

    Selkin, S G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred two inferior turbinectomies were done with the carbon dioxide laser as an adjunct to rhinoseptoplasty. Indications for surgery were airway obstruction on one or both sides not relieved by medical means (42 cases), patient inability to tolerate medication (36 cases), and patient unwillingness to continue to receive medication for prolonged periods (24 cases) in patients unhappy with their appearance. Pathologic processes included allergic rhinitis (34 cases), vasomotor rhinitis (28 cases), and rhinitis medicamentosum (40 cases). A newly designed suction speculum provided easy access to the internal nose and protected the alar rim and the face from laser energy. Only a few minutes of extra operating time were required. Relief of obstruction was comparable to that obtained from cryosurgery, submucous resection of the turbinate, and partial turbinectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding was less with laser turbinectomy than with any other means. PMID:4015497

  15. Cellular Neurothekeoma in a Female with Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Divya; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Taylor, Emma; Worswick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that occurs more frequently in women. A 68-year-old female with a history of left nasal alar basal cell carcinoma and Guillain-Barré syndrome presented to the clinic with a 3-mm firm skin-colored papule with scattered telangiectasias. Histopathologic examination with immunochemistry of the lesion was consistent with cellular neurothekeoma. It stained positive for microphthalmia transcription factor and NKI-C3 and negative for HMB-45 and S-100. The lesion was excised with 3-mm margins, and no recurrence was noted within 1 year of follow-up. We present a case of cellular neurothekeoma in a patient with a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome as well as a review of the literature. Our case report is unique in that no prior association has been found in the literature between cellular neurothekeoma and Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:27047928

  16. Alveolar bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft. PMID:19884665

  17. Parallel Douglas-Kroll energy and gradients in NWChem: Estimating scalar relativistic effects using Douglas-Kroll contracted basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, W. A.; Harrison, R. J.; Dixon, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    A parallel implementation of the spin-free one-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonian in NWChem is discussed. An efficient and accurate method to calculate DKH gradients is introduced. It is shown that the use of a standard (nonrelativistic) contracted basis set can produce erroneous results for elements beyond the first row elements. The generation of DKH contracted cc-pVXZ(X=D,T,Q,5) basis sets for H, He, B-Ne, Al-Ar, and Ga-Br is discussed. The effect of DKH at the Hartree-Fock level on the bond distances, vibrational frequencies, and total dissociation energies for CF4, SiH4, SiF4, and Br2CO is discussed. It is suggested that the predominant effect of the scalar relativistic correction on the total dissociation energy can be calculated at the Hartree-Fock level if an adequate basis set is used.

  18. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  19. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  20. [Johanson-Blizzard's syndrome: another cause of pancreatic lipomatosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bresson, J L; Schmitz, J; Saudubray, J M; Lesec, G; Hummel, J A; Rey, J

    1980-01-01

    A new case of Johanson-Blizzard's syndrome is reported. It concerns a boy born to consanguineous parents and who died at the age of 10 months from malnutrition. Anal imperforation, alar agenesia, hair anomalies, mental retardation and external pancreatic failure were associated. Neither deafness nor hypothyroidism appeared to be present. Autopsy revealed lipomatous hypoplasia of the exocrine pancreas, hitherto unobserved in this syndrome, and probably responsible for the external pancreatic failure noted in published cases. The variability within a given family of the Johanson-Blizzard malformative syndrome is illustrated by two other cases reported in the anamnesis, one involving a brother who had died earlier with cutaneous aplasia at the fontanella and lacrimal canal malposition and one involving a second cousin who presented with isolated anal imperforation. PMID:7469679

  1. Efficient aminoacylation of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem: dependence on the 2:71 base pair.

    PubMed Central

    Beuning, Penny J; Nagan, Maria C; Cramer, Christopher J; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Gelpí, Josep-Lluis; Bashford, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Specific aminoacylation by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases requires accurate recognition of cognate tRNA substrates. In the case of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), RNA duplexes that mimic the acceptor stem of the tRNA are efficient substrates for aminoacylation in vitro. It was previously shown that recognition by AlaRS is severely affected by a simple base pair transversion of the G2:C71 pair at the second position in the RNA helix. In this study, we determined the aminoacylation efficiencies of 50 variants of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem containing substitutions at the 2:71 position. We find that there is not a single functional group of the wild-type G2:C71 base pair that is critical for positive recognition. Rather, we observed that base-pair orientation plays an important role in recognition. In particular, pyrimidine2:purine71 combinations generally resulted in decreased aminoacylation efficiency compared to the corresponding purine:pyrimidine pair. Moreover, the activity of a pyrimidine:purine variant could be partially restored by the presence of a major groove amino group at position 71. In an attempt to understand this result further, dielectric continuum electrostatic calculations were carried out, in some cases with additional inclusion of van der Waals interaction energies, to determine interaction potentials of the wild-type duplexAla and seven 2:71 variants. This analysis revealed a positive correlation between major groove negative electrostatic potential in the vicinity of the 3:70 base pair and measured aminoacylation efficiency. PMID:12022232

  2. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction. PMID:26676857

  3. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S

    2013-05-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption. PMID:24501471

  4. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W.; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  5. Evo-devo and the primate isocortex: the central organizing role of intrinsic gradients of neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.; Finlay, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial gradients in the initiation and termination of basic processes, such as cytogenesis, cell-type specification and dendritic maturation are ubiquitous in developing nervous systems. Such gradients can produce a niche adaptation in a particular species. For example, the high density of photoreceptors and neurons in the “area centralis” of some vertebrate retinas result from the early maturation of its center relative to its periphery. Across species, regularities in allometric scaling of brain regions can derive from conserved spatial gradients: longer neurogenesis in the alar versus the basal plate of the neural tube is associated with relatively greater expansion of alar plate derivatives in larger brains. We describe gradients of neurogenesis within the isocortex and their effects on adult cytoarchitecture within and across species. Longer duration of neurogenesis in the caudal isocortex is associated with increased neuron number and density per column relative to the rostral isocortex. Later-maturing features of single neurons, such as soma size and dendritic spine numbers reflect this gradient. Considering rodents and primates, the longer duration of isocortical neurogenesis in each species, the greater the rostral-to-caudal difference in neuron number and density per column. Extended developmental duration produces substantial, predictable changes in the architecture of the isocortex in larger brains, and presumably, a progressively changed functional organization whose properties we do not yet fully understand. Many features of isocortical architecture previously viewed as species- or niche-specific adaptations can now be integrated as the natural outcomes of spatiotemporal gradients that are deployed in larger brains. PMID:25247448

  6. Model for Estimating the Threshold Mechanical Stability of Structural Cartilage Grafts Used in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Allison; Garg, Rohit; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Characterizing the mechanical properties of structural cartilage grafts used in rhinoplasty is valuable because softer engineered tissues are more time- and cost-efficient to manufacture. The aim of this study is to quantitatively identify the threshold mechanical stability (e.g., Young’s modulus) of columellar, L-strut, and alar cartilage replacement grafts. Study Design Descriptive, focus group survey. Methods Ten mechanical phantoms of identical size (5 × 20 × 2.3 mm) and varying stiffness (0.360 to 0.85 MPa in 0.05 MPa increments) were made from urethane. A focus group of experienced rhinoplasty surgeons (n = 25, 5 to 30 years in practice) were asked to arrange the phantoms in order of increasing stiffness. Then, they were asked to identify the minimum acceptable stiffness that would still result in favorable surgical outcomes for three clinical applications: columellar, L-strut, and lateral crural replacement grafts. Available surgeons were tested again after 1 week to evaluate intra-rater consistency. Results For each surgeon, the threshold stiffness for each clinical application differed from the threshold values derived by logistic regression by no more than 0.05 MPa (accuracy to within 10%). Specific thresholds were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.49 MPa for columellar, L-strut, and alar grafts, respectively. For comparison, human nasal septal cartilage is approximately 0.8 MPa. Conclusions There was little inter- and intra-rater variation of the identified threshold values for adequate graft stiffness. The identified threshold values will be useful for the design of tissue-engineered or semisynthetic cartilage grafts for use in structural nasal surgery. PMID:20513022

  7. Nasal Sculpting: Calculated and Predictable Tip Elevation With Cephalic Trim

    PubMed Central

    Redstone, Jeremiah S.; Nguyen, Jonathan; North, Durham Alan; Hazani, Ron; Drury, Brad; Yoder, Eric M.; Cooperman, Ross D.; Yoder, Virginia; Little, Jarrod A.; Florman, Larry D.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinoplasty techniques to affect nasal tip rotation are well described. Cephalic alar trim is a powerful method for achieving tip elevation. Previous studies and texts provide aesthetic guidelines for nasolabial angles. Often, surgeon experience determines the degree of lower lateral cartilage resection to achieve optimal results. This study analyzes the change in tip elevation with measured resections of the lower lateral cartilages. This can aid the surgeon in accurately predicting the effect of cephalic alar trim on tip elevation. Methods: Ten fresh cadaveric dissections were performed to determine the change in nasolabial angles after cephalic trim of the lower lateral cartilage. Closed rhinoplasty technique was performed using marginal and intercartilaginous incisions to expose the lower lateral cartilage. Caliper measurements of the lower lateral cartilage were recorded. Serial cephalic trim was performed in 25% increments. True lateral photographs were obtained before and after each serial excision. Nasolabial angle measurements were obtained using a digital goniometer for digital photo analysis. Results: Four female and 6 male cadavers were evaluated. The mean initial nasolabial angle was 106° ± 2°. The mean lower lateral cartilage width was 9.45 ± 1.38 mm. Serial 25% reductions in lower lateral cartilage height resulted in a mean total nasolabial angle change of 7.4°, 12.9°, and 19.6°, respectively. The mean incremental change in the nasolabial angle was 6.47° ± 1.25°. Conclusion: The nasolabial angle is an essential aesthetic feature. Cephalic trim is a key maneuver in affecting the nasolabial angle. A 25% lower lateral cartilage cephalic trim correlates with an average change in the nasolabial angle of 6.47°. Knowledge of the cephalic trim to nasolabial angle relationship aids in achieving desired tip elevation. PMID:26171091

  8. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  9. Airborne Observations of Urban-Derived Water Vapor and Potential Impacts on Chemistry and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Grundman, R. M., II; Stirm, B. H.; Ren, X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric conditions typical of wintertime, such as lower boundary layer heights and reduced turbulent mixing, provide a unique environment for anthropogenic pollutants to accumulate and react. Wintertime enhancements in water vapor (H2O) have been observed in urban areas, and are thought to result from fossil fuel combustion and urban heat island-induced evaporation. The contribution of urban-derived water vapor to the atmosphere has the potential to locally influence atmospheric chemistry and weather for the urban area and surrounding region due to interactions between H2O and other chemical species, aerosols, and clouds. Airborne observations of urban-derived H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and aerosols were conducted from Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) and the University of Maryland's (UMD) Twin Cessna research aircraft during the winter of 2015. Measurements were conducted as part of the collaborative airborne campaign, Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER), which investigated seasonal trends in anthropogenic emissions and reactivity in the Northeastern United States. ALAR and the UMD aircraft participated in mass balance experiments around Washington D.C.-Baltimore to determine total city emission rates of H2O and other greenhouse gases. Average enhancements in H2O mixing ratio of 0.048%, and up to 0.13%, were observed downwind of the urban centers on ten research flights. In some cases, downwind H2O concentrations clearly track CO2 and NO2 enhancements, suggesting a strong combustion signal. Analysis of Purdue and UMD data collected during the WINTER campaign shows an average urban-derived H2O contribution of 5.3%, and as much as 13%, to the local boundary layer from ten research flights flown in February and March of 2015. In this paper, we discuss the potential chemical and physical implications of these results.

