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Sample records for nile virus meningoencephalitis

  1. Fatal human eosinophilic meningo-encephalitis caused by CNS co-infection with Halicephalobus gingivalis and West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M A; Gokozan, H N; Ball, M K; Otero, J; McGwire, B S

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic nematode Halicephalobus is a rare cause of fatal human meningo-encephalitis, and West Nile virus is neurotropic flavivirus implicated in a variety of clinical neurologic syndromes. Here we report a case of rapidly progressive CNS encephalopathy and death. Serologic, immuno-histochemical, histopathologic and nucleic acid studies demonstrate the presence of active Halicephalobus and West Nile virus in the CNS tissue. This is the first reported case of co-infection with these neurotropic pathogens. PMID:26050925

  2. Fever of unknown origin in a patient with confirmed west nile virus meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sabre, Alexander; Farricielli, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA arbovirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, causes a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic to encephalitis and meningitis. Nearly all human infections of WNV are due to mosquito bites with birds being the primary amplifying hosts. Advanced age is the most important risk factor for neurological disease leading most often to poor prognosis in those afflicted. We report a case of WNV meningoencephalitis in a 93-year-old Caucasian male who presented with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and nuchal rigidity that rapidly decompensated within 24 h to a persistent altered mental state during inpatient stay. The patient's ELISA antibody titers confirmed pathogenesis of disease by WNV; he given supportive measures and advanced to an excellent recovery. In regard to the approach of FUO, it is important to remain impartial yet insightful to all elements when determining pathogenesis in atypical presentation. PMID:25580318

  3. Fever of Unknown Origin in a Patient with Confirmed West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sabre, Alexander; Farricielli, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA arbovirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, causes a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic to encephalitis and meningitis. Nearly all human infections of WNV are due to mosquito bites with birds being the primary amplifying hosts. Advanced age is the most important risk factor for neurological disease leading most often to poor prognosis in those afflicted. We report a case of WNV meningoencephalitis in a 93-year-old Caucasian male who presented with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and nuchal rigidity that rapidly decompensated within 24 h to a persistent altered mental state during inpatient stay. The patient's ELISA antibody titers confirmed pathogenesis of disease by WNV; he given supportive measures and advanced to an excellent recovery. In regard to the approach of FUO, it is important to remain impartial yet insightful to all elements when determining pathogenesis in atypical presentation. PMID:25580318

  4. [Meningoencephalitis caused by West Nile virus in a renal transplant recipient].

    PubMed

    Ertilav, Muhittin; Ozkul, Aykut; Zeytinoğlu, Ayşın; Sen, Sait; Sipahi, Savaş; Töz, Hüseyin; Kitiş, Omer; Eraslan, Cenk

    2014-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection which is asymptomatic or mild in normal population, it may cause serious clinical conditions leading to death in eldery and immunosupressed patients. The virus is mainly transmitted by mosquito bites, however transfusion, transplantation, transplasental and nosocomial ways have also been reported to be responsible for viral transmission. It is known that WNV may cause life-threatining conditions such as central nervous system (CNS) infections especially in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients. In this report, the first case of WNV encephalitis in an immunosuppressed patient with renal transplant in Turkey was presented. A 25-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital with the complaints of generalized myalgia, nausea and vomiting, after the 24. day of renal transplantation from a live donor. Since he developed diffuse tonic clonic seizures during his follow up, he was diagnosed as meningoencephalitis with the results of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry. Bacterial and fungal cultures of blood and CSF yielded negative results. CMV antigenemia test and CMV IgM in blood, and nucleic acid tests for CMV, EBV, HSV-1/2, VZV, HHV-6, enterovirus and parvovirus in CSF were also negative. However, WNV RNA was detected in CSF by an in-house reverse transcriptase (RT) nested PCR method. The sequence analysis (GenBank BLAST) of the virus showed that it had 99% similarity with Lineage-1 WNV strains. To define the transmission way of the virus to the recipient, WNV-RNA was searched in the renal biopsy sample and found negative by RT nested PCR. The clinical condition of the patient was improved with supportive therapy and by the de-escalation of immunosuppressive drugs [Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; 1 g/day), cyclosporin (1 mg/kg/day)]. However WNV meningoencephalitis recurred one month later. The patient presented with fever, myalgia, confusions, leukocytosis, anemia, and repeating WNV

  5. Severe West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a pediatric renal transplant recipient: successful recovery and long-term neuropsychological outcome.

    PubMed

    Lambert, S L; Aviles, D; Vehaskari, V M; Ashoor, I F

    2016-09-01

    West Nile Virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread throughout the United States since the first case was described in Queens, New York in 1999. There has been increasing reports of both community-acquired and organ-derived infections in renal transplant recipients. In immunocompromised individuals, WNV infection is a life-threatening disease with significant neurological morbidity. We report the only pediatric case of community-acquired WNV disease in a renal transplant recipient to undergo detailed long-term neuropsychological assessment. Increased surveillance and prompt treatment of WNV meningoencephalitis is critical, and our report highlights the effectiveness of immunosuppression reduction without compromising allograft outcomes. PMID:27470315

  6. Impact of rituximab-associated B-cell defects on West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Marilyn E.; Quan, Dianna; Ho, Joseph T.; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B. K.; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Grazia, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease occurs more frequently in both solid organ and human stem cell transplant recipients. The effect of concomitant anti-B-cell therapy with rituximab, a CD20+ monoclonal antibody, on WNV infection in this population, however, has not been reported. We describe a case of a patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency who underwent single lung transplantation in 2005 and was maintained on tacrolimus, cytoxan and prednisone. More recently, she had received two courses of rituximab for recurrent A2–A3 grade rejection with concomitant capillaritis and presented six months later with rapid, fulminant WNV meningoencephalitis. Her diagnosis was made by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR but serum and CSF WNV IgM and IgG remained negative. She received WNV-specific hyperimmune globulin (Omr-Ig-Am®) through a compassionate protocol. She experienced a rapidly progressive and devastating neurological course despite treatment and died three wk after onset of her symptoms. Autopsy revealed extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. PMID:19659514

  7. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  8. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  9. West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2016-06-01

    Although long recognized as a human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a significant public health problem following its introduction and spread across North America. Subsequent years have seen a greater understanding of all aspects of this viral infection. The North American epidemic resulted in a further understanding of the virology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and epidemiology of WNV infection. Approximately 80% of human WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic people experience an acute systemic febrile illness; less than 1% of infected people develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or anterior myelitis resulting in acute flaccid paralysis. Older age is associated with more severe illness and higher mortality; other risk factors for poor outcome have been challenging to identify. In addition to natural infection through mosquito bites, transfusion- and organ transplant-associated infections have occurred. Since there is no definitive treatment for WNV infection, protection from mosquito bites and other preventative measures are critical. WNV has reached an endemic pattern in North America, but the future epidemiologic pattern is uncertain. PMID:27337465

  10. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  11. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, J. D.; van Tongeren, H. A. E.; Pattyn, S. R.; Rosenzweig, A.

    1955-01-01

    Two virus strains were isolated from the central nervous systems of two fatal human cases during an epidemic of encephalomyelitis in Austria. Monkeys, mice, and chick embryos proved susceptible; rabbits and guinea-pigs were refractory. The experimental disease in monkeys was characterized by acute meningo-encephalomyelitis, which was localized particularly in the grey matter of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the medulla, and the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The virus produced discrete lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In monkeys, viraemia was demonstrated for a period of at least 6-8 days before the development of the clinical illness. The virus was shown to be closely related to that of Russian spring-summer encephalitis. Neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies could be demonstrated in patients' sera. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14378999

  12. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to human beings through their bites. Credit: CDC Biology, Genetics, & Clinical Research NIAID conducts and funds basic and clinical research on WNV biology and viral structure, ways the virus causes human ...

  13. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important ... the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But ...

  14. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes spread the virus that causes it. People who ... barrels Stay indoors between dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes are most active Use screens on windows to ...

  15. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  16. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  17. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). West Nile virus transmission has been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was first detected ...

  18. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  4. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  5. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  6. West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nile virus infection are available. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to reduce fever and relieve some symptoms In severe cases, patients often need to be hospitalized to receive supportive treatment, such as intravenous fluids, pain medication, and nursing ...

  7. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-06-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F.; Loroño-Pino, María A.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Díaz, Francisco J.; González-Rojas, José I.; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A.; Black, William C.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002. PMID:15324558

  9. West Nile Virus Encephalitis 16 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Beckham, J David

    2015-09-01

    Arboviruses (Arthropod-borne viruses) include several families of viruses (Flaviviridae, Togaviradae, Bunyaviradae, Reoviradae) that are spread by arthropod vectors, most commonly mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies. The RNA genome allows these viruses to rapidly adapt to ever-changing host and environmental conditions. Thus, these virus families are largely responsible for the recent expansion in geographic range of emerging viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus and Chikungunya virus. This review will focus on WNV, especially as it has progressively spread westward in North America since its introduction in New York in 1999. By 2003, WNV infections in humans had reached almost all lower 48 contiguous United States (US) and since that time, fluctuations in outbreaks have occurred. Cases decreased between 2008 and 2011, followed by a dramatic flair in 2012, with the epicenter in the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas. The 2012 outbreak was associated with an increase in reported neuroinvasive cases. Neuroinvasive disease continues to be a problem particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised populations, although WNV infections also represented the second most frequent cause of pediatric encephalitis in these same years. Neuropathological features in cases from the 2012 epidemic highlight the extent of viral damage that can occur in the CNS. PMID:26276026

  10. Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

  11. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran. PMID:23697768

  12. Skin manifestations of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, P; Schuffenecker, I; Zeller, H; Grelier, M; Vandenbos, F; Dellamonica, P; Counillon, E

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a potentially lethal arbovirus infection. Many notable outbreaks have occurred during the last few years throughout the world, including Europe and the USA. The severity of the disease is mainly related to the neurological complications. A maculopapular exanthema is reported as a clinical sign of the disease. Recently an outbreak of WNV infection occurred in southern France. Three patients out of 6 had a similar skin roseola-like eruption. The cluster of 3 cases of similar febrile roseola of unexplained cause during the same week led to the diagnosis of the first WNV human outbreak in France for 40 years. PMID:16286745

  13. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48-77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded. PMID:24283515

  14. West Nile Virus Infection of Birds, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C.; Kramer, Laura D.; Komar, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006–2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths. PMID:22172633

  15. Toscana Virus Genome Stability: Data from a Meningoencephalitis Case in Mantua, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baggieri, Melissa; Gattuso, Gianni; Fortuna, Claudia; Remoli, Maria Elena; Vaccari, Gabriele; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Marchi, Antonella; Bucci, Paola; Benedetti, Eleonora; Fiorentini, Cristiano; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In July of 2013, samples from a patient with a neurological syndrome were collected from Mantua hospital and sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses (National Institute of Health, Rome). On the basis of the symptoms, serological and molecular assays were performed to diagnose either West Nile virus (WNV) or Toscana virus (TOSV) infection. Molecular and serological tests confirmed TOSV infection. Virus isolation was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid. A full genome sequence was determined from this TOSV strain with next-generation sequencing using Ion Torrent technology. Nucleotide and amino acidic sequences grouped phylogenetically with lineage TOSV A and showed a low genome variability. PMID:25514123

  16. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus). Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections. PMID:22380523

  17. [Varicella zoster virus-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wakida, Kenji; Sakurai, Takeo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted to hospital with clouded consciousness and abnormal behavior. His body temperature was 38.2 degree Celsius upon admission and he was somnolent. Herpes zoster was observed along the first division of the trigeminal nerve on the right side of the face. The right palpebra was severely swollen, and the right eye showed a dilated pupil, loss of light reflex, and total ophthalmoplegia. A spinal tap revealed pleocytosis and increased proteins, and a DNA-PCR test for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was positive. Optic neuritis was diagnosed based on fundoscopy. Following acyclovir administration, the patient regained full consciousness and the rash was alleviated; however, visual acuity did not recover. VZV-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome is rarely observed. We suspect that VZV initially infected the nasociliary nerve at the distal end of the first division of trigeminal nerve and spread to the adjacent optic, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, resulting in VZV-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome. PMID:25200582

  18. [West Nile virus: a new challenge?].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida

    2003-09-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, was first isolated in 1937. Since the original isolation of the WNV outbreaks have occurred with increase in frequency of cases in humans and horses, apparent increase in severe human disease and high avian death rates. In 1999, 2000 and 2002 outbreaks of the WNV encephalitis were reported in horses, birds and humans from New York and Canada. Ornithophilic mosquitoes are the principal vectors of the WNV and birds of several species chiefly migrants appear to be the major introductory or amplifying host. The pattern of outbreaks in the old and new world suggests that viremic migratory birds may also contribute to movement of the virus. If so, Central America, Caribbean Islands and countries of South America including Venezuela, are in potential risk for suffering a severe outbreak for WNV, since several species of birds have populations that pass trough New York and cross the western north Atlantic or Caribbean Sea. It is important the knowledge of the ecology of WNV as well of the efficacy of control efforts in order to minimize the public health impact in these countries, where all population is susceptible to this infection. PMID:14552056

  19. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  20. Propagation and Titration of West Nile Virus on Vero Cells.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Alexander J; Beasley, David W C

    2016-01-01

    The propagation and titration of viruses are key virological techniques. Unlike other flaviviruses, such as the dengue viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) grows and plaques very efficiently on Vero cells, usually inducing strong cytopathic effect (CPE) and forming clear plaques. Here, we outline the steps for propagating WNV from culture supernatant stocks and homogenized organ/mosquito samples, as well as for determining virus titers in samples by serial-dilution plaque assay using neutral red or crystal violet stains. PMID:27188547

  1. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Drebot, Michael A.; Andonova, Maya

    2004-01-01

    An aged Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) at the Toronto Zoo became infected with naturally acquired West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. The diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. PMID:15200866

  2. West Nile Virus Ecology in a Tropical Ecosystem in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E.; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R.; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M.; Müller, María L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Powers, Ann M.; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Duffy, J C; Caseltine, S L

    2004-03-01

    The brain from a 15-month-old, black female Angus, with a 48-hour history of central nervous system disease, was submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Microscopic findings consisted of acute, multifocal meningoencephalitis, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis and gliosis. Viral isolation yielded noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus genotyping classified the virus as BVDV type 2. Immunohistochemical labeling for BVDV antigens with BVD MAb 3.12F1 clone was prominent in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells, ependymal epithelium, perivascular macrophages and spindle cells, smooth muscle cells, and intravascular monocytes of the cerebrum and brain stem. Laboratory results support that tissue alterations occurred as a result of BVDV type 2 infection. In the absence of other clinical signs related to BVDV infection and using the microscopic and laboratory evidence presented, we propose that the BVDV type 2 isolated from this case may represent a neurovirulent strain of the virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brain lesions and neuronal viral antigen localization in BVDV genotype 2 viral infection, acquired either congenitally or postnatally. PMID:15017036

  4. West Nile virus: should pediatricians care?

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer C; Mailman, Tim; MacDonald, Noni E

    2014-11-01

    Given the recurrent serious outbreaks of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States over the past decade, the spread to Canada and South America, the recurrent outbreaks in Europe, and the potential for serious neurological disease even in children under 18 years, paediatricians in affected areas must consider WNV in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Additionally, given that WNV encephalitis can occur after WNV infection, suspicion for neurological WNV disease must remain high even after otherwise benign febrile illnesses if the child lives in or has traveled to an affected region. Under-diagnosis in the pediatric population is likely a serious problem, necessitating further educational efforts. More follow-up studies of WNV neurological disease in children and youth are needed to better understand the potential long-term sequelae during vulnerable times of neurodevelopment and neural remodeling. Similarly, more research is need on short and long-term fetal outcomes of maternal WNV infection. PMID:25138381

  5. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Arun V.; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002–2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999–2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease. PMID:24025396

  6. Evaluation of a mouse model for the West Nile virus group for the purpose of determining viral pathotypes.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John; Payne, Jean; Harper, Jennifer; Frazer, Leah; Eastwood, Sarah; Wilson, Susanne; Lowther, Sue; Lunt, Ross; Warner, Simone; Carr, Mary; Hall, Roy A; Durr, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) group members are an important cause of viral meningoencephalitis in some areas of the world. They exhibit marked variation in pathogenicity, with some viral lineages (such as those from North America) causing high prevalence of severe neurological disease, whilst others (such as Australian Kunjin virus) rarely cause disease. The aim of this study was to characterize WNV disease in a mouse model and to elucidate the pathogenetic features that distinguish disease variation. Tenfold dilutions of five WNV strains (New York 1999, MRM16 and three horse isolates of WNV-Kunjin: Boort and two isolates from the 2011 Australian outbreak) were inoculated into mice by the intraperitoneal route. All isolates induced meningoencephalitis in different proportions of infected mice. WNVNY99 was the most pathogenic, the three horse isolates were of intermediate pathogenicity and WNVKUNV-MRM16 was the least, causing mostly asymptomatic disease with seroconversion. Infectivity, but not pathogenicity, was related to challenge dose. Using cluster analysis of the recorded clinical signs, histopathological lesions and antigen distribution scores, the cases could be classified into groups corresponding to disease severity. Metrics that were important in determining pathotype included neurological signs (paralysis and seizures), meningoencephalitis, brain antigen scores and replication in extra-neural tissues. Whereas all mice infected with WNVNY99 had extra-neural antigen, those infected with the WNV-Kunjin viruses only occasionally had antigen outside the nervous system. We conclude that the mouse model could be a useful tool for the assessment of pathotype for WNVs. PMID:24694397

  7. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Scherret, J. H.; Poidinger, M.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Broom, A. K.; Deubel, V.; Lipkin, W. I.; Briese, T.; Gould, E. A.; Hall, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, West Nile (WN) and Kunjin (KUN) viruses were classified as distinct types in the Flavivirus genus. However, genetic and antigenic studies on isolates of these two viruses indicate that the relationship between them is more complex. To better define this relationship, we performed sequence analyses on 32 isolates of KUN virus and 28 isolates of WN virus from different geographic areas, including a WN isolate from the recent outbreak in New York. Sequence comparisons showed that the KUN virus isolates from Australia were tightly grouped but that the WN virus isolates exhibited substantial divergence and could be differentiated into four distinct groups. KUN virus isolates from Australia were antigenically homologous and distinct from the WN isolates and a Malaysian KUN virus. Our results suggest that KUN and WN viruses comprise a group of closely related viruses that can be differentiated into subgroups on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses. PMID:11585535

  8. Pathogenesis of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 in experimentally infected large falcons.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Angenvoort, Joke; Fischer, Dominik; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Rodriguez, Ariel V; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Nowotny, Norbert; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Lierz, Michael; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-01-25

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus that is transmitted by blood-suckling mosquitoes with birds serving as the primary vertebrate reservoir hosts (enzootic cycle). Some bird species like ravens, raptors and jays are highly susceptible and develop deadly encephalitis while others are infected subclinically only. Birds of prey are highly susceptible and show substantial mortality rates following infection. To investigate the WNV pathogenesis in falcons we inoculated twelve large falcons, 6 birds per group, subcutaneously with viruses belonging to two different lineages (lineage 1 strain NY 99 and lineage 2 strain Austria). Three different infection doses were utilized: low (approx. 500 TCID50), intermediate (approx. 4 log10 TCID50) and high (approx. 6 log10 TCID50). Clinical signs were monitored during the course of the experiments lasting 14 and 21 days. All falcons developed viremia for two weeks and shed virus for almost the same period of time. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR WNV was detected in blood, in cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs and following euthanasia and necropsy of the animals in a variety of neuronal and extraneuronal organs. Antibodies to WNV were first time detected by ELISA and neutralization assay after 6 days post infection (dpi). Pathological findings consistently included splenomegaly, non-suppurative myocarditis, meningoencephalitis and vasculitis. By immunohistochemistry WNV-antigens were demonstrated intralesionally. These results impressively illustrate the devastating and possibly deadly effects of WNV infection in falcons, independent of the genetic lineage and dose of the challenge virus used. Due to the relatively high virus load and long duration of viremia falcons may also be considered competent WNV amplifying hosts, and thus may play a role in the transmission cycle of this zoonotic virus. PMID:22909991

  9. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Miller, C A; Catalan, J; Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World afflicting humans, horses and birds, the success of this recombinant technology has prompted the rapid development of a live-virus attenuated candidate vaccine against West Nile virus. PMID:11516995

  10. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  11. Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Joseph E.; Benson, Robert; Kramer, Laura; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Eidson, Millicent; Campbell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Using oral swab samples to detect West Nile virus in dead birds, we compared the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) assay with VecTest and real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivities of RAMP and VecTest for testing corvid species were 91.0% and 82.1%, respectively. PMID:16318736

  12. Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Koo, Hyun-Young; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; Novak, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly. PMID:15207067

  13. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Barrandeguy, María; Fabbri, Cintia; Garcia, Jorge B.; Vissani, Aldana; Trono, Karina; Gutierrez, Gerónimo; Pigretti, Santiago; Menchaca, Hernán; Garrido, Nelson; Taylor, Nora; Fernandez, Fernando; Levis, Silvana; Enría, Delia

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America. PMID:17176571

  14. Fatal West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Adam J.; Waggoner, Jesse J.; Itoh, Megumi; Hollander, Seth A.; Gutierrez, Kathleen M.; Budvytiene, Indre; Banaei, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of encephalitis is particularly challenging in immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of fatal West Nile virus encephalitis confounded by the presence of budding yeast in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a patient who had undergone heart transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy 11 months prior to presentation of neurologic symptoms. PMID:25994169

  15. Domestic goose model for West Nile virus vaccine efficiency testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen in the Americas, first reported in New York during 1999, and has since spread across the United States (USA), Central and South America causing neurological disease in humans, horses and some bird species, including domestic geese. No WNV vaccines are li...

  16. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  17. West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Tamra E.; Bull, Lara M.; Holmes, Kelly Cain; Pascua, Rhia F.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Gutierrez, Christian R.; Corbin, Tracie; Woodward, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Jeffrey P.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    Among 397 homeless participants studied, the overall West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence was 6.8%. Risk factors for WNV infection included being homeless >1 year, spending >6 hours outside daily, regularly taking mosquito precautions, and current marijuana use. Public health interventions need to be directed toward this high-risk population. PMID:18257995

  18. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in wild mammals, southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.

  19. West Nile Virus Fitness Costs in Different Mosquito Species.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Lark L; Reisen, William K

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) remains an important public health problem causing annual epidemics in the United States. Grubaugh et al. observed that WNV genetic divergence is dependent on the vector mosquito species. This suggests that specific WNV vector-bird species pairings may generate novel genotypes that could promote outbreaks. PMID:27108207

  20. West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Davis, C. Todd; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Escobar-Lopez, Roman; Olmos, Dolores Velasco; Gastalum, Lourdes Cecilia Soto; Acosta, Magaly Aviles; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose I.; Cordero, Juan F. Contreras; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus has been isolated for the first time in Mexico, from a sick person and from mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus). Partial sequencing and analysis of the 2 isolates indicate that they are genetically similar to other recent isolates from northern Mexico and the western United States. PMID:16229779

  1. Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hrobowski, Yancey M; Garry, Robert F; Michael, Scott F

    2005-01-01

    Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E) of flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), are class II viral fusion proteins comprised predominantly of beta sheets. We used a physio-chemical algorithm, the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale (WWIHS) [1] in combination with known structural data to identify potential peptide inhibitors of WNV and DENV infectivity that target the viral E protein. Viral inhibition assays confirm that several of these peptides specifically interfere with target virus entry with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the 10 μM range. Inhibitory peptides similar in sequence to domains with a significant WWIHS scores, including domain II (IIb), and the stem domain, were detected. DN59, a peptide corresponding to the stem domain of DENV, inhibited infection by DENV (>99% inhibition of plaque formation at a concentrations of <25 μM) and cross-inhibition of WNV fusion/infectivity (>99% inhibition at <25 μM) was also demonstrated with DN59. However, a potent WNV inhibitory peptide, WN83, which corresponds to WNV E domain IIb, did not inhibit infectivity by DENV. Additional results suggest that these inhibitory peptides are noncytotoxic and act in a sequence specific manner. The inhibitory peptides identified here can serve as lead compounds for the development of peptide drugs for flavivirus infection. PMID:15927084

  2. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective. PMID:24008376

  3. MENINGOENCEPHALITIS DUE TO VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS IN AIDS PATIENTS. REPORT OF ELEVEN CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    CORTI, Marcelo; VILLAFAÑE, María F.; VITTAR, Natalia; BANCO, María C.; PRIARONE, Maia; MAMMANA, Lilia; GILARDI, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Neurological complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are infrequent and include various clinical pictures. The reactivation of VZV in patients with AIDS is generally associated with an acute and severe meningoencephalitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 11 consecutive patients with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and central nervous system (CNS) involvement due to VZV. All patients were male and seropositive for HIV. The primary risk factor for HIV infection was unprotected sexual contact. The median of CD4 T cell count was 142 cells/µL. All of them presented signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Six patients (54.5%) presented pleocytosis; they all showed high CSF protein concentrations with a median of 2.1 g/dL. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid specimen was positive for VZV in all of them and they were treated with intravenous acyclovir at doses of 30/mg/kg/day for 21 days. Overall survival was 63% (7 of 11 patients). The four dead patients had low cellular counts in CSF, below the median of this parameter. VZV should be included among the opportunistic pathogens that can involve CNS with a diffuse and severe meningoencephalitis in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS disease. PMID:27049704

  4. Monitoring the Spread of West Nile Virus with Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-funded study uses temperature and vegetation data from satellites to help track and predict where West Nile virus is spreading in North America. Scientists and public health officials hope one day to use near real-time maps to focus resources and stave off the disease more efficiently. This image is a composite of land surface temperatures (LST) recorded between 1997 and 2000 and was used to help monitor and predict the spread of West Nile virus in the United States. In the color figure above, the mean land surface temperatures are in red; annual amplitude-or the difference between low and high annual temperatures-is in blue; and annual phase-or the timing of annual temperature peaks-appears in green. Brighter colors mean higher values. The major north-south temperature difference (dull red in the upper part of the image to bright red in the lower part) is considerably affected by the Rockies in the west and to a much lesser extent by the Appalachians in the east. The brighter blue in the upper part of the image indicates the big difference between highest and lowest temperatures during the course of a year at higher latitudes. There is less variation in the timing of the annual peak of land surface temperatures, which occurs earlier in the south than in the north. Black dots superimposed on this image are the locations (county geo-centers) where birds infected with West Nile virus were reported between January and October 2001. Scientists working with the International Research Partnership for Infectious Diseases (INTREPID) program based at NASA are using such imagery to define and predict the conditions where mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus in the U.S. The conclusion reached about the importance of any single variable depends both upon its value and context. A temperature of 30o Celsius (86o Fahrenheit) might be fatal for a mosquito at low humidity but survivable at higher humidities. The work done here on West Nile virus and other diseases shows very

  5. [Detection of circulation of West Nile virus in equine in the north-west of Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, T; Hammami, S; Elghoul, H; Ghram, A

    2011-10-01

    Two outbreaks of West Nile Fever (FWN) were observed in the Sahel of Tunisia in 1997 and 2003. Several cases of meningitis and meningoencephalitis have been described in humans during these two outbreaks. However, no animal or clinical findings or seroconversion have been detected despite a high seroprevalence in human beings found around the affected areas. Few data are available regarding the spreading of this virus in other parts of the country. The purpose of this study was to detect a possible WNV spread in horses in some areas of Tunisia considered to be at risk for WNV but which had not been affected by previous outbreaks. A total of 133 equine blood samples were collected in six delegations from three governorates in the north-west of Tunisia. A second blood sampling was taken from animals that were tested negative after the first sampling for IgG to identify possible seroconversion. Detection of IgG was done using competitive ELISA. A significant viral spread was detected in the study area. Out of 133 samples tested for IgG during the first sampling, 36 samples were tested positive (27.1%). Two seroconversions were detected between September and October 2008 out of 84 samples tested. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between the presence of a wetland within 10 km and seroconversion. The presence of cattle seems to be a protective factor. PMID:22001953

  6. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds. PMID:26790946

  7. 78 FR 16505 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... license, in the field of use of in vitro diagnostics for dengue virus infection, to practice the... Application 61/049,342, filed 4/30/2008, entitled ``Engineered, Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses;''...

  8. Ixodid and Argasid Tick Species and West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Uzcátegui, Nathalie Yumari; Gould, Ernest Andrew; Nuttall, Patricia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Control of West Nile virus (WNV) can only be effective if the vectors and reservoirs of the virus are identified and controlled. Although mosquitoes are the primary vectors, WNV has repeatedly been isolated from ticks. Therefore tick-borne transmission studies were performed with an ixodid (Ixodes ricinus) and an argasid tick species (Ornithodoros moubata). Both species became infected after feeding upon viremic hosts, but I. ricinus ticks were unable to maintain the virus. In contrast, O. moubata ticks were infected for at least 132 days, and the infection was maintained through molting and a second bloodmeal. Infected O. moubata ticks transmitted the virus to rodent hosts, albeit at a low level. Moreover, the virus was nonsystemically transmitted between infected and uninfected O. moubata ticks co-fed upon uninfected hosts. Although ticks are unlikely to play a major role in WNV transmission, our findings suggest that some species have the potential to act as reservoirs for the virus. PMID:15200855

  9. A Security Guard With West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Letha

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old male working as a security supervisor in an office building was seen for return to work by the on-site occupational health nurse. He was observed to have slow gait as he entered the clinic waiting area, was pale, diaphoretic, and slow in responding to questions. His return to work note stated he was recovering from West Nile Virus (WNV). Implications for return to work are presented. PMID:26245464

  10. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  11. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Bourne, D; Komar, N

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  12. A GIS Tool To Estimate West Nile Virus Risk based On A Degree-Day Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West Nile virus(Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the North America continent. A spatial analysis tool was developed on the ARCMap 9.x platform to estimate potential West Nile virus activitiy using a spatially explicit degree-day model. The mdoel...

  13. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sejvar, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND) is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio) myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden. PMID:24509812

  14. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Marr, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning, assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander’s death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile encephalitis. PMID:14725285

  15. Lack of detection of West Nile virus in an islander population of chelonians during a West Nile virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Maldera, Marco; Nardini, Giordano; Morandi, Benedetto; Muzzeddu, Marco; Origgi, Francesco; Savini, Giovanni

    2016-06-30

    In 2011, several outbreaks of West Nile disease occurred in Sardinia (Italy). The region hosts several chelonian species. Because of the increasing concern on the potential role that ectotherms may play in the ecology of West Nile virus (WNV), in October 2011 blood samples were collected from 41 endemic Sardinian chelonians and tested for the presence of active WNV infection or neutralizing antibodies by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serumneutralisation, respectively. Neither WNV neutralising antibodies (0%; 95% CI: 0‑8.4%) nor WNV RNA (0%; 95% CI: 0‑6.8%) were found in the tested samples. According to the results of this screening survey, it is unlikely that chelonians are involved in the epidemiology of the 2011 WNV outbreaks in Sardinia. PMID:27393879

  16. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed Central

    Rappole, J. H.; Derrickson, S. R.; Hubálek, Z.

    2000-01-01

    West Nile virus, an Old World flavivirus related to St. Louis encephalitis virus, was first recorded in the New World during August 1999 in the borough of Queens, New York City. Through October 1999, 62 patients, 7 of whom died, had confirmed infections with the virus. Ornithophilic mosquitoes are the principal vectors of West Nile virus in the Old World, and birds of several species, chiefly migrants, appear to be the major introductory or amplifying hosts. If transovarial transmission or survival in overwintering mosquitoes were the principal means for its persistence, West Nile virus might not become established in the New World because of aggressive mosquito suppression campaigns conducted in the New York area. However, the pattern of outbreaks in southern Europe suggests that viremic migratory birds may also contribute to movement of the virus. If so, West Nile virus has the potential to cause outbreaks throughout both temperate and tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere. PMID:10905964

  17. NATIONAL WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the implications of WN viruses introduction into the United States the Centers of Disease Control and the U.S. Department of Agriculture created a system of active bird surveillance, active mosquito surveillance, enhanced passive veterinary surveillance, an...