  10. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  11. KSC-03PD-1259

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. KSC-03PD-1255

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. KSC-03PD-1257

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  14. KSC-03PD-1261

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. KSC-03PD-1271

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  16. KSC-03PD-1272

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  17. KSC-03PD-1260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  18. KSC-03PD-1263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph on the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  19. KSC-03PD-1268

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Michael Foale (left standing), backup crew for Expedition Seven, talks with astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven. Seated on the right is Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander. The crew is reviewing documents prior to entering the Soyuz TMA-2 capsule for inspection and seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  20. KSC-03PD-1253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  1. KSC-03PD-1269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, walk down the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner checkMalenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  2. KSC-03PD-1266

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  3. KSC-03PD-1270

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  4. KSC-03PD-1256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  5. KSC-03PD-1267

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, walk out for Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. The Soyuz is in the workstand in the background. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  6. KSC-03PD-1262

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. KSC-03PD-1254

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  8. KSC-03PD-1258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (left), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Ed Lu have their Russian Sokol suits checked for leaks, as well as Soyuz inspection and seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  9. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  10. Fourth Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On December 6, 1994, the NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel Goldin, requested that Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, in his role as the Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, lead a team composed of several Task Force members and technical advisors' to Russia with the goal of reviewing preparations and readiness for the upcoming international Space Station Phase 1 missions. In his directions to Gen. Stafford, Mr. Goldin requested that the review team focus its initial efforts on safety of flight issues for the following Phase 1A missions: the Soyuz TM-21 mission which will carry U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman Thagard and cosmonauts Lt. Col. Vladimir Dezhurov and Mr. Gennady Strekalov aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to the Mir Station; the Mir 18 Main Expedition during which Thagard and his fellow cosmonauts, Dezhurov and Strokalov, will spend approximately three months aboard the Mir Station; the STS-71 Space Shuttle mission which will perform the first Shuttle-Mir docking, carry cosmonauts Col. Anatoly SoloViev and Mr. Nikolai Budarin to the Mir Station, and return Thagard, Dezhurov, and Strekalov to Earth.

  11. STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at Launch Pad 39A with Space Shuttle Endeavour in the background during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to their launch. From left are Expedition Six crew members Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Russian Space Agency, STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart, and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  12. STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at Launch Pad 39A with Space Shuttle Endeavour in the background during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to their launch. From left are Expedition Six crew members Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Russian Space Agency, STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart, and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  13. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  14. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation. PMID:27055448

  15. Scipione Riva-Rocci and the men behind the mercury sphygmomanometer.

    PubMed

    Roguin, A

    2006-01-01

    The history of the blood pressure (BP) concept and measurements is described. Many scientists were involved. Among them, major triumphs were achieved by William Harvey during the early 1600s who announced that there is a finite amount of blood that circulated the body in one direction only. In the mid-1700s, Reverend Stephen Hales reported the first invasive measurement in horses and smaller animals. Poiseuille introduced in the early 1800s the mercury hydrodynometer and the mmHg units. Karl von-Vierordt described in 1855 that with enough pressure, the arterial pulse could be obliterated. He also created the sphygmograph, a pulse recorder usable for routine non-invasive monitoring on humans. In 1881, von Basch created the sphygmomanometer and the first non-invasive BP measurements. However, in 1896, Scipione Riva-Rocci developed further the mercury sphygmomanometer, almost as we know it today. The sphygmomanometer could only be used to determine the systolic BP. Observing the pulse disappearance via palpitation would only allow the measuring physician to observe the point when the artery was fully constricted. Nikolai Korotkoff was the first to observe the sounds made by the constriction of the artery in 1905. PMID:16409431

  16. Kardashev's Classification at 50+: A Fine Vehicle With Room for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    We review the history and status of the famous classification of extraterrestrial civilizations given by the great Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev, roughly half a century after it has been proposed. While Kardashev's classification (or Kardashev's scale) has often been seen as oversimplified, and multiple improvements, refinements, and alternatives to it have been suggested, it is still one of the major tools for serious theoretical investigation of SETI issues. During these 50+ years, several attempts at modifying or reforming the classification have been made; we review some of them here, together with presenting some of the scenarios which present difficulties to the standard version. Recent results in both theoretical and observational SETI studies, especially the {Ĝ infrared survey (2014-2015), have persuasively shown that the emphasis on detectability inherent in Kardashev's classification obtains new significance and freshness. Several new movements and conceptual frameworks, such as the Dysonian SETI, tally extremely well with these developments. So, the apparent simplicity of the classification is highly deceptive: Kardashev's work offers a wealth of still insufficiently studied methodological and epistemological ramifications and it remains, in both letter and spirit, perhaps the worthiest legacy of the SETI "founding fathers".

  17. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  18. STS-113 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 3. The major tasks of flight day 3 were rendezvous and docking with the ISS (International Space Station), the transfer of the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) to the ISS, and preparations for an EVA (extravehicular activity) scheduled for the following day. The approach of Space Shuttle Endeavour to the ISS is shown in detail, including the firing of the Left Orbital Maneuvering System, and the aiming maneuvers the orbiter makes to dock with the ISS. There are centerline views of the ISS before and during the final docking maneuver. The new ISS crew is received by the Expedition 5 crew (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, Sergei Treschev; Flight Engineers), and the transfer of EVA suits is shown. Earth views include a pan along a reddish Earth limb, and the Pacific Ocean with Endeavour's Canadarm robotic arm in the foreground.

  19. STS-113 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 6. Also shown are the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The primary activity of flight day 6 is the outfitting of the P1 (Port 1) Truss Structure. The suiting up and departure of Lopez-Alegria and Herrington through the ISS Quest airlock is shown. The departure is shown through sequential still video. The ISS CETA handrail cart is shown in use, as is a pistol-grip space tool. At the end of the EVA, the astronauts are shown cleaning up outside the ISS. The video also contains a Thanksgiving message about the importance of technological advances in spaceflight, and footage of the Moon disappearing behind the Earth's limb.

  20. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  1. History of the unconscious in Soviet Russia: from its origins to the fall of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Russia accepted the notion of the unconscious and psychoanalysis before many Western countries. The first Russian Psychoanalytic Society was established in 1911. After World War I and the Russian Revolution, for a short happy period, the following psychoanalysts were active: Sabina Spielrein, Tatiana Rosenthal, Moshe Wulff, Nikolai Osipov and Ivan Ermakov. Scholars associated with Soviet ideas participated too, including Aleksandr Luria, Michail Rejsner and Pavel Blonskij. Lev Vygotskij himself dealt with the unconscious. A second psychoanalytical society was set up in Kazan. Unfortunately, at the end of the 1920s, repression dissolved the psychoanalytic movement. Even the word 'psychoanalysis' was banned for decades. Nonetheless, interest in the unconscious, as distinct from psychoanalytic theory, survived in the work of the Georgian leader D. Uznadze. His followers organized the 1979 International Symposium on the Unconscious, in Tbilisi, Georgia, which marked the breaking of an ideological barrier. Since then, many medical, psychological, philosophical and sociological scholars have taken an interest in the unconscious, a subject both feared, for its ideological implications, and desired. Since the 1980s, psychoanalytic ideas have been published in the scientific press and have spread in society. The fall of the USSR in 1991 liberalized the scientific and institutional development of psychoanalysis. PMID:18405289

  2. [Riva-Rocci and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2013-01-01

    Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1937) was educated in Turin as a physician and later as a doctor of internal medicine. In 1896 and 1897 he published a series of four articles (in Italian) on a new method for measuring blood pressure. Previous non-invasive methods were all based on compression of the radial pulse, in keeping with centuries of medical tradition, but they were cumbersome and unreliable. Riva-Rocci's innovation consisted in compressing the brachial artery instead, at the level of the upper arm. For this purpose he devised an inflatable rubber tube, which was rigid on the outside. Disappearance of the radial pulse on palpation indicated the systolic arterial pressure, as Riva-Rocci confirmed by calibration experiments in animals and with human cadavers. His instrument was introduced world-wide after a chance visit by the American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920) was the first to apply auscultation of the artery below the cuff (in 1905), a method that allowed determination of diastolic arterial pressure. Riva-Rocci was Chief of Medicine at the municipal hospital in Varese from 1900 to 1928, where he developed a special interest in paediatrics. PMID:23328024

  3. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  4. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. PMID:21780075

  6. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  7. STS-113 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 6. Also shown are the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The primary activity of flight day 6 is the outfitting of the P1 (Port 1) Truss Structure. The suiting up and departure of Lopez-Alegria and Herrington through the ISS Quest airlock is shown. The departure is shown through sequential still video. The ISS CETA handrail cart is shown in use, as is a pistol-grip space tool. At the end of the EVA, the astronauts are shown cleaning up outside the ISS. The video also contains a Thanksgiving message about the importance of technological advances in spaceflight, and footage of the Moon disappearing behind the Earth's limb.

  8. STS-113 crew breakfast before second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On the second launch attempt, the STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. The launch was scrubbed on Nov. 22 because of poor weather in the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Donald Pettit. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  9. Structures and stabilities of small silicon clusters: Ab initio molecular-orbital calculations of Si7-Si11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Zeng, X. C.

    2003-02-01

    Ab initio all-electron molecular-orbital calculations have been carried out to study the structure and relative stability of small silicon clusters (Sin, n=7-11). A number of low-energy geometric isomers are optimized at the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) MP2/6-31G(d) level. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The total energies of stable isomers are computed at the coupled-cluster single and double substitutions (including triple excitations) [CCSD(T)] CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) level. The calculated binding energies per atom at both the MP2/6-31G(d) and CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) levels agree with the experiments. For Si7, Si8, and Si10, the lowest-energy structures are the same as those predicted previously from the all-electron optimization at the Hartree-Fock (HF) HF/6-31G(d) level [Raghavachari and Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2219 (1988)]. For Si9, the lowest-energy isomer is same as that predicted based on density-functional plane-wave pseudopotential method [Vasiliev, Ogut, and Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4805 (1997)]. Particular attention has been given to Si11 because several low-energy geometric isomers were found nearly isoenergetic. On the basis of MP2/6-311G(2d)//CCSD(T)/6-311G(2d) calculation, we identified that the C2v isomer, a tricapped trigonal prism with two additional caps on side trigonal faces, is most likely the global-minimum structure. However, another competitive geometric isomer for the global minimum is also found on basis of the MP2/6-311G(2d)//CCSD(T)/6-311G(2d) calculation. Additionally, calculations of the binding energy and the cluster polarizability offer more insights into relatively strong stability of two magic-number clusters Si6 and Si10.

  10. Geomagnetism and climate V: general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, N.-A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Dergachev, V.; Shumilov, O.; Raspopov, O.; Abrahamsen, N.; Pilipenko, O.; Trubikhin, V.; Gooskova, E.

    2003-04-01

    as from external Solar variability (i.e. heliomagnetic field and Solar Wind forces). This applies, in different ways, for the present, the last 400 years, the last millennium, the last 15,000 years and the last 1 million years. Therefore, it must also be included in estimates and predictions of future changes in climate. The full INTAS team consists of: N.-A. Mörner, H. Nevanlinna, N. Abrahamsen, V. Dergachev, O. Shumilov, O. Raspopov, A. Didenko, O. Pilipenko, Z. Charonova, V. Trubikhin, E. Gooskova, S. Vasiliev, E. Kasatkina, I. Kirtsidele.

  11. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  12. E906/SeaQuest MARS15 Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, David; Geelhoed, Mike; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    The E906/SeaQuest spectrometer is designed to measure high energy muons produced in the forward direction by interactions of the 120 GeV Main Injector proton beam with a variety of targets. The spectrometer consists of two dipole magnets (both of which deflect charged particles in the horizontal plane) and a collection of tracking detectors. The first spectrometer magnet (FMAG) is a solid iron magnet. This magnet serves as a beam dump as well as a muon analysis magnet. A series of MARS15 simulations were done by Nikolai Mokhov to verify and guide the design of concrete shielding around FMAG and the target area immediately upstream of FMAG. The result of the fourth and last round of simulations is summarized here. This was a high statistics simulation that required approximately 48 cpu-weeks of computing time on the APC Energy Deposition Group cluster. The MARS15 simulation used a model of FMAG and its surroundings. The model includes air gaps in the concrete shielding, the largest of which are required because of the geometry of the saddle coils. A small volume surrounding the beam line just upstream of the magnet is filled with borated polyethylene. The borated polyethylene extends into the air gap necessitated by the saddle coils. With the exception of the top layer of six 'H' blocks, the concrete shielding is modeled in detail. The top layer of blocks are intended to shield the roof and downstream end of NM4 in the event of a loss of beam accident well upstream of the target; they provide only a small benefit in the normal running condition simulated by MARS.

  13. Ernst Julius Öpik's (1916) note on the theory of explosion cratering on the Moon's surface—The complex case of a long-overlooked benchmark paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racki, Grzegorz; Koeberl, Christian; Viik, Tõnu; Jagt-Yazykova, Elena A.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-10-01

    High-velocity impact as a common phenomenon in planetary evolution was ignored until well into the twentieth century, mostly because of inadequate understanding of cratering processes. An eight-page note, published in Russian by the young Ernst Julius Öpik, a great Estonian astronomer, was among the key selenological papers, but due to the language barrier, it was barely known and mostly incorrectly cited. This particular paper is here intended to serve as an explanatory supplement to an English translation of Öpik's article, but also to document an early stage in our understanding of cratering. First, we outline the historical-biographical background of this benchmark paper, and second, a comprehensive discussion of its merits is presented, from past and present perspectives alike. In his theoretical research, Öpik analyzed the explosive formation of craters numerically, albeit in a very simple way. For the first time, he approximated relationships among minimal meteorite size, impact energy, and crater diameter; this scaling focused solely on the gravitational energy of excavating the crater (a "useful" working approach). This initial physical model, with a rational mechanical basis, was developed in a series of papers up to 1961. Öpik should certainly be viewed as the founder of the numerical simulation approach in planetary sciences. In addition, the present note also briefly describes Nikolai A. Morozov as a remarkable man, a forgotten Russian scientist and, surprisingly, the true initiator of Öpik's explosive impact theory. In fact, already between 1909 and 1911, Morozov probably was the first to consider conclusively that explosion craters would be circular, bowl-shaped depressions even when formed under different impact angles.

  14. Petrology and tectonic significance of gabbros, tonalites, shoshonites, and anorthosites in a late Paleozoic arc-root complex in the Wrangellia Terrane, southern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.S. ); Barker, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Plutonic rocks intrusive into the late Paleozoic Tetelna Formation of southern Alaska are the underpinnings of the late Paleozoic Skolai arc of the Wrangellia Terrane. There are four groups of intrusive rocks within the Skolai arc: (1) Gabbro-diorite plutons that contain gabbroic to anorthositic cumulates along with a differentiated series of gabbros and diorites of basaltic to andesitic composition; (2) Silicic intrusions including tonalite, granodiorite, and granite; (3) Monzonitic to syenitic plutonic rocks of the Ahtell complex and related dikes and sills; (4) Fault-bounded bytownite anorthosite of uncertain age and association. These anorthosites may be related to post-Skolai, Nikolai Greenstone magmatism. The silicic rocks yield discordant U-Pb zircon ages of 290-320 Ma (early to late Pennsylvanian). The monzonitic rocks of the Ahtell complex have shoshonitic chemistry. Similar shoshonitic rocks are widespread in both the Wrangellia terrane and the neighboring Alexander terrane and intrude the contact between the two. In modern oceanic arcs, shoshonitic rocks are typically associated with tectonic instability occurring during the initial stages of subduction or just prior to or during termination or flip of an established subduction zone. The nature of any tectonic instability which may have led to the cessation of subduction in the Skolai arc is unclear. Possibilities include collision of the arc with a ridge, an oceanic plateau, another arc, or a continental fragment. One possibility is that the shoshonitic magmatism marks the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane. The scarcity of arc rocks predating the shoshonites in the Alexander terrane supports this possibility, but structural corroboration is lacking.

  15. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  16. Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

    2006-08-01

    The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

  17. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  18. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery. PMID:23547534

  19. Correction of Asian Short Nose with Lower Lateral Cartilage Repositioning and Ear Cartilage Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asians with short nose lack the cartilage needed to extend the length of the nose. A rhinoplasty technique using lower lateral cartilage (LLC) repositioning and ear cartilage grafting allows for sufficient nasal lengthening and nasal tip mobility in the correction of short nose in Asians. Methods: Short nose was classified into 3 subtypes: type I, II, or III. During LLC repositioning, the LLC was separated from surrounding retaining structures, except at the footplate. The LLC was approximated medially and advanced with a Medpor strut. A silicone dorsal implant was inserted to suit the newly projected nasal tip. An ear cartilage onlay graft or ear cartilage extension graft was applied to further project and enhance the nasal tip and columella. Results: Of the 854 primary rhinoplasty procedures performed on Asian patients between January 2008 and December 2011, 295 were performed on patients with short nose. LLC repositioning and ear cartilage onlay grafting were performed on 228 patients. LLC repositioning and ear cartilage extension grafting with or without ear cartilage onlay grafting were performed on 67 patients. Short nasal tip, alar retraction, and columellar retraction were corrected. Wound dehiscence with marginal necrosis occurred in 7 patients. One patient developed nasal infection. Conclusions: LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting aid in the correction of short nose in Asians. With LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting, the nasal tip can be positioned in accordance with the patient’s anatomic limits. The entire nasal tip and columella can be lengthened, while the tip maintains its mobility. PMID:25289239

  20. Anatomy of the Facial Nerve at the Condylar Area: Measurement Study and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Yoo, Young-Bok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the facial nerve (FN) at the condylar area to helping physicians preventing the iatrogenic trauma on the nerve. We dissected 25 specimens of the embalmed Korean cadavers (13 males and 2 females; mean age 76.9 years). The FN course at the condylar was examined, and the location of the FN branches was measured with superficial standards. The trunks of the FN emerged in the condylar area as one trunk, two trunks, and a loop or plexiform in 36%, 12%, and 52% areas, respectively. The zygomatic branch (Zbr) of FN passed over the tragus-alar line 23 mm anterior to the tragus (Tg) in most of the cases. The Zbr passed over the vertical line 2 cm anterior to the Tg through the area about 6 to 20 mm inferior to the Tg. Regardless of careful approach techniques to the condylar area, the FN could be damaged by a careless manipulation. Any reference landmarks could not guarantee the safety during the approach to the condylar area because more than half of the cases present the complicated branching type in the front of the Tg. PMID:25379533

  1. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis. PMID:20090034

  2. Dynamic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein in neurons of the striatum and amygdala of mice, and experimental evidence of their multiple embryonic origin.