  18. Experimental Infection of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 104.6 plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to105.0 PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission. PMID:20889868

  19. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Evandro R.; Luo, Huanle; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system. PMID:26918172

  20. West Nile Virus in Europe and Safety of Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Giulio; Cristiano, Karen; Pupella, Simonetta; Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) has become an increasing issue in the transfusion setting since 2002, when it was firstly shown in the USA that it can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Since then, several precautionary measures have been introduced in Europe in order to reduce the possible risk of transmission via transfusion/solid organ transplantation. In addition, the epidemiological surveillance has been tightened and the network for communication of human WNV cases strengthened. This review will focus on WNV circulation and the safety of blood in Europe. PMID:27403087

  1. Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Gaibani, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Defilippo, Francesco; Pierro, Anna; Albieri, Alessandro; Maioli, Giulia; Luppi, Andrea; Rossini, Giada; Balzani, Agnese; Tamba, Marco; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antonio; Carrieri, Marco; Poglayen, Giovanni; Cavrini, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Dottori, Michele; Sambri, Vittorio; Angelini, Paola; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies. PMID:22666446

  2. Usutu Virus Persistence and West Nile Virus Inactivity in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Tamba, Marco; Tassinari, Massimo; Gelati, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background The circulation of West Nile virus and Usutu virus was detected in the Emilia-Romagna region in 2008 and 2009. To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years. Methods In February–March 2009–2011, 5,993 hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which 80.1% were Culex pipiens; none tested positive for the viruses. From 2008 to 2011, 946,213 mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; 86.5% were Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx. pipiens pools, and Usutu virus was detected in 229 mosquito pools (217 Cx. pipiens, 10 Aedes albopictus, one Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and one Aedes caspius). From 2009 to 2011, of 4,546 birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the 2008–2011 surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in 2008, 2009, and 2010, but not in 2011. Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout 2009, 2010, and 2011. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season. The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in 2011, while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation. PMID:23667694

  3. Detection of West Nile virus in mosquitoes by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, T L; Turell, M; Dempsey, M P; David, J; Park, E J

    2001-06-01

    A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay employing detection technology was developed to identify West Nile virus in experimentally infected mosquitoes. The specificity of the assay was evaluated with the following viruses: eastern equine encephalitis, Ilheus, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. The limits of detection were determined using West Nile viral RNA extracted from serial dilutions of virus culture in infected mosquitoes. Limit of detection was 5 PFU from extracted mosquitoes. We were able to detect the presence of one infected mosquito in a pool of 50 repeatedly. When the RT-PCR was used with coded samples of intrathoracically-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, the assay detected the virus in all infected mosquitoes. Analytic sensitivity and specificity were 100%. This assay offers an efficient and rapid method of identifying West Nile virus in infected mosquitoes or cell culture. PMID:11352595

  4. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  5. Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Peletto, Simone; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Modesto, Paola; Rezza, Giovanni; Platonov, Alexander E; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2013-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in Uganda. In Europe WNV was sporadically detected until 1996, since then the virus has been regularly isolated from birds and mosquitoes and caused several outbreaks in horses and humans. Phylogenetic analysis showed two main different WNV lineages. The lineage 1 is widespread and segregates into different subclades (1a-c). WNV-1a includes numerous strains from Africa, America, and Eurasia. The spatio-temporal history of WNV-1a in Europe was recently described, identifying two main routes of dispersion, one in Eastern and the second in Western Europe. The West Nile lineage 2 (WNV-2) is mainly present in sub-Saharan Africa but has been recently emerged in Eastern and Western European countries. In this study we reconstruct the phylogeny of WNV-2 on a spatio-temporal scale in order to estimate the time of origin and patterns of geographical dispersal of the different isolates, particularly in Europe. Phylogeography findings obtained from E and NS5 gene analyses suggest that there were at least two separate introductions of WNV-2 from the African continent dated back approximately to the year 1999 (Central Europe) and 2000 (Russia), respectively. The epidemiological implications and clinical consequences of lineage 1 and 2 cocirculation deserve further investigations. PMID:23542457

  6. The Global Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission. PMID:25866777

  7. Reconciling West Nile virus with the autophagic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for recurrent outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Several studies analyzing the interactions of this pathogen with the autophagic pathway have reported opposite results with evidence for and against the upregulation of autophagy in infected cells. In this regard, we have recently reported that minimal genetic changes (single amino acid substitutions) in nonstructural proteins of WNV can modify the ability of the virus to induce autophagic features such as LC3 modification and aggregation in infected cells. We think that these results could help explain some of the previously reported discrepancies. These findings could also aid in deciphering the interactions of this pathogen with the autophagic pathway at the molecular level aimed to develop feasible antiviral strategies to combat this pathogen, and other related flaviviruses. PMID:25946067

  8. Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Nasci, Roger S.; Montgomery, Susan P.; O'Leary, Daniel R.; Campbell, Grant L.

    2005-01-01

    From 1937 until 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) garnered scant medical attention as the cause of febrile illness and sporadic encephalitis in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. After the surprising detection of WNV in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread dramatically westward across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and northward into Canada, resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever reported. From 1999 to 2004, >7,000 neuroinvasive WNV disease cases were reported in the United States. In 2002, WNV transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation was described for the first time, intrauterine transmission was first documented, and possible transmission through breastfeeding was reported. This review highlights new information regarding the epidemiology and dynamics of WNV transmission, providing a new platform for further research into preventing and controlling WNV disease. PMID:16102302

  9. Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melinda J.; Zhang, Jing; Edmonds, Judith H.; Prow, Natalie A.; Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney; Hornitzky, Christine; Arzey, Kathleen E.; Finlaison, Deborah; Hick, Paul; Read, Andrew; Hobson-Peters, Jody; May, Fiona J.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Russell, Richard C.; Hall, Roy A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNVNSW2011, that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNVKUN), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNVNSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNVKUN strain. In WNVNSW2011, this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNVKUN. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNVNSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNVKUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. PMID:22516173

  10. The Composition of West Nile Virus Lipid Envelope Unveils a Role of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Flavivirus Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Casas, Josefina; Escribano-Romero, Estela

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of febrile illness and meningoencephalitis. The replication of WNV takes place on virus-modified membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell, and virions acquire their envelope by budding into this organelle. Consistent with this view, the cellular biology of this pathogen is intimately linked to modifications of the intracellular membranes, and the requirement for specific lipids, such as cholesterol and fatty acids, has been documented. In this study, we evaluated the impact of WNV infection on two important components of cellular membranes, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids, by mass spectrometry of infected cells. A significant increase in the content of several glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, plasmalogens, and lysophospholipids) and sphingolipids (ceramide, dihydroceramide, and sphingomyelin) was noticed in WNV-infected cells, suggesting that these lipids have functional roles during WNV infection. Furthermore, the analysis of the lipid envelope of WNV virions and recombinant virus-like particles revealed that their envelopes had a unique composition. The envelopes were enriched in sphingolipids (sphingomyelin) and showed reduced levels of phosphatidylcholine, similar to sphingolipid-enriched lipid microdomains. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide) by either pharmacological approaches or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing reduced the release of flavivirus virions as well as virus-like particles, suggesting a role of sphingomyelin-to-ceramide conversion in flavivirus budding and confirming the importance of sphingolipids in the biogenesis of WNV. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus spread by mosquitoes that can infect multiple vertebrate hosts, including humans. There is no specific vaccine or therapy against this pathogen licensed

  11. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile Virus Infection: An Extensive Neuropsychiatric Assessment of 49 Cases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie; Bawor, Monica; Potter, Tammy Hlywka; Eskandarian, Sasha; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection. Methods Patients from Ontario Canada with a diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis) and non-neuroinvasive disease who had participated in a cohort study were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory were collected, as well as demographics and medical history. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Data from 49 individuals (32 with West Nile fever and 17 with West Nile neuroinvasive disease) were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment were comparable across participants with both neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection on all cognitive measures. Neuropsychiatric impairment was also observed more frequently at two to four years post-infection compared to earlier stages of illness. Conclusions Our data provide objective evidence for cognitive difficulties among patients who were infected with West Nile virus; these deficits appear to manifest regardless of severity of West Nile virus infection (West Nile fever vs. West Nile neuroinvasive disease), and are more prevalent with increasing illness duration (2–4 years vs. 1 month). Data from this study will help inform patients and healthcare providers about the expected course of recovery, as well as the need to implement effective treatment strategies that

  12. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Sileo, L.; Mcnamara, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but has unique features not observed with SLE virus or with WNV in the old world. The primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in North America is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. An exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an alternate direct route of transmission among nonnative birds, and some mortality of native bird species occurs. The strain of WNV circulating in the northeastern United States is unique in that it causes significant mortality in exotic and native bird species, especially in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Because of the lack of information on the susceptibility and pathogenesis of WNV for this species, experimental studies were conducted at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. In two separate studies, crows were inoculated with a 1999 New York strain of WNV, and all experimentally infected crows died. In one of the studies, control crows in regular contact with experimentally inoculated crows in the same room but not inoculated with WNV succumbed to infection. The direct transmission between crows was most likely by the oral route. Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown.

  13. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection. PMID:27038557

  14. West Nile Virus outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Spissu, Nicoletta; Panichi, Giovanni; Montisci, Antonio; Fiore, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, antigenically related to the Japanese encephalitis complex in the family Flaviviridae. The principal vectors are mosquitoes, in particular Culex spp, and virus amplification seems to occur in susceptible birds that are the principal vertebrate reservoir hosts, whereas humans, horses and other vertebrates are considered incidental or dead-end hosts. The first Italian equine outbreak was reported in late summer of 1998 in Tuscany, in the area surrounding the Fucecchio marshes, where 14 clinical cases of WND in housed equines were recorded. In 2011 WNV appeared for the first time in Sardinia, representing the first clinical cases in equines in Italy in 2011. The outbreak occurred both in humans and in equines. The serological survey performed on 253 equines living in the province of Oristano detected a total of 87 IgG-positive subjects. Among them, 46 horses showed neurological signs such as ataxia, paresis, paralysis, hyperesthesia, muscle fasciculations, seizures, or fever. Nine of them died or were euthanized. In forthcoming years, surveillance of wild birds and insects will be used to forecast the extension and spread of WNV. The information gathered will be used to direct or optimise strategies intended to prevent virus transmission. PMID:23324814

  15. Clinical and pathologic features of West Nile virus infection in native North American owls (Family strigidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S D; Patterson, J S; Kiupel, M; Simmons, H A; Grimes, S D; Sarver, C F; Fulton, R M; Steficek, B A; Cooley, T M; Massey, J P; Sikarskie, J G

    2003-01-01

    Since the initial report of West Nile virus in the northeastern United States in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly westward and southward across the country. In the summer of 2002, several midwestern states reported increased cases of neurologic disease and mortality associated with West Nile virus infection in various native North American owl species. This report summarizes the clinical and pathologic findings for 13 captive and free-ranging owls. Affected species were all in the family Strigidae and included seven snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca), four great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), a barred owl (Strix varia), and a short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Neurologic signs identified included head tilt, uncoordinated flight, paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Owls that died were screened for flaviviral proteins by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissues, followed by specific polymerase chain reaction assay to confirm West Nile virus with fresh tissues when available. Microscopic lesions were widespread, involving brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, and were typically nonsuppurative with infiltration by predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lesions in owls were much more severe than those previously reported in corvids such as crows, which are considered highly susceptible to infection and are routinely used as sentinel species for monitoring for the presence and spread of West Nile virus. This report is the first detailed description of the pathology of West Nile virus infection in Strigiformes and indicates that this bird family is susceptible to natural infection with West Nile virus. PMID:14562887

  16. Frequency of West Nile Virus Infection in Iranian Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions and organ transplants. This study was a retrospective study which was performed in Blood Transfusion Center to evaluate the WNV infection in blood donors in Iran. A total of 540 blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who referred for blood donation to Chabahar Blood Center. The presence of WNV was studied by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) WNV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Demonstration of elevated WNV IgG confirmed by immunoflouorescence assay (IFA) Euroimmun kit. Out of the 540 samples 17.96 % (97 cases) were seropositive by ELISA and 1.48 % (8 cases) was seropositive by IFA. This means that 8.24 % of ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed by IFA. Special attention should be paid to criteria of donor selection, albeit positive results may be due to a previous infection in these donors. PMID:27429528

  17. Progress on the Development of Therapeutics against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    A decade has passed since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans in the Western Hemisphere in New York City. During this interval, WNV spread inexorably throughout North and South America and caused millions of infections ranging from a sub-clinical illness, to a self-limiting febrile syndrome or lethal neuroinvasive disease. Its entry into the United States triggered intensive research into the basic biology of WNV and the elements that comprise a protective host immune response. Although no therapy is currently approved for use in humans, several strategies are being pursued to develop effective prophylaxis and treatments. This review describes the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and immunobiology of WNV infection, and highlights progress toward an effective therapy. PMID:19501622

  18. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June-October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  19. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region. PMID:15815153

  20. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  1. Avian Hosts of West Nile Virus in Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Young, Ginger R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Levy, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

  2. Current Trends in West Nile Virus Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Amanna, Ian J.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has become endemic in the United States. From 1999-2012, there have been 37,088 reported cases of WNV and 1,549 deaths, resulting in a 4.2% case-fatality rate. Despite development of effective WNV vaccines for horses, there is no vaccine to prevent human WNV infection. Several vaccines have been tested in preclinical studies and to date there have been 8 clinical trials, with promising results in terms of safety and induction of antiviral immunity. Although mass vaccination is unlikely to be cost-effective, implementation of a targeted vaccine program may be feasible if a safe and effective vaccine can be brought to market. Further evaluation of new and advanced vaccine candidates is strongly encouraged. PMID:24689659

  3. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  4. Detection of Israel turkey meningo-encephalitis virus from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species and its survival in Culex pipiens and Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Phlebotomidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Davidson, I; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Chastel, C

    2003-07-01

    Israel turkey meningo-encephalitis (ITME) virus was detected in pools of Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas and Culicoides imicola Kieffer trapped at a turkey run at Nir David during an outbreak in August 1995. Experimental membrane feeding on a blood ITME suspension showed that Culex pipiens L. became harbored virus for at least 14 d. When Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli were fed on an infected turkey, they became infected and harbored the virus for at least 7 d. Because Phlebotomines are trapped frequently at turkey runs in Israel, they should be suspected as potential vectors of ITME. PMID:14680120

  5. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    PubMed Central

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken

  6. Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez, Marina P; Ledesma, María Dolores; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whereas treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of SM synthesis reduced WNV infection. Confocal microscopy analyses confirmed the association of SM with viral replication sites within infected cells. Our results unveil that SM metabolism regulates flavivirus infection in vivo and propose SM as a suitable target for antiviral design against WNV. PMID:26764042

  7. West Nile virus: A re-emerging pathogen revisited

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. WNV causes sporadic disease outbreaks in horses and humans, which may result in febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Until recently, its medical and veterinary health concern was relatively low; however, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences in humans and horses have lately increased in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. Surprisingly, its incidence in human and animal health is very different in Central and South America, and the reasons for it are not yet understood. Even though great advances have been obtained lately regarding WNV infection, and although efficient equine vaccines are available, no specific treatments or vaccines for human use are on the market. This review updates the most recent investigations in different aspects of WNV life cycle: molecular virology, transmission dynamics, host range, clinical presentations, epidemiology, ecology, diagnosis, control, and prevention, and highlights some aspects that certainly require further research. PMID:24175211

  8. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity. PMID:26540336

  9. Functional Analysis of West Nile Virus Proteins in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaufusi, Pakieli H; Tseng, Alanna; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2016-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains have been responsible for large outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease in the United States and Europe between 1999 and 2012. Different strains in this lineage have previously been shown to produce either severe or mild neuroinvasive disease in mice. Phylogenetic and amino acid comparisons between highly or less virulent lineage 2 strains have demonstrated that the nonstructural (NS) gene(s) were most variable. However, the roles of some of the NS proteins in virus life cycle are unknown. The aim of this chapter is to describe simple computational and experimental approaches that can be used to: (1) explore the possible roles of the NS proteins in virus life cycle and (2) test whether the subtle amino acid changes in WNV NS gene products contributed to the evolution of more virulent strains. The computational approaches include methods based on: (1) sequence similarity, (2) sequence motifs, and (3) protein membrane topology predictions. Highlighted experimental procedures include: (1) isolation of viral RNA from WNV-infected cells, (2) cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification of WNV genes, (3) cloning into GFP expression vector, (4) bacterial transformation, (5) plasmid isolation and purification, (6) transfection using activated dendrimers (Polyfect), and (7) immunofluorescence staining of transfected mammalian cells. PMID:27188549

  10. Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112).

    PubMed

    Munro, R; Lysons, R; Venables, C; Horigan, M; Jeffrey, M; Dawson, M

    1998-08-01

    In an experiment on bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), the virological and serological aspects of which were reported in an earlier paper, three groups (A, B and C) of three calves were inoculated subcutaneously with a recently isolated strain (FL112). For group B and group C, the virus was suspended in milk, and for group C (controls) the viral suspension was subjected to pasteurization before inoculation. The calves were killed for necropsy 12 months later. Clinical assessment revealed subtle ataxia in two group A calves, which took the form of an intermittent "shifting" (from one leg to another) lameness, and palpable enlargement of the pre-scapular lymph nodes in one group B animal. At necropsy, haemal lymph nodes (0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter), occurring singly, were observed in all animals. However, in groups A and B (but not C), enlarged haemal lymph nodes (< or = 2 cm in diameter) were also seen, occurring singly and in chains; and in one group A animal they occurred in grape-like clusters. In groups A and B (but not C), histopathological examination revealed generalized hyperplastic changes in lymph nodes, especially the haemal lymph nodes. This finding was particularly striking in the two clinically ataxic animals from group A, which also showed a non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis; the latter was possibly the cause of the subtle clinical signs. This study supports previous findings on lymphadenopathy resulting from experimental infection with BIV. PMID:9749357

  11. Evaluating the Use of Commercial West Nile Virus Antigens as Positive Controls in the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform West Nile Virus Assay.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Savage, Harry M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the utility of 2 types of commercially available antigens as positive controls in the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP®) West Nile virus (WNV) assay. Purified recombinant WNV envelope antigens and whole killed virus antigens produced positive RAMP results and either type would be useful as a positive control. Killed virus antigens provide operational and economic advantages and we recommend their use over purified recombinant antigens. We also offer practical applications for RAMP positive controls and recommendations for preparing them. PMID:26675461

  12. CHIMERIC WEST NILE/DENGUE VIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATE: PRECLINICAL EVALUATION IN MICE, GEESE, AND MONKEYS FOR SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live attenuated virus vaccine is being developed to protect against West Nile virus (WN) disease in humans. Previously, it was found that chimeric West Nile/dengue viruses (WN/DEN4 and WN/DEN4-delta-30) bearing the membrane precursor and envelope protein genes of WN on a backbone of dengue type 4 ...

  13. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  14. A phylogenetic approach to following West Nile virus in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John F.; Vossbrinck, Charles R.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Iton, Anthony; Beckwith, William H.; Mayo, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere. In 1999 and 2000, 82 independent Connecticut WN virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. Nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with WN-NY99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ending at 1125. This region encodes portions of the nucleocapsid and envelope proteins and includes the entire coding regions for the premembrane and membrane proteins. Amino acid changes occurred at seven loci in six isolates relative to the WN-NY99 strain. Although 34 of the isolates showed sequences identical to the WN-NY99 isolate, we were able to show geographical-based clusters of mutations. In particular, 26 isolates were characterized by mutation of C to T at position 858. This group apparently originated in Stamford, CT and disseminated to sites located as far as 54 miles from Stamford. Sequences of WN virus isolated from both brain and heart tissues from the same avian host were identical in all 14 tested individual birds, suggesting that the mutations we have documented are real and not caused by culture, RNA extraction, or PCR procedures. We conclude that this portion of the viral genome will enable us to follow the geographical and temporal movement of variant WN virus strains as they adapt to North America. PMID:11606791

  15. West Nile virus methyltransferase domain interacts with protein kinase G

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flaviviral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a phosphoprotein, though the precise identities and roles of many specific phosphorylations remain unknown. Protein kinase G (PKG), a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, has previously been shown to phosphorylate dengue virus NS5. Methods We used mass spectrometry to specifically identify NS5 phosphosites. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to study protein-protein interactions. Effects on viral replication were measured via replicon system and plaque assay titering. Results We identified multiple sites in West Nile virus (WNV) NS5 that are phosphorylated during a WNV infection, and showed that the N-terminal methyltransferase domain of WNV NS5 can be specifically phosphorylated by PKG in vitro. Expressing PKG in cell culture led to an enhancement of WNV viral production. We hypothesized this effect on replication could be caused by factors beyond the specific phosphorylations of NS5. Here we show for the first time that PKG is also able to stably interact with a viral substrate, WNV NS5, in cell culture and in vitro. While the mosquito-borne WNV NS5 interacted with PKG, tick-borne Langat virus NS5 did not. The methyltransferase domain of NS5 is able to mediate the interaction between NS5 and PKG, and mutating positive residues in the αE region of the methyltransferase interrupts the interaction. These same mutations completely inhibited WNV replication. Conclusions PKG is not required for WNV replication, but does make a stable interaction with NS5. While the consequence of the NS5:PKG interaction when it occurs is unclear, mutational data demonstrates that this interaction occurs in a region of NS5 that is otherwise necessary for replication. Overall, the results identify an interaction between virus and a cellular kinase and suggest a role for a host kinase in enhancing flaviviral replication. PMID:23876037

  16. Detection of West Nile virus in large pools of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Genevieve L; Nasci, Roger S

    2007-12-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation of the ability of commercial antigen-capture assays, the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) and the VecTest wicking assay, as well as Real Time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Taqman) and Vero cell plaque assay to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in large mosquito pools. Real-Time PCR (Taqman) was the most sensitive, detecting WNV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in 100% of samples containing a single infected mosquito in pool sizes of up to 500 mosquitoes. Mosquito body tissues minimally impacted the ability of Real Time RT-PCR to detect WNV in a pool size of 500, reducing sensitivity by 0.6 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml. Vero cell plaque assay detected live virus from a single infected mosquito in 100% of pools containing up to 200 mosquitoes, but was unreliable at larger pool sizes. VecTest detected 100% of positive pools containing 50 mosquitoes with 5.8 log10 PFU/ml virus, 100 mosquitoes with 5.9 log10 PFU/ml, and 200 mosquitoes with 5.2 log10 PFU/ ml. The RAMP assay detected 100% of positive pools containing 50 mosquitoes with 3.3 log10 PFU/ml virus, 100 mosquitoes with 3.7 log10 PFU/ml, and 200 mosquitoes with 4.0 log10 PFU/ml. Results indicate that WNV can be reliably detected by all 4 assays in pools of mosquitoes exceeding 50 specimens, though there is some loss of sensitivity with very large pool sizes. PMID:18240515

  17. Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Hamsters Infected with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Hall, Jeffery O.; Morrey, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV) can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) complications. Other functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may also be directly affected by WNV, such as bladder and cardiac functions. To investigate how WNV can cause autonomic dysfunctions, we focused on the cardiac and GI dysfunctions of rodents infected with WNV. Infected hamsters had distension of the stomach and intestines at day 9 after viral challenge. GI motility was detected by a dye retention assay; phenol red dye was retained more in the stomachs of infected hamsters as compared to sham-infected hamsters. The amplitudes of electromygraphs (EMGs) of intestinal muscles were significantly reduced. Myenteric neurons that innervate the intestines, in addition to neurons in the brain stem, were identified to be infected with WNV. These data suggest that infected neurons controlling autonomic function were the cause of GI dysfunction in WNV-infected hamsters. Using radiotelemetry to record electrocardiograms and to measure heart rate variability (HRV), a well-accepted readout for autonomic function, we determined that HRV and autonomic function were suppressed in WNV-infected hamsters. Cardiac histopathology was observed at day 9 only in the right atrium, which was coincident with WNV staining. A subset of WNV infected cells was identified among cells with hyperplarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4) as a marker for cells in the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes. The unique contribution of this study is the discovery that WNV infection of hamsters can lead to autonomic dysfunction as determined by reduced HRV and reduced EMG amplitudes of the GI tract. These data may model autonomic dysfunction of the human West Nile neurological disease. PMID:21573009

  18. Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Richard A.; Cropp, Bruce C.; Sullivan, Kevin G.; Davis, Brent S.; Komar, Nieholas; Godsey, Marvin; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Derek A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Mitchell, Carl J.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature. PMID:11971771

  19. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arcy, Allan Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.

  20. Greyhound meningoencephalitis: PCR-based detection methods highlight an absence of the most likely primary inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Daly, P; Drudy, D; Chalmers, W S K; Baxendale, W; Fanning, S; Callanan, J J

    2006-12-20

    Greyhound meningoencephalitis is currently classified as a breed-associated idiopathic central nervous system inflammatory disorder. The non-suppurative inflammatory response can be distinguished from the other breed-associated disorders based on histopathology and lesion topography, however the nature of the response primarily suggests a viral infection. In the present study PCR and RT-PCR technologies were employed on frozen cerebral tissue from confirmed cases of meningoencephalitis to target specific viruses and protozoa likely to be implicated and to exclude the presence of bacterial 16SrRNA. Secondly, degenerate primers were used to detect viruses of the herpesvirus and flavivirus families. In addition cerebral tissues were probed for West Nile Virus. Viral nucleic acid sequences to Borna disease virus, to louping ill, tick borne encephalitis, West Nile and other flaviviruses were not detected. Canine distemper virus was detected in one animal with 97% homology to strain A75/15. Degenerate PCR for herpesviruses detected viral amplification products in one animal with 90% homology to canine herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene. Protozoal amplification products were only detected in a single dog with pathological confirmation of a combination of lesions of greyhound meningoencephalitis and a protozoal encephalomyelitis. Neospora was confirmed with sequence homology to Austrian strain 1. Bacterial 16SrRNA was not detected. The present study supports previous observations that many of the known microbial causes of canine meningoencephalitis are not involved. Findings could reflect that the causal agent was not specifically targeted for detection, or that the agent is at undetectable levels or has been eliminated from brain tissue. The potential roles of genetics and of molecular mimicry also cannot be discounted. PMID:16962261

  1. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  2. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)for West Nile virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, which are notorious pests of cattle and other livestock, were suspected of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) among American white pelicans at the Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Montana in 2006-2007. However the ability of stable flies to transmit the virus was unknown. ...

  3. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  4. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  5. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; et al

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  6. Economic conditions predict prevalence of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Cummings, Robert F; Kahn, Matthew E; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the conditions underlying the proliferation of infectious diseases is crucial for mitigating future outbreaks. Since its arrival in North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has led to population-wide declines of bird species, morbidity and mortality of humans, and expenditures of millions of dollars on treatment and control. To understand the environmental conditions that best explain and predict WNV prevalence, we employed recently developed spatial modeling techniques in a recognized WNV hotspot, Orange County, California. Our models explained 85-95% of the variation of WNV prevalence in mosquito vectors, and WNV presence in secondary human hosts. Prevalence in both vectors and humans was best explained by economic variables, specifically per capita income, and by anthropogenic characteristics of the environment, particularly human population and neglected swimming pool density. While previous studies have shown associations between anthropogenic change and pathogen presence, results show that poorer economic conditions may act as a direct surrogate for environmental characteristics related to WNV prevalence. Low-income areas may be associated with higher prevalence for a number of reasons, including variations in property upkeep, microhabitat conditions conducive to viral amplification in both vectors and hosts, host community composition, and human behavioral responses related to differences in education or political participation. Results emphasize the importance and utility of including economic variables in mapping spatial risk assessments of disease. PMID:21103053

  7. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  8. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector. PMID:17536365

  9. Predicting human West Nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Pape, W John

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become established across the Americas with recent heightened activity causing significant human illness. Surveillance methods to predict the risk of human infection are urgently needed to initiate timely preventative measures and justify the expense of implementing costly or unpopular control measures, such as aerial spraying or curfews. We quantified the links between mosquito surveillance data and the spatiotemporal patterns of 3,827 human WNV cases reported over 5 years in Colorado from 2003 to 2007. Mosquito data were strongly predictive of variation in the number of human WNV infections several weeks in advance in both a spatiotemporal statewide analysis and temporal variation within counties with substantial numbers of human cases. We outline several ways to further improve the predictive power of these data and we quantify the loss of information if no funds are available for testing mosquitoes for WNV. These results demonstrate that mosquito surveillance provides a valuable public health tool for assessing the risk of human arboviral infections, allocating limited public health resources, and justifying emergency control actions. PMID:23825164

  10. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV. PMID:15663850

  11. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Root, J

    2013-04-01

    Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized. PMID:23212739

  12. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M; Spielman, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined. PMID:17498307

  13. Hydroclimatic Assessment of West Nile Virus Occurrence Across Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billian, H. E.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely infections from arbovirus in mid-latitudes, having reached the Western Hemisphere in 1999. As a vector-borne disease, WNV is primarily spread by mosquitoes; the disease is predominantly found in tropical and temperate regions of the world, and is now considered an endemic pathogen in the United States, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe. Environmental processes play a vital role in the trigger of WNV. Here, using logistical regression models, we quantified relationships between hydroclimatic processes and mosquito abundance for WNV across the continental USA using precipitation and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. It will be shown that reported cases of this disease are more prevalent during spring and summer months in the entire country, when there is more precipitation and higher surface air temperatures for 2003 to 2013. The key impacts of this research are those related to the improvement of human health, and a means to predict mosquito breeding patterns long term as they relate to the prevalence of vector-borne illnesses.

  14. Economic Conditions Predict Prevalence of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Cummings, Robert F.; Kahn, Matthew E.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the conditions underlying the proliferation of infectious diseases is crucial for mitigating future outbreaks. Since its arrival in North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has led to population-wide declines of bird species, morbidity and mortality of humans, and expenditures of millions of dollars on treatment and control. To understand the environmental conditions that best explain and predict WNV prevalence, we employed recently developed spatial modeling techniques in a recognized WNV hotspot, Orange County, California. Our models explained 85–95% of the variation of WNV prevalence in mosquito vectors, and WNV presence in secondary human hosts. Prevalence in both vectors and humans was best explained by economic variables, specifically per capita income, and by anthropogenic characteristics of the environment, particularly human population and neglected swimming pool density. While previous studies have shown associations between anthropogenic change and pathogen presence, results show that poorer economic conditions may act as a direct surrogate for environmental characteristics related to WNV prevalence. Low-income areas may be associated with higher prevalence for a number of reasons, including variations in property upkeep, microhabitat conditions conducive to viral amplification in both vectors and hosts, host community composition, and human behavioral responses related to differences in education or political participation. Results emphasize the importance and utility of including economic variables in mapping spatial risk assessments of disease. PMID:21103053

  15. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS) infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms. Observations. Our case report details a single patient with brain metastases who presented with unexplained fever, encephalopathy, and new-onset tremors. Initially, it was assumed that his symptoms were due to his underlying malignancy or seizures. However, because his unexplained fevers persisted, lumbar puncture was pursued. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis included WNV polymerase chain reaction and serologies were ordered which eventually led to diagnosis of WNV encephalitis. Conclusions and Relevance. Patients with metastatic cancer who present with encephalopathy are often evaluated with assumption that malignancy is the underlying etiology. This can lead to delays in diagnosis and possible mistreatment. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and an important diagnostic consideration of WNV encephalitis in patients with cancer. PMID:27516915

  16. West Nile virus detection in nonvascular feathers from avian carcasses.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Young, Ginger R; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Brault, Aaron C; Reisen, William K; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a public health threat and has caused the death of thousands of North American birds. As such, surveillance for WNV has been ongoing, utilizing numerous biological specimens and testing methods. Nonvascular (i.e., fully grown) feathers would provide a simple method of collection from either dead or live birds of all ages and molt cycles, with presumably less biosafety risk compared with other specimen types, including feather pulp. The current study evaluates WNV detection in nonvascular feathers removed from naturally infected avian carcasses of several species groups. Feathers of corvid passeriforms had the highest sensitivity of detection (64%), followed by noncorvid passeriforms (43%), columbiforms (33%), and falconiforms (31%). Storing feathers for 1 year at -20 degrees C or at ambient room temperature resulted in detection rates of infectious WNV of 16% and zero, respectively, but had no effect on detection rates of WNV RNA in a subset of matched feather pairs (47% for both storage temperatures). The efficacy of WNV detection in nonvascular feathers is greatly enhanced by testing multiple feathers. The advantages of using nonvascular feathers over other tissues may outweigh the relatively low detectability of WNV RNA in certain situations such as remote areas lacking resources for acquiring other types of samples or maintaining the cold chain. PMID:19737756

  17. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade LL; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy AG; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel YY; Lau, Susanna KP; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154–156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  18. Hydrologic variability and the dynamics of West Nile virus transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in North America in New York City during 1999 and since that time has spread throughout the continent and settled into a pattern of local endemicity in which outbreaks of variable size develop in some years but not others. Predicting where and when these outbreaks will develop is an issue of considerable public health importance. Spillover transmission of WNV to humans typically occurs when infection rates among vector mosquitoes are elevated. Mosquito infection rates are not constant through time but instead increase when newly emergent mosquitoes can more readily acquire WNV by blood-meal feeding on available, infected animal hosts. Such an increase of vector mosquito infection rates is termed amplification and is facilitated for WNV by intense zoonotic transmission of the virus among vector mosquitoes and avian hosts. Theory, observation and model simulations indicate that amplification is favored when mosquito breeding habitats and bird nesting and roosting habitats overlap. Both vector mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts depend on water resources; mosquitoes are critically dependent on the availability of standing water, as the first 3 stages of the mosquito life cycle, egg, larvae, pupae, are aquatic. Here it is shown that hydrologic variability often determines where and when vector mosquitoes and avian hosts congregate together, and when the amplification of WNV is more likely. Measures of land surface wetness and pooling, from ground observation, satellite observation, or numerical modeling, can provide reliable estimates of where and when WNV transmission hotspots will arise. Examples of this linkage between hydrology and WNV activity are given for Florida, Colorado and New York, and an operational system for monitoring and forecasting WNV risk in space and time is presented for Florida.