    PubMed

    Bupesh, Munisamy; Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2014-05-01

    Emotional and motivational dysfunctions observed in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction are associated to an alteration of the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, which include axons projecting to the prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Subpopulations of catecholaminergic neurons have been described in the cortex and striatum of several mammals, but the presence of such cells in the adult amygdala is unclear in murine rodents, and in other rodents appears to show variations depending on the species. Moreover, the embryonic origin of telencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cells is unknown, which is essential for trying to understand aspects of their evolution, distribution and function. Herein we investigated the expression of TH mRNA and protein in cells of the striatum and amygdala of developing and adult mice, and analyzed the embryonic origin of such cells using in vitro migration assays. Our results showed the presence of TH mRNA and protein expressing cells in the striatum (including nucleus accumbens), central and medial extended amygdala during development, which are persistent in adulthood although they are less numerous, generally show weak mRNA expression, and some appear to lack the protein. Fate mapping analysis showed that these cells include at least two subpopulations with different embryonic origin in either the commissural preoptic area of the subpallium or the supraopto-paraventricular domain of the alar hypothalamus. These data are important for future studies trying to understand the role of catecholamines in modulation of emotion, motivation, and reward. PMID:23479178

  3. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  4. Outcomes following V-Y advancement flap reconstruction of large upper lip defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Weber, Stephen; Baker, Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize revision surgery following V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap repair of large upper lip skin defects. Methods Retrospective review of upper lip skin defects ≥3.0 cm2 that were reconstructed with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap at an academic tertiary care center. Depth and area of the defect, as well as involvement of the vermilion and nasal ala, were recorded as independent variables. Revision techniques were analyzed to identify patterns. Results Thirty patients were identified with upper lip skin defects ranging from 3.0 to 14.0 cm2 (mean 7.0 cm2, median 6.25 cm2). The defect involved the nasal ala in four cases and the vermilion in three cases. At least one revision surgery was performed in 14/30 (47%) patients. Alar or vermilion involvement was a significant factor in revision by chi-square analysis (p=0.026). Larger defect size did not predict a need for revision, even among cases where the defect did not involve the ala or vermilion (p=0.68). Conclusion Reconstruction of large upper lip skin defects with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap is associated with a 47% revision rate, and when the defect involves the ala or vermilion, the revision rate is increased. Defect size alone cannot be used to predict the need for revision surgery. Revision techniques are demonstrated. PMID:22801764

  5. Lhx2 and Lhx9 determine neuronal differentiation and compartition in the caudal forebrain by regulating Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Daniela; Weber, Sabrina; Lumsden, Andrew; Scholpp, Steffen

    2011-12-01

    Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment. PMID:22180728

  6. Lhx2 and Lhx9 Determine Neuronal Differentiation and Compartition in the Caudal Forebrain by Regulating Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Daniela; Weber, Sabrina; Lumsden, Andrew; Scholpp, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment. PMID:22180728

  7. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  8. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  9. A new genus and species of the subtribe Thyreophorina (Diptera, Piophilidae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Toyohei

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Diacanthomyia gen. nov. assigned to the subtribe Thyreophorina of the family Piophilidae is described based on a new species, Diacanthomyia okidoi sp. nov. recently found in Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. The new genus is somewhat similar to the European Centrophlebomyia of the subtribe. However, the new genus is distinguished from the known genera of the subtribe by the following combination of characters: body extensively pollinose or pruinose, 2 pairs of strong reclinate fronto-orbital bristles, 1-2 strong subvibrissal bristles in addition to 2 strong vibrissae, prosternum setose, 1 presutural dorsocentral, 1 strong anterior postsutural intra-alar, scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellar bristles without additional setulae, extensively microtrichose wing membrane, a dark round spot at r-m crossvein and a dark stripe covering m-m crossvein, and vein CuA+CuP abruptly terminated distant from wing margin. The type species inhabits evergreen broadleaved and deciduous broadleaved forests and adults appear during the cold season from December to March. Adults are attracted to decaying carcasses of Japanese deer and wild boar and traps baited with decaying pork spareribs and chicken meat with bones. The larvae of this species feed on decaying meat and marrow of deer, take less than 2 months to grow to mature larvae, and enter into diapause in the soil until autumn. PMID:26701565

  10. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  11. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty. PMID:27622086

  12. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  13. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Tóvolli, Roberta; Paul, Fabian A.; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Zhou, Xunlei; Theil, Thomas; Puelles, Luis; Blaess, Sandra; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR) of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e., we wanted to approach the question of a possible hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: (1) hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; (2) another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs. non-neural origin; (3) the medial progenitor domain known to depend on Gli2 for its development generates several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; (4) the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it. PMID:25859185

  14. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with a full range of severe clinical manifestations--case report.

    PubMed

    Gawrych, Elżbieta; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Chojnacka, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a rare congenital malformation consisting of epibulbar dermoids, lid colobomas, auricular deformities, hypoplasia of the soft and bony tissues of the face, associated oral deformities and vertebral anomalies. This report presents a child with a choroid of the right eye, coloboma of the upper eyelid, epibulbar dermoid of the left eye, mandibular hypoplasia, facial asymmetry, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, hypoplasia of the left alar cartilage, appendage of the left nose, butterfly vertebral defects of Th-1, Th-2 and abnormality of rib XI. Widened sulci of frontal and parietal lobes, bilateral white matter density decrease and calcifications of falx cerebelli were noted. Axial hypotony and delayed psycho-motor development were apparent. This rare case presents a range of severe clinical manifestations of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. Despite a normal cervical vertebral column, tracheostenosis was present. It caused difficulties in tracheal intubation, creating the need for a tracheostomy, and death after a failed attempt at decannulation. This case indicates that in patients with clinical manifestations including cerebral anomalies, a risk of respiratory insufficiency should be always taken under consideration, when planning surgery. PMID:22154733

  15. Ganglion Cyst of Knee from Hoffa’s Fat Pad Protruding Anterolaterally Through Retinacular Rent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Mukhopadhyay, Anindya S.; Kundu, Srikanta; Mandal, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare occurrences. They are usually encountered as incidental findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in arthroscopy. They may originate from both the cruciate ligaments and the menisci, from the popliteus tendon and alar folds, infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa, and subchondral bone cysts. Those arising from the Hoffa’s fat pad, usually present as palpable mass at anterior aspect of the knee joint. We report a case of intraarticular ganglion cyst of knee arising from the infrapatellar fat pad and protruding anterolaterally through retinacular rent into the subcutaneous plane. Case Report: A 19-year-old young man, presented with a painless gradually increasing swelling at the anterior aspect of left knee of 9 months duration. MRI scan revealed a multilobulated, cyst with septations within the anterior aspect of the knee joint, just inferolateral to the patella, with deep extension into the infrapatellar fat pad, and superficial extension into the subcutaneous space across the retinaculum. After diagnostic arthroscopy, we performed an open excision of the cystic mass and confirmed the retinacular rent pre-operatively. Conclusion: Arthroscopic resection and debridement is the gold standard treatment in ganglion cyst of the knee. However, a subcutaneous extension may lead to incomplete arthroscopic resection: Leaving behind the residual tissue which may cause recurrence. Therefore, proper pre-operative evaluation of MR images of these cases is very important. PMID:27299075

  16. Introduction to Lumbosacral and Sacropelvic Fixation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Patrick C; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized. The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement. PMID:27364425

  17. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  18. Systematic review of changes in maxillary incisor exposure and upper lip position with Le Fort I type osteotomies with or without cinch sutures and/or VY closures.

    PubMed

    Khamashta-Ledezma, L; Naini, F B

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to systematically review the maxillary incisor exposure and upper lip position changes with Le Fort I type osteotomies for advancement ± impaction with rigid internal fixation, taking into account the use of cinch sutures and VY closures. Electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) were searched using medical subject headings (MeSH), key words, truncations, and Boolean operators. Hand searching was also undertaken. Of 979 articles identified, 15 were included (11 retrospective, two prospective, and two unspecified). Relevant study details and outcomes were recorded on a spreadsheet, along with an assessment of their quality. In total, these studies assessed 419 patients (266 female, 118 male) with a mean age of 26.4 years (range 14-57 years). Soft tissue changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs. The mean maxillary hard tissue advancement and impaction ranged between 0.94 and 8.77 mm and -0.56 and 4.2 mm, respectively. The ranges of ratios demonstrated that from pronasale (0.24-0.35) to labrale superius (0.36-1.43), the soft tissues followed the underlying horizontal hard tissue movement increasingly more closely. Alar base cinch sutures and VY closures tended to increase these ratios. The soft tissue response was more variable vertically. None of the studies reported on maxillary incisor exposure change. More good quality prospective studies are needed. PMID:24103543

  19. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  20. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers’ reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  1. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers' reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  2. Fgf15 regulates thalamic development by controlling the expression of proneural genes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Lloret-Quesada, Cosme; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Rubenstein, John L R; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of the brain structural complexity requires a precisely orchestrated interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic signals modulating cellular mechanisms to guide neuronal differentiation. However, little is known about the nature of these signals in the diencephalon, a complex brain region that processes and relays sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Morphogenetic signals from brain organizers regulate histogenetic processes such as cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the key signal of the ZLI, identified as the diencephalic organizer. Fgf15, the mouse gene orthologous of human, chick, and zebrafish Fgf19, is induced by Shh signal and expressed in the diencephalic alar plate progenitors during histogenetic developmental stages. This work investigates the role of Fgf15 signal in diencephalic development. In the absence of Fgf15, the complementary expression pattern of proneural genes: Ascl1 and Nng2, is disrupted and the GABAergic thalamic cells do not differentiate; in addition dorsal thalamic progenitors failed to exit from the mitotic cycle and to differentiate into neurons. Therefore, our findings indicate that Fgf15 is the Shh downstream signal to control thalamic regionalization, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation by regulating the expression and mutual segregation of neurogenic and proneural regulatory genes. PMID:26311466

  3. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates. PMID:25904850

  4. Combination Nasolabial Transposition Flap and Island Pedicle Flap Following Mohs Surgery of Simultaneous Basal Cell Carcinomas Involving Both Nasal Alae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Young; Lee, Yeong Kyu; Choi, Kyu Won; Lee, Chae Wook; Kim, Ki Ho

    2008-01-01

    The nasal ala is a challenging area for surgical reconstruction, with thick sebaceous skin, the lack of an ample tissue reservoir, and an adjacent free margin. Numerous flaps have been reported for the repair of alae defects. A 71-year-old woman with simultaneous basal cell carcinomas involving both nasal alae was treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. The surgical defects measured 1.5×1.5 cm on the center of the right nasal ala and 1.0×1.0 cm on the left nasal ala, including the alar crease and rim. The right nasal ala was used as a nasolabial transposition flap and the left nasal ala was reconstructed by an island pedicle flap. The final shape and texture were satisfactory. The flaps survived and nasal symmetry was preserved. Combined nasolabial transposition and island pedicle flaps thus offer a superior esthetic and functional result owing to minimized tension. This may be a valuable reconstructive option in the repair of bilateral nasal alae defects.