  19. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade Ll; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy Ag; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel Yy; Lau, Susanna Kp; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick Cy

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154-156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  20. Monitoring of West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, U; Seidowski, D; Angenvoort, J; Eiden, M; Müller, K; Nowotny, N; Groschup, M H

    2012-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between ornithophilic mosquitoes, mainly of the Culex genus, and certain wild bird species. Other bird species like ravens, jays and raptors are highly susceptible to the infection and may develop deadly encephalitis, while further species of birds are only going through subclinical infection. The objective of this study was to continue in years 2009-2011 the serological and molecular surveillance in wild birds in Germany (see Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10, 639) and to expand these investigations for the first time also to sera from domestic poultry and horses collected between 2005 and 2009. All three cohorts function as indicators for the endemic circulation of WNV. The presence of WNV-specific antibodies was detected in all samples by virus neutralization test (VNT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of WNV genomes was monitored in relevant sera using two qRT-PCRs that amplify lineage 1 and 2 strains. A total of 364 migratory and resident wild bird serum samples (with emphasis on Passeriformes and Falconiformes) as well as 1119 serum samples from domestic poultry and 1282 sera from horses were analysed. With the exception of one hooded crow, antibody carriers were exclusively found in migratory birds, but not in resident birds/domestic poultry or in local horses. Crows are facultative, short-distance winter migrants in Germany. WNV-specific nucleic acids could not be demonstrated in any of the samples. According to these data, there is no convincing evidence for indigenous WNV infections in equines and in wild/domestic birds in Germany. However, since a few years, WNV infections are endemic in other European countries such as Austria, Hungary, Greece and Italy, a state-of-the-art surveillance system for the detection of incursions of WNV into Germany deems mandatory. PMID:22958253

  1. Conservation and Variability of West Nile Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Keun-Ok; Ramdas, Shweta; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Brusic, Vladimir; Salmon, Jerome; August, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged globally as an increasingly important pathogen for humans and domestic animals. Studies of the evolutionary diversity of the virus over its known history will help to elucidate conserved sites, and characterize their correspondence to other pathogens and their relevance to the immune system. We describe a large-scale analysis of the entire WNV proteome, aimed at identifying and characterizing evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences. This study, which used 2,746 WNV protein sequences collected from the NCBI GenPept database, focused on analysis of peptides of length 9 amino acids or more, which are immunologically relevant as potential T-cell epitopes. Entropy-based analysis of the diversity of WNV sequences, revealed the presence of numerous evolutionarily stable nonamer positions across the proteome (entropy value of ≤1). The representation (frequency) of nonamers variant to the predominant peptide at these stable positions was, generally, low (≤10% of the WNV sequences analyzed). Eighty-eight fragments of length 9–29 amino acids, representing ∼34% of the WNV polyprotein length, were identified to be identical and evolutionarily stable in all analyzed WNV sequences. Of the 88 completely conserved sequences, 67 are also present in other flaviviruses, and several have been associated with the functional and structural properties of viral proteins. Immunoinformatic analysis revealed that the majority (78/88) of conserved sequences are potentially immunogenic, while 44 contained experimentally confirmed human T-cell epitopes. This study identified a comprehensive catalogue of completely conserved WNV sequences, many of which are shared by other flaviviruses, and majority are potential epitopes. The complete conservation of these immunologically relevant sequences through the entire recorded WNV history suggests they will be valuable as components of peptide-specific vaccines or other therapeutic applications, for

  2. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Muçaj, Sefedin; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hundozi, Hajrije; Gashi, Sanije; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Shala, Nexhmedin; Kryeziu, Manushaqe

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Tuberculous meningitis is a major global health problem and is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with high rate mortality. Last years in Kosovo incidence of TB was decreased in less than 1000 cases per year and 10-20 cases per year of TB meningoencephalitis. Still Kosovo has limited numbers of TB. TBM is diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, and radiological findings. Clinical picture, neurological status, anamnestic data, suspect (but not specific) lab tests, and imaging new methods, together can give very valuable help to clinicians for early adequate and successful treatment. PMID:20645518

  3. Vector-Virus Interactions and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae) is the cause of the most widespread arthropod-borne viral disease in the world and the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease ever observed. Mosquito-borne outbreaks are influenced by intrinsic (e.g., vector and viral genetics, vector and host competence, vector life-history traits) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature, rainfall, human land use) factors that affect virus activity and mosquito biology in complex ways. The concept of vectorial capacity integrates these factors to address interactions of the virus with the arthropod host, leading to a clearer understanding of their complex interrelationships, how they affect transmission of vector-borne disease, and how they impact human health. Vertebrate factors including host competence, population dynamics, and immune status also affect transmission dynamics. The complexity of these interactions are further exacerbated by the fact that not only can divergent hosts differentially alter the virus, but the virus also can affect both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in ways that significantly alter patterns of virus transmission. This chapter concentrates on selected components of the virus-vector-vertebrate interrelationship, focusing specifically on how interactions between vector, virus, and environment shape the patterns and intensity of WNV transmission. PMID:24351794

  4. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome. PMID:23983716

  5. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF WEST NILE VIRUS ON CALIFORNIA BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Fang, Ying; Armijos, M. Veronica; Carroll, Brian D.; Husted, Stan; Johnson, Wesley O.; Reisen, William K.

    2010-01-01

    The strain of West Nile virus (WNV) currently epidemic in North America contains a genetic mutation elevating its virulence in birds, especially species in the family Corvidae. Although dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) have been the hallmark of the epidemic, the overall impact of WNV on North America’s avifauna remains poorly understood and has not been addressed thoroughly in California. Here, we evaluate variation by species in the effect of WNV on California birds from 2004 to 2007 by using (1) seroprevalence in free-ranging birds, (2) percentage of carcasses of each species reported by the public that tested positive for WNV, (3) mortality determined from experimental infections, and (4) population declines detected by trend analysis of Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Using Bayesian linear models, we extrapolate trends in BBS data from 1980–2003 (pre-WNV) to 2004–2007 (post-WNV). We attribute significant declines from expected abundance trends in areas supporting epiornitics to WNV transmission. We combine risk assessed from each of the four data sets to generate an overall score describing WNV risk by species. The susceptibility of California avifauna to WNV varies widely, with overall risk scores ranging from low for the refractory Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) through high for the susceptible American Crow. Other species at high risk include, in descending order, the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), and Yellow-billed Magpie (Pica nuttalli). Our analyses emphasize the importance of multiple data sources in assessing the effect of an invading pathogen. PMID:20589226

  6. Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Talley, Pamela; Holzbauer, Stacy; Smith, Kirk; Pomputius, William

    2016-03-11

    On April 20, 2015, a female aged 15 years sought care at her pediatrician's office after 5 days of fever, myalgia, left parietal headache, and photophobia. A rapid influenza assay was negative, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total white blood cell count were normal. She improved with symptomatic care at home, but returned to her pediatrician's office on April 28, reporting recurrence of her headache and photophobia and new onset of a stiff neck. She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9°F (39.4°C) and had meningismus. Computed tomography scan of her head was normal, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly elevated white blood cell count with 68% lymphocytes, low glucose, and a negative Gram stain. She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis. The patient's hospital course was notable for hypotension (blood pressure 81/50), irritability, and pancreatitis with a peak lipase of 8,627 U/L. CSF cultures yielded no growth, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for herpes simplex virus was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing, acid-fast bacilli stain, and acid-fast bacilli cultures of CSF were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results of investigations for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, Lyme disease, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, and species of Babesia, Toxoplasma, Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, and Brucella were negative. She recovered and was discharged on hospital day 11 with no apparent sequelae. PMID:26963688

  7. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Horses, Southern France, 2000: Results of a Serosurvey

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Véronique; Pouillot, Régis; Labie, Jacques; Marendat, Ingrid; Murgue, Bernadette; Zeller, Hervé; Zientara, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    During late summer and autumn 2000, a West Nile fever outbreak in southern France resulted in 76 equine clinical cases; 21 horses died. We report the results of a large serosurvey of all equines within a 10-km radius of laboratory-confirmed cases. Blood samples were obtained from 5,107 equines, distributed in groups of 1 to 91 animals. West Nile virus immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies were found in 8.5% of animals (n=432). Forty-two percent of the IgG-positive animals were also IgM positive. Horses living in small groups were more affected than those in large groups. The results suggest that West Nile virus is not endemic in the affected area, the Camargue; rather, sporadic outbreaks are separated by long silent periods. PMID:12141961

  8. West Nile Virus Activity--United States, October 13-19, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-22

    During October 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported from 20 states (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming). PMID:15499683

  9. West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Kate L.; Bessoff, Kovi; Colón, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America. PMID:19751597

  10. Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Antibodies to West Nile virus in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Alan P.; Nicholas, David; Young, Donna; Maffei, Joseph; Kramer, Laura D.

    2002-01-01

    We adapted an indirect immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to facilitate studies of West Nile virus (WNV) and evaluated its application to taxonomically diverse avian species. Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 23 bird species, including many exotic species, demonstrating its value in studies of WNV epizootiology. PMID:12194778

  11. West Nile Virus Documented in Indonesia from Acute Febrile Illness Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Kosasih, Herman; Artika, I. Made; Perkasa, Aditya; Puspita, Mita; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Powers, Ann M.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of West Nile virus in a cryopreserved, dengue-negative serum specimen collected from an acute fever case on Java in 2004–2005. The strain belongs to genotype lineage 2, which has recently been implicated in human outbreaks in Europe. PMID:24420775

  12. Spatially explicit West Nile virus risk modeling in Santa Clara County, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously created Geographic Information Systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is tested and calibrated in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005 provide the spatial and temporal ground truth. Model param...

  13. Spatially Explicit West Nile Virus Risk Modeling in Santa Clara County, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A geographic information systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk was tested and calibrated with data collected in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005, provided spatial and temporal ground truth. When the mo...

  14. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use. PMID:17479898

  15. Early-season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Julian, K.G.; Campbell, G.L.; Price, S.D.; Marfin, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of 2001 and 2002 West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data shows that counties that report WNV-infected dead birds early in the transmission season are more likely to report subsequent WNV disease cases in humans than are counties that do not report early WNV-infected dead birds.

  16. Domestic goose as a model for West Nile virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen in the Americas, first reported in New York during 1999, and has since spread across the United States (USA), Central and South America causing neurological disease in humans, horses and some bird species, including domestic geese. No WNV vaccines are li...

  17. West Nile virus from blood donors, vertebrates, and mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; McElroy, Kate L; Bessoff, Kovi; Colón, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L

    2009-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America. PMID:19751597

  18. Mutation in West Nile Virus Structural Protein prM during Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lanciotti, Robert S.; Hindiyeh, Musa; Keller, Nathan; Milo, Ron; Mayan, Shlomo; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    A mutation leading to substitution of a key amino acid in the prM protein of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred during persistent infection of an immunocompetent patient. WNV RNA persisted in the patient’s urine and serum in the presence of low-level neutralizing antibodies. This case demonstrates active replication of WNV during persistent infection. PMID:27322782

  19. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  20. Mutation in West Nile Virus Structural Protein prM during Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Lanciotti, Robert S; Hindiyeh, Musa; Keller, Nathan; Milo, Ron; Mayan, Shlomo; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    A mutation leading to substitution of a key amino acid in the prM protein of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred during persistent infection of an immunocompetent patient. WNV RNA persisted in the patient's urine and serum in the presence of low-level neutralizing antibodies. This case demonstrates active replication of WNV during persistent infection. PMID:27322782

  1. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anna; Bán, Enikő; Nagy, Orsolya; Ferenczi, Emőke; Farkas, Ágnes; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia; Takács, Mária

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus, a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus, is responsible for numerous animal and human infections in Europe, Africa and the Americas. In Hungary, the average number of human infections falls between 10 and 20 cases each year. The severity of clinically manifesting infections varies widely from the milder form of West Nile fever to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In routine laboratory diagnosis of human West Nile virus infections, serological methods are mainly applied due to the limited duration of viremia. However, recent studies suggest that detection of West Nile virus RNA in urine samples may be useful as a molecular diagnostic test for these infections. The Hungarian National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses serologically confirmed eleven acute human infections during the 2014 seasonal period. In three patients with neurological symptoms, viral RNA was detected from both urine and serum specimens, albeit for a longer period and in higher copy numbers with urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS3 genomic region of three strains and the complete genome of one selected strain demonstrated that all three patients had lineage-2 West Nile virus infections. Our findings reaffirm the utility of viral RNA detection in urine as a molecular diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of West Nile virus infections. PMID:27038827

  2. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Lazear, Helen M.; Daniels, Brian P.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Huang, Albert C.; Vick, Sarah C.; Doyle, Sean E.; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1−/− mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1−/− mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1−/− mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis– and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)–independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. PMID:25904743

  3. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. PMID:25904743

  4. Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

  5. A Recombinant Influenza A Virus Expressing Domain III of West Nile Virus Induces Protective Immune Responses against Influenza and West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron E. E.; van den Doel, Petra; Koraka, Penelope; van Amerongen, Geert; Spohn, Gunther; Haagmans, Bart L.; Provacia, Lisette B. V.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of a recombinant influenza virus expressing domain III of the WNV glycoprotein E (Flu-NA-DIII) and its evaluation as a WNV vaccine candidate in a mouse model. FLU-NA-DIII-vaccinated mice were protected from severe body weight loss and mortality caused by WNV infection, whereas control mice succumbed to the infection. In addition, it was shown that one subcutaneous immunization with 105 TCID50 Flu-NA-DIII provided 100% protection against challenge. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that protection was mediated by antibodies and CD4+T cells. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with FLU-NA-DIII developed protective influenza virus-specific antibody titers. It was concluded that this vector system might be an attractive platform for the development of bivalent WNV-influenza vaccines. PMID:21541326

  6. Long-term neurological outcomes in West Nile virus-infected patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Miller, Vicki E; Garcia, Melissa N; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Salazar, Lucrecia; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-05-01

    The Houston West Nile Cohort (HWNC) was founded in 2002 when West Nile virus (WNV) reached Houston, TX. The long-term outcomes following WNV infection are still mostly unknown, though neurological abnormalities up to 1 year postinfection have been documented. We report an observational study of neurological abnormalities at 1-3 and 8-11 years following WNV infection in the HWNC. We conducted standard neurological examinations at two separate time points to assess changes in neurological status over time. The majority of patients (86%, 30/35) with encephalitis had abnormal neurological exam findings at the time of the first assessment compared with uncomplicated fever (27%, 3/11) and meningitis (36%, 5/14) cases. At the time of the second assessment, 57% (4/7) of West Nile fever (WNF), 33% (2/6) of West Nile meningitis (WNM), and 36% (5/14) of West Nile encephalitis (WNE) had developed new neurological complications. The most common abnormalities noted were tandem gait, hearing loss, abnormal reflexes, and muscle weakness. Long-term neurological abnormalities were most commonly found in patients who experienced primary WNV encephalitis. New abnormalities may develop over time regardless of initial clinical infection. Future studies should aim to differentiate neurological consequences due to WNV neuroinvasive infection versus neurological decline related to comorbid conditions. PMID:25802426

  7. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  8. Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, horses, and humans in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  9. West nile virus antibodies in bats from New Jersey and New York.

    PubMed

    Pilipski, Jacob D; Pilipskl, Lucas M; Risley, Lance S

    2004-04-01

    Eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown (Myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (Myotis septentriotalis) bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from New Jersey and New York (USA) between July and October 2002. Samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. One little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies. No bats had antibodies to SLE virus. This was the first large-scale investigation of WNV infection in bats in New Jersey. Additional work is needed to determine the effects of WNV on bat populations. PMID:15362837

  10. Bagaza virus inhibits Japanese encephalitis & West Nile virus replication in Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, A.B.; Bondre, V.P.; George, R.; Ghodke, Y.S.; Aher, R.V.; Gokhale, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Studies have shown that certain flaviviruses influence susceptibility of mosquitoes by inhibiting/enhancing replication of important flaviviruses. Hence, a study was designed to determine whether Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in India, alters susceptibility of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and West Nile viruses (WNV). Methods: JEV and WNV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the presence of BAGV was carried out by intrathoracic (IT) inoculation and oral feeding methods. Mosquitoes were infected with BAGV and WNV/JEV either simultaneously or in a phased manner, in which mosquitoes were infected with BAGV by IT inoculation followed by super-infection with JEV/WNV after eight days post-infection (PI). JEV and WNV yield on 7th and 14th day PI after super-infection was determined by 50 per cent tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) method. Results: In Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, prior infection with BAGV significantly reduced JEV and WNV replication while in Cx. quinquefasciatus, BAGV influence was only seen with WNV. Reduction in virus titre was observed in IT inoculated and oral fed mosquitoes irrespective of the infection mode. JEV replication was also found reduced in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes persistently infected with BAGV at passage four. Interpretation & conclusions: BAGV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes altered their susceptibility to JEV and WNV producing low virus yield. However, the role of BAGV in inhibiting JEV/WNV replication in field mosquitoes needs further investigations. PMID:26905241

  11. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  12. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  13. Field Methods and Sample Collection Techniques for the Surveillance of West Nile Virus in Avian Hosts.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Boyce, Walter M; Reisen, William K

    2016-01-01

    Avian hosts play an important role in the spread, maintenance, and amplification of West Nile virus (WNV). Avian susceptibility to WNV varies from species to species thus surveillance efforts can focus both on birds that survive infection and those that succumb. Here we describe methods for the collection and sampling of live birds for WNV antibodies or viremia, and methods for the sampling of dead birds. Target species and study design considerations are discussed. PMID:27188560

  14. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas G.; Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors. PMID:15663862

  15. Statistical Tools for the Interpretation of Enzootic West Nile virus Transmission Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Robertson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance indicators requires little advanced mathematical skill, but greatly enhances the ability of public health officials to prescribe effective WNV management tactics. Stepwise procedures for the calculation of mosquito infection rates (IR) and vector index (VI) are presented alongside statistical tools that require additional computation. A brief review of advantages and important considerations for each statistic's use is provided. PMID:27188561

  16. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  17. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  18. Reduced West Nile Virus Transmission Around Communal Roosts of Great-Tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Colborn, James M.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad; Damian, Dan; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus has caused several outbreaks among humans in the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona, southwest USA) within the last decade. Recent ecologic studies have implicated Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis as the mosquito vectors and identified three abundant passerine birds—great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)—as key amplifiers among vertebrates. Nocturnal congregations of certain species have been suggested as critical for late summer West Nile virus amplification. We evaluated the hypothesis that house sparrow (P. domesticus) and/or great-tailed grackle (Q. mexicanus) communal roost sites (n = 22 and n = 5, respectively) in a primarily suburban environment were spatially associated with West Nile virus transmission indices during the 2010 outbreak of human neurological disease in metropolitan Phoenix. Spatial associations between human case residences and communal roosts were non-significant for house sparrows, and were negative for great-tailed grackle. Several theories that explain these observations are discussed, including the possibility that grackle communal roosts are protective. PMID:25480320

  19. DNA vaccines encoding the envelope protein of West Nile virus lineages 1 or 2 administered intramuscularly, via electroporation and with recombinant virus protein induce partial protection in large falcons (Falco spp.).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Angenvoort, Joke; Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Maier, Kristina; Chabierski, Stefan; Eiden, Martin; Ulbert, Sebastian; Groschup, Martin H; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As West Nile virus (WNV) can cause lethal diseases in raptors, a vaccination prophylaxis of free-living and captive populations is desirable. In the absence of vaccines approved for birds, equine vaccines have been used in falcons, but full protection against WNV infection was not achieved. Therefore, two DNA vaccines encoding the ectodomain of the envelope protein of WNV lineages 1 and 2, respectively, were evaluated in 28 large falcons. Four different vaccination protocols were used, including electroporation and booster-injections of recombinant WNV domain III protein, before challenge with the live WNV lineage 1 strain NY99. Drug safety, plasmid shedding and antibody production were monitored during the vaccination period. Serological, virological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological investigations were performed during the challenge trials. Antibody response following vaccination was low overall and lasted for a maximum of three weeks. Plasmid shedding was not detected at any time. Viremia, mortality and levels, but not duration, of oral virus shedding were reduced in all of the groups during the challenge trial compared to the non-vaccinated control group. Likewise, clinical scoring, levels of cloacal virus shedding and viral load in organs were significantly reduced in three vaccination groups. Histopathological findings associated with WNV infections (meningo-encephalitis, myocarditis, and arteritis) were present in all groups, but immunohistochemical detection of the viral antigen was reduced. In conclusion, the vaccines can be used safely in falcons to reduce mortality and clinical signs and to lower the risk of virus transmission due to decreased levels of virus shedding and viremia, but full protection was not achieved in all groups. PMID:26282836

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of West Nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Barbel; Plevka, Pavel; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-05-25

    West Nile virus, a human pathogen, is closely related to other medically important flaviviruses of global impact such as dengue virus. The infectious virus was purified from cell culture using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and density-gradient centrifugation. Thin amorphously shaped crystals of the lipid-enveloped virus were grown in quartz capillaries equilibrated by vapor diffusion. Crystal diffraction extended at best to a resolution of about 25 {angstrom} using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis of the diffraction images indicated that the crystals had unit-cell parameters a {approx_equal} b {approx_equal} 480 {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, suggesting a tight hexagonal packing of one virus particle per unit cell.

  1. Detection of West Nile virus RNA from the louse fly Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne J; Nickerson, Diane; Bryant, Patricia; Wolf, Bruce; Glaser, Amy; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by Taqman reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 4 of 85 (4.7%) blood-engorged (n = 2) and unengorged (n = 2) Icosta americana (Leach) hippoboscid flies that were collected from wild raptors submitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center in Mercer County, NJ, in 2003. This report represents an additional detection of WNV in a nonculicine arthropod in North America and the first documented detection of the virus in unengorged hippoboscid flies, further suggesting a possible role that this species may play in the transmission of WNV in North America. PMID:16506578

  2. Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the Salton Sea, California.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Iko, William M; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies and infectious virus, and the occurrence of overwinter transmission in two raptor species during January and March 2006 at the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. We captured 208 American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (January, n=100; March, n=108) and 116 Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) (January, n=52; March, n=64). Laboratory analysis revealed that 83% of American Kestrels and 31% of Burrowing Owls were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, two seroconversions were detected in Burrowing Owls between January and March. Infectious WNV, consistent with acute infection, was not detected in any bird. PMID:20688694

  3. Notes from the Field: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Exposure to Swimming Pool Water Supplied by an Overland Pipe - Inyo County, California, 2015.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard O; Cope, Jennifer R; Moskowitz, Marvin; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent; Behrendt, Kaleigh; Molina, Louis; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Beach, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    On June 17, 2015, a previously healthy woman aged 21 years went to an emergency department after onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting during the preceding 24 hours. Upon evaluation, she was vomiting profusely and had photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was consistent with meningitis.* She was empirically treated for bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis. Her condition continued to decline, and she was transferred to a higher level of care in another facility on June 19, but died shortly thereafter. Cultures of cerebrospinal fluid and multiple blood specimens were negative, and tests for West Nile, herpes simplex, and influenza viruses were negative. No organisms were seen in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, real-time polymerase chain reaction testing by CDC was positive for Naegleria fowleri, a free-living thermophilic ameba found in warm freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis, an almost universally fatal infection. PMID:27123690

  4. Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Komar, N.; Panella, N. A.; Boyce, E.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated West Nile (WN) virus seroprevalence in healthy horses, dogs, and cats in New York City after an outbreak of human WN virus encephalitis in 1999. Two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs, and none of 12 cats tested positive for WN virus-neutralizing antibodies. Domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local WN virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans. PMID:11585540

  5. A rapid and quantitative assay for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of West Nile virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Theodore C. . E-mail: piersontc@mail.nih.gov; Sanchez, Melissa D.; Puffer, Bridget A.; Ahmed, Asim A.; Geiss, Brian J.; Valentine, Laura E.; Altamura, Louis A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Doms, Robert W. . E-mail: doms@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus within the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that is responsible for causing West Nile encephalitis in humans. The surface of WNV virions is covered by a highly ordered icosahedral array of envelope proteins that is responsible for mediating attachment and fusion with target cells. These envelope proteins are also primary targets for the generation of neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, we describe a novel approach for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of WNV infection using virus-like particles that measure infection as a function of reporter gene expression. These reporter virus particles (RVPs) are produced by complementation of a sub-genomic replicon with WNV structural proteins provided in trans using conventional DNA expression vectors. The precision and accuracy of this approach stem from an ability to measure the outcome of the interaction between antibody and viral antigens under conditions that satisfy the assumptions of the law of mass action as applied to virus neutralization. In addition to its quantitative strengths, this approach allows the production of WNV RVPs bearing the prM-E proteins of different WNV strains and mutants, offering considerable flexibility for the study of the humoral immune response to WNV in vitro. WNV RVPs are capable of only a single round of infection, can be used under BSL-2 conditions, and offer a rapid and quantitative approach for detecting virus entry and its inhibition by neutralizing antibody.

  6. A thiopurine drug inhibits West Nile virus production in cell culture, but not in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei-Yin; Keating, Julie A; Hoover, Spencer; Striker, Rob; Bernard, Kristen A

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses within the Flavivirus genus cause significant disease in humans; however, effective antivirals against these viruses are not currently available. We have previously shown that a thiopurine drug, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), inhibits replication of distantly related viruses within the Flaviviridae family in cell culture, including bovine viral diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus replicon. Here we further examined the potential antiviral effect of 6MMPr on several diverse flaviviruses. In cell culture, 6MMPr inhibited virus production of yellow fever virus, dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) and West Nile virus (WNV) in a dose-dependent manner, and DENV-2 was significantly more sensitive to 6MMPr treatment than WNV. We then explored the use of 6MMPr as an antiviral against WNV in an immunocompetent mouse model. Once a day treatment of mice with 0.5 mg 6MMPr was just below the toxic dose in our mouse model, and this dose was used in subsequent studies. Mice were treated with 6MMPr immediately after subcutaneous inoculation with WNV for eight consecutive days. Treatment with 6MMPr exacerbated weight loss in WNV-inoculated mice and did not significantly affect mortality. We hypothesized that 6MMPr has low bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS) and examined the effect of pre-treatment with 6MMPr on viral loads in the periphery and CNS. Pre-treatment with 6MMPr had no significant effect on viremia or viral titers in the periphery, but resulted in significantly higher viral loads in the brain, suggesting that the effect of 6MMPr is tissue-dependent. In conclusion, despite being a potent inhibitor of flaviviruses in cell culture, 6MMPr was not effective against West Nile disease in mice; however, further studies are warranted to reduce the toxicity and/or improve the bioavailability of this potential antiviral drug. PMID:22039536

  7. Powassan Meningoencephalitis, New York, New York, USA

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Whittier, Susan; Kulas, Karen; Kramer, Laura D.; Flam, Robin; Roberts, James Kirkland; Tsiouris, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Disease caused by Powassan virus (POWV), a tick-borne flavivirus, ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurologic compromise and death. Two cases of POWV meningoencephalitis in New York, USA, highlight diagnostic techniques, neurologic outcomes, and the effect of POWV on communities to which it is endemic. PMID:23969017

  8. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  9. Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Csank, Tomáš; Bhide, Katarína; Bencúrová, Elena; Dolinská, Saskia; Drzewnioková, Petra; Major, Peter; Korytár, Ľuboš; Bocková, Eva; Bhide, Mangesh; Pistl, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses. PMID:27001305

  10. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan. PMID:25358382

  11. Use of an internal positive control in a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR to detect West Nile virus RNA in mosquito pools.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Diane L; McNabb, Alan; Jorgensen, Danielle R; Isaac-Renton, Judith L

    2004-02-01

    We report on the use of West Nile virus Armored RNA as an internal positive control (IPC) for the extraction and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of RNA extracted from field-collected mosquitoes and on a multiplex real-time Taqman RT-PCR to simultaneously detect the 3' noncoding region of West Nile virus and the West Nile virus NS5-2 region comprising the IPC. Mosquito pools from the province of British Columbia, Canada (n = 635), were tested in duplicate and found to be negative for West Nile virus and positive for the IPC. Known West Nile virus-positive supernatants from mosquito pools from the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba were tested in duplicate and found to be positive for both regions of the West Nile virus genome. The mean cycle threshold (Ct) value for the IPC in batch extraction controls +/- 2 standard deviations was found to be 36.43 +/- 1.78 cycles. IPCs of 98.4% (624) of West Nile virus-negative pools fell within this range, indicating the reproducibility of RNA extraction and RT-PCR for pools varying in mosquito genus and number. A comparison of mosquito pool genera revealed no significant genus effect on the Ct value of the IPC. The incorporation of West Nile virus Armored RNA as an IPC allows monitoring of RNA extraction and RT-PCR and detection of false-negative results due to failures in these processes or to PCR inhibition, respectively. PMID:14766868

  12. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America. PMID:24135819

  13. Predictive Modeling of West Nile Virus Transmission Risk in the Mediterranean Basin: How Far from Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  14. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in American White Pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)–associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5× higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful. PMID:20202414

  15. Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful. PMID:20202414

  16. Predictive modeling of West Nile virus transmission risk in the Mediterranean Basin: how far from landing?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  17. Association of West Nile virus illness and urban landscapes in Chicago and Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Foster, Erik S; Haramis, Linn D; Kitron, Uriel D

    2007-01-01

    Background West Nile virus infection in humans in urban areas of the Midwestern United States has exhibited strong spatial clustering during epidemic years. We derived urban landscape classes from the physical and socio-economic factors hypothesized to be associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission and compared those to human cases of illness in 2002 in Chicago and Detroit. The objectives were to improve understanding of human exposure to virus-infected mosquitoes in the urban context, and to assess the degree to which environmental factors found to be important in Chicago were also found in Detroit. Results Five urban classes that partitioned the urban space were developed for each city region. The classes had many similarities in the two settings. In both regions, the WNV case rate was considerably higher in the urban class associated with the Inner Suburbs, where 1940–1960 era housing dominates, vegetation cover is moderate, and population density is moderate. The land cover mapping approach played an important role in the successful and consistent classification of the urban areas. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates how urban form and past land use decisions can influence transmission of a vector-borne virus. In addition, the results are helpful to develop hypotheses regarding urban landscape features and WNV transmission, they provide a structured method to stratify the urban areas to locate representative field study sites specifically for WNV, and this analysis contributes to the question of how the urban environment affects human health. PMID:17352825

  18. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Sileo, L.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes. Seven days postchallenge vaccinated cranes had significantly less cloacal shedding of the virus (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes and significantly less weight loss (P < 0.05) as compared with unvaccinated cranes. Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  19. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues. PMID:22705084

  20. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  1. [West Nile virus--causative agent of a zoonosis with increasing significance?].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Johne, R; Schusser, G; Giese, M; Linke, S; Pauli, G

    2006-12-01

    The epidemic West Nile Virus (WNV) infections observed in the last years, particularly those in the USA in 1999 and the following years, have led to an increasing interest in this zoonotic infection. Here, the most prominent aspects of WNV biology and epidemiology are presented. Clinical signs observed in men and horses are described, as well as the current state of diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis. Preliminary results of investigations on the prevalence of WNV in Germany show that migrating birds have been in contact with WNV; there is however no indication for the presence of this virus. While WNV is endemic in many parts of the "Old World", thus inducing "natural immunity" in (migrating) birds and vertebrates, a susceptible bird population with no existing immunity against this virus was exposed in the "New World". PMID:17233278

  2. Role of communally nesting ardeid birds in the epidemiology of West Nile virus revisited.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Wheeler, Sarah; Armijos, M Veronica; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Kelley, Kara; Wright, Stan

    2009-06-01

    Although herons and egrets in the family Ardeidae frequently have been associated with viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex, communal nesting colonies do not appear to be a focus of early season and rapid amplification of West Nile virus (WNV) in California. Evidence for repeated WNV infection was found by testing living and dead nestlings collected under trees with mixed species ardeid colonies nesting above in an oak grove near the University of California arboretum in Davis and in a Eucalyptus grove at a rural farmstead. However, mosquito infection rates at both nesting sites were low and positive pools did not occur earlier than at comparison sites within the City of Davis or at the Yolo Bypass wetlands managed for rice production and waterfowl habitat. Black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were the most abundant and frequently infected ardeid species, indicating that WNV may be an important cause of mortality among nestlings of this species. PMID:19125659

  3. Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

  4. Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction between Usutu and West Nile (lineages 1 and 2) viruses.

    PubMed

    Cacciotti, Giulia; Caputo, Beniamino; Selvaggi, Carla; la Sala, Andrea; Vitiello, Laura; Diallo, Diawo; Ceianu, Cornelia; Antonelli, Guido; Nowotny, Norbert; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    Given the pivotal role of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in determining the magnitude of the antiviral innate immune response, we sought to determine whether Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) lineages (L)1 and L2 can infect DCs and affect the rate of type I interferon (IFN) activation. The sensitivity of these viruses to types I and III IFNs was also compared. We found that USUV can infect DCs, induce higher antiviral activities, IFN alpha subtypes and the IFN stimulated gene (ISG)15 pathway, and is more sensitive to types I and III IFNs than WNVs. In contrast, we confirmed that IFN alpha/beta subtypes were more effective against WNV L2 than WNV L1. However, the replication kinetics, induction of IFN alpha subtypes and ISGs in DCs and the sensitivity to IFN lambda 1-3 did not differ between WNV L1 and L2. PMID:26280469

  5. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Seidel, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Christof; Dimmel, Katharina; Kolodziejek, Michael; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor’s residence, is reported. Complete genomic sequences of the human- and mosquito-derived viruses were established, genetically compared and phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were not identical, but closely related to each other and to recent Czech and Italian isolates, indicating co-circulation of related WNV strains within a confined geographic area. The detection of WNV in a blood donation originating from an area with low WNV prevalence in humans (only three serologically diagnosed cases between 2008 and 2014) is surprising and emphasizes the importance of WNV nucleic acid testing of blood donations even in such areas, along with active mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:25961567

  6. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  7. Bird community composition linked to human West Nile virus cases along the Colorado front range.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Goulet, Nicolas E

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined whether bird community composition can predict the annual number of human West Nile virus (WNV) cases on a per county basis in the Colorado Front Range, a region that experienced high numbers of human cases during the early part of the North American epidemic. We analyzed data sets pertaining to birds and human WNV cases from multiple existing databases between the years 2002 and 2008. Based on previous studies that used amplification fractions to compare the relative competence of different bird species, ten bird species that are common in Colorado were selected and categorized as high amplification birds, such as the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), or low amplification birds, such as the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). A general linear modeling analysis was used with an information theoretic (AIC) model sorting approach to examine which of the models best predicted the number of human WNV cases per county. Candidate models included year as a covariate and one of several bird community descriptors (e.g., richness, diversity, total bird abundance, high amplification abundance, or low amplification abundance). Results demonstrated that high amplification birds were a significant predictor of human WNV cases between 2002 and 2008. Our results suggest that a small subset of the bird community with high amplification fractions may drive the dynamics of human disease risk for West Nile. This study has implications for surveillance of West Nile and may offer insight into disease risk associated with other vector-borne zoonotic diseases. PMID:21125307

  8. West Nile Virus Retinopathy and Associations with Long Term Neurological and Neurocognitive Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Garcia, Melissa N.; Kellaway, Judianne; Baker, Laura; Salazar, Lucrecia; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as an important vector-borne pathogen in North America, with more than 3 million estimated to have been infected. Retinopathy from WNV infection has been previously reported in acute cases, though those prior reports did not evaluate the risk of retinopathy based on clinical severity of neurologic disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to perform comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological examinations on 111 patients with a history of West Nile virus infection and describe the ocular manifestations. Out of 111 patients, 27 (24%) had evidence for West Nile virus associated retinopathy (WNVR); this observation was higher (49%) in those patients who initially presented with encephalitis. Individuals with WNVR had more frequent involvement of the macula and peripheral involvement compared to those patients without WNVR (p<0.05). WNVR was also associated with a greater likelihood of abnormal reflexes on neurological exam, poorer learning, greater dependence in activities of daily living, and lower quality of life (p<0.05). WNVR was seen more frequently in elderly patients (age > 60 years), and was associated with higher rates of diabetes mellitus and a history of encephalitis (p<0.05). A multivariable logistic regression revealed that only a history of encephalitis was independently associated with WNVR [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 4.9 (1.8–13.2); p = 0.001]. Our study found that WNVR occurs in one fourth of patients with a history of WNV infection and is more frequently observed in those with apparent severe neurological sequelae (e.g., encephalitis). The clinical relevance of WNVR was supported by its associations with dependence in activities of daily living and lower quality of life. This unique evaluation of WNV patients included fundoscopic examinations and their associations with neurologic impairment. Our findings can be used during ophthalmological consultation for the evaluation, treatment and rehabilitation

  9. False-Positive Transcription-Mediated Amplification Assay Detection of West Nile Virus in Blood from a Patient with Viremia Caused by an Usutu Virus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Gaibani, Paolo; Pierro, Anna Maria; Cavrini, Francesca; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAAT) is used widely to screen blood and organ donations in areas where WNV is endemic. We report a false-positive result of a WNV transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) in a patient with viremia that was caused by Usutu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus. PMID:20592138

  10. A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    Since first introduced to North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across the continent, threatening wildlife populations and posing serious health risks to humans. While WNV incidence has been linked to environmental factors, particularly temperature and rainfall, little is known about how future climate change may affect the spread of the disease. Using available data on WNV infections in vectors and hosts collected from 2003-2011 and using a suite of 10 species distribution models, weighted according to their predictive performance, we modeled the incidence of WNV under current climate conditions at a continental scale. Models were found to accurately predict spatial patterns of WNV that were then used to examine how future climate may affect the spread of the disease. Predictions were accurate for cases of human WNV infection in the following year (2012), with areas reporting infections having significantly higher probability of presence as predicted by our models. Projected geographic distributions of WNV in North America under future climate for 2050 and 2080 show an expansion of suitable climate for the disease, driven by warmer temperatures and lower annual precipitation that will result in the exposure of new and naïve host populations to the virus with potentially serious consequences. Our risk assessment identifies current and future hotspots of West Nile virus where mitigation efforts should be focused and presents an important new approach for monitoring vector-borne disease under climate change. PMID:24574161

  11. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, June H; van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; van Wilpe, Erna; Venter, Marietjie

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of central nervous system (CNS) tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for African horse sickness (AHS), equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) and macrophage (MAC) 387 IHC. PMID:25686260

  12. West Nile virus reemergence in Romania: a serologic survey in host species.

    PubMed

    Ludu Oslobanu, Elena Luanda; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin; Anită, Dragos; Anita, Adriana; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Savuta, Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans has been known in Romania since the 1950s; the 1996 epidemics emphasized the reemergence potential of WNV in Romania. Serological surveys made on susceptible species, known as good sentinels or reservoir hosts, e.g., horses, wild and domestic birds were undertaken from 2006-2011. Our results corroborated incidence data in human patients and other recent seroprevalence studies in animals, and should partially clarify the emergence of WNV in the eastern rural territories of Romania. It also highlighted risk zones for endemic WNV infection in Romania. PMID:24745699

  13. Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Wild and Farmed Crocodiles in Southeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E.; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet’s crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico. PMID:23778623

  14. Antibodies to West Nile virus in wild and farmed crocodiles in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2013-07-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico. PMID:23778623

  15. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  16. West Nile virus: an infectious viral agent to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Francisca

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the growing epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV), clinical manifestations of the 2 primary groups of WNV, diagnostic tests, critical nursing management, risk factors, and prevention of WNV. Critical care nursing management is based on symptom management and supportive therapy for neuroinvasive disease complications. Nursing management for complications such as altered level of consciousness, mechanical ventilator respiratory support, high fever, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and neuropsychiatric issues is outlined. Preventive measures for WNV, such as surveillance programs, personal protective measures, source reduction, mosquito programs, and vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:23692938

  17. West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2014 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-two states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,205 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,347 (61%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.42 cases per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (80 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (11), St. Louis encephalitis virus (10), Powassan virus (8), and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (8). WNV and other arboviruses cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons each year. Maintaining surveillance programs is important to help direct prevention activities. PMID:26334477

  18. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  19. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, K. A.; Maffei, J. G.; Jones, S. A.; Kauffman, E. B.; Ebel, G.; Dupuis, A. P.; Ngo, K. A.; Nicholas, D. C.; Young, D. M.; Shi, P. Y.; Kulasekera, V. L.; Eidson, M.; White, D. J.; Stone, W. B.; Kramer, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus was found throughout New York State in 2000, with the epicenter in New York City and surrounding counties. We tested 3,403 dead birds and 9,954 mosquito pools for WN virus during the transmission season. Sixty-three avian species, representing 30 families and 14 orders, tested positive for WN virus. The highest proportion of dead birds that tested positive for WN virus was in American Crows in the epicenter (67% positive, n=907). Eight mosquito species, representing four genera, were positive for WN virus. The minimum infection rate per 1,000 mosquitoes (MIR) was highest for Culex pipiens in the epicenter: 3.53 for the entire season and 7.49 for the peak week of August 13. Staten Island had the highest MIR (11.42 for Cx. pipiens), which was associated with the highest proportion of dead American Crows that tested positive for WN virus (92%, n=48) and the highest number of human cases (n=10). PMID:11585532

  20. West Nile virus circulation detected in northern Italy in sentinel chickens.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Rosso, Fausta; Buckley, Alan; Gould, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Ninety percent (56/62) of sentinel chickens introduced to two regions within the Italian Alps seroconverted to West Nile virus (WNV) during the summer of 2005, showing a range of antibody titres from 1/20 to 1/320 in a virus neutralization test. Neutralization specificity for WNV antibodies was confirmed on an additional 34 sera that were tested in parallel against WNV (16/34 seropositivity), Usutu virus (3/34 seropositivity) and Koutango virus. The geometric mean neutralizing titre (GMT) calculated for WN-specific antibodies was 33.68 and did not differ significantly amongst sample sites, although the overall results indicate more active circulation of WNV at the higher elevations. Such high levels of seroconversion raise the possibility that many chickens may have been exposed to virus via routes other than mosquito transmission. No chickens or any other local animals were associated with illness due to WNV implying that WNV, and to a much lower extent Usutu virus, circulate harmlessly amongst wildlife species in northern Italy from late May onwards until early autumn. PMID:17767411

  1. West Nile Virus: A Threat to North American Avian Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction and extensive expansion of WNV in the US in the last three years is having a dramatic impact on native wildlife. The disease continues to cause significant mortality in a variety of bird species throughout the eastern US, particularly in American crow and blue jay populations. As the virus expands to new habitats in the southern, midwestern and western states, new bird species will be at risk and different patterns of transmission will develop. In the western states, many additional species of Corvidae (crows, jays, ravens, magpies and nutcrackers) may be affected. Once it becomes well established in states with warm climates, like Florida where mosquitoes are active year round to sustain almost continuous transmission; these states could serve as annual sources of WNV for migratory birds to re-introduce the virus to northern states in the spring. The rapid increase in geographical distribution of WNV activity that has occurred throughout the eastern US and the rapid increase in the infection and mortality rates in birds during the last three years indicate the emergence of an epizootic disease of major importance to North American birds.

  2. Inhibition of West Nile Virus Multiplication in Cell Culture by Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana B.; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but it can also infect other vertebrates, including humans, in which it can cause neuroinvasive diseases. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapy for human use against this pathogen is yet available. A recent approach to search for new antiviral agent candidates is the assessment of long-used drugs commonly administered by clinicians to treat human disorders in drug antiviral development. In this regard, as patients with West Nile encephalitis frequently develop symptoms and features of parkinsonism, and cellular factors altered in parkinsonism, such as alpha-synuclein, have been shown to play a role on WNV infection, we have assessed the effect of four drugs (L-dopa, Selegiline, Isatin, and Amantadine), that are used as therapy for Parkinson’s disease in the inhibition of WNV multiplication. L-dopa, Isatin, and Amantadine treatments significantly reduced the production of infectious virus in all cell types tested, but only Amantadine reduced viral RNA levels. These results point to antiparkinsonian drugs as possible therapeutic candidates for the development of antiviral strategies against WNV infection. PMID:27014219

  3. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P., II; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnejad, Farzaneh; Otarod, Vahid; Fathnia, Amanollah; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Zavareh, Alireza; Miandehi, Nargess; Durand, Benoit; Sabatier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran. Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation. Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km surrounding area. Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts. PMID:27308290

  5. Abundance of West Nile virus mosquito vectors in relation to climate and landscape variables.

    PubMed

    Deichmeister, Jayne M; Telang, Aparna

    2011-06-01

    It is currently unclear if the potential for West Nile virus transmission by mosquito vectors in the eastern United States is related to landscape or climate factors or both. We compared abundance of vector species between urban and suburban neighborhoods of Henrico County, VA, in relation to the following factors: temperature, precipitation, canopy cover, building footprint, and proximity to drainage infrastructure. Mosquitoes were collected throughout the 2005, 2006, and 2007 seasons and tested for West Nile virus (WNV) in pools of 10-50. Test results of mosquito pools were compared to average site abundance from 37 sites in Henrico County, VA; abundance was then examined in relation to ecological variables. Urban infrastructure was positively correlated with the abundance of Culex pipiens L./Cx. restuans, and our findings implicate combined sewer overflow systems as large contributors to Culex vector populations. No measure of urbanization examined in our study was correlated with Aedes albopictus abundance. Our study showed that certain landscape variables identified using Geographic Information Systems are valuable for predicting primary WNV vector abundance in Virginia, and that temperature along with low precipitation are strong predictors of population growth. Our results support other regional studies that found WNV proliferates under drought conditions. PMID:21635644

  6. Inhibition of West Nile Virus Multiplication in Cell Culture by Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ana B; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but it can also infect other vertebrates, including humans, in which it can cause neuroinvasive diseases. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapy for human use against this pathogen is yet available. A recent approach to search for new antiviral agent candidates is the assessment of long-used drugs commonly administered by clinicians to treat human disorders in drug antiviral development. In this regard, as patients with West Nile encephalitis frequently develop symptoms and features of parkinsonism, and cellular factors altered in parkinsonism, such as alpha-synuclein, have been shown to play a role on WNV infection, we have assessed the effect of four drugs (L-dopa, Selegiline, Isatin, and Amantadine), that are used as therapy for Parkinson's disease in the inhibition of WNV multiplication. L-dopa, Isatin, and Amantadine treatments significantly reduced the production of infectious virus in all cell types tested, but only Amantadine reduced viral RNA levels. These results point to antiparkinsonian drugs as possible therapeutic candidates for the development of antiviral strategies against WNV infection. PMID:27014219

  7. West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roehrig, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.). This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:24335779

  8. Small Molecule Pan-dengue and West Nile Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Johnson, Alan T.; Lehrer, Axel T.; Wong, Teri Ann S.; Margosiak, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome are caused by infections with any of the four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV) and are an increasing global health risk. The related West Nile Virus (WNV) causes significant morbidity and mortality as well and continues to be a threat in endemic areas. Currently no FDA approved vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat any of these infections. Like the other members of the Flaviviridae family, DENV and WNV encode a protease (NS3) which is essential for viral replication and therefore is a promising target for developing therapies to treat dengue and West Nile infections. Methods Flaviviral protease inhibitors were identified and biologically characterized for mechanism of inhibition and DENV anti-viral activity. Results A guanidinylated 2, 5-dideoxystreptamine class of compounds was identified that competitively inhibited the NS3 protease from DENV(1-4) and WNV with IC50 values in the 1-70 μM range. Cytotoxicity was low; however, antiviral activity versus DENV-2 on VERO cells was not detectable. Conclusions This class of compounds is the first to demonstrate competitive pan-dengue and WNV NS3 protease inhibition and, given the sequence conservation among flavivirus NS3 proteins, suggests that developing a pan-dengue or possibly pan-flavivirus therapeutic is feasible. PMID:21566267

  9. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Bertran, Kateri; Costa, Taiana P; Rivas, Raquel; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Villalba, Rubén; Solanes, David; Bensaid, Albert; Majó, Natàlia; Pagès, Nonito

    2012-06-01

    West Nile disease (WND) has become a major public and veterinary health concern since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York in 1999. The following panzootic spread in the U.S. and the recent WNV outbreaks in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin have increased interest in WND. Despite considerable investigation of WNV infection in birds, the effects of WNV on avian populations are still largely unknown. In Europe, raptors have been found to be particularly susceptible to WNV infection, but studies in birds of prey are lacking. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report an experimental infection with WNV in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons. We show that 10-week-old captive-reared Gyr-Saker (Falco rusticolus × Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons are susceptible to WNV infection. Neither morbidity nor mortality was observed after subcutaneous WNV inoculation with mixed extracts of non-infected mosquito salivary glands. Both the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed were similar to those previously reported in naturally and experimentally infected North American raptors. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that although Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons do not seem to be a good reservoir for WNV transmission via mosquito, they can become infected with WNV, develop viremia and antibodies, and are able to shed the virus. PMID:22448746

  10. Risk factors for West Nile virus Infection and Disease in Populations and Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ruth R.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that emerged in North America in 1999 in New York City. Over the past 15 years, WNV has become established throughout the USA and has spread into Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean. CDC reports indicate >41,000 clinical cases, including more than 1,700 fatalities. An estimated 3 million people in the USA may have been infected to date. Infection with WNV is dependent on many factors including climate, mosquito habitats and immunologically-naïve bird populations. In addition, variations within individuals contribute to the risk of severe disease, in particular, advanced age, hypertension, immunosuppression and critical elements of the immune response. Recent advances in technology now allow detailed analysis of complex immune interactions relevant to disease susceptibility. PMID:25637260

  11. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Langevin, Stanley; Hinten, Steven; Nemeth, Nicole; Edwards, Eric; Hettler, Danielle; Davis, Brent; Bowen, Richard; Bunning, Michel

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent (a derivation of viremia data) than other species tested. The five most competent species were passerines: Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Death occurred in eight species. Cloacal shedding of WNV was observed in 17 of 24 species, and oral shedding in 12 of 14 species. We observed contact transmission among four species and oral in five species. Persistent WNV infections were found in tissues of 16 surviving birds. Our observations shed light on transmission ecology of WNV and will benefit surveillance and control programs. PMID:12643825

  12. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Feral Horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    PubMed Central

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance. PMID:21460023

  13. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  14. Immunogenicity of West Nile virus infectious DNA and its noninfectious derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Seregin, Alexey; Nistler, Ryan; Borisevich, Victoria; Yamshchikov, Galina; Chaporgina, Elena; Kwok, Chun Wai; Yamshchikov, Vladimir . E-mail: yaximik@ku.edu

    2006-12-20

    The exceptionally high virulence of the West Nile NY99 strain makes its suitability in the development of a live WN vaccine uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunogenicity of noninfectious virus derivatives carrying pseudolethal mutations, which preclude virion formation without affecting preceding steps of the viral infectious cycle. When administered using DNA immunization, such constructs initiate an infectious cycle but cannot lead to a viremia. While the magnitude of the immune response to a noninfectious replication-competent construct was lower than that of virus or infectious DNA, its overall quality and the protective effect were similar. In contrast, a nonreplicating construct of similar length induced only a marginally detectable immune response in the dose range used. Thus, replication-competent noninfectious constructs derived from infectious DNA may offer an advantageous combination of the safety of noninfectious formulations with the quality of the immune response characteristic of infectious vaccines.

  15. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  16. Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Stanley; Hinten, Steven; Nemeth, Nicole; Edwards, Eric; Hettler, Danielle; Davis, Brent; Bowen, Richard; Bunning, Michel

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent (a derivation of viremia data) than other species tested. The five most competent species were passerines: Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Death occurred in eight species. Cloacal shedding of WNV was observed in 17 of 24 species, and oral shedding in 12 of 14 species. We observed contact transmission among four species and oral in five species. Persistent WNV infections were found in tissues of 16 surviving birds. Our observations shed light on transmission ecology of WNV and will benefit surveillance and control programs. PMID:12643825

  17. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Edmonds, Judith H.; Williams, David T.; Setoh, Yin X.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D.; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960–2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions. PMID:27433830

  18. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

  19. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The flaviviruses Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex sp), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  20. Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Husted, Stan; Jean, Cynthia; Glaser, Carol; Kramer, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Epidemic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in Sacramento County, California, in 2005 prompted aerial application of pyrethrin, a mosquito adulticide, over a large urban area. Statistical analyses of geographic information system datasets indicated that adulticiding reduced the number of human WNV cases within 2 treated areas compared with the untreated area of the county. When we adjusted for maximum incubation period of the virus from infection to onset of symptoms, no new cases were reported in either of the treated areas after adulticiding; 18 new cases were reported in the untreated area of Sacramento County during this time. Results indicated that the odds of infection after spraying were ≈6× higher in the untreated area than in treated areas, and that the treatments successfully disrupted the WNV transmission cycle. Our results provide direct evidence that aerial mosquito adulticiding is effective in reducing human illness and potential death from WNV infection. PMID:18439356

  1. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Prow, Natalie A; Edmonds, Judith H; Williams, David T; Setoh, Yin X; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Pyke, Alyssa T; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C; Brault, Aaron C; Khromykh, Alexander A; Hall, Roy A

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960-2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions. PMID:27433830

  2. Genotype-specific variation in West Nile virus dispersal in California.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Nisha K; Reisen, William K; Fang, Ying; Newman, Ruchi M; Yang, Xiao; Ebel, Gregory D; Brault, Aaron C

    2015-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus that was first reported in North America in New York in 1999 and, by 2003, had spread more than 4000 km to California. However, variation in viral genetics associated with spread is not well understood. Herein, we report sequences for more than 100 WNV isolates made from mosquito pools that were collected from 2003 to 2011 as part of routine surveillance by the California Mosquito-borne Virus Surveillance System. We performed phylogeographic analyses and demonstrated that 5 independent introductions of WNV (1 WN02 genotype strain and 4 SW03 genotype strains) occurred in California. The SW03 genotype of WNV was constrained to the southwestern U.S. and had a more rapid rate of spread. In addition, geographic constraint of WNV strains within a single region for up to 6 years suggest viral maintenance has been driven by resident, rather than migratory, birds and overwintering in mosquitoes. PMID:26210076

  3. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  4. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and the West Nile Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information sytem (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming,...

  5. Programmed Ribosomal Frameshift Alters Expression of West Nile Virus Genes and Facilitates Virus Replication in Birds and Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangyao; Owens, Nick; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Nagasaki, Tomoko; Rudd, Stephen; Brault, Aaron C.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a human pathogen of significant medical importance with close to 40,000 cases of encephalitis and more than 1,600 deaths reported in the US alone since its first emergence in New York in 1999. Previous studies identified a motif in the beginning of non-structural gene NS2A of encephalitic flaviviruses including WNV which induces programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift (PRF) resulting in production of an additional NS protein NS1′. We have previously demonstrated that mutant WNV with abolished PRF was attenuated in mice. Here we have extended our previous observations by showing that PRF does not appear to have a significant role in virus replication, virion formation, and viral spread in several cell lines in vitro. However, we have also shown that PRF induces an over production of structural proteins over non-structural proteins in virus-infected cells and that mutation abolishing PRF is present in ∼11% of the wild type virus population. In vivo experiments in house sparrows using wild type and PRF mutant of New York 99 strain of WNV viruses showed some attenuation for the PRF mutant virus. Moreover, PRF mutant of Kunjin strain of WNV showed significant decrease compared to wild type virus infection in dissemination of the virus from the midgut through the haemocoel, and ultimately the capacity of infected mosquitoes to transmit virus. Thus our results demonstrate an important role for PRF in regulating expression of viral genes and consequently virus replication in avian and mosquito hosts. PMID:25375107

  6. Production of immunogenic West Nile virus-like particles using a herpes simplex virus 1 recombinant vector.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Travis J; Diaz, Fernando; Colgrove, Robert C; Bernard, Kristen A; DeLuca, Neal A; Whelan, Sean P J; Knipe, David M

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that swept rapidly across North America in 1999, declined in prevalence, and then resurged in 2012. To date, no vaccine is available to prevent infection in the human population. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication-defective vaccine vectors induce a durable immunity characterized by strong antibody and CD8(+) T cell responses even in HSV-immune animals. In this study, a WNV protein expression cassette was optimized for virus-like particle (VLP) production in transfection studies, and the cassette was recombined into an HSV-1 d106-WNV virus vector, which produced extracellular VLPs, as confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunization of mice with the d106-WNV recombinant vector elicited a specific anti-WNV IgG response. This study highlights the flavivirus coding sequences needed for efficient assembly of virus-like particles. This information will facilitate generation of additional vaccine vectors against other flaviviruses including the recently emerged Zika virus. PMID:27336950

  7. Retrospective Study of Etiologic Agents Associated with Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Stranded Cetaceans in the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  8. Retrospective study of etiologic agents associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in stranded cetaceans in the canary islands.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Eva; Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  9. Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit

    2015-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. The transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of WNV, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. Hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect influences on vector competence (the ability to acquire, maintain and transmit the virus), on the vector population dynamic and on the virus replication rate within the mosquito, which are mostly weather dependent. The importance of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and winds) as drivers in WNV epidemiology is increasing under conditions of climate change. Indeed, recent changes in climatic conditions, particularly increased ambient temperature and fluctuations in rainfall amounts, contributed to the maintenance (endemization process) of WNV in various locations in southern Europe, western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, the Canadian Prairies, parts of the USA and Australia. As predictions show that the current trends are expected to continue, for better preparedness, any assessment of future transmission of WNV should take into consideration the impacts of climate change. PMID:25688020

  10. Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Shlomit

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. The transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of WNV, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. Hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect influences on vector competence (the ability to acquire, maintain and transmit the virus), on the vector population dynamic and on the virus replication rate within the mosquito, which are mostly weather dependent. The importance of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and winds) as drivers in WNV epidemiology is increasing under conditions of climate change. Indeed, recent changes in climatic conditions, particularly increased ambient temperature and fluctuations in rainfall amounts, contributed to the maintenance (endemization process) of WNV in various locations in southern Europe, western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, the Canadian Prairies, parts of the USA and Australia. As predictions show that the current trends are expected to continue, for better preparedness, any assessment of future transmission of WNV should take into consideration the impacts of climate change. PMID:25688020

  11. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies to West Nile Virus and Their Application in Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Jiro; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Isobe, Takashi; Yamada, Manabu; Tanimura, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic throughout Africa, Eurasia, America, and Australia and has important implications for avian, horse, and human health. In these regions, dead birds are monitored for the presence of WNV through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR. However, a number of the tools for IHC are inadequate owing to their cross-reactivity to other Japanese encephalitis serogroup viruses. Here we have established eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to WNV. Four of them bound to the envelope protein, three of them bound to nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), and one bound to precursor membrane protein (prM), as shown by Western blot analysis. The anti-NS1 MAbs and the anti-prM MAb did not cross-react with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Murray valley encephalitis virus, or St. Louis encephalitis virus in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One NS1-specific MAb, SHW-32B1, and the previously reported NS1-specific MAb, SHW-7A11, were shown by IHC to specifically detect the cytoplasm of degenerated cells in the heart and brain of a WNV-infected goose. Neither of these MAbs were shown by IHC to cross-react with degenerated cells in the brain of a JEV-infected pig. These MAbs are the first reported anti-NS1 MAbs that can be used for WNV-specific IHC using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. They may be useful for WNV research and surveillance. PMID:22993408

  12. Experimental North American West Nile Virus Infection in the Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa).

    PubMed

    Gamino, V; Escribano-Romero, E; Blázquez, A-B; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, A-V; Martín-Acebes, M-Á; Saiz, J-C; Höfle, U

    2016-05-01

    After the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America, bird mortalities associated with West Nile disease have dramatically increased in this continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. The different West Nile disease incidence in birds in these 2 continents demands an explanation, and experimental studies can provide important information. The authors inoculated thirteen 9-week-old red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) with 10(7)plaque-forming units of a WNV strain isolated in New York in 1999. The objective was to study the pathogenesis of the infection in a native Euro-Mediterranean bird species with a WNV strain known to be highly pathogenic for numerous native American bird species. Additionally, the authors evaluated the dynamics of inflammatory cell activation and recruitment into the brain. WNV was detected in tissues 3 days postinoculation (dpi), and the birds developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Two partridges succumbed to the disease. The most affected tissues were the heart, brain, and spinal cord. The main microscopic findings were the presence of mononuclear infiltrates in the heart and brain, gliosis, and degeneration and necrosis of cardiomyocytes and neurons. These lesions were aggravated in the birds that died or were euthanized 7 dpi or later. In the brain, there was an upregulation of microglial cells and astrocytes and an increase in the number of T cells, especially after 7 dpi. These results show that this WNV strain is of moderate virulence for the red-legged partridge and that WNV-infected red-legged partridges develop an immune cell response in the brain similar to that of mammals. PMID:26508695

  13. Control of West Nile virus, Rhode Island, 2003.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Kenneth; Bandy, Utpala; Drew, Helen; Fulton, John P; Hayes, Gregory; Getman, Alan; Gurba, Kristen; Hanofin, Christofer; Lopes-Duguay, Liz; Marshall, Robert J; Mehta, Shashi; Powell, Stephanie

    2004-03-01

    Thanks largely to systematic larviciding by the State's 39 municipalities, and aided by the public's destruction of "backyard" mosquito habitats and adoption of personal protective measures (clothing, repellant), Rhode Island minimized the potential human burden of WNV during the 2003 mosquito season (six serious WNV cases, one death, and no reports of WNV-tainted blood donations). The potential burden of WNV on domestic animals was also reduced through immunization. Nonetheless, the State's first WNV death reminds us of the danger this disease poses for the very young, for elders, and for people of all ages who are immune-compromised. Similarly, the widespread location of birds positive for WNV signifies the ubiquity of risk. All mosquitoes must be avoided. Based on its experience with WNV control over the past few years, the State will continue and enhance its surveillance and control efforts in 2004. Once again, systematic larviciding by municipalities and continuing public education through multiple channels will form the backbone of control, supported by active surveillance for the virus in the wild, in domestic animals, and in humans. For the latter effort, the vigilance of the health care community is of signal importance to the protection of the public. Every human case is investigated thoroughly, to establish as accurately as possible the time and place of exposure. DEM and HEALTH use this information to assess potential weaknesses in WNV control efforts, and to take corrective action, as necessary. Health care providers also play an essential role in public education, reminding patients (all patients, but especially the very young, elders, and the immune-compromised) to avoid mosquito bites. Discussing the avoidance of mosquito bites with patients who engage in regular outdoor activity is especially important. School physicians and the medical directors of nursing homes are well-positioned to keep mosquito control and avoidance on the agenda of their

  14. Performance evaluation of the PROCLEIX West Nile virus assay on semi-automated and automated systems.

    PubMed

    Linnen, Jeffrey M; Deras, Michael L; Cline, Janice; Wu, Wen; Broulik, Amy S; Cory, Robin E; Knight, James L; Cass, Michelle M J; Collins, Cynthia S; Giachetti, Cristina

    2007-09-01

    The PROCLEIX West Nile virus assay (WNV assay) is a qualitative nucleic acid test based on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). The assay was used under an investigational protocol in the United States to screen blood donations for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA starting in the summer of 2003, and was licensed by the FDA in December 2005 for use on the PROCLEIX System, also known as the enhanced semi-automated system (eSAS). Performance characteristics for the assay were determined on both eSAS and the fully automated PROCLEIX TIGRIS (TIGRIS) System. Detection of both lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV was demonstrated on both systems. For lineage 1, the 95% detection limit was 8.2 copies/ml for eSAS and 9.8 copies/ml for the TIGRIS system. For lineage 2, > or =95% detection was seen at > or =30 copies/ml on both systems. The overall specificity of the assay was >99.9% in fresh and frozen plasma specimens. Reproducibility studies on the TIGRIS system yielded > or =99.1% agreement with expected results for the 3-member panel tested (0, 30, and 100 copies/ml). The WNV assay exhibited robust performance in cadaveric specimens and specimens representing various donor and donation conditions, including specimens from different plasma collection tubes that were subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles; specimens with elevated levels of endogenous substances; specimens containing other viruses and microorganisms; and specimens from patients with autoimmune and other diseases. Overall, these studies demonstrate high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the WNV assay on both the semi-automated and automated systems. PMID:17607786

  15. Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Loss, Scott R; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Hayes, Daniel B; Walker, Edward D