  5. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  6. "Three-unit" muscle reconstruction in secondary cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qi; Li, Yu; Danning, Zheng; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Siqi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background :  Secondary deformities are common in people born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. In recent years, more and more attempts and efforts have been directed toward muscle reconstruction. The authors present a new method of orbicularis oris repair in correction of secondary cleft lip deformities. Methods :  From April 2009 to April 2013, a total of 28 patients underwent this procedure in the authors' department and had a follow-up with a minimum length of 1 year. Muscle reconstruction was divided into three units that deal with the nasal floor, white lip, and red lip. Common anatomical pathologies including a deviated columella, blunted alar-facial groove, lack of philtral column, "free border" deficiency, and unapparent vermilion tubercle can be corrected in a single operation. Results :  The average follow-up period was 14.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months). Contractubex gel (Merz Pharma, Frankfurt, Germany) was used to treat prominent or reddish scars in 16 patients. No major complications occurred. All the patients were satisfied with their nasolabial appearance. Conclusions :  "Three-unit" muscle repair was found to be effective and practical in secondary repair. Improved aesthetic and functional results can be achieved with this comprehensive procedure. PMID:24443976

  7. Minerals and melt inclusions as keys to understanding magma reservoir processes during formation of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yurii; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia) attract attention of researchers because they contain ultramafic volcanic rocks - meimechites, being products of crystallization of the ultrabasic deep mantle melts (Sobolev et al., 1991, 2009, 2011; Ryabchikov et al., 2002; Vasiliev, Gora, 2014). Effusive meimechites together with intrusive dunites of the Guli massif form ancient (253-246 Ma) volcanic and plutonic association, in which also pyroxenites and alkaline rocks are situated. Conditions of formation of this association were established with the help of minerals and melt inclusions study. The cumulative structure of the Guli massif dunites consists of rather large (2-4 mm) olivine crystals and dividing them zones (0.5-0.7 mm), filled with fine grains of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals (magnetite, ilmenite and chromite). The extended forms of well faceted pyroxene crystals testify to their fast growth from melt between cumulative olivines. Thus, crystallization of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals leads to formation between olivines ore pyroxenites, which are presented in the Guli massif by independent bodies. Analysis of olivine, Cr-spinel and clinopyroxene compositions testify to similarity of conditions of the Guli massif dunites crystallization on the one hand with formation of platinum-bearing Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes and with another - show participation of meimechite magma. Major element composition of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel has shown that dunites of the Guli massif were crystallized with participation of subalkaline picrite magmatic systems, that are relative to melts, responsible of formation of platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes and meimechites. Peculiarities of trace and rare-earth elements distribution in melt inclusions in Cr-spinel of dunites are actually similar to inclusions in olivine of meimechites. Overall, data on composition of inclusions directly testify to formation of considered

  8. Early Pleistocene climate cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Fornari, Michel; Krijgsman, Wout; Nahapetyan, Samuel; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Ollivier, Vincent; Roiron, Paul; Chataignier, Christine

    2010-05-01

    obliquity orbital parameter. The influence of precession could not be established from the Shamb data. Pollen and macroflora both indicate that glacial periods were cold and dry and that interglacials were warm with local humidity. The early Pleistocene climatic model for Western Asia is thus similar to the climatic model for the Mediterranean area. Bruch, A., Gabrielyan, I.G., 2002. Quantitative data of the Neogene climatic development in Armenia and Nakhichevan. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - Geologica 46, 41-48. Joannin, S., Cornée, J.J., Münch, P., Fornari, M., Vasiliev, J., Krijgsman, W., Nahapetyan, S., Gabrielyan, Y., Ollivier, V., Roiron, P., Chataignier, C. In press. Early Pleistocene climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Mitchell, J., Westaway, R., 1999. Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K-Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics 304, 157-186.

  9. On the combined use of radar systems for multi-scale imaging of transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, I.; Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Crocco, L.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    all, to detect hidden anomalies and then to provide a high resolution image of their geometrical features. Therefore, reliable and efficient diagnostic surveys devoted to state the healthy state of a structure can be scheduled. Numerical examples and on field validations assessing the achievable reconstruction capabilities will be provided at the conference. [1] D. J. Daniels, Ground Penetrating Radar, in IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation Series 15, London, U.K.: IEE, 2004. [2] M. Proto, M. Bavusi, R. Bernini et al., Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project, Sensors, vol.10, n.12, pp.10620-10639, 2010. [3] S. Ivashov, I. A. Vasiliev, T. D. Bechtel, C. Snapp, Comparison between impulse and holographic subsurface radar for NDT of space vehicle structural materials, Progress In Electromagnetic Research, vol.3, pp.658-661, 2004. [4] I. Catapano. L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci Bridge investigation, submitted to Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation Acknowledgement The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no 225663.

  10. Astronomy education and scientific schools in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav S.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2011-06-01

    We describe briefly the current state of astronomical education in Ukraine, namely the secondary, higher, and post-graduating education systems. A special attention is paid to so called ``scientific schools'', non-formal groups of scientists formed by recognised astronomers, which have played and continue to play an important rôle in development of the astronomy education system. Among the founders of scientific schools were the well-known professors Alexander Ya. Orlov (Odessa University), Nikolai P. Barabashov (Kharkiv University), Sergei K. Vsekhsvyatsky (Kyiv University), Semen Ya. Braude (Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute), and Vladimir P. Tsesevich (Odessa University). We also give a general review on the history of astronomy education during the 16th-18th centuries. In 2000 astronomy was reinstated into the current 12-year secondary education curriculum of Ukraine. At present, some elements of astronomical knowledge are included in the lessons of ``Natural Sciences'' for pupils in the 5th - 10th grades. Astronomy is included as a basic course both in general (non-specialised) schools (17 academic hours in the last 11th or 12th grade) and in lyceums of the natural sciences (34 academic hours in the 12th grade). It is included also as an optional course in the educational program of gymnasiums in humanities. Every year about 75 young persons enter the Ukrainian universities to become astronomers. Results of our monitoring of the efficiency of astronomical higher educational system indicate that about 80% of the entered university students finish their education in 5 years; 50% of those who finished the cursus were working in astronomy. Since 1992 more then 100 astronomers defend Theses of Cand. Sci. (similar to Ph.D) and about 40 astronomers defend Theses of Dr. Sci. (topmost scientific degree, similar to Dr. Hab.). One of our present-day problems is a brain drain of young scientists. About 50% of those who obtained Cand. Sci. degree work outside Ukraine. At

  11. From Leningrad to London: the saga of Kulchitsky and the legacy of the enterochromaffin cell.

    PubMed

    Drozdov, Ignat; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Goloubinov, Viktor V

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 19th century, the subject of internal secretion and the consequences of its perturbations had been explored in considerable depth but with little clear understanding. Despite the anatomic delineation of the majority of the glands and tissues that comprised the gross endocrine system, the cellular basis and the interactions between the 'internal glands' and the nervous system had not been clearly delineated. Prominent early investigators in the field included Rudolf Peter Heidenhain (1834-1897), who described a novel class of clear cells (1868), Paul Langerhans (1847-1888), who identified pancreatic islets in 1869, and M.C. Ciacco (1877-1956), who coined the term 'enterochromaffin' (1906). Their contributions facilitated the description of the diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES) by F. Feyrter (1938) which allowed for the understanding of a syncytial regulatory system that consisted of both endocrine and neural components. This rich developmental history often reveals the name of Kulchitsky, but little recognition has been given to his seminal contributions. Indeed the Russian, Nikolai Konstantinovich Kulchitsky (1856-1925), both due to his modest and unassuming nature and the tragic events of his life, was little recognized and has been relegated to a mere eponymous attribution. In reality, his life bears legacy to rich scientific contributions spanning a great teaching and scientific career at Kharkov University, to responsibilities as the Imperial Minister of Education for all of Russia. He identified the Kulchitsky cell, trained and mentored numerous professors of histopathology, was incarcerated by the Bolsheviks and worked in a soap factory to save his life. He and his family finally fled on a British battleship with the remnants of the Russian Royal family to England where he secured a position with Bayliss and Starling at University College, London (UCL). His mysterious demise in a lift-shaft accident on his 69th birthday tragically

  12. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    : Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.