    2009-02-01

    Recent field studies have suggested that the dynamics of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission are influenced strongly by a few key super spreader bird species that function both as primary blood hosts of the vector mosquitoes (in particular Culex pipiens) and as reservoir-competent virus hosts. It has been hypothesized that human cases result from a shift in mosquito feeding from these key bird species to humans after abundance of the key birds species decreases. To test this paradigm, we performed a mosquito blood meal analysis integrating host-feeding patterns of Cx. pipiens, the principal vector of WNV in the eastern United States north of the latitude 36 degrees N and other mosquito species with robust measures of host availability, to determine host selection in a WNV-endemic area of suburban Chicago, Illinois, during 2005-2007. Results showed that Cx. pipiens fed predominantly (83%) on birds with a high diversity of species used as hosts (25 species). American robins (Turdus migratorius) were marginally overused and several species were underused on the basis of relative abundance measures, including the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Culex pipiens also fed substantially on mammals (19%; 7 species with humans representing 16%). West Nile virus transmission intensified in July of both years at times when American robins were heavily fed upon, and then decreased when robin abundance decreased, after which other birds species were selected as hosts. There was no shift in feeding from birds to mammals coincident with emergence of human cases. Rather, bird feeding predominated when the onset of the human cases occurred. Measures of host abundance and competence and Cx. pipiens feeding preference were combined to estimate the amplification fractions of the different bird species. Predictions were that approximately 66% of WNV-infectious Cx. pipiens became infected from feeding on just

  16. West Nile virus seroconversion in penguins after vaccination with a killed virus vaccine or a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Johnson, Yvette J; Ritchie, Branson W; Van Bonn, William

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the serologic response of penguins to West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines, four species of exclusively indoor-housed penguins, negative for WNV by serology, were evaluated: Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), and Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysoscome) penguins. Birds were inoculated with either a killed virus vaccine or a plasmid-mediated DNA WNV vaccine, and postinoculation serology was evaluated. Both vaccines induced seroconversion in all four species, and no adverse reactions were noted. Postvaccination serology results varied across species and vaccine types. However, in all four species, the killed virus vaccine resulted in a greater seroconversion rate than the DNA vaccine and in a significantly shorter time period. Additionally, the duration of the seropositive titer was significantly longer in those birds vaccinated with the killed virus vaccine compared with those vaccinated with the DNA vaccine. A subset of unvaccinated penguins serving as negative controls remained negative throughout the duration of the study despite the presence of WNV in the geographic locations of the study, suggesting that indoor housing may minimize exposure to the virus and may be an additional means of preventing WNV infection in penguins. PMID:19110700

  17. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Gubler, Duane J

    2007-10-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) has historically been considered to be among the least virulent of the Japanese serogroup viruses of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. However, recent epidemics associated with severe and fatal neuroinvasive disease have changed that perception. The emergence of a virus subtype with greater epidemic potential and virulence in the early 1990s facilitated the geographic expansion and westward spread of WNV; in 1999, it first appeared in the western hemisphere. Because of the broad host and vector range, the virus has become established in much of the region, and there is little chance that it will be eliminated. Transmission is difficult to predict and even more difficult to prevent and control. The cost-effectiveness of human WNV vaccines is uncertain. The building of laboratory diagnostic, epidemiologic, and vector-control capacity in WNV-enzootic countries is critical to the development of effective prevention and control strategies for WNV infection, as well as for other potential emerging vectorborne viral diseases. PMID:17879923

  18. Evaluation of vector competence for West Nile virus in Italian Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Severini, F; Di Luca, M; Toma, L; Fois, F; Bucci, P; Boccolini, D; Romi, R; Ciufolini, M G

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arboviral pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes in a cycle that involves wild birds as reservoir hosts. The virus is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. In Europe, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered to be the main vector of WNV, but other species such as Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) may also act as competent vectors of this virus. Since 2008 human cases of WNV disease have been reported in northeast Italy. In 2011, new areas of southern Italy became involved and a first outbreak of WNV lineage 1 occurred on the island of Sardinia. On the assumption that a potential involvement of St. albopicta in WNV transmission cannot be excluded, and in order to evaluate the competence of this species for the virus, an experimental infection of an St. albopicta laboratory colony, established from mosquitoes collected in Sardinia, was carried out. The results were compared with those obtained in a colony of the main vector Cx. pipiens. The study showed St. albopicta collected on Sardinia to be susceptible to WNV infection, which suggests this Italian mosquito species is able to act as a possible secondary vector, particularly in urban areas where the species reaches high levels of seasonal abundance. PMID:26382099

  19. Detection of West Nile virus genome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, S; Javadi, A; Ataei, B; Shakeri, H; Moradi, M; Mostafavi, E; Ghiasi, S M

    2012-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which circulates in birds, horses and humans. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. This study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 in Isfahan, Iran. Patients attending the emergency department with fever and loss of consciousness were consecutively included. Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) were initially analysed through bacteriology and biochemistry examinations, resulting in those with evidence of meningitis being excluded. Patients' CSF and serum were diagnosed by serological and molecular assays. A total of 632 patients with fever and loss of consciousness were tested by CSF analyses. Samples of the remaining patients (39·4%) were referred for WNV investigation. Three (1·2%) of the patients were positive for both serum and CSF by RT-PCR, and six (2·4%) were positive only for IgG antibodies. History of insect bite, and blood transfusion and transplantation were risk factors for being positive by RT-PCR (P=0·048) and being IgG positive (P=0·024), respectively. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of West Nile fever is low in patients with encephalitis. PMID:22008154

  20. Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed arthropod-borne flavivirus capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrates, with birds as its natural reservoir. Although it had been considered a pathogen of little importance for birds, from the 1990’s, and especially after its introduction in the North American continent in 1999, thousands of birds have succumbed to West Nile infection. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and pathology of WNV infection in birds highlighting differences in lesion and antigen distribution and severity among bird orders and families. Despite significant species differences in susceptibility to infection, WNV associated lesions and viral antigen are present in the majority of organs of infected birds. The non-progressive, acute or more prolonged course of the disease accounts for part of the differences in lesion and viral antigen distribution and lesion severity. Most likely a combination of host variables and environmental factors in addition to the intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity of the infecting WNV strain influence the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:23731695

  1. Identification of genetic variants associated with susceptibility to West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

    PubMed

    Long, D; Deng, X; Singh, P; Loeb, M; Lauring, A S; Seielstad, M

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection results in a diverse spectrum of outcomes, and host genetics are likely to influence susceptibility to neuroinvasive disease (West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)). We performed whole-exome sequencing of 44 individuals with WNND and identified alleles associated with severe disease by variant filtration in cases, kernel association testing in cases and controls and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation into a larger cohort of WNND cases and seropositive controls followed by genome-wide association analysis. Variant filtration prioritized genes based on the enrichment of otherwise rare variants, but did not unambiguously implicate variants shared by a majority of cases. Kernel association demonstrated enrichment for risk and protective alleles in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-DQB1 loci that have well understood roles in antiviral immunity. Two loci, HERC5 and an intergenic region between CD83 and JARID2, were implicated by multiple imputed SNPs and exceeded genome-wide significance in a discovery cohort (n=862). SNPs at two additional loci, TFCP2L1 and CACNA1H, achieved genome-wide significance after association testing of directly genotyped and imputed SNPs in a discovery cohort (n=862) and a separate replication cohort (n=1387). The context of these loci suggests that immunoregulatory, ion channel and endothelial barrier functions may be important elements of the host response to WNV. PMID:27170560

  2. Host Genetic Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Infection and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bigham, Abigail W.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Husain, Sofia; Emond, Mary J.; Bofferding, Kathryn M.; Gildersleeve, Heidi; Rutherford, Ann; Astakhova, Natalia M.; Perelygin, Andrey A.; Busch, Michael P.; Murray, Kristy O.; Sejvar, James J.; Green, Sharone; Kriesel, John; Brinton, Margo A.; Bamshad, Michael

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than one percent of cases, and although host genetic factors are thought to influence risk for symptomatic disease, the identity of these factors remains largely unknown. We tested 360 common haplotype tagging and/or functional SNPs in 86 genes that encode key regulators of immune function in 753 individuals infected with WNV including: 422 symptomatic WNV cases and 331 cases with asymptomatic infections. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests and controlling for population stratification, SNPs in IRF3 (OR 0.54, p = 0.035) and MX1, (OR 0.19, p = 0.014) were associated with symptomatic WNV infection and a single SNP in OAS1 (OR 9.79, p = 0.003) was associated with increased risk for West Nile encephalitis and paralysis (WNE/P). Together, these results suggest that genetic variation in the interferon response pathway is associated with both risk for symptomatic WNV infection and WNV disease progression. PMID:21935451

  3. Absence of humoral response in flamingos and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Wright, James C; Johnston, William B; Allison, Andrew B; Hilton, Clayton D; Staggs, Lydia A; Stallknecht, David E; Shelnutt, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen Chilean flamingos, Phoenicopterus chiles, and 10 red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamacensis, were vaccinated in the pectoral muscle with 0.2 ml of a commercially produced killed West Nile virus vaccine intended for use in horses. Half the birds of each species received a booster vaccination 3 weeks after the first injection. Three weeks after the booster vaccination, none of 13 birds surveyed had detectable antibody to West Nile virus. PMID:14562907

  4. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics. PMID:25092814

  5. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Langevin, Stanley A; Brault, Aaron C; Amador, Manuel; Edwards, Eric; Owen, Jennifer C

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infections in free-ranging birds were studied in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, after a human encephalitis outbreak peaked there in July 2002. Seroprevalence in resident, free-ranging wild birds in one suburban site was 25% and 24% in August and October, respectively, indicating that most transmission had ceased by early August. Mortality rates, seroprevalence rates, host competence, and crude population estimates were used in mathematical models to predict actual infection rates, population impacts, and importance as amplifying hosts for several common passerine birds. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) were the principal amplifying hosts, but blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) and northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) also contributed. The blue jay population was reduced by an estimated 47%. A variety of passerine bird species combined to play an important role as amplifying hosts in the WNV transmission cycle. PMID:16354808

  6. Low Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Piron, Maria; Plasencia, Antoni; Fleta-Soriano, Eric; Martinez, Ana; Martinez, Javier P; Torner, Nuria; Sauleda, Silvia; Meyerhans, Andreas; Escalé, Josefina; Trilla, Antoni; Pumarola, Tomás; Martinez, Miguel Julian

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus first recognized in Europe in the 1950s. Since then, outbreaks have been reported in several European countries. In 2010, the first WNV outbreak was recorded in Spain, affecting the southern part of the country. We conducted a seroprevalence study in the Catalonia region (northeastern Spain), an area considered at high risk of arbovirus transmission. A total of 800 serum samples from blood donors were collected and screened for antibodies against WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by a microneutralization assay. More than 50 samples tested positive by ELISA, but only one sample contained neutralizing antibodies against WNV and was obtained from a donor native of Pakistan. The low seroprevalence detected may serve as reference baseline data for monitoring WNV activity in our region in future years. PMID:26581013

  7. Landscape-Level Spatial Patterns of West Nile Virus Risk in the Northern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Hockett, Christine W.; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the landscape-level determinants of West Nile virus (WNV) can aid in mapping high-risk areas and enhance disease control and prevention efforts. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of human WNV cases in three areas in South Dakota during 2003–2007 and investigated the influences of land cover, hydrology, soils, irrigation, and elevation by using case–control models. Land cover, hydrology, soils, and elevation all influenced WNV risk, although the main drivers were different in each study area. Risk for WNV was generally higher in areas with rural land cover than in developed areas, and higher close to wetlands or soils with a high ponding frequency. In western South Dakota, WNV risk also decreased with increasing elevation and was higher in forested areas. Our results showed that the spatial patterns of human WNV risk were associated with landscape-level features that likely reflect variability in mosquito ecology, avian host communities, and human activity. PMID:22492161

  8. Retrospective space-time analysis methods to support West Nile virus surveillance activities.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, P; Mazzucato, M; Montarsi, F; Ciocchetta, S; Capelli, G; Bonfanti, L; Marangon, S

    2015-01-01

    The steep increase in human West Nile virus (WNV) infections in 2011-2012 in north-eastern Italy prompted a refinement of the surveillance plan. Data from the 2010-2012 surveillance activities on mosquitoes, equines, and humans were analysed through Bernoulli space-time scan statistics, to detect the presence of recurrent WNV infection hotspots. Linear models were fit to detect the possible relationships between WNV occurrence in humans and its activity in mosquitoes. Clusters were detected for all of the hosts, defining a limited area on which to focus surveillance and promptly identify WNV reactivation. Positive relationships were identified between WNV in humans and in mosquitoes; although it was not possible to define precise spatial and temporal scales at which entomological surveillance could predict the increasing risk of human infections. This stresses the necessity to improve entomological surveillance by increasing both the density of trapping sites and the frequency of captures. PMID:24641869

  9. Induction of inflammation by West Nile virus capsid through the caspase-9 apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joo-Sung; Ramanathan, Mathura P; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Choo, Andrew Y; Jin, Sung-Ha; Yu, Qian-Chun; Hwang, Daniel S; Choo, Daniel K; Lee, Mark D; Dang, Kesen; Tang, Waixing; Kim, J Joseph; Weiner, David B

    2002-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family of vector-borne pathogens. Clinical signs of WNV infection include neurologic symptoms, limb weakness, and encephalitis, which can result in paralysis or death. We report that the WNV-capsid by itself induces rapid nuclear condensation and cell death in tissue culture. Apoptosis is induced through the mitochondrial pathway resulting in caspase-9 activation and downstream caspase-3 activation. Capsid gene delivery into the striatum of mouse brain or interskeletal muscle resulted in cell death and inflammation, likely through capsid-induced apoptosis in vivo. These studies demonstrate that the capsid protein of WNV may be responsible for aspects of viral pathogenesis through induction of the apoptotic cascade. PMID:12498651

  10. Emergency department management of mosquito-borne illness: malaria, dengue, and West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Hector; King, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Up to 700 million people are infected and more than a million die each year from mosquito-borne illness. While the vast majority of cases occur in endemic tropical and subtropical regions, international travel and migration patterns have increased their prevalence in North America. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the 3 most common mosquito-borne illnesses seen in the United States: Plasmodium falciparum malaria, dengue, and West Nile virus. With no pathognomonic findings, it is critical that emergency clinicians in nonendemic areas maintain a high index of suspicion, conduct a thorough history/travel history, and interpret indirect findings to initiate prompt and appropriate treatment. This review gathers the best evidence from international public health resources, surveillance studies, guidelines, and academic research to give emergency clinicians tools to combat these potentially lethal infections. PMID:25207355

  11. Caspase-12 controls West Nile virus infection via the viral RNA receptor RIG-I

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Penghua; Arjona, Alvaro; Zhang, Yue; Sultana, Hameeda; Dai, Jianfeng; Yang, Long; LeBlanc, Philippe M; Doiron, Karine; Saleh, Maya; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-12 has been shown to negatively modulate inflammasome signaling during bacterial infection. Its function in viral immunity, however, has not been characterized. We now report an important role for caspase-12 in controlling viral infection via the pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I. After challenge with West Nile virus (WNV), caspase-12-deficient mice had greater mortality, higher viral burden and defective type I interferon response compared with those of challenged wild-type mice. In vitro studies of primary neurons and mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that caspase-12 positively modulated the production of type I interferon by regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25–mediated ubiquitination of RIG-I, a critical signaling event for the type I interferon response to WNV and other important viral pathogens. PMID:20818395

  12. High Seroprevelance of West Nile Virus Antibodies Observed in Horses from Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adedokun, Rahamon Akinyele Moshood; Rufai, Nurudeen; McCracken, Fiona; Mansfield, Karen L.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate exposure of Nigerian horses to West Nile virus (WNV), we determined the seroprevalence rate of anti-WNV antibody in a cohort of 145 horses. Serum samples were collected from three locations in southwestern Nigeria between October, 2011, and July, 2012. The horses were asymptomatic and unvaccinated against WNV at the time of sampling. All sera were tested using a competition enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an immunoglobulin M (IgM)-specific ELISA. High rates of anti-WNV antibody prevalence were observed in all locations with a mean level of 90.3% (95% confidence interval 84.3–94.6%). None of the horses had detectable anti-WNV IgM. This is the first ELISA-based report of WNV seroprevalence in Nigerian horses and suggests that WNV is enzootic in the study areas, indicating a potential risk of infection in humans and animals. PMID:25793479

  13. West Nile Virus Emergence and Persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Jennifer L.; Kluh, Susanne; Madon, Minoo B.; Reisen, William K.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) invaded Los Angeles in September 2003, and during the subsequent five-year period followed a pattern of amplification, subsidence, and resurgence. Enzootic transmission was tracked by abundance and infection incidence in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis and by seroprevalence in peridomestic passerine birds, infection in dead birds, and seroconversions in sentinel chickens. Culex p. quinquefasciatus served as the primary vector of WNV, with gravid traps serving as the best sampling method and the most consistent indicator of viral activity. Spatial scan statistics applied to mosquito infection and positive dead bird data delimited three major clusters of WNV transmission, with introduction occurring in the Los Angeles Basin, and amplification and dispersal events carrying transmission to the San Fernando and Santa Clarita valleys. Los Angeles experienced major epidemics in 2004 and 2008, providing a unique opportunity to investigate specific patterns of enzootic amplification preceding epidemics. PMID:20682890

  14. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  15. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  16. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions. PMID:26597260

  17. A Multiagency Approach to Reducing West Nile Virus Risk in Richmond County, Georgia, in 2015.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rosmarie; Koehle, Fred; Flite, Oscar P; Rustin, R Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Richmond County Mosquito Control program's mission statement is to incorporate strategies of integrated mosquito control management that are effective, practical, and environmentally safe and protect the health of Richmond County residents, as well as promote public education, in order to prevent large mosquito populations and the diseases that they transmit. To this end, the program coordinates efforts with other county agencies in order to provide better service. This is a small program with limited resources, so in an effort to provide better integrated mosquito management, the mosquito control program and the Phinizy Center for Water Sciences joined efforts to trap mosquitoes at sites across the county, identify the species, and send the mosquitoes off for viral testing. These data help determine locations of disease-carrying mosquitoes so the county can more efficiently control the mosquito populations and reduce the risk of West Nile virus transmission. PMID:27613204

  18. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  19. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in Eleonora's Falcons in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan Manuel; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Jesús M; Figuerola, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    Birds are the major amplifying host for West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus that may affect humans and transmitted by bloodsucking vectors. Eleonora's Falcons (Falco eleonorae) migrate to the Canary Islands annually from WNV-endemic regions. To investigate the possible role of Eleonora's Falcons in the circulation of WNV, we measured WNV-specific antibodies in 81 falcons captured in 2006. None of the nestlings but 14.8% of the adults had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCR did not detect flaviviruses in nonculicine ectoparasites (n=231) of the falcons. These findings suggest that WNV infection did not occur locally, but rather on the wintering grounds or during migration. PMID:20966288

  20. Examination of the geographical variation in human West Nile virus: a spatial filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Tevie, J; Bohara, A; Valdez, R B

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the importance of environmental factors (mosquito pools and home foreclosures) in human West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in California and Colorado. The role of environmental factors is investigated by applying an instrumental variable technique to a spatial filtering random-effects negative binomial model to correct for both spatial autocorrelation and endogeneity. The results suggest that mosquito pools and home foreclosures are significant in explaining the prevalence of human WNV. An innovative aspect of this research is that it emphasizes the role of home foreclosures in WNV transmission and in the allocation of resources. Knowledge of the factors associated with WNV prevalence is crucial for abatement of future outbreaks. The results suggest that more resources should be allocated to areas that have a high number of home foreclosures and mosquito pools for surveillance and mitigation of the disease. PMID:24512765

  1. Of Mice and Men: Protective and Pathogenic Immune Responses to West Nile virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Trobaugh, Derek

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first emerged in the Western Hemisphere in 1999. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, WNV causes significant morbidity and mortality in a minority of individuals who develop neuroinvasive disease, in particular the elderly and immunocompromised. Research in animal models has demonstrated interactions between WNV and the innate and adaptive immune system, some of which protect the host and others which are deleterious. Studies of disease pathogenesis in humans are less numerous, largely due to the complexities of WNV epidemiology. Human studies that have been done support the notion that innate and adaptive immune responses are delicately balanced and may help or harm the host. Further human investigations are needed to characterize beneficial responses to WNV with the goal of such research leading to therapeutics and effective vaccines in order to control this emerging viral disease. PMID:26120511

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Blood-Brain Barrier Models to Study West Nile Virus Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized interface between the peripheral blood circulation and the central nervous system, specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the two. It plays a critical role in the maintenance of brain hemostasis. The BBB restricts the entry of pathogens into the brain, and thus its permeability is a critical factor that determines their central effects. Once the permeability of BBB is compromised, it has serious implications in the etiology of many brain pathologies including West Nile virus (WNV) disease. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation, maintenance, infection and permeability measurement of monolayer and bilayer in vitro BBB models to study WNV pathogenesis. We also describe Evans blue dye assay, a well-established method to test vascular permeability in vivo after WNV infection. PMID:27188553

  3. Serological Survey of West Nile Virus in Domestic Animals from Northwest Senegal.

    PubMed

    Davoust, Bernard; Maquart, Marianne; Roqueplo, Cédric; Gravier, Patrick; Sambou, Masse; Mediannikov, Oleg; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    In Africa, infection with West Nile virus (WNV) is frequent but almost always asymptomatic in humans and equids. The aim of this study was to identify whether any other domestic animal living in the same enzootic locality may be the sentinel of WNV circulation. In northwest Senegal, blood samples were collected from 283 adult domestic animals (136 sheep, 64 horses, 29 donkeys, 29 goats, 14 cattle, and 11 dogs), in three localities near Keur Momar Sarr. Each serum was tested for WNV immunoglobulin G using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence among donkeys, horses, dogs, goats, cattle, and sheep was 86.2%, 68.7%, 27.3%, 6.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This survey confirms that equids and dogs could be the best sentinel animals for surveillance of WNV. The ruminants do not play a role in WNV epidemiology. PMID:27002305

  4. Host Selection of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Reiche, Ana Silvia Gonzalez; Morales-Betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts. PMID:23208881

  5. Comparing Competitive Fitness of West Nile Virus Strains in Avian and Mosquito Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Worwa, Gabriella; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Brault, Aaron C.; Reisen, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) involves various species of birds and ornithophilic mosquitoes. Single nucleotide substitutions in the WNV genome may impact viral fitness necessary for WNV adaptation and evolution as previously shown for the WN02 genotype. In an effort to study phenotypic change, we developed an in vivo fitness competition model in two biologically relevant hosts for WNV. The House Finch (HOFI; Haemorhous mexicanus) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes represent moderately susceptible hosts for WNV, are highly abundant in Western North America and frequently are infected with WNV in nature. Herein, we inoculated HOFIs and Cx. tarsalis competitively (dually) and singly with infectious-clone derived viruses of the founding California isolate COAV997-2003 (COAV997-IC), the founding North American isolate NY99 (NY99-IC), and a 2004 field isolate from California (CA-04), and compared the replicative capacities (fitness) of these viruses to a genetically marked virus of COAV997 (COAV997-5nt) by measuring RNA copy numbers. COAV997 and COAV997-5nt exhibited neutral fitness in HOFIs and Cx. tarsalis, and the temperature-sensitive phenotype of COAV997 did not affect replication in HOFIs as none of the infected birds became febrile. The NY99 and CA-04 isolates demonstrated elevated fitness in HOFIs compared to COAV997-5nt, whereas all viruses replicated to similar titers and RNA copies in Cx. tarsalis, and the only fitness differences were related to infection rates. Our data demonstrated that competitive replication allows for the sensitive comparison of fitness differences among two genetically closely related viruses using relevant hosts of WNV while eliminating host-to-host differences. In conclusion, our approach may be helpful in understanding the extent of phenotypic change in fitness associated with genetic changes in WNV. PMID:25965850

  6. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  7. The role of temperature on the spatiotemporal distribution of West Nile virus in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, D. E.; Kilpatrick, A. M.; Ruybal, J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the relationship between climatological factors and vector-borne pathogens remains a critical challenge. The recent arrival of the West Nile virus (WNV) to the Americas, coupled with an extensive climatological and disease observation network, offers the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of climate's influence on vector-borne disease transmission. Since its introduction to the Americas in the summer of 1999, the West Nile Virus (WNV) has rapidly spread from coastal New York State, across the North American continent, and into Central and South America. To date, 13,385 cases of WNV-induced human neuroinvasive disease have been reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, with approximately 1,267 fatalities attributed to viral infection (as of 31 July 2012). Of those infected, severe symptoms develop in only ~1 in 150 people, suggesting that the total U.S. population infected with WNV is on the order of 2 million. The transmission of WNV is predominantly vector-borne, with three mosquitoes of the Culex genus, pipiens, tarsalis, and quinquefasciatus, largely responsible for the spread of the pathogen between avian and human hosts and across the contiguous United States. In this contribution, we synthesize laboratory and local-scale field studies of the Culex vectors with observed and modeled climatological data in an attempt to determine the mechanistic influence of temperature on the spatiotemporal distribution of WNV incidence across the United States. Our preliminary results suggest that many of the physiological factors that determine the transmission intensity of WNV, including mosquito biting rate, vector competence, infection transition rate, and mosquito mortality rate, demonstrate direct temperature dependencies. Based on these results, we utilize bias-corrected outputs from late-20th and mid-21st century CMIP5 simulations to examine the influence of temperature on the distribution of WNV relative to other factors and to

  8. Clinical evaluation and outcomes of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in raptors.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Kratz, Gail E; Bates, Rebecca; Scherpelz, Judy A; Bowen, Richard A; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection and associated disease and mortality have been documented in numerous North American raptor species. Information regarding clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of WNV-infected raptors is important in the clinic for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of prognosis, as well as for understanding potential population level effects on raptor species. Raptors of 22 species admitted to a rehabilitation clinic were tested, from 2002 to 2005, for previous and acute WNV infection, while comparing clinical syndromes, trauma, and rehabilitation outcomes. Forty-two percent of admitted raptors (132/314) had been infected with WNV, and these presented with a WNV-attributed clinical disease rate of 67.4% (89/132). West Nile virus-infected raptors were less likely to be released (79/132 [59.8%]) than negative raptors (138/182 [75.8%]) and more likely to die or be euthanized (47/132 [35.6%] for WNV-infected vs. 32/182 [17.6%] for WNV-negative). However, WNV-infected raptors with neurologic disease were no less likely to be released (29/53 [54.7%]) than those without neurologic disease (50/79 [63.3%]). Clinical WNV-associated syndromes varied among species. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were more likely to have neurologic signs, whereas American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsonii) were less likely to have neurologic signs. These results suggest that free-ranging raptors are frequently infected with WNV and that clinical syndromes differ among species. WNV has potentially devastating effects on raptors; however, rehabilitation of WNV-infected raptors can lead to positive outcomes, even for those having had severe neurologic disease. PMID:19368240

  9. Metro Atlanta responds to West Nile virus: a coordinated public health response.

    PubMed

    Willis, Juanette

    2005-01-01

    Three and a half million people live in metropolitan Atlanta, in multiple counties with varying population bases, resources, issues and separate boards of health. Historically, public health issues have been managed within each county, with very little sharing of information among counties. The 1999 West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in the Northeast caused public health officials in Atlanta to recognize the potential for the disease to spread to Georgia and the need to develop a coordinated, multi-jurisdictional response plan. This plan would need to address a new disease with little scientific data to predict how it might behave in a new environment and would also require closely coordinated communication among the local/state public health entities and elected officials. In early 2000, staff from the five health districts in the metro Atlanta area and the state health department voluntarily convened the Metro Atlanta Surveillance Task Force (MASTF) to create the Metro Atlanta West Nile Virus Response Plan. This plan utilizes a coordinated effort encompassing public education, surveillance, and mosquito control. With this plan in place, when the first human case of WNV was detected in Atlanta, the public heard consistent health messages about preventive measures to lower their risk of illness and the metro counties were able to carry out a successful uniform approach to mosquito control. This plan has received recognition by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) as a 2004 Model Practice, demonstrating exemplary and replicable qualities in response to a local public health need. Since the early days of the emergence of WNV in the metro Atlanta area, MASTF has continued to be a viable, evolving entity, managing and anticipating health issues. The MASTF plan is a successful effort to develop consistent policies and procedures for disease surveillance in a heavily populated area with multiple local health departments. PMID:15822839

  10. Towards an Early Warning System for Forecasting Human West Nile Virus Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Manore, Carrie A.; Davis, Justin; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Wesson, Dawn; Hyman, James M.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified environmental and demographic variables, available in January, that predict the relative magnitude and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) for the following summer. The yearly magnitude and spatial distribution for WNV incidence in humans in the United States (US) have varied wildly in the past decade. Mosquito control measures are expensive and having better estimates of the expected relative size of a future WNV outbreak can help in planning for the mitigation efforts and costs. West Nile virus is spread primarily between mosquitoes and birds; humans are an incidental host. Previous efforts have demonstrated a strong correlation between environmental factors and the incidence of WNV. A predictive model for human cases must include both the environmental factors for the mosquito-bird epidemic and an anthropological model for the risk of humans being bitten by a mosquito. Using weather data and demographic data available in January for every county in the US, we use logistic regression analysis to predict the probability that the county will have at least one WNV case the following summer. We validate our approach and the spatial and temporal WNV incidence in the US from 2005 to 2013. The methodology was applied to forecast the 2014 WNV incidence in late January 2014. We find the most significant predictors for a county to have a case of WNV to be the mean minimum temperature in January, the deviation of this minimum temperature from the expected minimum temperature, the total population of the county, publicly available samples of local bird populations, and if the county had a case of WNV the previous year. PMID:24611126

  11. Towards an Early Warning System for Forecasting Human West Nile Virus Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Manore, Carrie A.; Davis, Justin K.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Wesson, Dawn M.; Hyman, James M.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified environmental and demographic variables, available in January, that predict the relative magnitude and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) for the following summer. The yearly magnitude and spatial distribution for WNV incidence in humans in the United States (US) have varied wildly in the past decade. Mosquito control measures are expensive and having better estimates of the expected relative size of a future WNV outbreak can help in planning for the mitigation efforts and costs. West Nile virus is spread primarily between mosquitoes and birds; humans are an incidental host. Previous efforts have demonstrated a strong correlation between environmental factors and the incidence of WNV. A predictive model for human cases must include both the environmental factors for the mosquito-bird epidemic and an anthropological model for the risk of humans being bitten by a mosquito. Using weather data and demographic data available in January for every county in the US, we use logistic regression analysis to predict the probability that the county will have at least one WNV case the following summer. We validate our approach and the spatial and temporal WNV incidence in the US from 2005 to 2013. The methodology was applied to forecast the 2014 WNV incidence in late January 2014. We find the most significant predictors for a county to have a case of WNV to be the mean minimum temperature in January, the deviation of this minimum temperature from the expected minimum temperature, the total population of the county, publicly available samples of local bird populations, and if the county had a case of WNV the previous year. PMID:25914857

  12. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  13. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  14. The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the phenotypic consequences of interactions between arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and their mosquito hosts has direct implications for predicting the evolution of these relationships and the potential for changes in epidemiological patterns. Although arboviruses are generally not highly pathogenic to mosquitoes, pathology has at times been noted. Here, in order to evaluate the potential costs of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and resistance in a primary WNV vector, and to assess the extent to which virus-vector relationships are species-specific, we performed fitness studies with and without WNV exposure using a highly susceptible Culex pipiens mosquito colony. Specifically, we measured and compared survival, fecundity, and feeding rates in bloodfed mosquitoes that were (i) infected following WNV exposure (susceptible), (ii) uninfected following WNV exposure (resistant), or (iii) unexposed. Results In contrast to our previous findings with a relatively resistant Cx. tarsalis colony, WNV infection did not alter fecundity or blood-feeding behaviour of Cx. pipiens, yet results do indicate that resistance to infection is associated with a fitness cost in terms of mosquito survival. Conclusions The identification of species-specific differences provides an evolutionary explanation for variability in vector susceptibility to arboviruses and suggests that understanding the costs of infection and resistance are important factors in determining the potential competence of vector populations for arboviruses. PMID:21975028

  15. Plant-made vaccines against West Nile virus are potent, safe, and economically feasible

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The threat of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics with increasingly severe neuroinvasive infections demands the development and licensing of effective vaccines. To date, vaccine candidates based on inactivated, live-attenuated, or chimeric virus, and viral DNA and WNV protein subunits have been developed. Some have been approved for veterinary use or are under clinical investigation, yet no vaccine has been licensed for human use. Reaching the milestone of a commercialized human vaccine, however, may largely depend on the economics of vaccine production. Analysis suggests that currently only novel low-cost production technologies would allow vaccination to outcompete the cost of surveillance and clinical treatment. Here, we review progress using plants to address the economic challenges of WNV vaccine production. The advantages of plants as hosts for vaccine production in cost, speed and scalability, especially those of viral vector-based transient expression systems, are discussed. The progress in developing WNV subunit vaccines in plants is reviewed within the context of their expression, characterization, downstream processing, and immunogenicity in animal models. The development of vaccines based on enveloped and non-enveloped virus-like particles is also discussed. These advancements suggest that plants may provide a production platform that offers potent, safe and affordable human vaccines against WNV. PMID:25676782

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulins protects against West Nile virus encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramakrishna, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), an important global human pathogen, targets neurons to cause lethal encephalitis, primarily in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic agents or vaccines to treat WNV encephalitis. Recent studies have suggested that inflammation is a major contributor to WNV encephalitis morbidity. In this study we evaluated the use of IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulins – a clinical product comprising pooled human IgG) as an anti-inflammatory treatment in a model of lethal WNV infection. We report here that IVIG and pooled human WNV convalescent sera (WNV-IVIG) inhibited development of lethal WNV encephalitis by suppressing central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD45high leukocytes. Pathogenic Ly6Chigh CD11b+ monocytes were the major infiltrating subset in the CNS of infected control mice, whereas IVIG profoundly reduced infiltration of these pathogenic Ly6Chigh monocytes into the CNS of infected mice. Interestingly, WNV-IVIG was more efficacious than IVIG in controlling CNS inflammation when mice were challenged with a high-dose inoculum (105 versus 104 p.f.u.) of WNV. Importantly, adsorption of WNV E-glycoprotein neutralizing antibodies did not abrogate IVIG protection, consistent with virus neutralization not being essential for IVIG protection. These findings confirmed the potent immunomodulatory activity of generic IVIG, and emphasized its potential as an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis and other virus induced inflammatory diseases. PMID:25667322

  17. West Nile Virus and its Theories, a Big Puzzle in Mexico and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando

    2013-01-01

    It has been 13 years since the first outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV) occurred in the Americas. Since then, thousands of human cases have been reported in the United States. In contrast, there has not yet been an outbreak of WNV in any Latin American countries, including Mexico where <20 cases have been reported. We aimed to review publications to gather the main theories related to the fact that not all the countries of the continent reported human cases or that they have reported few cases since the introduction of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. We identified relevant publications using the PubMed database. Furthermore, we present on-line published information from Mexico. We found that researchers have tried to explain this phenomenon using several theories, like pre-existing antibodies against a heterotypical virus that have conferred cross protection in the population. Another explanation is that the strains circulating in Latin America are attenuated or that they came from a different origin of introduction in the continent. Another theory is that a conclusive diagnostic in regions where more than one Flavivirus is circulating results in cross-reaction in serological tests. Probably the sum of factors described by researchers in these theories in order to explain the behavior of the virus has resulted in the low number of reported cases in Latin America. PMID:24672180

  18. Complement Activation Is Required for Induction of a Protective Antibody Response against West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mehlhop, Erin; Whitby, Kevin; Oliphant, Theodore; Marri, Anantha; Engle, Michael; Diamond, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with higher levels of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and the immunocompromised. Experiments with mice have begun to define how the innate and adaptive immune responses function to limit infection. Here, we demonstrate that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity, controls WNV infection in vitro primarily in an antibody-dependent manner by neutralizing virus particles in solution and lysing WNV-infected cells. More decisively, mice that genetically lack the third component of complement or complement receptor 1 (CR1) and CR2 developed increased CNS virus burdens and were vulnerable to lethal infection at a low dose of WNV. Both C3-deficient and CR1- and CR2-deficient mice also had significant deficits in their humoral responses after infection with markedly reduced levels of specific anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG. Overall, these results suggest that complement controls WNV infection, in part through its ability to induce a protective antibody response. PMID:15919902

  19. Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Van Slyke, Greta A.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Lugo, Alex J.; Griesemer, Sara B.; Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Cameron, Craig E.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    High rates of error-prone replication result in the rapid accumulation of genetic diversity of RNA viruses. Recent studies suggest that mutation rates are selected for optimal viral fitness and that modest variations in replicase fidelity may be associated with viral attenuation. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are unique in their requirement for host cycling and may necessitate substantial genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In order to more thoroughly investigate the correlates, mechanisms and consequences of arbovirus fidelity, we selected fidelity variants of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) utilizing selection in the presence of a mutagen. We identified two mutations in the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with increased fidelity, V793I and G806R, and a single mutation in the WNV methyltransferase, T248I, associated with decreased fidelity. Both deep-sequencing and in vitro biochemical assays confirmed strain-specific differences in both fidelity and mutational bias. WNV fidelity variants demonstrated host-specific alterations to replicative fitness in vitro, with modest attenuation in mosquito but not vertebrate cell culture. Experimental infections of colonized and field populations of Cx. quinquefaciatus demonstrated that WNV fidelity alterations are associated with a significantly impaired capacity to establish viable infections in mosquitoes. Taken together, these studies (i) demonstrate the importance of allosteric interactions in regulating mutation rates, (ii) establish that mutational spectra can be both sequence and strain-dependent, and (iii) display the profound phenotypic consequences associated with altered replication complex function of flaviviruses. PMID:26114757

  20. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding. PMID:16699143

  1. Limited efficacy of West Nile virus vaccines in large falcons (Falco spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can lead to fatal diseases in raptor species. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine which has been designed specifically for use in breeding stocks of falcons. Therefore the immunogenicity and protective capacity of two commercially available WNV vaccines, both approved for use in horses, were evaluated in large falcons. One vaccine contained adjuvanted inactivated WNV lineage 1 immunogens, while the second represented a canarypox recombinant live virus vector vaccine. The efficacy of different vaccination regimes for these two vaccines was assessed serologically and by challenging the falcons with a WNV strain of homologous lineage 1. Our studies show that the recombinant vaccine conveys a slightly better protection than the inactivated vaccine, but moderate (recombinant vaccine) or weak (inactivated vaccine) side effects were observed at the injection sites. Using the recommended 2-dose regimen, both vaccines elicited only sub-optimal antibody responses and gave only partial protection following WNV challenge. Better results were obtained for both vaccines after a third dose, i.e. alleviation of clinical signs, absence of fatalities and reduction of virus shedding and viraemia. Therefore the consequences of WNV infections in falcons can be clearly alleviated by vaccination, especially if the amended triple administration scheme is used, although side effects at the vaccination site must be accepted. PMID:24708385

  2. Surveillance Potential of Non-Native Hawaiian Birds for Detection of West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Dusek, Robert J; Brand, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP(®) test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance. PMID:26304918

  3. West Nile virus-neutralizing antibodies in wild birds from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, M; LA Puente, J Martínez-DE; Soriguer, R; Llorente, F; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á; Figuerola, J

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging vector-borne arbovirus with a zoonotic life-cycle whose main reservoir hosts are birds. In humans and horses, WNV infections rarely result in clinical disease but on occasions - depending on factors such as climatic conditions, insect communities and background immunity levels in local populations - they can lead to outbreaks that threaten public and animal health. We tested for the presence of WNV antibodies in 149 birds belonging to 32 different species. Samples were first tested using a bird-specific ELISA kit and then both positive and doubtful results were confirmed by neutralization tests using WNV and Usutu virus. WNV antibodies were confirmed in a resident Sylvia melanocephala juvenile, supporting the idea of local transmission of WNV in southern Spain in 2013. In addition, the serum from an adult blackbird (Turdus merula) showed neutralization of both WNV and Usutu virus. We discuss our results in light of the occurrence of WNV on horse farms in southern Spain in 2013. PMID:26846720

  4. Limited efficacy of West Nile virus vaccines in large falcons (Falco spp.).

    PubMed

    Angenvoort, Joke; Fischer, Dominik; Fast, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Eiden, Martin; de la Fuente, Jorge Garcia; Lierz, Michael; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can lead to fatal diseases in raptor species. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine which has been designed specifically for use in breeding stocks of falcons. Therefore the immunogenicity and protective capacity of two commercially available WNV vaccines, both approved for use in horses, were evaluated in large falcons. One vaccine contained adjuvanted inactivated WNV lineage 1 immunogens, while the second represented a canarypox recombinant live virus vector vaccine. The efficacy of different vaccination regimes for these two vaccines was assessed serologically and by challenging the falcons with a WNV strain of homologous lineage 1. Our studies show that the recombinant vaccine conveys a slightly better protection than the inactivated vaccine, but moderate (recombinant vaccine) or weak (inactivated vaccine) side effects were observed at the injection sites. Using the recommended 2-dose regimen, both vaccines elicited only sub-optimal antibody responses and gave only partial protection following WNV challenge. Better results were obtained for both vaccines after a third dose, i.e. alleviation of clinical signs, absence of fatalities and reduction of virus shedding and viraemia. Therefore the consequences of WNV infections in falcons can be clearly alleviated by vaccination, especially if the amended triple administration scheme is used, although side effects at the vaccination site must be accepted. PMID:24708385

  5. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  6. Culex Flavivirus and West Nile Virus Mosquito Coinfection and Positive Ecological Association in Chicago, United States

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Christina M.; Cerutti, Francesco; Anderson, Tavis K.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Walker, Edward D.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brawn, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case–control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times more likely also to be infected with CxFV than were spatiotemporally matched WNV-negative pools. In addition, mosquito pools from residential sites characterized by dense housing and impermeable surfaces were more likely to be infected with CxFV than were pools from nearby urban green spaces. Further, 6/15 (40%) WNV-positive individual mosquitoes were also CxFV positive, demonstrating that both viruses can coinfect mosquitoes in nature. Phylogenetic analysis of CxFV from Chicago demonstrated a pattern similar to WNV, consisting of low global viral diversity and lack of geographic clustering. These results illustrate a positive ecological association between CxFV and WNV, and that coinfection of individual mosquitoes can occur naturally in areas of high flaviviral transmission. These conclusions represent a challenge to the hypothesis of super-infection exclusion in the CxFV/WNV system, whereby an established infection with one virus may interfere with secondary viral infection with a similar virus. This study suggests that infection with insect-specific flaviviruses such as CxFV may not exclude secondary infection with genetically distinct flaviviruses such as WNV, and that both viruses can naturally coinfect mosquitoes that are epidemic bridge vectors of WNV to humans. PMID:21254845

  7. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    PubMed

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  8. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  9. Early evening questing and oviposition activity by the Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of West Nile virus in northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Michael R; Lepore, Timothy J; Pollack, Richard J; Kiszewski, Anthony E; Spielman, Andrew; Reiter, Paul

    2007-03-01

    To determine whether the Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in the northeastern United States seek hosts and oviposit contemporaneously, we recorded when these mosquitoes attacked caged birds and when they deposited eggs. They traversed oviposition sites most frequently approximately 2 h after astronomical sunset, and eggs generally were deposited at that time. Although they most frequently approached avian hosts approximately 2 h after sunset during midsummer, they are more opportunistic during mid- to late fall. Because the Culex mosquitoes that serve as the main vectors of West Nile virus in the northeastern United States quest for hosts and seek to oviposit well after sunset, insecticidal aerosols would be most effective when applied at that time. PMID:17427688

  10. Persistent West Nile Virus Transmission and the Apparent Displacement St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in Southeastern California, 2003−2006

    PubMed Central

    REISEN, WILLIAM K.; LOTHROP, HUGH D.; WHEELER, SARAH S.; KENNSINGTON, MARC; GUTIERREZ, ARTURO; FANG, YING; GARCIA, SANDRA; LOTHROP, BRANKA

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded the Colorado Desert biome of southern California during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic St. Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV, an antigenically similar Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex). Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), an antigenically distinct Alphavirus, was detected during 2005 and 2006, indicating that conditions were suitable for encephalitis virus introduction and detection. Cross-protective “avian herd immunity” due to WNV infection possibly may have prevented SLEV reintroduction and/or amplification to detectable levels. During 2003−2006, WNV was consistently active at wetlands and agricultural habitats surrounding the Salton Sea where Culex tarsalis Coquillett served as the primary enzootic maintenance and amplification vector. Based on published laboratory infection studies and the current seroprevalence estimates, house sparrows, house finches, and several Ardeidae may have been important avian amplifying hosts in this region. Transmission efficiency may have been dampened by high infection rates in incompetent avian hosts, including Gamble's quail, mourning doves, common ground doves, and domestic pigeons. Early season WNV amplification and dispersal from North Shore in the southeastern portion of the Coachella Valley resulted in sporadic WNV incursions into the urbanized Upper Valley near Palm Springs, where Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say was the primary enzootic and bridge vector. Although relatively few human cases were detected during the 2003−2006 period, all were concentrated in the Upper Valley and were associated with high human population density and WNV infection in peridomestic populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. Intensive early mosquito control during 2006 seemed to interrupt and delay transmission, perhaps setting the stage

  11. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  12. Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those

  13. Eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Platt, Kenneth B; Tucker, Brad J; Rowley, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    The potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (CTR; Sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the WNV viremia profile of 15 CTRs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these CTRs. Eight CTRs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (CID50s) of WNV (NY99-Crow) by needle and seven CTRs by bite of one or more WNV-infected mosquitoes. There were no marked differences between the WNV viremia profiles of CTRs infected by either method. West Nile virus was detected in serums of all CTRs by 24 h p.i. The daily mean titers of all 15 CTRs on days 1-4 p.i. were 10(4.1+/-0.4), 10(4.7+/-0.3), 10(4.1+/-0.6), and 10(3.7+/-0.6) respectively, declining to 10(1.2+/-0.1) CID50s/ml of serum by day 6 p.i. No virus was detected in the blood of any CTR on day 7 p.i. The average duration of WNV titers of >or=10(4.3) and <10(5.0) CID50s/mL for all CTRs was 2.2 +/- 0.6 and 1.0 +/- 0.1 days, respectively. The minimum estimated infection rates (MEIRs) of Culex pipiens (L.) and Culex salinarius (Coq.) that fed on CTRs with titers of >or=10(4.3) and >10(5.0) were 11.5 +/- 5.5 and 21 +/- 6.0%, respectively. These rates increased to 20.5 +/- 6.4% and 25.0 +/- 3.0% when CTR serum titers were >10(5.0) CID50s/mL. Neither Aedes aegypti (L.) nor Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were infected by feeding on CTRs with titers of <10(5.0) CID50s/mL. The MEIRs of these two species were 11.5 +/- 3.5% and 1.5 +/- 0.5% after feeding on CTRs with titers of >10(5.0) CID50s/ml. None of the CTRs infected by mosquito bite or by needle showed any symptoms of WNV disease. PMID:16417430

  14. Real time PCR assay for detection of all known lineages of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ana; Herrero, Laura; Negredo, Anabel; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María Paz; Tenorio, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most widespread arbovirus and a large variety of WNV strains and lineages have been described. The molecular methods for the diagnosis of WNV target mainly lineages 1 and 2, which have caused outbreaks in humans, equines and birds. But the last few years new and putative WNV lineages of unknown pathogenicity have been described. Here we describe a new sensitive and specific real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of all the WNV lineages described until now. Primers and probe were designed in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the WNV genome and were designed to match all sequenced WNV strains perfectly. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 1,5 to 15 copies per reaction depending on the WNV lineage tested. The method was validated for WNV diagnosis using different viral strains, human samples (cerebrospinal fluid, biopsies, serum and plasma) and mosquito pools. The assay did not amplify any other phylogenetically or symptomatically related viruses. All of the above make it a very suitable tool for the diagnosis of WNV and for surveillance studies. PMID:27481597

  15. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013. PMID:25636141

  16. SURVEY FOR WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN WILD DUCKS, 2004-06, USA.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Jankowski, Mark D; Goldberg, Diana; Franson, J Christian

    2016-04-28

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004-06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon ( Anas americana ), Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos ), and Northern Pintail ( Anas acuta ) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks ( Aix sponsa ) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes. PMID:26981693

  17. Nocodazole delays viral entry into the brain following footpad inoculation with West Nile virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, E A; Roehrig, J T

    2009-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans can cause neurological deficits, including flaccid paralysis, encephalitis, meningitis, and mental status change. To better understand the neuropathogenesis of WNV in the peripheral and the central nervous systems (PNS and CNS), we used a mouse footpad inoculation model to simulate a natural peripheral infection. Localization of WNV in the nervous system using this model has suggested two routes of viral invasion of the CNS: axonal retrograde transport (ART) from the PNS and hematogenous diffusion via a breakdown in the blood-choroid-plexus barrier. C57BL/6J mice were treated with nocodazole, a microtubule inhibitor that blocks ART, prior to infection with WNV. Nocodazole-treated WNV-infected mice developed a viremia 1.5 log(10) greater than untreated WNV-infected control mice at days 3 to 4 post infection (PI). Although viremia was greater in nocodazole-treated mice, detection of virus in brain tissue (spinal cord, cortex, brainstem, and cerebellum), as measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), did not occur until day 7. At these later time points (7 and 9 days PI), nocodazole-treated WNV-infected animals attained viral titers in these tissues similar to titers in the untreated WNV-infected control animals. These results demonstrate that a single dose of nocodazole delays, but does not block, WNV infection of the brain. PMID:19444694

  18. High prevalence of West Nile virus: a continuing risk in acquiring infection from a mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Kennedy, George A; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek; Ganta, Roman R

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) was evaluated by diplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the years 2001-2005 in Culex species of mosquitoes, several species of dead birds, and clinically suspected mammals collected in Kansas. The analysis was performed using a TaqMan-based diplex real-time RT-PCR assay targeted against two regions of the WNV genome, envelope glycoprotein gene and 3' untranslated region. The assay aided in the accurate detection of WNV in mosquitoes at high prevalence for the years 2002-2005. Similarly, high incidence of birds that tested positive for WNV was detected in 2002-2004. WNV positives in mammals by the diplex real time RT-PCR assay included horses, squirrels, mules, sheep and a mountain goat. Majority of the equine WNV positives were detected only in the year 2002. Sequence analysis of a segment of the envelope glycoprotein gene from 31 randomly selected WNV positive samples revealed variations in six samples at one or two nucleotide positions. The identity of high levels of WNV positives in Kansas parallels the recent reports on the widespread distribution of the virus in the United States. The continued detection of WNV in the mosquitoes is of significant public health concern and calls for continued surveillance and public health activities. PMID:17187569

  19. Diverse Host Feeding on Nesting Birds May Limit Early-Season West Nile Virus Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Egizi, Andrea M.; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arboviral activity tracks vector availability, which in temperate regions means that transmission ceases during the winter and must be restarted each spring. In the northeastern United States, Culex restuans Theobald resumes its activity earlier than Culex pipiens L. and is thought to be important in restarting West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. Its role in WNV amplification, however, is unclear, because viral levels commonly remain low until the rise of Cx. pipiens later in the season. Because a vector's feeding habits can reveal key information about disease transmission, we identified early-season (April–June) blood meals from Cx. restuans collected throughout New Jersey, and compared them to published datasets from later in the season and also from other parts of the country. We found significantly higher avian diversity, including poor WNV hosts, and fewer blood meals derived from American Robins (17% versus over 40% found in later season). Critically, we identified blood meals from significantly more female than male birds in species where females are the incubating sex, suggesting that Cx. restuans is able to feed on such a wide variety of hosts in early spring because incubating birds are easy targets. Because WNV amplification depends on virus consistently reaching competent hosts, our results indicate that Cx. restuans is unlikely to be an amplifying vector of WNV in the early season. As the season progresses, however, changes in the availability of nesting birds may make it just as capable as Cx. pipiens, although at somewhat lower abundance as the summer progresses. PMID:24745370

  20. Predictive Mapping of Human Risk for West Nile Virus (WNV) Based on Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Campbell, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000–2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005–2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000–2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases. PMID:21853103

  1. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  2. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  3. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.

    PubMed

    Stout, William E; Cassini, Andrew G; Meece, Jennifer K; Papp, Joseph M; Rosenfield, Robert N; Reed, Kurt D

    2005-09-01

    We assayed for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of WNV infection in three raptor populations in southeast Wisconsin during 2003-04. This study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before WNV was introduced to the study area. For 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling Cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) tested positive for WNV antibodies by the constant virus-serum dilution neutralization test. Samples that tested positive for WNV antibodies were collected across a wide variety of habitat types, including urban habitats (both high and low density), roads, parking areas, recreational areas, croplands, pastures, grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands. Based on the increased prevalence and significantly higher WNV antibody titers in adults compared with nestlings, we suggest that nestlings with detectable antibody levels acquired these antibodies through passive transmission from the mother during egg production. Low levels of WNV antibodies in nestlings could serve as a surrogate marker of exposure in adult raptor populations. Based on breeding population densities and reproductive success over the past 15 yr, we found no apparent adverse effects of WNV infections on these wild raptor populations. PMID:16252490

  4. Raptor mortality due to West Nile virus in the United States, 2002.

    PubMed

    Saito, Emi K; Sileo, Louis; Green, D Earl; Meteyer, Carol U; McLaughlin, Grace S; Converse, Kathryn A; Docherty, Douglas E

    2007-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has affected many thousands of birds since it was first detected in North America in 1999, but the overall impact on wild bird populations is unknown. In mid-August 2002, wildlife rehabilitators and local wildlife officials from multiple states began reporting increasing numbers of sick and dying raptors, mostly red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Commonly reported clinical signs were nonspecific and included emaciation, lethargy, weakness, inability to perch, fly or stand, and nonresponse to danger. Raptor carcasses from 12 states were received, and diagnostic evaluation of 56 raptors implicated WNV infection in 40 (71%) of these cases. Histologically, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myocarditis were the salient lesions (79% and 61%, respectively). Other causes of death included lead poisoning, trauma, aspergillosis, and Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. infections. The reason(s) for the reported increase in raptor mortality due to WNV in 2002 compared with the previous WNV seasons is unclear, and a better understanding of the epizootiology and pathogenesis of the virus in raptor populations is needed. PMID:17495304

  5. Cullin4 Is Pro-Viral during West Nile Virus Infection of Culex Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Paradkar, Prasad N.; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Trinidad, Lee; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Although mosquitoes serve as vectors of many pathogens of public health importance, their response to viral infection is poorly understood. It also remains to be investigated whether viruses deploy some mechanism to be able to overcome this immune response. Here, we have used an RNA-Seq approach to identify differentially regulated genes in Culex quinquefasciatus cells following West Nile virus (WNV) infection, identifying 265 transcripts from various cellular pathways that were either upregulated or downregulated. Ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway genes, comprising 12% of total differentially regulated genes, were selected for further validation by real time RT-qPCR and functional analysis. It was found that treatment of infected cells with proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, decreased WNV titers, indicating importance of this pathway during infection process. In infection models, the Culex ortholog of mammalian Cul4A/B (cullin RING ubiquitin ligase) was found to be upregulated in vitro as well as in vivo, especially in midguts of mosquitoes. Gene knockdown using dsRNA and overexpression studies indicated that Culex Cul4 acts as a pro-viral protein by degradation of CxSTAT via ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. We also show that gene knockdown of Culex Cul4 leads to activation of the Jak-STAT pathway in mosquitoes leading to decrease viral replication in the body as well as saliva. Our results suggest a novel mechanism adopted by WNV to overcome mosquito immune response and increase viral replication. PMID:26325027

  6. Projection of Climate Change Influences on U.S. West Nile Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Heidi E.; Young, Alex; Lega, Joceline; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Schurich, Jessica; Comrie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While estimates of the impact of climate change on health are necessary for health care planners and climate change policy makers, models to produce quantitative estimates remain scarce. We describe a freely available dynamic simulation model parameterized for three West Nile virus vectors, which provides an effective tool for studying vector-borne disease risk due to climate change. The Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model is parameterized with species specific temperature-dependent development and mortality rates. Using downscaled daily weather data, we estimate mosquito population dynamics under current and projected future climate scenarios for multiple locations across the country. Trends in mosquito abundance were variable by location, however, an extension of the vector activity periods, and by extension disease risk, was almost uniformly observed. Importantly, mid-summer decreases in abundance may be off-set by shorter extrinsic incubation periods resulting in a greater proportion of infective mosquitoes. Quantitative descriptions of the effect of temperature on the virus and mosquito are critical to developing models of future disease risk. PMID:27057131

  7. Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Michael C.; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002–2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002–2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source. PMID:24173141

  8. Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect the abundance and seasonality of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, altering the risk of virus transmission to humans. Using downscaled general circulation model output, we calculate a WNV vector's response to climate change across the southern United States using process-based modeling. In the eastern United States, Culex quinquefasciatus response to projected climate change displays a latitudinal and elevational gradient. Projected summer population depressions as a result of increased immature mortality and habitat drying are most severe in the south and almost absent further north; extended spring and fall survival is ubiquitous. Much of California also exhibits a bimodal pattern. Projected onset of mosquito season is delayed in the southwestern United States because of extremely dry and hot spring and summers; however, increased temperature and late summer and fall rains extend the mosquito season. These results are unique in being a broad-scale calculation of the projected impacts of climate change on a WNV vector. The results show that, despite projected widespread future warming, the future seasonal response of C. quinquefasciatus populations across the southern United States will not be homogeneous, and will depend on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. PMID:24019459

  9. A CRISPR-based screen identifies genes essential for West Nile virus-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N.; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. PMID:26190106

  10. Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in domestic geese (Anser anser)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Lieberman, M.M.; Hofmeister, E.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Wong, T.; Weeks-Levy, C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) to Hawai'i will undoubtedly devastate many populations of critically endangered avian species indigenous to Hawai'i. The protective efficacy of a protein-based WNV subunit vaccine formulated with adjuvant was evaluated in domestic geese as a surrogate species for the endangered Ne??ne??, the state bird of Hawai'i. Prevention of viremia following viral infection of vaccinated birds was used as the clinical endpoint of protection. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests demonstrate that significant levels of vaccine antigen-specific antibody were produced in groups of birds vaccinated with 5 or 10 ??g of the WN-80E antigen formulated with ISA720 adjuvant. Moreover, after challenge with WNV, no viremia was detected in vaccinated birds, whereas viremia was detected up to 4 days after and virus was detected by oral swab for 6 days after infection among control groups. Safe and effective vaccination of managed or captive endangered bird populations will protect species with critically low numbers that could not survive the added mortality of introduced disease. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. PMID:27335150

  12. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  13. Raptor mortality due to West Nile virus in the United States, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Sileo, L.; Green, D.E.; Meteyer, C.U.; McLaughlin, G.S.; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has affected many thousands of birds since it was first detected in North America in 1999, but the overall impact on wild bird populations is unknown. In mid-August 2002, wildlife rehabilitators and local wildlife officials from multiple states began reporting increasing numbers of sick and dying raptors, mostly red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus. Commonly reported clinical signs were nonspecific and included emaciation, lethargy, weakness, inability to perch, fly or stand, and nonresponse to danger. Raptor carcasses from 12 states were received, and diagnostic evaluation of 56 raptors implicated WNV infection in 40 (71%) of these cases. Histologically, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myocarditis were the salient lesions (79% and 61%, respectively). Other causes of death included lead poisoning, trauma, aspergillosis, and Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. infections. The reason(s) for the reported increase in raptor mortality due to WNV in 2002 compared with the previous WNV seasons is unclear, and a better understanding of the epizootiology and pathogenesis of the virus in raptor populations is needed. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  14. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephanie M.; Brault, Aaron C.; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D.; Bowen, Richard A.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Koraka, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains’ virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe. PMID:26197093

  15. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  16. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, N.M.; Hahn, D.C.; Gould, D.H.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eastern Screech Owls (EASOs) were experimentally infected with the pathogenic New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) by subcutaneous injection or per os. Two of nine subcutaneously inoculated birds died or were euthanatized on 8 or 9 days postinfection (DPI) after <24 hr of lethargy and recumbency. All subcutaneously inoculated birds developed levels of viremia that are likely infectious to mosquitoes, with peak viremia levels ranging from 105.0 to 109.6 plaque-forming units/ml. Despite the viremia, the remaining seven birds did not display signs of illness. All birds alive beyond 5 DPI seroconverted, although the morbid birds demonstrated significantly lower antibody titers than the clinically normal birds. Cagemates of infected birds did not become infected. One of five orally exposed EASOs became viremic and seroconverted, whereas WNV infection in the remaining four birds was not evident. All infected birds shed virus via the oral and cloacal route. Early during infection, WNV targeted skin, spleen, esophagus, and skeletal muscle. The two morbid owls had myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis and mild encephalitis and nephritis, whereas some of the clinically healthy birds that were sacrificed on 14 DPI had myocardial arteritis and renal phlebitis. WNV is a significant pathogen of EASOs, causing pathologic lesions with varying clinical outcomes.

  17. Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Comrie, Andrew C

    2013-09-24

    Climate change will affect the abundance and seasonality of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, altering the risk of virus transmission to humans. Using downscaled general circulation model output, we calculate a WNV vector's response to climate change across the southern United States using process-based modeling. In the eastern United States, Culex quinquefasciatus response to projected climate change displays a latitudinal and elevational gradient. Projected summer population depressions as a result of increased immature mortality and habitat drying are most severe in the south and almost absent further north; extended spring and fall survival is ubiquitous. Much of California also exhibits a bimodal pattern. Projected onset of mosquito season is delayed in the southwestern United States because of extremely dry and hot spring and summers; however, increased temperature and late summer and fall rains extend the mosquito season. These results are unique in being a broad-scale calculation of the projected impacts of climate change on a WNV vector. The results show that, despite projected widespread future warming, the future seasonal response of C. quinquefasciatus populations across the southern United States will not be homogeneous, and will depend on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. PMID:24019459

  18. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, M.; Komar, N.; Sorhage, F.; Nelson, R.; Talbot, T.; Mostashari, F.; McLean, R.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus. PMID:11585521

  19. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidson, M.; Komar, N.; Sorhage, F.; Nelson, R.; Talbot, T.; Mostashari, F.; McLean, R.; West Nile Virus Avian Mortality Surveillance Group

    2001-01-01

    In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus.