  13. A new perspective on the Guerrero gap: Slow slip events and tremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiguet, Mathilde; Campillo, Michel

    2010-05-01

    -UNAM-IPGP-EOST): Michel Campillo, Nathalie Cotte, Fabrice Cotton, Allen Husker,Vladimir Kostoglodov, Isabelle Manighetti,Erwan Pathier, Juan Payero, Mathilde Radiguet, Luis Rivera, Nikolai Shapiro, Bernard Valette, Mathilde Vergnolle, Andrea Walpersdorf

  14. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  15. Comparative microanatomy of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans: evolutionary divergence of lip function

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carolyn R; Mooney, Mark P; Smith, Timothy D; Weinberg, Seth M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Docherty, Beth A; Bonar, Christopher J; Reinholt, Lauren E; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L; Burrows, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    The orbicularis oris muscle plays a role in the production of primate facial expressions and vocalizations, nutrient intake, and in some non-human primates it is used as a prehensile, manipulative tool. As the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the closest living relative of humans, a comparison of the orbicularis oris muscle between these species may increase our understanding of the morphological specializations related to the differing functional demands of their lips and the factors responsible for their divergent evolution. To this end, this study compares the microanatomy of the mid-line upper fibers of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans. A mid-line portion of the orbicularis oris muscle was harvested from the upper lips of three chimpanzee and five human cadavers. The sampled blocks included the area between the lateral borders of the nasal alar cartilages in both species. Each sample was processed for paraffin histology, sectioned and stained with a variety of protocols. Sections were examined for fiber direction and relative thickness of muscle layers. Ratios of cross-sectional connective tissue area vs. cross-sectional muscle tissue area, muscle fiber diameter and relative dermal thickness were calculated for each species. In both species, a clear pars marginalis layer was recognized, contrary to previous reports that only humans possess this layer. In chimpanzees, the relative fiber diameter and relative amount of muscle tissue (i.e. based on ratio of connective tissue area : muscle tissue area) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in humans. In contrast, measurements of relative dermal thickness showed that humans have a greater average dermal thickness of the upper lip than chimpanzees. Taken together, these results suggest that both human and chimpanzee orbicularis oris muscle upper fibers meet the specific functional demands associated with their divergent vocal and facial display repertoires, the development of human

  16. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  17. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  18. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2010-03-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS.Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  19. Mesencephalic origin of the rostral Substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, M Pilar; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martínez-López, Jesús E; Martínez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    In embryonic development, the neurons that will constitute a heterogeneous nucleus may have distinct origins. The different components of these populations reach their final location by radial and tangential migrations. The Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) presents a high level of neuronal heterogeneity. It is composed by GABAergic neurons located in the mes-diencephalic basal plate. These inhibitory neurons usually display tangential migrations and it has been already described that the caudal SNR is colonized tangentially from rhombomere 1. Our aim is to unveil the origin of the rostral SNR. We have localized a Nkx6.2 positive ventricular domain located in the alar midbrain. Nkx6.2 derivatives' fate map analysis showed mainly a rostral colonization of this GABAergic neuronal population. We confirmed the mesencephalic origin by the expression of Six3. Both transcription factors are sequentially expressed along the differentiation of these neurons. We demonstrated the origin of the rostral SNR; our data allowed us to postulate that this nucleus is composed by two neuronal populations distributed in opposite gradients with different origins, one from rhombomere 1, caudal to rostral, and the other from the midbrain, rostral to caudal. We can conclude that the SNR has multiple origins and follows complex mechanisms of specification and migration. Our results support vital information for the study of genetic modifications in these extremely complex processes that result in devastating behavioral alterations and predisposition to psychiatric diseases. Understanding the development, molecular identity and functional characteristics of these diverse neuronal populations might lead to better diagnosis and treatment of several forms of neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25579066

  20. Selection of tRNA(Asp) amber suppressor mutants having alanine, arginine, glutamine, and lysine identity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, F; Reinbolt, J; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    1996-01-01

    Elements that confer identity to a tRNA in the cellular environment, where all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are competing for substrates, may be delineated by in vivo experiments using suppressor tRNAs. Here we describe the selection of active Escherichia coli tRNAAsp amber mutants and analyze their identity. Starting from a library containing randomly mutated tRNA(CUA)Asp genes, we isolated four amber suppressors presenting either lysine, alanine, or glutamine activity. Two of them, presenting mainly alanine or lysine activity, were further submitted to a second round of mutagenesis selection in order to improve their efficiency of suppression. Eleven suppressors were isolated, each containing two or three mutations. Ten presented identities of the two parental mutants, whereas one had switched from lysine to arginine identity. Analysis of the different mutants revealed (or confirmed for some nucleotides) their role as positive and/or negative determinants in AlaRS, LysRS, and ArgRS recognition. More generally, it appears that tRNAAsp presents identity characteristics closely related to those of tRNALys, as well as a structural basis for acquiring alanine or arginine identity upon moderate mutational changes; these consist of addition or suppression of the corresponding positive or negative determinants, as well as tertiary interactions. Failure to isolate aspartic acid-inserting suppressors is probably due to elimination of the important G34 identity element and its replacement by an antideterminant when changing the anticodon of the tRNAAsp to the CUA triplet. PMID:8809018

  1. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

  2. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ferran, José L; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  3. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  4. Prepatterning and patterning of the thalamus along embryonic development of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Previous developmental studies of the thalamus (alar part of the diencephalic prosomere p2) have defined the molecular basis for the acquisition of the thalamic competence (preparttening), the subsequent formation of the secondary organizer in the zona limitans intrathalamica, and the early specification of two anteroposterior domains (rostral and caudal progenitor domains) in response to inducing activities and that are shared in birds and mammals. In the present study we have analyzed the embryonic development of the thalamus in the anuran Xenopus laevis to determine conserved or specific features in the amphibian diencephalon. From early embryonic stages to the beginning of the larval period, the expression patterns of 22 markers were analyzed by means of combined In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical techniques. The early genoarchitecture observed in the diencephalon allowed us to discern the boundaries of the thalamus with the prethalamus, pretectum, and epithalamus. Common molecular features were observed in the thalamic prepatterning among vertebrates in which Wnt3a, Fez, Pax6 and Xiro1 expression were of particular importance in Xenopus. The formation of the zona limitans intrathalamica was observed, as in other vertebrates, by the progressive expression of Shh. The largely conserved expressions of Nkx2.2 in the rostral thalamic domain vs. Gbx2 and Ngn2 (among others) in the caudal domain strongly suggest the role of Shh as morphogen in the amphibian thalamus. All these data showed that the molecular characteristics observed during preparttening and patterning in the thalamus of the anuran Xenopus (anamniote) share many features with those described during thalamic development in amniotes (common patterns in tetrapods) but also with zebrafish, strengthening the idea of a basic organization of this diencephalic region across vertebrates. PMID:26321920

  5. An Economical Approach to Ethnic Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan; Chang, Chun-Shin; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2016-02-01

    Septal cartilage is deficient in Asians seeking augmentation rhinoplasty. Economized utilization of resources is necessary for durable tip enhancement that complements a dorsal implant. We introduce a modified tongue-in-groove method designed to transmit forces across the dorsum, eliminating the need for robust caudal support and prioritizing nasal lengthening and tip projection. We aim to promote the roundness index parameter and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel method in the context of Asian rhinoplasty. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 104 Taiwanese patients underwent rhinoplasty with dorsal augmentation and lengthening with a modified tongue-in-groove technique. The concept borrows from methods established by Byrd, Guyuron, and Toriumi but distinguished by exaggerated forward positioning of a septal extension graft. Paired extended spreader grafts obviate the need for a columellar strut. Soft-tissue changes were analyzed with photogrammetry. A new parameter, the roundness index, was measured. Tip projection, dorsal length, nasal height, alar and columellar length increased significantly after 5.5 months of follow-up. Nasal tip angle, roundness, columella-labial angle, and nostril axis inclination decreased. There were no statistically significant differences in the magnitude of change in patients followed for less than and greater than 6 months. The most common complication was new or persistent tip deviation in five cases (5%). This technique was designed for a nasal anatomy typified by deficient septal cartilage. Significant photogrammetric changes were maintained after 6 months. Economized tissue allocation, dorsal septal load sharing, and relative independence from caudal support are key features of this feasible method. PMID:26862970

  6. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  7. Contribution of genoarchitecture to understanding forebrain evolution and development, with particular emphasis on the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Medina, Loreta; Bupesh, Munisamy; Abellán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a forebrain center involved in functions and behaviors that are critical for survival (such as control of the neuroendocrine system and homeostasis, and reproduction and fear/escape responses) and in cognitive functions such as attention and emotional learning. In mammals, the amygdala is highly complex, with multiple subdivisions, neuronal subtypes, and connections, making it very difficult to understand its functional organization and evolutionary origin. Since evolution is the consequence of changes that occurred in development, herein we review developmental data based on genoarchitecture and fate mapping in mammals (in the mouse model) and other vertebrates in order to identify its basic components and embryonic origin in different species and understand how they changed in evolution. In all tetrapods studied, the amygdala includes at least 4 components: (1) a ventral pallial part, characterized by expression of Lhx2 and Lhx9, that includes part of the basal amygdalar complex in mammals and a caudal part of the dorsal ventricular ridge in sauropsids and also produces a cell subpopulation of the medial amygdala; (2) a striatal part, characterized by expression of Pax6 and/or Islet1, which includes the central amygdala in different species; (3) a pallidal part, characterized by expression of Nkx2.1 and, in amniotes, Lhx6, which includes part of the medial amygdala, and (4) a hypothalamic part (derived from the supraoptoparaventricular domain or SPV), characterized by Otp and/or Lhx5 expression, which produces an important subpopulation of cells of the medial extended amygdala (medial amygdala and/or medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Importantly, the size of the SPV domain increases upon reduction or lack of Nkx2.1 function in the hypothalamus. It appears that Nkx2.1 expression was downregulated in the alar hypothalamus during evolution to mammals, which may have produced an enlargement of SPV and the amygdalar cell subpopulation

  8. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  9. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS. Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  10. The olfactory amygdala in amniotes: an evo-devo approach.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2013-09-01

    In tetrapods, the medial amygdala is a forebrain center that integrates olfactory and/or vomeronasal signals with the endocrine and autonomic systems, playing a key role in different social behaviors. The vomeronasal system has undergone important changes during evolution, which may be behind some interspecies differences in chemosensory-mediated social behavior. These evolutionary changes are associated with variations in vomeronasal-recipient brain structures, including the medial amygdala. Herein, we employed an evolutionary developmental biology approach for trying to understand the function and evolution of the medial amygdala. For that purpose, we reviewed published data on fate mapping in mouse, and the expression of orthologous developmental regulatory genes (Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Shh, Tbr1, Lhx9, Lhx5, Otp, and Pax6) in embryos of mouse, chicken, emydid turtles, and a pipid frog. We also analyzed novel data on Lhx9 and Otp in a lacertid lizard. Based on distinct embryonic origin and genetic profile, at least five neuronal subpopulations exist in the medial amygdala of rodents, expressing either Nkx2.1/Lhx6, Shh, Lhx9, Otp/Lhx5, or Pax6. Each neuronal subpopulation appears involved in different functional pathways. For example, Lhx6 cells are specifically activated by sex pheromones and project to preoptic and hypothalamic centers involved in reproduction. Based on data in nonmammals, at least three of these neuronal subtypes might have been present in the medial amygdala of the amniote common ancestor. During mammalian evolution, the downregulation of Nkx2.1 in the alar hypothalamus may have been a driving force for an increment of the Otp/Lhx5 subpopulation. PMID:23904411

  11. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  12. Sedimentology of tufa facies and continental microbialites from the Palaeogene of Mallorca Island (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, C.; Cabrera, L.; Ramos, E.

    2007-04-01

    The Middle Eocene and Oligocene basins in northwestern half of Mallorca are filled by detrital rocks (conglomerates, calcarenites and lutites) and carbonates deposited in alluvial, fluvial, palustrine and lacustrine settings. The sediment supplied to these continental basins was transported by alkaline, bicarbonate-rich waters. As a consequence, these non-marine carbonate deposits display extensive developments of diverse kinds of organosedimentary facies. The sedimentary record from three localities (Peguera, Alaró and Sineu) enabled one to characterize well-preserved Eocene tufa deposits as well as Eocene and Oligocene stromatolites and oncolites. A total of ten carbonate facies are described and interpreted. The facies related to tufa deposits are diverse types of boundstones, rudstones and packstones of bryophytes, in situ stems s.l., phytoclasts, etc. and associated oncolite rudstones and bioclastic mudstones-to-packstones. These facies deposited in littoral lacustrine and fluvio-lacustrine environments. Oncolites and stromatolites present a great variety of shapes and sizes (oncolites from centimetres to several meters in diameter) that somehow were conditioned by environmental conditions within shallow lacustrine and fluvial settings. Three types of lamination apparently dependent on the type of microorganisms responsible for calcite precipitation are distinguished (fan-shaped and bush-shaped grouped filaments and isolated to loosely grouped filaments). The δ 13C and δ 18O composition of these deposits agrees with carbonate precipitation in freshwater, hydrologically open systems with similar carbon sources throughout the Eocene and Oligocene. However, Eocene and Oligocene samples are set apart by the δ 18O. Oligocene facies present lower δ 18O values, which might indicate deposition from isotopically less evolved waters, perhaps under slightly greater precipitation/evaporation conditions. Tufa facies have the highest δ 13C composition and show some

  13. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care. PMID:15666046

  14. THE SIZE AND EXTENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS CLOUD SURROUNDING THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two astronomical observatories in orbit around the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, have been used to investigate the structure of the interstellar gas cloud in which the Sun resides. A compilation and interpretation of the results of these studies is being presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Madison, WI by Drs. Jeffrey L. Linsky, Nikolai Piskunov, and Brian E. Wood of JILA and the University of Colorado. Measuring the properties of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is important for understanding how the LISM interacts with the solar wind and for investigating the possibility that changes in the LISM in the immediate vicinity of the Sun could have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. When astronomers observe the ultraviolet light emitted by nearby stars, it is always found that some of the light is absorbed by atoms and ions in the LISM. The properties of the LISM can therefore be investigated by measuring the amount of absorption observed. Using ultraviolet spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the total amount of local interstellar matter has been measured for many lines of sight through the LISM. These studies suggest that the interstellar gas surrounding the Sun has a temperature of about 7000 K (about 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and has a velocity of about 16 miles per second relative to the Sun. Measurements made for very short (less than 10 light years) lines of sight toward very nearby stars suggest an average density of about 0.1 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter for the local interstellar gas, hydrogen being by far the most abundant atom in the LISM. Measurements made for lines of sight toward more distant stars suggest lower average densities. This suggests that parts of the lines of sight to these more distant stars are in regions of space with extremely low densities. We believe this means that these stars lie outside the local

  15. PREFACE: SPIN2010 - Preface for Conference Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströher, Hans; Rathmann, Frank

    2011-03-01

    facilities at FZJ, and many made the most of the opportunity. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, USA), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), the International Union of Pure And Applied Physics (IUPAP), Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (JLab, USA), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM, Germany) and the Virtual Institute on Spin and Strong QCD (VI-QCD) of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). We would also like to thank the local people from IKP and other institutions of FZJ for their contributions and help - without them we would not have been able to organize this great meeting. The current proceedings comprise written contributions of many of the presentations during SPIN2010; however, due to the recent incident in Japan, a number of our colleagues from there were unfortunately not able to deliver their write-ups in due time. This volume was edited by Ralf Gebel, Christoph Hanhart, Andro Kacharava, Andreas Lehrach, Bernd Lorentz, Nikolai N Nikolaev, Andreas Nogga, Frank Rathmann, and Hans Ströher. The next symposium - SPIN2012 - will be held at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia) in 2012. We are looking forward to meeting you there. Important conference-related links: SPIN2010 Web-site: https://www.congressa.de/SPIN2010/ Article in CERN Courier: http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/45451 Spin Physics Committee: http://www.spin-community.org Jülich, April 2011 - Hans Ströher, Frank Rathmann (Chairs SPIN2010) Conference photograph

  16. Chandra Looks Back At The Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    -investigator on this project and worked with Dr. Elsner at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center while this research was conducted. The research team also includes Randy Gladstone (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas); Nikolai Østgaard (University of Bergen, Norway); Hunter Waite and Tariq Majeed (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Thomas Cravens (University of Kansas, Lawrence); Shen-Wu Chang (University of Alabama, Huntsville); and, Albert E. Metzger (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov

  17. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  19. Study of Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Atmospheric Chemical Processes - The BROMEX 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic perennial sea ice has decreased drastically in the last decade and still remained low in spring 2012 as observed from scatterometer datasets acquired by QuikSCAT and Oceansat-2 satellites. In particular, the thinner, weaker, and saltier seasonal sea ice has dominated over the perennial ice in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea. To investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on atmospheric chemical processes, we conducted the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment in (BROMEX) in March-April 2012 around Barrow, extending out to a large region offshore and inland. Here we present overview results from BROMEX, which was successfully carried out by about 30 scientists, researchers, and field workers from multiple international institutions. For BROMEX, we coordinated and collected satellite data, including a number of near-real-time products, from multiple satellite instruments including MODIS, AMSR-E, GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, OMI, RADARSAT-2, Envisat ASAR, TanDEM-X, SMOS, CryoSat-2, and Oceansat-2. Over the BROMEX field region, we made measurements and collected sea ice, snow, ocean, and air samples for physical, meteorological, chemical, biological, and acoustic studies. A helicopter was used to deploy chemical and meteorological buoys in the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were also made with airborne sensors across sea ice, leads, lagoon, and tundra along various flight patterns of the ALAR aircraft. Furthermore, we coordinated with the NASA IceBridge P3 aircraft to collect surface temperature, surface height, snow depth, and ice thickness measurements. We set up and maintained field sites on sea ice and in the tundra to measure bromine, ozone, mercury, and other chemical species. Moreover, we obtained temperature data from many different types of temperature sensors for temperature accuracy assessment to identify potential issues that might cause errors or biases in temperature measurements. An enormous amount of in-situ snow and ice data was collected

  20. Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

    2014-11-01

    Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8

  1. Review of secondary alveolar cleft repair

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Lee, Gui-Youn; García-Díez, Eloy-Miguel; Nunes, Richard-Agostinho; Martí-Pagès, Carles; Sieira-Gil, Ramón; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    achieves all these several objectives: (1) to obtain maxillary arch continuity, (2) to maximize bone support for the dentition, (3) to stabilize the maxillary segments after orthodontic treatment, (4) to eliminate oronasal fistulae, (5) to provide nasal alar cartilage support, (6) to establish ideal alveolar morphology, and (7) to provide available bone with attached soft tissue for future endosteal implant placement in cases where there is a residual dental space. We advocate for the use of a minimal incision to obtain the iliac crest bone graft and for the use of a corticocancellous block of bone in combination with bone chips. PMID:23662259

  2. Efficiency of Natural Gas Flares Associated with Shale Formation Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has increased access and economic viability of shale oil reserves. Currently the Bakken Oil field in North Dakota is experiencing a rapid increase in the drilling of shale oil wells. However, this process typically results in the simultaneous release of natural gas. Low natural gas prices and the lack of local gas pipeline infrastructure have decreased the incentive for companies to capture this natural gas, with many opting to vent or flare the natural gas instead. The impact of these operations on greenhouse gas emissions has not been well characterized. An undocumented variable of interest is the destruction efficiency of methane in active oil field flares. In situ measurements of flare efficiency are difficult to obtain because of the inaccessibility of the flares. In June of 2012 we conducted flights over shale oil wells and flares in the Bakken Formation near Williston, ND using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) which is equipped with a 0.5 Hz Picarro CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer and a Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe that measures the wind vectors. In addition, one flare in the Marcellus Formation near Washington, PA was also sampled. Flare signals were identified based on the enhancements of CO2 above the ambient background signal and the corresponding colocated CH4 concentration. Enhancements were isolated by subtracting the background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to obtain delta CO2 and delta CH4 values. Emission factors to be reported are obtained as the ratio delta CH4 divided by delta CO2. We will report first in situ measurements of natural gas flare efficiency. We observed a variety of meteorological conditions with winds ranging from 4 to 15 m/s and will report on the relationship between wind speed and flare efficiency. We observed very high flare efficiency even under strong winds (at least 99.8% CO2 for all flares). During flare sampling, we observed a number of CH4 enhancements that were

  3. Site-selective chemical modification of chymotrypsin using peptidyl derivatives bearing optically active diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate: Stereochemical effect of the diphenyl phosphonate moiety.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin; Nakai, Takahiko; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Ryuta; Horino, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hitoshi; Umezaki, Masahito; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates act as mechanism-based inhibitors against serine proteases by forming a covalent bond with the hydroxy group of the active center Ser residue. Because the covalent bond was found to be broken and replaced by 2-pyridinaldoxime methiodide (2PAM), we employed a peptidyl derivative bearing diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate moiety (Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) to target the active site of chymotrypsin and to selectively anchor to Lys175 in the vicinity of the active site. Previously, it was reported that the configuration of the α-carbon of phosphorus in diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates affects the inactivation reaction of serine proteases, i.e., the (R)-enantiomeric diphenyl phosphonate is comparable to l-amino acids and it effectively reacts with serine proteases, whereas the (S)-enantiomeric form does not. In this study, we evaluated the stereochemical effect of the phosphonate moiety on the selective chemical modification. Epimeric dipeptidyl derivatives, Ala-(R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared by separation with RP-HPLC. A tripeptidyl (R)-epimer (Ala-Ala-(R)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) exhibited a more potent inactivation ability against chymotrypsin than the (S)-epimer. The enzyme inactivated by the (R)-epimer was more effectively reactivated with 2PAM than the enzyme inactivated by the (S)-epimer. Finally, N-succinimidyl (NHS) active ester derivatives, NHS-Suc-Ala-Ala- (R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared, and we evaluated their action when modifying Lys175 in chymotrypsin. We demonstrated that the epimeric NHS derivative that possessed the diphenyl phosphonate moiety with the (R)-configuration effectively modified Lys175 in chymotrypsin, whereas that with the (S)-configuration did not. These results demonstrate the utility of peptidyl derivatives that bear an optically active diphenyl phosphonate moiety as affinity labeling probes in protein bioconjugation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 521-530, 2016