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans. PMID:26939903

  1. Evaluating Surveillance Methods for Arboviral Vectors of La Crosse Virus and West Nile Virus of Southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, C; Paulsen, D; Moncayo, A; Trout Fryxell, R T

    2016-03-01

    To monitor mosquito-borne diseases, public health departments conduct mosquito and pathogen surveillance. Our objective was to evaluate mosquito monitoring methods for collecting La Crosse virus (LACV) and West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, respectively) in southern Appalachia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO(2)), CDC light traps baited with CO(2) and BG lure, BG-Sentinel traps baited with CO(2), gravid traps baited with oak (Quercus)-water infusion, and resting traps were compared in eastern Tennessee in 2013. Traps operated at 8 different urban sites throughout Knox County were randomly assigned to and rotated among 6 plots within each site. Results were specific for each vector; the BG-Sentinel trap was the best method for Aedes triseriatus, the CDC trap baited with CO(2) and BG lure was the best method for Ae. albopictus, and the gravid trap was the best method for Ae. japonicus. Culex erraticus collections varied by week and trapping method, indicating no single method was best, but the questing traps collected more mosquitoes. There was no significant trapping difference for Cx. pipiens complex in this region using the methods tested. The results suggest using a combination of trapping methods when sampling for LACV and/or WNV mosquito vectors in southern Appalachia. Effective trapping methods are necessary to enable accurate surveillance, improve control methods, enhance understanding of dispersal, and use for early detection of vectors and pathogens. PMID:27105213

  2. Five-year surveillance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Southeastern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Loftin, Karin C; Diallo, Alpha A; Herbert, Marcia W; Phaltankar, Priyarshadan G; Yuan, Christine; Grefe, Norman; Flemming, Agnes; Foley, Kirby; Williams, Jason; Fisher, Sandra L; Elberfeld, Michael; Constantine, Juan; Burcham, Mitchell; Stallings, Valerie; Xia, Dongxiang

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) in southeastern Virginia, the Bureau of Laboratories at the Norfolk Department of Public Health (NDPH) analyzed mosquito pools and the sera of sentinel chickens from the southeastern Virginia area each year from 2000 to 2004. Mosquito pool supernatants were screened for the presence of viral RNA by conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman RT-PCR with the i-Cycler. Mosquito pools were also tested for virus activity by Vero cell culture. The primary enzootic vector of WNV was Culex (Cx.) pipiens and that of EEE was Culiseta (Cs.) melanura. During the five-year surveillance period, the peak minimum infection rates (MIRs) of WNV and EEE in these mosquito species were 2.7 (2002) and 0.9 (2001), respectively. In 2003, the MIRs in Cs. melanura for WNV and EEE were 0.24 and 0.56, respectively; and the MIR for WNV in Cx. pipiens was 0.64. In 2004, Cs. melanura was less active in the WNV transmission cycle (MIR = 0.07) than was Cx. pipiens (MIR = 1.8), and Cs. melanura was the only vector for EEE (MIR = 0.37). The trend was for EEE activity to peak in July; WNV activity peaked in August. Sentinel-chicken sera were tested for IgM antibodies, and peak IgM seroconversions to these arboviruses were recorded in August 2003 for WNV and in July 2003 for EEE. In 2004, the highest IgM seroconversions to EEE occurred later in August. The overall trend of arbovirus activity was greater in 2003 than in 2004. PMID:16696451

  3. Repeated West Nile Virus Epidemic Transmission in Kern County, California, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    REISEN, WILLIAM K.; CARROLL, BRIAN D.; TAKAHASHI, RICHARD; FANG, YING; GARCIA, SANDRA; MARTINEZ, VINCENT M.; QUIRING, ROB

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has remained epidemic in Kern County, CA, since its introduction in 2004 through 2007 when the human case annual incidence increased from 6 – 8 to 17 per 100,000, respectively. The 2007 increase in human infection was associated with contradicting surveillance indicators, including severe drought, warm spring but cool summer temperature anomalies, decreased rural and urban mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban Culex quinquefasciatus Say, moderate avian “herd immunity,” and declines in the catch of competent (western scrub-jay and house finch) and noncompetent (California quail and mourning dove) avian species. The decline in these noncompetent avian hosts may have increased contact with competent avian hosts and perhaps humans. The marked increase in home foreclosures and associated neglected swimming pools increased urban mosquito production sites, most likely contributing to the urban mosquito population and the WNV outbreak within Bakersfield. Coalescing five surveillance indicators into a risk assessment score measured each half month provided 2- to 6-wk early warning for emergency planning and was followed consistently by the onset of human cases after reaching epidemic conditions. St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) antibody was detected rarely in wild birds but not mosquitoes or sentinel chickens, indicating that previously infected birds were detected in Kern County, but SLEV reintroduction was not successful. In contrast, western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) was detected during 3 of 5 yr in Culex tarsalis Coquillett, sentinel chickens, and wild birds, but failed to amplify to levels where tangential transmission was detected in Aedes mosquitoes or humans. A comparison of transmission patterns in Kern County to Coachella Valley in the southeastern desert of California showed the importance of mosquito phenology and spatial distribution, corvids, or other avian “super spreaders” and anthropogenic

  4. Repeated West Nile virus epidemic transmission in Kern County, California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Carroll, Brian D; Takahashi, Richard; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Martinez, Vincent M; Quiring, Rob

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has remained epidemic in Kern County, CA, since its introduction in 2004 through 2007 when the human case annual incidence increased from 6-8 to 17 per 100,000, respectively. The 2007 increase in human infection was associated with contradicting surveillance indicators, including severe drought, warm spring but cool summer temperature anomalies, decreased rural and urban mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban Culex quinquefasciatus Say, moderate avian "herd immunity," and declines in the catch of competent (western scrub-jay and house finch) and noncompetent (California quail and mourning dove) avian species. The decline in these noncompetent avian hosts may have increased contact with competent avian hosts and perhaps humans. The marked increase in home foreclosures and associated neglected swimming pools increased urban mosquito production sites, most likely contributing to the urban mosquito population and the WNV outbreak within Bakersfield. Coalescing five surveillance indicators into a risk assessment score measured each half month provided 2- to 6-wk early warning for emergency planning and was followed consistently by the onset of human cases after reaching epidemic conditions. St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) antibody was detected rarely in wild birds but not mosquitoes or sentinel chickens, indicating that previously infected birds were detected in Kern County, but SLEV reintroduction was not successful. In contrast, western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) was detected during 3 of 5 yr in Culex tarsalis Coquillett, sentinel chickens, and wild birds, but failed to amplify to levels where tangential transmission was detected in Aedes mosquitoes or humans. A comparison of transmission patterns in Kern County to Coachella Valley in the southeastern desert of California showed the importance of mosquito phenology and spatial distribution, corvids, or other avian "super spreaders" and anthropogenic factors in

  5. Vector Competence of Argentine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus)

    PubMed Central

    MICIELI, MARÍA V.; MATACCHIERO, AMY C.; MUTTIS, EVANGELINA; FONSECA, DINA M.; ALIOTA, MATTHEW T.; KRAMER, LAURA D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the ability of Culex pipiens L. complex mosquitoes from Argentina to vector West Nile virus (WNV) to assess their role in the transmission of WNV in South America. Several egg rafts of Culex spp. were collected from different breeding sites in the suburbs of the city of La Plata, Argentina, and a subset of each progeny was scored with morphological and genetic species indicators. Surprisingly, we did not find Cx. pipiens form pipiens, but found evidence of genetic hybrids of Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. We then used morphological traits to create two colonies predominantly composed of one of these two taxa, although some hybrids are likely to have been included in both. These colonies were used in vector competence studies using NY99 and WN02 genotype strains of WNV obtained in New York State. As controls, we also tested colonies of U.S. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Additional Culex larvae from three drainage ditches near the cities of La Plata and Berisso, Argentina, were identified by morphological and high-resolution molecular markers (microsatellites) as Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus, and hybrids. Results indicate that Argentinian Culex are competent but only moderately efficient vectors of WNV and are less susceptible to this virus than comparable U.S. mosquito strains. Studies of vertical transmission of NY99 virus by Cx. pipiens f. molestus hybrids from Argentina yielded a minimal filial infection rate of 1.19 from females feeding during their second and later bloodmeals. PMID:23926785

  6. A mathematical model for the spread of west nile virus in migratory and resident birds.

    PubMed

    Bergsman, Louis D; Hyman, James M; Manore, Carrie A

    2016-04-01

    We develop a mathematical model for transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) that incorporates resident and migratory host avian populations and a mosquito vector population. We provide a detailed analysis of the model's basic reproductive number and demonstrate how the exposed infected, but not infectious, state for the bird population can be approximated by a reduced model. We use the model to investigate the interplay of WNV in both resident and migratory bird hosts. The resident host parameters correspond to the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a competent host with a high death rate due to disease, and migratory host parameters to the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), a competent host with low WNV death rates. We find that yearly seasonal outbreaks depend primarily on the number of susceptible migrant birds entering the local population each season. We observe that the early growth rates of seasonal outbreaks is more influenced by the the migratory population than the resident bird population. This implies that although the death of highly competent resident birds, such as American Crows, are good indicators for the presence of the virus, these species have less impact on the basic reproductive number than the competent migratory birds with low death rates, such as the American Robins. The disease forecasts are most sensitive to the assumptions about the feeding preferences of North American mosquito vectors and the effect of the virus on the hosts. Increased research on the these factors would allow for better estimates of these important model parameters, which would improve the quality of future WNV forecasts. PMID:27105987

  7. ChimeriVax-West Nile Virus Live-Attenuated Vaccine: Preclinical Evaluation of Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Juan; Miller, Chuck; Catalan, John; Myers, Gwendolyn A.; Ratterree, Marion S.; Trent, Dennis W.; Monath, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of ChimeriVax vaccine technology for delivery of flavivirus protective antigens at the time West Nile (WN) virus was first detected in North America in 1999 contributed to the rapid development of the vaccine candidate against WN virus described here. ChimeriVax-Japanese encephalitis (JE), the first live- attenuated vaccine developed with this technology has successfully undergone phase I and II clinical trials. The ChimeriVax technology utilizes yellow fever virus (YF) 17D vaccine strain capsid and nonstructural genes to deliver the envelope gene of other flaviviruses as live-attenuated chimeric viruses. Amino acid sequence homology between the envelope protein (E) of JE and WN viruses facilitated targeting attenuating mutation sites to develop the WN vaccine. Here we discuss preclinical studies with the ChimeriVax-WN virus in mice and macaques. ChimeriVax-WN virus vaccine is less neurovirulent than the commercial YF 17D vaccine in mice and nonhuman primates. Attenuation of the virus is determined by the chimeric nature of the construct containing attenuating mutations in the YF 17D virus backbone and three point mutations introduced to alter residues 107, 316, and 440 in the WN virus E protein gene. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine in the macaque model indicate the vaccine candidate is expected to be safe and immunogenic for humans. PMID:15507637

  8. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of West Nile Virus in Horses in Israel (1997–2013) - from Endemic to Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Lichter-Peled, Anat; Tal, Shlomit; Gelman, Boris; Cohen, Daniel; Klement, Eyal; Steinman, Amir

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid global spread of West Nile virus (WNV) and the endemic state it has acquired in new geographical areas, we hereby bring a thorough serological investigation of WNV in horses in a longstanding endemic region, such as Israel. This study evaluates the environmental and demographic risk factors for WNV infection in horses and suggests possible factors associated with the transition from endemic to epidemic state. West Nile virus seroprevalence in horses in Israel was determined throughout a period of more than a decade, before (1997) and after (2002 and 2013) the massive West Nile fever outbreak in humans and horses in 2000. An increase in seroprevalence was observed, from 39% (113/290) in 1997 to 66.1% (547/827) in 2002 and 85.5% (153/179) in 2013, with persistent significantly higher seroprevalence in horses situated along the Great Rift Valley (GRV) area, the major birds' migration route in Israel. Demographic risk factors included age and breed of the horse. Significantly lower spring precipitation was observed during years with increased human incidence rate that occurred between 1997–2007. Hence, we suggest referring to Israel as two WNV distinct epidemiological regions; an endemic region along the birds' migration route (GRV) and the rest of the country which perhaps suffers from cyclic epidemics. In addition, weather conditions, such as periods of spring drought, might be associated with the transition from endemic state to epidemic state of WNV. PMID:25402217

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of West Nile virus in horses in Israel (1997-2013)--from endemic to epidemics.

    PubMed

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Lichter-Peled, Anat; Tal, Shlomit; Gelman, Boris; Cohen, Daniel; Klement, Eyal; Steinman, Amir

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid global spread of West Nile virus (WNV) and the endemic state it has acquired in new geographical areas, we hereby bring a thorough serological investigation of WNV in horses in a longstanding endemic region, such as Israel. This study evaluates the environmental and demographic risk factors for WNV infection in horses and suggests possible factors associated with the transition from endemic to epidemic state. West Nile virus seroprevalence in horses in Israel was determined throughout a period of more than a decade, before (1997) and after (2002 and 2013) the massive West Nile fever outbreak in humans and horses in 2000. An increase in seroprevalence was observed, from 39% (113/290) in 1997 to 66.1% (547/827) in 2002 and 85.5% (153/179) in 2013, with persistent significantly higher seroprevalence in horses situated along the Great Rift Valley (GRV) area, the major birds' migration route in Israel. Demographic risk factors included age and breed of the horse. Significantly lower spring precipitation was observed during years with increased human incidence rate that occurred between 1997-2007. Hence, we suggest referring to Israel as two WNV distinct epidemiological regions; an endemic region along the birds' migration route (GRV) and the rest of the country which perhaps suffers from cyclic epidemics. In addition, weather conditions, such as periods of spring drought, might be associated with the transition from endemic state to epidemic state of WNV. PMID:25402217

  10. West Nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct anti-viral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection

    PubMed Central

    Brien, James D.; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2012-01-01

    CD4 T cells have been shown to be necessary for the prevention of encephalitis during West Nile virus infection. However, the mechanisms used by antigen-specific CD4 T cells to protect mice from West Nile virus encephalitis remain incompletely understood. Contrary to the belief that CD4 T cells are protective because they merely maintain the CD8 T cell response and improve antibody production, we here provide evidence for the direct anti-viral activity of CD4 T cells which functions to protect the host from WNV encephalitis. In adoptive transfers, naïve CD4 T cells protected a significant number of lethally infected RAG−/− mice, demonstrating the protective effect of CD4 T cells independent of B cells and CD8 T cells. To shed light on the mechanism of this protection, we defined the peptide specificities of the CD4 T cells responding to West Nile virus infection in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice, and used these peptides to characterize the in vivo function of antiviral CD4 T cells. WNV-specific CD4 T cells produced IFN-γ and IL-2, but also showed potential for in vivo and ex vivo cytotoxicity. Furthermore, peptide vaccination using CD4 epitopes conferred protection against lethal West Nile virus infection in immunocompetent mice. These results demonstrate the role of direct effector function of antigen-specific CD4 T cell in preventing severe West Nile virus disease. PMID:19050276

  11. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. PMID:10600742

  12. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

    PubMed Central

    Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Philips, Geetha; Sudheesh, Nittur; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2014-01-01

    Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV) in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat. PMID:24753667

  13. Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, Sean C.; McConchie, Alan; Glaser, Carol; Jean, Cynthia; Barker, Chris; Park, Bborie; Padgett, Kerry; Parker, Erin; Aquino, Ervic; Kramer, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time (DYCAST) system is a biologically based spatiotemporal model that uses public reports of dead birds to identify areas at high risk for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans. In 2005, during a statewide epidemic of WNV (880 cases), the California Department of Public Health prospectively implemented DYCAST over 32,517 km2 in California. Daily risk maps were made available online and used by local agencies to target public education campaigns, surveillance, and mosquito control. DYCAST had 80.8% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for predicting human cases, and κ analysis indicated moderate strength of chance-adjusted agreement for >4 weeks. High-risk grid cells (populations) were identified an average of 37.2 days before onset of human illness; relative risk for disease was >39× higher than for low-risk cells. Although prediction rates declined in subsequent years, results indicate DYCAST was a timely and effective early warning system during the severe 2005 epidemic. PMID:21801622

  14. VecTest as diagnostic and surveillance tool for West Nile virus in dead birds.

    PubMed

    Stone, Ward B; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Therrien, Joseph E; Kramer, Laura D; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Eidson, Millicent

    2004-12-01

    The VecTest antigen-capture assay for West Nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in New York State from April 2003 through July 2004. Results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. Oral VecTest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) (76%). Oral VecTest performed well for small samples of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Poor sensitivity occurred in most raptors, Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus), and American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Specificity was excellent (98%), except for false-positive results that occurred mostly in Gray Catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), Green Herons (Butorides virescens), and tests of blood and tissues. Feather pulp and kidney may be useful for VecTest assays in corvids. PMID:15663856

  15. Entomologic investigations during an outbreak of West Nile virus disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31-August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

  16. Ecological factors associated with West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heidi E; Childs, James E; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Fish, Durland

    2008-10-01

    Since 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) disease has affected the northeastern United States. To describe the spatial epidemiology and identify risk factors for disease incidence, we analyzed 8 years (1999-2006) of county-based human WNV disease surveillance data. Among the 56.6 million residents in 8 northeastern states sharing primary enzootic vectors, we found 977 cases. We controlled for population density and potential bias from surveillance and spatial proximity. Analyses demonstrated significant spatial spreading from 1999 through 2004 (p<0.01, r2 = 0.16). A significant trend was apparent among increasingly urban counties; county quartiles with the least (<38%) forest cover had 4.4-fold greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-13.2, p = 0.01) of having above-median disease incidence (>0.75 cases/100,000 residents) than counties with the most (>70%) forest cover. These results quantify urbanization as a risk factor for WNV disease incidence and are consistent with knowledge of vector species in this area. PMID:18826816

  17. West Nile virus IgM and IgG antibodies three years post- infection

    PubMed Central

    Papa, A; Anastasiadou, A; Delianidou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) causes to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic infection to severe neuroinvasive disease. In a previous study, it was shown that WNV IgM antibodies persisted in three of 26 (12%) patients, nine months after onset of the symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test 10 of these patients, three years post-infection for probable persistence of IgM antibodies and to investigate their IgG antibody patterns. Material and Methods: In summer 2013 serum samples were collected from 10 persons who were infected with WNV in 2010; 6 of them had a neuroinvasive disease. The three persons with detectable WNV IgM antibodies, nine months after onset of the symptoms, were included in the study. All samples were tested by ELISA in parallel with their stored paired samples taken in 2011. The positive results were confirmed by neutralization test. Results: WNV IgM antibodies were still detectable in the three persons, while high levels of WNV IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in nine of the 10 persons, regardless the involvement of the nervous system. Conclusions: WNV IgM antibodies persist for more than three years in 12% of patients with WNV infection, while WNV IgG antibodies persist and even increase their levels, regardless the involvement of the nervous system, suggesting that the immune response in the symptomatic WNV infections is strong and long-lasting. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 34-36. PMID:26435644

  18. The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis).

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer C; Nakamura, Ayaka; Coon, Courtney Ac; Martin, Lynn B

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. However, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. Due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or poorer amplifying hosts for a pathogen contingent on context and the host species evaluated. Using an important zoonotic pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) and a competent host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), we tested the effects of exogenous corticosterone on response to WNV infection. Corticosterone was administered at levels that individuals enduring chronic stressors (i.e., long-term inclement weather, food shortage, anthropogenic pollution) might experience in the wild. Corticosterone greatly impacted mortality: half of the corticosterone-implanted cardinals died between five - 11 days post-inoculation whereas only one of nine empty-implanted (control) birds died. No differences were found in viral titer between corticosterone- and empty-implanted birds. However, cardinals that survived infections had significantly higher average body temperatures during peak infection than individuals that died. In sum, this study indicates that elevated corticosterone could affect the survival of WNV-infected wild birds, suggesting that populations may be disproportionately at-risk to disease in stressful environments. PMID:22520572

  19. WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS.

    PubMed

    McKee, Eileen M; Walker, Edward D; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Krebs, Bethany L; Newman, Christina; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Levine, Rebecca S; Carrington, Mary E; McLean, Robert G; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-07-01

    Antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. Quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. We sampled free-ranging birds in Chicago, Illinois, US, from 2005 to 2011 and Atlanta, Georgia, US, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural WNV infection. Using serial dilutions in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified WNV antibody titer in repeated blood samples from individual birds over time. We quantified a rate of antibody decay for 23 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) of 0.198 natural log units per month and 24 individuals of other bird species of 0.178 natural log units per month. Our results suggest that juveniles had a higher rate of antibody decay than adults, which is consistent with nonlinear antibody decay at different times postexposure. Overall, most birds had undetectable titers 2 yr postexposure. Nonuniform WNV antibody decay rates in free-ranging birds underscore the need for cautious interpretation of avian serology results in the context of arbovirus surveillance and epidemiology. PMID:25919465

  20. Long-term sequelae of West Nile virus-related illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hetal; Sander, Beate; Nelder, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    We systematically reviewed the clinical outlook of West Nile virus (WNV)-related illness in North America and western Europe. As of March, 2015, more than 45 000 cases of WNV-related illness have been reported in North America. Unlike acute morbidity and mortality, the long-term physical, cognitive, and functional sequelae associated with WNV-related illness are not well characterised. An understanding of WNV-related sequelae and their prognostic factors can support physicians with early diagnosis and tertiary prevention efforts. We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Environment Complete for studies published between 1999 and 2015. We included 67 studies in our Review. Although muscle weakness, memory loss, and difficulties with activities of daily living were among the most common physical, cognitive, and functional sequelae, respectively, some population groups were reported to be at greater risk of severe neurological disease or death (ie, older men with underlying illnesses such as cardiovascular disease or cancer). A high level of heterogeneity was reported among studies included in this Review, suggesting a need for consistent methods for collecting data and reporting findings. Further, more than half of the studies reporting sequelae relied exclusively on subjective assessment and only two studies used matched control groups. Therefore, opportunities exist for more robust primary studies in future research. PMID:26163373

  1. Meeting the challenge of bioterrorism: lessons learned from West Nile virus and anthrax.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Robert S; Asnis, Deborah S; Lee, Christopher C; Santucci, Thomas; Marino, Mark J; Flanz, Bruce J

    2003-01-01

    Hospital emergency departments (EDs) and ambulatory clinics may be the first to recognize illness related to a bioterrorist event. Every health-care institution must develop a weapons-of-mass- destruction (WMD) preparedness plan as part of its all-hazards disaster planning. As part of an all-hazards disaster plan, WMD preparedness should use the incident-command model to insure the required chain of command for effectively coordinating activities between hospital departments and external agencies. Preparedness for bioterrorism poses unique challenges. In the event of a biological attack, the hospital infection control staff and administration must already have in place the means to communicate with local and state public health agencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), local law-enforcement agencies, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Local and regional planners must consider how to coordinate the responses of emergency medical services (EMS), police, and fire departments with healthcare providers and the news media. Most hospitals are ill equipped to deal with a catastrophic event caused by WMD. The burden of responding to such events will fall initially on ED physicians and staff members. The severity of such an incident might be mitigated with careful planning, training and education. The responses of one hospital network to the outbreak of West Nile virus and, more recently, to the threat of anthrax, are presented as guides for bioterrorism preparedness. PMID:12563588

  2. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes. PMID:27279943

  3. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Rab8b Regulates Transport of West Nile Virus Particles from Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Tadaki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Phongphaew, Wallaya; Yoshii, Kentaro; Iwano, Tomohiko; Harada, Akihiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) particles assemble at and bud into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are secreted from infected cells through the secretory pathway. However, the host factor related to these steps is not fully understood. Rab proteins, belonging to the Ras superfamily, play essential roles in regulating many aspects of vesicular trafficking. In this study, we sought to determine which Rab proteins are involved in intracellular trafficking of nascent WNV particles. RNAi analysis revealed that Rab8b plays a role in WNV particle release. We found that Rab8 and WNV antigen were colocalized in WNV-infected human neuroblastoma cells, and that WNV infection enhanced Rab8 expression in the cells. In addition, the amount of WNV particles in the supernatant of Rab8b-deficient cells was significantly decreased compared with that of wild-type cells. We also demonstrated that WNV particles accumulated in the recycling endosomes in WNV-infected cells. In summary, these results suggest that Rab8b is involved in trafficking of WNV particles from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. PMID:26817838

  5. Diagnostic approach for monitoring hydroclimatic conditions related to emergence of west nile virus in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), mosquito-borne and water-based disease, is increasingly a global threat to public health. Since its appearance in the northeastern United States in 1999, WNV has since been reported in several states in the continental United States. The objective of this study is to highlight role of hydroclimatic processes estimated through satellite sensors in capturing conditions for emergence of the vectors in historically disease free regions. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in surface temperature, in combination with intensification of vegetation, and enhanced precipitation, lead to conditions favorable for vector (mosquito) growth. Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population. This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012. Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche. PMID:25729746

  6. Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, A; Lecollinet, S; Hamza, F; Nasri, I; Neb, A; Selmi, S

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, several cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans have been reported in Tunisia. However, detailed information on WNV infection in wild birds, the primary amplifying host of WNV, are lacking. In this work, we investigated the exposure of wild sparrows (hybrid Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis) living in two oases in southern Tunisia (Gabès and Kébili oases) to WNV, through the detection of WNV-specific antibodies by using ELISA and microneutralization tests. In total, 208 birds were sampled (54 from Kébili, 154 from Gabès). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in two birds, corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 1%. There was no significant difference between the two sampled populations [1·85% (1/54) in Kébili, 0·65% (1/154) in Gabès]. These data provide indirect evidence of the exposure of resident sparrows in southern Tunisia to WNV. PMID:25994421

  7. Predictive risk mapping of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Saskatchewan horses

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha Y.; Waldner, Cheryl; Berke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to predict risk categories for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of Saskatchewan. The province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for WNV, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of WNV infection in horse populations in Saskatchewan. Discriminant analysis was used to build models using the observed risk of WNV in horses and geographic division-specific environmental data as well as to predict the risk category for all areas, including those beyond the surveillance zones. High-risk areas were indicated by relatively lower rainfall, higher temperatures, and a lower percentage of area covered in trees, water, and wetland. These conditions were most often identified in the southwest corner of the province. Environmental conditions can be used to identify those areas that are at highest risk for WNV. Public health managers could use prediction maps, which are based on animal or human information and developed from annual early season meteorological information, to guide ongoing decisions about when and where to focus intervention strategies for WNV. PMID:22210991

  8. Persistent impacts of West Nile virus on North American bird populations

    PubMed Central

    George, T. Luke; Harrigan, Ryan J.; LaManna, Joseph A.; DeSante, David F.; Saracco, James F.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction to North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has had devastating impacts on native host populations, but to date these impacts have been difficult to measure. Using a continental-scale dataset comprised of a quarter-million birds captured over nearly two decades and a recently developed model of WNV risk, we estimated the impact of this emergent disease on the survival of avian populations. We find that populations were negatively affected by WNV in 23 of the 49 species studied (47%). We distinguished two groups of species: those for which WNV negatively impacted survival only during initial spread of the disease (n = 11), and those that show no signs of recovery since disease introduction (n = 12). Results provide a novel example of the taxonomic breadth and persistent impacts of this wildlife disease on a continental scale. Phylogenetic analyses further identify groups (New World sparrows, finches, and vireos) disproportionally affected by temporary or persistent WNV effects, suggesting an evolutionary dimension of disease risk. Identifying the factors affecting the persistence of a disease across host species is critical to mitigating its effects, particularly in a world marked by rapid anthropogenic change. PMID:26578774

  9. Differential Replication of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of West Nile Virus within Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hussmann, Katherine L.; Samuel, Melanie A.; Kim, Kwang S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The severity of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in immunocompetent animals is highly strain dependent, ranging from avirulent to highly neuropathogenic. Here, we investigate the nature of this strain-specific restriction by analyzing the replication of avirulent (WNV-MAD78) and highly virulent (WNV-NY) strains in neurons, astrocytes, and microvascular endothelial cells, which comprise the neurovascular unit within the central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that WNV-MAD78 replicated in and traversed brain microvascular endothelial cells as efficiently as WNV-NY. Likewise, similar levels of replication were detected in neurons. Thus, WNV-MAD78's nonneuropathogenic phenotype is not due to an intrinsic inability to replicate in key target cells within the CNS. In contrast, replication of WNV-MAD78 was delayed and reduced compared to that of WNV-NY in astrocytes. The reduced susceptibility of astrocytes to WNV-MAD78 was due to a delay in viral genome replication and an interferon-independent reduction in cell-to-cell spread. Together, our data suggest that astrocytes regulate WNV spread within the CNS and therefore are an attractive target for ameliorating WNV-induced neuropathology. PMID:23269784

  10. VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Therrien, Joseph E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Eidson, Millicent

    2004-01-01

    The VecTest antigen-capture assay for West Nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in New York State from April 2003 through July 2004. Results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. Oral VecTest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) (76%). Oral VecTest performed well for small samples of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Poor sensitivity occurred in most raptors, Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus), and American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Specificity was excellent (98%), except for false-positive results that occurred mostly in Gray Catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), Green Herons (Butorides virescens), and tests of blood and tissues. Feather pulp and kidney may be useful for VecTest assays in corvids. PMID:15663856

  11. Inhibition of West Nile Virus by Calbindin-D28k

    PubMed Central

    Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Wang, Hong; Davies, Christopher J.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Morrey, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that West Nile virus (WNV) employs Ca2+ influx for its replication. Moreover, calcium buffer proteins, such as calbindin D28k (CB-D28k), may play an important role mitigating cellular destruction due to disease processes, and more specifically, in some neurological diseases. We addressed the hypothesis that CB-D28k inhibits WNV replication in cell culture and infected rodents. WNV envelope immunoreactivity (ir) was not readily co-localized with CB-D28k ir in WNV-infected Vero 76 or motor neuron-like NSC34 cells that were either stably or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for CB-D28k gene. This was confirmed in cultured cells fixed on glass coverslips and by flow cytometry. Moreover, WNV infectious titers were reduced in CB-D28k-transfected cells. As in cell culture studies, WNV env ir was not co-localized with CB-D28k ir in the cortex of an infected WNV hamster, or in the hippocampus of an infected mouse. Motor neurons in the spinal cord typically do not express CB-D28k and are susceptible to WNV infection. Yet, CB-D28k was detected in the surviving motor neurons after the initial phase of WNV infection in hamsters. These data suggested that induction of CB-D28k elicit a neuroprotective response to WNV infection. PMID:25180779

  12. Using Undergraduate Researchers to Build Vector and West Nile Virus Surveillance Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hokit, Grant; Alvey, Sam; Geiger, Jennifer M. O.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Rolston, Marni G.; Kinsey, Daniel T.; Tall Bear, Neva

    2013-01-01

    Vector surveillance for infectious diseases is labor intensive and constantly threatened by budget decisions. We report on outcomes of an undergraduate research experience designed to build surveillance capacity for West Nile Virus (WNV) in Montana (USA). Students maintained weekly trapping stations for mosquitoes and implemented assays to test for WNV in pools of Culex tarsalis. Test results were verified in a partnership with the state health laboratory and disseminated to the ArboNET Surveillance System. Combined with prior surveillance data, Cx. tarsalis accounted for 12% of mosquitoes with a mean capture rate of 74 (±SD = 118) Cx. tarsalis females per trap and a minimum infection rate of 0.3 infected mosquitoes per 1000 individuals. However, capture and infection rates varied greatly across years and locations. Infection rate, but not capture rate, was positively associated with the number of WNV human cases (Spearman’s rho = 0.94, p < 0.001). In most years, detection of the first positive mosquito pool occurred at least a week prior to the first reported human case. We suggest that undergraduate research can increase vector surveillance capacity while providing effective learning opportunities for students. PMID:23912200

  13. Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31–August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction–positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

  14. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    PubMed Central

    Marka, Andriani; Diamantidis, Alexandros; Papa, Anna; Valiakos, George; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Doukas, Dimitrios; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Patsoula, Eleni; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Baka, Agoritsa; Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koliopoulos, George; Tontis, Dimitrios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Billinis, Charalambos; Tsakris, Athanassios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project) with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus) were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters). The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1) WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance); (2) WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species) and (3) WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance). Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen. PMID:24317379

  15. Importance of Wetlands Management for West Nile Virus Circulation Risk, Camargue, Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Pradier, Sophie; Sandoz, Alain; Paul, Mathilde C.; Lefebvre, Gaëtan; Tran, Annelise; Maingault, Josiane; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Leblond, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    To assess environmental and horse-level risk factors associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Camargue, Southern France, a serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) in 2007 and 2008. Fifteen Landsat images were examined to quantify areas with open water and flooded vegetation around sampled horses. Mean percentages of areas of open water and flooded vegetation, as well as variations in these percentages between 3 periods (November to February = NOT, March to July = END and August to October = EPI), were calculated for buffers of 2 km radius around the stables. Results of the final logistic regression showed that the risk of WNV seropositivity in horses decreased with their date of acquisition and age. Results also demonstrated the significant role of environmental variables. Horse serological status was associated with variations of open water areas between the NOT (November to February) and END (March to July) periods, as well as between END and EPI (August to October). WNV spillover was found more intense in areas where water level decreased strongly from winter to spring and from spring to summer. PMID:25093652

  16. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  17. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  18. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. Human monoclonal antibodies to West Nile virus identify epitopes on the prM protein

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, Amanda E.; Kalantarov, Gavreel F.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Trakht, Ilya; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2011-02-05

    Hybridoma cell lines (2E8, 8G8 and 5G12) producing fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) specific for the pre-membrane (prM) protein of West Nile virus (WNV) were prepared using a human fusion partner cell line, MFP-2, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor diagnosed with WNV fever in 2004. Using site-directed mutagenesis of a WNV-like particle (VLP) we identified 4 amino acid residues in the prM protein unique to WNV and important in the binding of these hMAbs to the VLP. Residues V19 and L33 are important epitopes for the binding of all three hMAbs. Mutations at residue, T20 and T24 affected the binding of hMAbs, 8G8 and 5G12 only. These hMAbs did not significantly protect AG129 interferon-deficient mice or Swiss Webster outbred mice from WNV infection.