  4. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis. PMID:23870714

  5. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  6. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Exchange above a Heterogeneous Northern-latitude Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Metzger, S.; Musinsky, J.; Munger, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Northern latitude forests represent an important global sink for carbon dioxide (CO2). Estimating the landscape-scale exchange of CO2 is complicated by the heterogeneity of forested areas. Airborne eddy-covariance measurements can complement continuous tower-based measurements for determining the magnitude and spatial variability of carbon uptake in forested areas, and to assess means for scaling-up. While aircraft provide accessibility, the resulting flux measurements represent a narrow time slice, and average over a comparatively large source area. The goal of this study is to improve our ability to attribute aircraft flux data to finer spatial scales. We hypothesize that this can be achieved by (i) improving the spatial scale of the sampling method, (ii) examining inter-day variability, and (iii) relating airborne eddy-covariance flux estimates to remote sensing determinations of the land cover. For this purpose identical flight experiments were conducted on May 29 and June 1, 2014 over a 240 km2 region encompassing the Harvard University EMS eddy flux tower at Harvard Forest, MA, using the Purdue University ALAR aircraft. In the early afternoon of each day, 19 flight legs, 20 km in length, were flown over the heterogeneous forest canopy. The two replicate experiments allow assessment of inter-day variability in CO2 exchange under similar meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the experiments were coordinated with high-resolution (≤1 m) and medium-resolution (≤100 m) remote sensing retrievals of forest canopy structure and composition (NEON AOP) and soil moisture (NASA AirMOSS), respectively. This unprecedented hierarchy of observations enables evaluation of the ability of different data processing approaches to calculate finer scale CO2 exchange with the surface. Analyses of the flights conducted on May 29 and June 1 show a transect-averaged (± 1σ) CO2 uptake of 13 ± 3 µmol m-2s-1 and 11 ± 2 µmol m-2s-1, respectively. In complement to the aircraft

  7. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  8. Strain rate dependent properties of human craniovertebral ligaments.

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Stephen F E; Moulton, Jeffrey A; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Cronin, Duane S

    2013-07-01

    Craniovertebral ligaments were tested to failure under tensile loading. Ligaments tested included: transverse ligament, anterior atlanto occipital membrane, posterior atlanto occipital membrane, capsular ligaments between Skull-C1 and C1-C2, anterior atlantoaxial membrane, posterior atlantoaxial membrane and the tectorial membrane/vertical cruciate/apical/alar ligament complex. The objective of this study was to obtain mechanical properties of craniovertebral ligaments of a younger population, at varying strain rates representative of automotive crash scenarios, and investigate rate and gender effects for use in numerical models of the cervical spine. There have been few studies conducted on the mechanical properties of human craniovertebral ligaments. Only one study has tested all of the ligaments, and previous studies use older age specimens (mean age 67, from most complete study). Further, tests were often not performed at elongation rates representative of car crash scenarios. Previous studies did not perform tests in an environment resembling in vivo conditions, which has been shown to have a significant effect on ligament tensile behaviour. Fifty-four craniovertebral ligaments were isolated from twenty-one spines, and tested to failure in tension under simulated in vivo temperature and hydration levels, at quasi-static (0.5 s(-1)) and high strain rates (150 s(-1)). Values for failure force, failure elongation, stiffness, and toe region elongation were obtained from force-displacement curves. Values were analyzed for strain rate and gender effects. Increased strain rate produced several significant effects including: higher failure forces for the transverse ligament and capsular ligament (Skull-C1), lower failure elongation for the tectorial membrane complex, higher stiffness for the tectorial membrane complex and capsular ligament (Skull-C1), and lower toe region elongation for capsular ligament (Skull-C1). Gender effects were limited. Ligament tests

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  10. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff A; Lerner, Heather RL; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Mindell, David P

    2006-01-01

    molecular phylogenies strongly support the treatment of indicus and tenuirostris as separate species, as does morphological data showing that these two taxa of similar overall size differ in proportions, especially in rostral, alar, and pedal characters. In addition, grouping of bengalensis and africanus together in the genus Pseudogyps, as historically proposed, is not upheld based on mitochondrial data. Conclusion Both molecular and morphological data provide strong support for considering the "Long-billed" Vulture to be comprised of two species (G. indicus and G. tenuirostris), and further analysis is warranted to determine the taxonomic distinctiveness of G. f. fulvescens. Our phylogenetic analyses and conservative estimates suggest the diversification of Gyps taxa to be within the past 6 million years. Diclofenac susceptibility has been previously demonstrated for four Gyps species (G. indicus, G. fulvus, G. africanus, G. bengalensis), and the phylogenetic position of these species each forming a sister relationship with at least one of the remaining species, support concern that other Gyps taxa may be susceptible as well. Determining genetic and evolutionary distinctiveness for Gyps lineages is increasingly important as a breeding program is being established to prevent extinction.

  11. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A.; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  12. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  13. THE SIZE AND EXTENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS CLOUD SURROUNDING THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two astronomical observatories in orbit around the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, have been used to investigate the structure of the interstellar gas cloud in which the Sun resides. A compilation and interpretation of the results of these studies is being presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Madison, WI by Drs. Jeffrey L. Linsky, Nikolai Piskunov, and Brian E. Wood of JILA and the University of Colorado. Measuring the properties of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is important for understanding how the LISM interacts with the solar wind and for investigating the possibility that changes in the LISM in the immediate vicinity of the Sun could have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. When astronomers observe the ultraviolet light emitted by nearby stars, it is always found that some of the light is absorbed by atoms and ions in the LISM. The properties of the LISM can therefore be investigated by measuring the amount of absorption observed. Using ultraviolet spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the total amount of local interstellar matter has been measured for many lines of sight through the LISM. These studies suggest that the interstellar gas surrounding the Sun has a temperature of about 7000 K (about 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and has a velocity of about 16 miles per second relative to the Sun. Measurements made for very short (less than 10 light years) lines of sight toward very nearby stars suggest an average density of about 0.1 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter for the local interstellar gas, hydrogen being by far the most abundant atom in the LISM. Measurements made for lines of sight toward more distant stars suggest lower average densities. This suggests that parts of the lines of sight to these more distant stars are in regions of space with extremely low densities. We believe this means that these stars lie outside the local

  14. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  15. Non-thermal processes on ice and liquid micro-jet surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Babajide O.

    acknowledge that the instrumentation and data acquisition were done in collaboration with Nikolai Petrik and Greg Kimmel.

  16. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich source of suggestions for suitable interesting persons to invite for the stimulating and highly enjoyable oral and musical presentations. While the responsibilities of the SOC are quite pleasant and frankly not particularly demanding, the heavy burden with organizing a conference falls squarely with the Local Organizing Committee, which has to deal with a seemingly never-ending stream of practicalities and more mundane chores. The main reason the Stellar Journey conference was such an astounding success and ran so smoothly is the tireless work by the whole LOC. All of us owe a great deal of gratitude to Paul Barklem, Nils Bergvall, Norbert Christlieb, Bengt Edvardsson (Chair), Kjell Eriksson, Ulrike Heiter, Susanne Höfner, Andreas Korn, Nikolai Piskunov, Bertrand Plez and Astrid Wachter for their extensive efforts. I'd like to also extend a special acknowledgement to all of the Uppsala students who helped out during the reception, registration and various sessions. Last but not the least, I'd like to thank all of the conference participants for giving such excellent talks and for providing stimulating discussions throughout the week. It is telling that essentially everyone invited to participate in the conference almost immediately accepted while the very few who declined did so only reluctantly due to other prior commitments. Bengt is a highly regarded colleague and friend, whom we all wished to celebrate this special occasion with. This conference represented merely one brief stop on a marvellous and truly stellar journey. I dare say that without exception we are all deeply thankful for having been able to join Bengt Gustafsson on at least some of his many cosmic adventures during the past decades. We trust that this exciting odyssey will continue for many years.

  17. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage

  18. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2007-12-01

    Digital Access to a Sky Century from Harvard (DASCH) project will owe much to Martha's efforts in this regard. Another important contribution to progress in astronomy from the plate stacks came as Martha engaged in what she called Forensic Astronomy. Over the years, a great many variable stars that had been discovered on the Harvard plates had since been "lost," i. e. could not be found or verified. At the request of Nikolai Samus, General Editor of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), Martha found the original discovery plates on these stars together with sufficient relevant information from other sources, and was successful in re-establishing credible identifications and accurate coordinates for 1,174 of the nearly 1,200 "lost" variable stars on the GCVS list. This required looking at multiple plates of the field involved to sort out whether the problem was an erroneous identification, inappropriate coordinates for the star, or some other problem. Many astronomers, professional and amateur, have relied on Martha to teach them the now arcane skills of photovisual photometry using a time series of plates and a "fly swatter" to discover variable stars, confirm a period or period change, or simply to construct a historical light curve to fit with modern observations. The range of co-authors on Martha's many publications illustrates how useful her chosen specialization was to the field. She served as a portal to otherwise difficult-to-access but very valuable (and irreplaceable) data, particularly the Harvard Plate Collection. In the 1970s, when interest in improving the status of women in astronomy arose, along with the desire to recruit more women into astronomy, Martha was appointed as Harvard College Observatory's representative to a university-wide coordination committee on the status of women in university life generally. Working with Ursula Marvin, who had similar responsibilities for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Martha played a leadership