  20. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards for West Nile Virus Testing in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Leslie; Reisen, William K.; Fang, Ying; Kramer, Vicki; Padgett, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The California West Nile virus (WNV) Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP) is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012–2013. In addition, RT-PCR results were compared with results from oral swabs tested by rapid antigen tests (RAMP™ and VecTOR™). While test results from the cards were not as sensitive as kidney tissue testing, they were more likely to provide accurate results than rapid antigen tests, and detected WNV in corvids as well as in other passerines, raptors, and waterfowl. Overall, WNV RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) scores from the cards were higher than those from tissue testing, but both card products displayed high sensitivity and specificity. American Crow samples provided the highest sensitivity. The cards also proved to be easier and more convenient vehicles for collecting and shipping samples, and in 2014 our program launched use of RNASound™ cards in the DBSP. Both FTA™ and RNASound™ products displayed 96% agreement with tissue results and are an adequate alternative sampling method for WNV dead bird testing. PMID:27341492

  1. West nile virus infection in the Mesopotamia region, Syria border of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakoç, Zehra Çağla; Tüzüner, Bora Mete; Ergonul, Onder; Pierro, Anna; Di Fonzo, Eugenio; Koruk, İbrahim; Sambri, Vittorio

    2013-10-01

    We described the serological prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) antibodies among the human population in a historical and strategic region of Turkey. A serologic survey was conducted based on suspected cases in April, 2009, in the Mesopotamia region of Turkey, in the villages that were located alongside the Zergan River. All the sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (Euroimmune™), and the positive samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; Euroimmune™). As confirmation, neutralizing antibodies against WNV were tested by microneutralization assay (MNTA). In total, 307 individuals were included. The MNTA test was found to be positive among 52 individuals out of 307 (17%). In multivariate analysis, age >50 [odds ratio (OR)=5.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.76-9.97, p<0.001) and being in an occupational risk group (OR=2.02, CI 1.02-4.04, p=0.044) were found to be the risk factors for WNV seropositivity with the MNTA test. The physicians in the region should be aware of the risk of WNV infection and should be alerted to detect the clinical cases. PMID:23808974

  2. Land use patterns and the risk of West Nile virus transmission in central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Lampman, Richard L; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how human land use patterns influence mosquito ecology and the risk of mosquito-borne pathogens is critical for the development of disease management strategies. We examined how different environments influenced mosquito species composition, abundance, and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates in central Illinois. Using a combination of gravid traps and CDC light traps, adult mosquitoes were collected every other week from June 24 to September 16, 2012, in four major land use categories-row crops, prairies, forest fragments, and residential neighborhoods. The mosquitoes were identified to species morphologically, and pools of pure and mixed Culex mosquitoes (primarily Culex pipiens and Culex restuans) were tested for WNV-RNA by qRT-PCR. Mosquito species diversity was significantly higher in forest habitats compared to residential, agricultural, and prairie land use categories. All the four landscape types were equally important habitats for WNV vectors Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, contrary to previous findings that these species principally inhabit the residential areas. WNV-infected mosquito pools were observed in all land use types, and the infection rates overlapped among land use categories. Although our findings support the importance of residential habitats for WNV transmission to humans, they also establish that prairie, row crops, and wood lots are potentially important refuges for enzootic transmission. This is particularly important in urban ecosystems where these land use categories are small, interspersed fragments serving as potential refuge sites during periods of low rainfall. PMID:24746038

  3. Modifiable Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Infection during an Outbreak—Arizona, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, Katherine B.; Colborn, James; Baty, Steven; Bunko Patterson, Andrean M.; Sylvester, Tammy; Briggs, Graham; Stewart, Tasha; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Ken; MacMillan, Katherine; Delorey, Mark J.; Mutebi, John-Paul; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States; however, risk factors for infection are poorly defined. We performed a case-control study to identify modifiable risk factors for WNV infection. Case-patients (N = 49) had laboratory evidence of recent WNV infection, whereas control-subjects (N = 74) had negative WNV serology. We interviewed participants, surveyed households, and assessed environmental data. WNV infection was associated with living in or near Water District X within Gilbert Township (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.5–18.1), having water-holding containers in their yard (aOR 5.0; 95% CI = 1.5–17.3), and not working or attending school outside the home (aOR 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1–5.5). During this outbreak, WNV infection was likely primarily acquired peri-domestically with increased risk associated with potential mosquito larval habitats around the home and neighborhood. PMID:22556093

  4. A PCR-based protocol for generating West Nile virus replicons.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Takagi, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kurane, Ichiro; Maeda, Akihiko

    2008-03-01

    A new protocol for the generation of West Nile virus (WNV) replicons was developed. Fragmented cDNAs that covered the entire WNV RNA sequence, except the sequence corresponding to nucleotides 190-2379, were amplified separately by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using primer set franking with overlapping sequences of 40-50 bp at the 5'- and the 3'-ends of each fragment. All amplified fragments were mixed together and annealed to each other at the overlapping sequences. The annealed-DNA fragments were elongated by DNA polymerase and amplified by short-cycle PCRs to generate full-sized WNV replicon cDNAs. The WNV replicons were transcribed in vitro using the replicon cDNAs as templates. When the in vitro-transcribed replicon was introduced into mammalian cells, the viral envelope protein and viral positive- and negative-strand RNAs were detected in the replicon-transfected cells. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of the replicon cDNAs and the replicons took just 1 week, and that the use of a high-fidelity DNA polymerase afforded stability to the sequence of the synthetic replicon. PMID:18242719

  5. Seasonal and habitat effects on dengue and West Nile virus vectors in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua; Amador, Manuel; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The presence of West Nile (WNV) and dengue viruses and the lack of recent mosquito surveys in Puerto Rico prompted an investigation on the distribution and abundance of potential arbovirus vectors in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, and their variation with seasons and habitats. We sampled mosquitoes in early and late 2005 in 58 sites from forests, nonforest vegetation, wetlands, and high- and low-density housing areas using ovijars, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light/CO2 traps, and gravid traps. A total of 28 mosquito species was found. San Juan had potential WNV enzooticvectors (Culex nigripalpus) within and around the city in wetlands and forests, but few were captured in residential areas. A potential WNV bridge vector (Cx. quinquefasciatus) was abundant in urbanized areas, and it was positively correlated with the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. High-density housing areas harbored more Ae. aegypti. Container mosquitoes, including Aedes mediovittatus, were more abundant during the climax of the rainy season when most dengue occurs in Puerto Rico. The greatest risk for contracting WNV would be visiting forests and swamps at night. Culex (Culex) and Culex (Melanoconion) mosquito species were more abundant during the transition dry-wet seasons (March-May). PMID:19432067

  6. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. PMID:26516902

  7. Terminal structures of West Nile virus genomic RNA and their interactions with viral NS5 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Hongping; Zhang Bo; Shi Peiyong

    2008-11-10

    Genome cyclization is essential for flavivirus replication. We used RNases to probe the structures formed by the 5'-terminal 190 nucleotides and the 3'-terminal 111 nucleotides of the West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA. When analyzed individually, the two RNAs adopt stem-loop structures as predicted by the thermodynamic-folding program. However, when mixed together, the two RNAs form a duplex that is mediated through base-pairings of two sets of RNA elements (5'CS/3'CSI and 5'UAR/3'UAR). Formation of the RNA duplex facilitates a conformational change that leaves the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the genome (position - 8 to - 16) to be single-stranded. Viral NS5 binds specifically to the 5'-terminal stem-loop (SL1) of the genomic RNA. The 5'SL1 RNA structure is essential for WNV replication. The study has provided further evidence to suggest that flavivirus genome cyclization and NS5/5'SL1 RNA interaction facilitate NS5 binding to the 3' end of the genome for the initiation of viral minus-strand RNA synthesis.

  8. West Nile Virus Infection of Drosophila melanogaster Induces a Protective RNAi Response

    PubMed Central

    Chotkowski, Heather L.; Ciota, Alexander T.; Jia, Yongqing; Puig-Basagoiti, Francesc; Kramer, Laura D.; Shi, Pei-Yong; Glaser, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    To determine if West Nile virus (WNV) infection of insect cells induces a protective RNAi response, Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells were infected with WNV, and the production of WNV-homologous small RNAs was assayed as an indicator of RNAi induction. A distinct population of ~25 nt WNV-homologous small RNAs was detected in infected S2 cells but not C6/36 cells. RNAi knockdown of Argonaute 2 in S2 cells resulted in slightly increased susceptibility to WNV infection, suggesting that some WNV-homologous small RNAs produced in infected S2 cells are functional small interfering RNAs. WNV was shown to infect adult D. melanogaster, and adult flies containing mutations in each of four different RNAi genes (Argonaute 2, spindle-E, piwi, and Dicer-2) were significantly more susceptible to WNV infection than wildtype flies. These results combined with the analysis of WNV infection of S2 and C6/36 cells support the conclusion that WNV infection of D. melanogaster, but perhaps not Ae. albopictus, induces a protective RNAi response. PMID:18501400

  9. Diagnostic Approach for Monitoring Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Emergence of West Nile Virus in West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), mosquito-borne and water-based disease, is increasingly a global threat to public health. Since its appearance in the northeastern United States in 1999, WNV has since been reported in several states in the continental United States. The objective of this study is to highlight role of hydroclimatic processes estimated through satellite sensors in capturing conditions for emergence of the vectors in historically disease free regions. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in surface temperature, in combination with intensification of vegetation, and enhanced precipitation, lead to conditions favorable for vector (mosquito) growth. Analysis of land surface temperature (LST) pattern shows that temperature values >16°C, with heavy precipitation, may lead to abundance of the mosquito population. This hypothesis was tested in West Virginia where a sudden epidemic of WNV infection was reported in 2012. Our results emphasize the value of hydroclimatic processes estimated by satellite remote sensing, as well as continued environmental surveillance of mosquitoes, because when a vector-borne infection like WNV is discovered in contiguous regions, the risk of spread of WNV mosquitoes increase at points where appropriate hydroclimatic processes intersect with the vector niche. PMID:25729746

  10. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  11. West Nile Virus Vector Competency of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in the Galápagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D.; Goodman, Simon J.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several North American bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the WN02-1956 strain of WNV after incubation at 27°C or 30°C. Rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission all increased with days post-exposure to WNV, and the highest rates were observed at 28 days. Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after day 14. Rates of infection but not of transmission were significantly influence by temperature. No vertical transmission was detectable. We demonstrate that Galápagos Cx. quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible. PMID:21896799

  12. Nestling Passerines Are Not Important Hosts for Amplification of West Nile Virus in Chicago, Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Walker, Edward D.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Nestling birds have been hypothesized to be important hosts for mosquito-borne arboviruses, but the role of nestlings for West Nile virus (WNV) amplification remains unclear. We sampled open-cup and cavity-nesting passerines in Chicago, Illinois, an area of intense WNV transmission, to determine infection rates in nestlings and mosquitoes, and to test whether mosquitoes are attracted to nesting birds. Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquito populations demonstrated WNV amplification to high mosquito infection rates during both years of the study near the locations where nestlings were sampled. Nevertheless, of 194 nestlings representing 12 species, only one 8-day-old house wren was positive for WNV RNA, and only one 10-day-old mourning dove was seropositive for antibodies to WNV, but at a low titer (1:20). The number of mosquitoes captured in nest box traps and control traps was not significantly different. These combined results suggest that nestling passerines play no evident role in WNV amplification and transmission in the Chicago area. PMID:18759639

  13. Immunodominant West Nile Virus T Cell Epitopes Are Fewer in Number and Fashionably Late.

    PubMed

    Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Kim, Sojung; Jain, Rinki; Bardet, Wilfried; Schafer, Fredda B; Davenport, Jason L; Martin, Aaron D; Diamond, Michael S; Weidanz, Jon A; Hansen, Ted H; Hildebrand, William H

    2016-05-15

    Class I HLA molecules mark infected cells for immune targeting by presenting pathogen-encoded peptides on the cell surface. Characterization of viral peptides unique to infected cells is important for understanding CD8(+) T cell responses and for the development of T cell-based immunotherapies. Having previously reported a series of West Nile virus (WNV) epitopes that are naturally presented by HLA-A*02:01, in this study we generated TCR mimic (TCRm) mAbs to three of these peptide/HLA complexes-the immunodominant SVG9 (E protein), the subdominant SLF9 (NS4B protein), and the immunorecessive YTM9 (NS3 protein)-and used these TCRm mAbs to stain WNV-infected cell lines and primary APCs. TCRm staining of WNV-infected cells demonstrated that the immunorecessive YTM9 appeared several hours earlier and at 5- to 10-fold greater density than the more immunogenic SLF9 and SVG9 ligands, respectively. Moreover, staining following inhibition of the TAP demonstrated that all three viral ligands were presented in a TAP-dependent manner despite originating from different cellular compartments. To our knowledge, this study represents the first use of TCRm mAbs to define the kinetics and magnitude of HLA presentation for a series of epitopes encoded by one virus, and the results depict a pattern whereby individual epitopes differ considerably in abundance and availability. The observations that immunodominant ligands can be found at lower levels and at later time points after infection suggest that a reevaluation of the factors that combine to shape T cell reactivity may be warranted. PMID:27183642

  14. Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lampman, Richard; Raim, Arlo; Enstrom, David; Novak, Robert

    2010-11-01

    One of the unique characteristics of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America is the large number of bird species for which the virus can be fatal. WNV mortality has been documented through experimental infections of captive birds and necropsies of free-ranging birds. Investigations of WNV-related mortality in wild birds often focus on species with dramatic population declines (e.g., American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos); however, few studies have addressed WNV-related mortality in species not exhibiting marked population declines since the arrival of WNV. We conducted a mark-recapture study of 204 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in an area with endemic WNV activity to estimate WNV-related mortality. Previous research has shown that once a bird is infected and recovers from WNV it develops antibodies making it resistant to future infection. Assuming that mortality risks from non-WNV causes were the same for individuals with (had been exposed to WNV) and without antibodies (had not been exposed to WNV), we compared the survival rates of birds with and without WNV antibodies to estimate the impact of WNV on wild birds. An information theoretic approach was used, and the apparent survival was found to be 34.6% lower for individuals without antibodies during the period when WNV was most active (July-September). However, the apparent survival rate was 9.0% higher for individuals without antibodies over the rest of the year. These differences in apparent survival suggest that WNV increases mortality during the WNV season and that chronic effects of WNV infection may also be contributing to mortality. Although WNV appears to have increased mortality rates within the population, population trend data do not indicate declines, suggesting that some cardinal populations can compensate for WNV-related mortality. PMID:20370425

  15. Vector-Host Interactions Governing Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Cummings, Robert F.; Su, Tianyun; Armstrong, Philip M.; Williams, Greg A.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Webb, James P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2010-01-01

    Southern California remains an important focus of West Nile virus (WNV) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. Eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of WNV and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito vectors by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting mitochondrial DNA to identify vertebrate hosts of blood-fed mosquitoes. Diagnostic testing by cell culture, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunoassays were used to examine WNV infection in blood-fed mosquitoes, mosquito pools, dead birds, and mammals. Prevalence of WNV antibodies among wild birds was estimated by using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus revealed that this mosquito species acquired 88.4% of the blood meals from avian and 11.6% from mammalian hosts, including humans. Similarly, Culex tarsalis fed 82% on birds and 18% on mammals. Culex erythrothorax fed on both birds (59%) and mammals (41%). In contrast, Culex stigmatosoma acquired all blood meals from avian hosts. House finches and a few other mostly passeriform birds served as the main hosts for the blood-seeking mosquitoes. Evidence of WNV infection was detected in mosquito pools, wild birds, dead birds, and mammals, including human fatalities during the study period. Our results emphasize the important role of house finches and several other passeriform birds in the maintenance and amplification of WNV in southern California, with Cx. quinquefasciatus acting as both the principal enzootic and “bridge vector” responsible for the spillover of WNV to humans. Other mosquito species, such as Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma, are

  16. Seropositivity for West Nile Virus Antibodies in Patients Affected by Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Marilena; Cofano, Pietro; Lobreglio, Giambattista

    2016-01-01

    Background Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles. Specific auto-antibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) are present in the majority of MG patients, although the main cause behind its development still remains unclear. Recently MG development following West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been described in patients without any earlier evidence of MG. It is known that infectious agents trigger immune response and occasionally initiate autoimmune disease. WNV, the causative agent of both benign illness and neuroinvasive disease, has become endemic in many countries in all continents. Methods In the present study, 29 patients (15 males and 14 females, 19 - 78 years old) with confirmed diagnosis of MG and elevated levels of AChR autoantibodies were screened for the presence of serum anti-WNV antibodies and compared to a similar population affected by different autoimmune diseases. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique was used to evaluate the reaction of patients’ sera on cells infected by WNV. Results Positive fluorescent signals for anti-WNV IgG were obtained in 17% of MG patients, although no clinical manifestations related to WNV infection were reported. These results are in agreement with previous data and appear of great interest in the understanding of the pathogenic autoimmune mechanisms at the bases of MG development. Conclusion As already observed in other human autoimmune diseases, pathogen-triggered autoimmunity could be involved in MG by breaking immunological self-tolerance through possible mechanisms of molecular mimicry between virus proteins and AChR subunits. In predisposed individuals, WNV infection could also represent an additional risk factor to initiate MG. PMID:26858791

  17. Limited spillover to humans from West Nile Virus viremic birds in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rebecca S; Mead, Daniel G; Kitron, Uriel D

    2013-11-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that impacts the health of its passerine bird hosts as well as incidentally infected humans in the United States. Intensive enzootic activity among the hosts and vectors does not always lead to human outbreaks, as is the situation throughout much of the southeastern United States. In Georgia, substantial yearly evidence of WNV in the mosquito vectors and avian hosts since 2001 has only led to 324 human cases. Although virus has been consistently isolated from mosquitoes trapped in Atlanta, GA, little is known about viral activity among the passerine hosts. A possible reason for the suppression of WNV spillover to humans is that viremic birds are absent from high human-use areas of the city. To test this hypothesis, multiseason, multihabitat, longitudinal WNV surveillance for active WNV viremia was conducted within the avian host community of urban Atlanta by collection of blood samples from wild passerine birds in five urban microhabitats. WNV was isolated from the serum of six blood samples collected from 630 (0.95%) wild passerine birds in Atlanta during 2010-2012, a proportion similar to that found in the Chicago, IL, area in 2005, when over 200 human cases were reported. Most of the viremic birds were Northern Cardinals, suggesting they may be of particular importance to the WNV transmission cycle in Georgia. Results indicated active WNV transmission in all microhabitats of urban Atlanta, except in the old-growth forest patches. The number of viremic birds was highest in Zoo Atlanta, where 3.5% of samples were viremic. Although not significant, these observations may suggest a possible transmission reduction effect of urban old-growth forests and a potential role in WNV amplification for Zoo Atlanta. Overall, spillover to humans remains a rare occurrence in urban Atlanta settings despite active WNV transmission in the avian population. PMID:24107200

  18. The Australian Public is Still Vulnerable to Emerging Virulent Strains of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Hewlett, Elise K.; Faddy, Helen M.; Coiacetto, Flaminia; Wang, Wenqi; Cox, Tarnya; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North America. In Australia, a strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in the north and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However, in early 2011, following extensive flooding, an unprecedented outbreak of WNVKUN encephalitis in horses occurred in South-Eastern Australia, resulting in more than 1,000 cases and a mortality of 10–15%. Despite widespread evidence of equine infections, there was only a single mild human case reported during this outbreak. To understand why clinical disease was seen in horses without similar observations in the human population, a serosurvey was conducted using blood donor samples from areas where equine cases were reported to assess level of flavivirus exposure. The seroprevalence to WNVKUN in humans was low before the outbreak (0.7%), and no significant increase was demonstrated after the outbreak period (0.6%). Due to unusual epidemiological features during this outbreak, a serosurvey was also conducted in rabbits, a potential reservoir host. Out of 675 animals, sampled across Australia between April 2011 and November 2012, 86 (12.7%) were seropositive for WNVKUN, with the highest prevalence during February of 2012 (28/145; 19.3%). As this is the first serological survey for WNVKUN in Australian feral rabbits, it remains to be determined whether wild rabbits are able to develop a high enough viremia to actively participate in WNV transmission in Australia. However, they may constitute a sentinel species for arbovirus activity, and this is the focus of on-going studies. Collectively, this study provides little evidence of human exposure to WNVKUN during the 2011 outbreak and indicates that the Australian population remains susceptible to the emergence of virulent strains of WNV. PMID:25279370

  19. Limited Spillover to Humans from West Nile Virus Viremic Birds in Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Daniel G.; Kitron, Uriel D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that impacts the health of its passerine bird hosts as well as incidentally infected humans in the United States. Intensive enzootic activity among the hosts and vectors does not always lead to human outbreaks, as is the situation throughout much of the southeastern United States. In Georgia, substantial yearly evidence of WNV in the mosquito vectors and avian hosts since 2001 has only led to 324 human cases. Although virus has been consistently isolated from mosquitoes trapped in Atlanta, GA, little is known about viral activity among the passerine hosts. A possible reason for the suppression of WNV spillover to humans is that viremic birds are absent from high human-use areas of the city. To test this hypothesis, multiseason, multihabitat, longitudinal WNV surveillance for active WNV viremia was conducted within the avian host community of urban Atlanta by collection of blood samples from wild passerine birds in five urban microhabitats. WNV was isolated from the serum of six blood samples collected from 630 (0.95%) wild passerine birds in Atlanta during 2010–2012, a proportion similar to that found in the Chicago, IL, area in 2005, when over 200 human cases were reported. Most of the viremic birds were Northern Cardinals, suggesting they may be of particular importance to the WNV transmission cycle in Georgia. Results indicated active WNV transmission in all microhabitats of urban Atlanta, except in the old-growth forest patches. The number of viremic birds was highest in Zoo Atlanta, where 3.5% of samples were viremic. Although not significant, these observations may suggest a possible transmission reduction effect of urban old-growth forests and a potential role in WNV amplification for Zoo Atlanta. Overall, spillover to humans remains a rare occurrence in urban Atlanta settings despite active WNV transmission in the avian population. PMID:24107200

  20. West Nile Virus Infection in American Robins: New Insights on Dose Response

    PubMed Central

    VanDalen, Kaci K.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Clark, Larry; McLean, Robert G.; Smeraski, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 100.95 PFU, 101.26 PFU, 102.15 PFU, or 103.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17%) robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5) of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7) of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25%) than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%). Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered. PMID:23844218

  1. West Nile Virus Infection in Mosquitoes in the Mid-South USA, 2002–2005

    PubMed Central

    CUPP, EDDIE W.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; YUE, XIN; OLDLAND, WILLIAM K.; LILLEY, BRUCE M.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) was first detected in the Tennessee Valley and in Alabama in August 2001. In summer 2002, intensive viral activity was seen, but in subsequent years, viral activity settled into an enzootic pattern. Here, we report an analysis of viral activity in the mosquito fauna in the Mid-South from 2002 (the first year viral activity was detected in mosquitoes) through 2005. Eight mosquito species were infected with WNV during 2002. However, viral activity was only detected in four species—Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex erraticus Dyar & Knab, Coquillettidia perturbans Walker, and Aedes vexans Meigen—in multiple years. The greatest number of positive pools was in Cx. erraticus and Cx. salinarius. Despite being specifically targeted for collection, Aedes albopictus Skuse was only found to be infected during the epiornitic year (2002), suggesting that under enzootic transmission conditions its role as a bridge vector in the region may not be significant. Virus-positive pools of Cx. erraticus were identified from winter-resting and early season dry ice-baited trap collections in 2005, implicating this species in WNV overwintering in Alabama. Molecular analysis of individuals initially identified as members of the Culex pipiens L. complex suggested that alleles characteristic of Cx. pipiens predominated in mosquitoes collected in Huntsville, AL, whereas alleles in the Auburn, AL, population were predominately characteristic of Culex quinquefaciatus Say. The southern boundary of the overlap zone of the two species seems to be located primarily between Huntsville and Auburn, a distance of 350 km. PMID:17294929

  2. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  3. Protection against West Nile Virus Infection in Mice after Inoculation with Type I Interferon-Inducing RNA Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Borrego, Belén; Sáiz, Margarita; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent single stranded RNA mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. Nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. Recently, it has been shown that RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) induce a potent IFN response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and also reduced mice susceptibility to FMDV. By using different transcripts combinations, administration schedules, and infecting routes and doses, we have demonstrated that these FMDV RNA transcripts protect suckling and adult mice against lethal challenge with WNV. The protective activity induced by the transcripts was systemic and dependent on the infection route and dose. These results confirm the antiviral potential of these synthetic RNAs for fighting viruses of different families relevant for human and animal health. PMID:23166685

  4. Protection against West Nile virus infection in mice after inoculation with type I interferon-inducing RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Borrego, Belén; Sáiz, Margarita; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent single stranded RNA mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. Nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. Recently, it has been shown that RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) induce a potent IFN response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and also reduced mice susceptibility to FMDV. By using different transcripts combinations, administration schedules, and infecting routes and doses, we have demonstrated that these FMDV RNA transcripts protect suckling and adult mice against lethal challenge with WNV. The protective activity induced by the transcripts was systemic and dependent on the infection route and dose. These results confirm the antiviral potential of these synthetic RNAs for fighting viruses of different families relevant for human and animal health. PMID:23166685

  5. Quantification of intrahost bottlenecks of West Nile virus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes using an artificial mutant swarm

    PubMed Central

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Payne, Anne F.; Willsey, Graham G.; Viscio, Rachael E.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are predominantly RNA viruses which exist within hosts as diverse mutant swarms. Defining the way in which stochastic forces within mosquito vectors shape these swarms is critical to advancing our understanding of the evolutionary and adaptive potential of these pathogens. There are multiple barriers within a mosquito which a viral swarm must traverse in order to ultimately be transmitted. Here, using artificial mutant swarms composed of neutral variants of West Nile virus (WNV), we tracked changes to swarm breadth over time and space in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that all variants have the potential to survive intrahost bottlenecks, yet mean swarm breadth decreases during both midgut infection and transmission when starting populations contain higher levels of minority variants. In addition, WNV swarms are subject to temporal sweeps which act to significantly decrease intrahost diversity over time. Taken together, these data demonstrate the profound effects that stochastic forces can have in shaping arboviral mutant swarms. PMID:22326536

  6. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, Mark David; Franson, J Christian; Mostl, Erich; Porter, Warren P; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  7. North American West Nile virus genotype isolates demonstrate differential replicative capacities in response to temperature

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Christy C.; Maharaj, Payal D.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) was first documented in California, USA, during the summer of 2003, and subsequently the virus has become endemic throughout the state. Sequence analysis has demonstrated that the circulating strains are representative of the North American (WN02) genotype that has displaced the East Coast genotype (NY99). A recent study has indicated that enhanced vector competence at elevated temperatures may have played a role in the displacement of the East Coast genotype by WN02. In the current study, four WN02 strains from California, including an initial 2003 isolate (COAV997), were compared to strain NY99 in growth curve assays in mosquito and duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cell lines at differing, biologically relevant temperatures to assess the relative temperature sensitivities of these natural isolates. COAV997 was significantly debilitated in viral replication in DEF cells at 44 °C. Full-length sequence comparison of COAV997 against the NY99 reference strain revealed non-synonymous mutations in the envelope glycoprotein (V159A), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (K110N) and non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) (F92L), as well as two mutations in the 3′ UTR: C→T at nt 10 772 and A→G at nt 10 851. These non-synonymous mutations were introduced into the NY99 viral backbone by site-directed mutagenesis. A mutant containing the NS1-K110N and NS4A-F92L mutations exhibited a debilitated growth phenotype in DEF cells at 44 °C, similar to that of COAV997. One explanation for the subsistence of this genotype is that COAV997 was obtained from an area of California where avian host species might not present elevated temperatures. These data indicate that the NS1 and NS4A mutations identified in some WN02 isolates could reduce thermal stability and impede replication of virus at temperatures observed in febrile avian hosts. PMID:21775581

  8. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Parashar, M K; Kale, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to free living amoeba, also called 'brain eating amoeba', Naegleria fowleri, was detected in retroviral disease patient of 40 years who has history of using well water. Patient was admitted with severe headache, fever intermittent, nausea, vomiting and slurring of speech. CT scan and MRI scan findings were normal. CSF examination showed increased protein, low sugar and predominant lymphocytes. CSF was negative for cryptococcal antigen but wet mount preparation showed highly motile free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Patient was put on Amphotericin B, Metronidazole, Rifampicin in addition to ART and ATT and other supportive medications. His headache was relieved and patient improved and was discharged on request. Earlier eight cases have been reported from India of which four cases survived the acute episode. PMID:26591176

  9. A comparison of six analytical disease mapping techniques as applied to West Nile Virus in the coterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    West Nile Virus has quickly become a serious problem in the United States (US). Its extremely rapid diffusion throughout the country argues for a better understanding of its geographic dimensions. Both 2003 and 2004 percentages of deaths by numbers of reported human cases, for the 48 coterminous US states, are analyzed with a range of spatial statistical models, seeking to furnish a fuller appreciation of the variety of models available to researchers interested in analytical disease mapping. Comparative results indicate that no single spatial statistical model specification furnishes a preferred description of these data, although normal approximations appear to furnish some questionable implications. Findings also suggest several possible future research topics. PMID:16076391

  10. [The spatial distribution and infection of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes with Western Nile virus in the Volgograd region].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Borodaĭ, N V; Shaĭkevich, E V

    2015-01-01

    The infection of Culex pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes with Western Nile virus was studied. Their taxonomic status was determined from the type of mitochondrial DNA. Among 424 females individually examined, there were 4 infected specimens: 3 pipens females gathered in the urban and suburban open biotopes and one molestus female caught in the open urban biotope. Molestus mitotype females were first detected in the suburban open biotopes. The possible reasons for the wide colonization of molestus mosquitoes and its epidemic consequences are discussed. PMID:25850309

  11. A Risk Factor Analysis of West Nile Virus: Extraction of Relationships from a Neural-Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Guha, Rajarshi

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) is an infectious disease spreading rapidly throughout the United States, causing illness among thousands of birds, animals, and humans. The broad categories of risk factors underlying WNV incidences are: environmental, socioeconomic, built-environment, and existing mosquito abatement policies. Computational neural network (CNN) model was developed to understand the occurrence of WNV infected dead birds because of their ability to capture complex relationships with higher accuracy than linear models. In this paper, we describe a method to interpret a CNN model by considering the final optimized weights. The research was conducted in the Metropolitan area of Minnesota, which had experienced significant outbreaks from 2002 till present.

  12. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  13. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive. PMID:20437062

  14. Development and characterization of reverse genetics system for the Indian West Nile virus lineage 1 strain 68856.

    PubMed

    Pavitrakar, Daya V; Ayachit, Vijay M; Mundhra, Sonal; Bondre, Vijay P

    2015-12-15

    Our previous studies on West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated from human patients in India suggested substantial variation at the genetic level reflecting their variable pathogenesis. This study describes the development of reverse genetics system for a neurovirulent WNV isolate 68856 and its characterization. Full length viral cDNA was cloned into bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) under the transcription control of T7 promoter. The RNA transcripts obtained by in vitro transcription were infectious in mammalian cells upon transfection. Cytopathic effect caused by synthetic RNA transcripts in mammalian cells, detection of cell associated viral protein after transfection and recovery of genetic markers in the progeny virus genome marked the successful development of reverse genetics system for WNV. Replication potential and plaque morphology of newly expressed virus along with its antigenic cross reactivity with the parental virus suggests synthesis of biologically identical replicative virus. Comparative neuropathogenesis studies in murine model indicated that the three genetic changes occurred in the recombinant virus during in vitro transcription has no impact on viral pathogenesis. The stable infectious cDNA clone generated from the neurovirulent Indian WNV strain will serve as a valuable experimental tool to study the viral factors contributing towards pathogenesis, host-virus interaction and immune evasion. PMID:26388421

  15. Comparison of the Efficiency and Cost of West Nile Virus Surveillance Methods in California

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Jessica M.; Reisen, William K.; Kramer, Vicki L.; Fischer, Marc; Lindsey, Nicole P.; Nasci, Roger S.; Macedo, Paula A.; White, Gregory; Takahashi, Richard; Khang, La

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) combine several methods to determine the location and timing of viral amplification. The value of each surveillance method must be measured against its efficiency and costs to optimize integrated vector management and suppress WNV transmission to the human population. Here we extend previous comparisons of WNV surveillance methods by equitably comparing the most common methods after standardization on the basis of spatial sampling density and costs, and by estimating optimal levels of sampling effort for mosquito traps and sentinel chicken flocks. In general, testing for evidence of viral RNA in mosquitoes and public-reported dead birds resulted in detection of WNV approximately 2–5 weeks earlier than serological monitoring of sentinel chickens at equal spatial sampling density. For a fixed cost, testing of dead birds reported by the public was found to be the most cost effective of the methods, yielding the highest number of positive results per $1000. Increased spatial density of mosquito trapping was associated with more precise estimates of WNV infection prevalence in mosquitoes. Our findings also suggested that the most common chicken flock size of 10 birds could be reduced to six to seven without substantial reductions in timeliness or sensitivity. We conclude that a surveillance system that uses the testing of dead birds reported by the public complemented by strategically timed mosquito and chicken sampling as agency resources allow would detect viral activity efficiently in terms of effort and costs, so long as susceptible bird species that experience a high mortality rate from infection with WNV, such as corvids, are present in the area. PMID:25700046

  16. West Nile virus infection rates and avian serology in east-central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Krasavin, Nina M; Ward, Mike P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lankau, Emily W; Alto, Barry W; Muturi, Ephantus; Novak, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the geographic role of different species of mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles can facilitate the development and implementation of targeted surveillance and control measures. This study examined the relationship between WNV-antibody rates in birds and mosquito infection rates and bloodfeeding patterns in east-central Illinois. The earliest detection of WNV-RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction TaqMan was from Culex restuans; however, amplification typically coincided with an increase in abundance of Cx. pipiens. Trap type influenced annual estimates of infection rates in Culex species, as well as estimation of blood meal source. Bird species with the highest WNV-antibody rates (i.e., Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura], Northern Cardinals [Cardinalis cardinalis], American Robins [Turdus migratorius], and House Sparrows [Passer domesticus]) were also the common species found in Culex blood meals. Although antibody rates were not directly proportional to estimated avian abundance, the apparent availability of mammal species did influence proportion of mammal to bird blood meals. Antibody prevalence in the American Robin was lower than expected based on the strong attraction of Culex to American Robins for blood meals. Age-related differences in serology were evident, antibody rates increased in older groups of robins and sparrows, whereas 1st-year hatch and older adults of Mourning Doves and Northern Cardinals had equally high rates of antibody-positive serum samples. The vector and host interactions observed in east-central Illinois (Champaign County), an urban area surrounded by agriculture, are compared to studies in the densely population areas of southern Cook County. PMID:23923325

  17. Modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Brown, Heidi E; Andreadis, Theodore G; Fish, Durland

    2006-01-01

    The risk of transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to humans is associated with the density of infected vector mosquitoes in a given area. Current technology for estimating vector distribution and abundance is primarily based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap collections, which provide only point data. In order to estimate mosquito abundance in areas not sampled by traps, we developed logistic regression models for five mosquito species implicated as the most likely vectors of WNV in Connecticut. Using data from 32 traps in Fairfield County from 2001 to 2003, the models were developed to predict high and low abundance for every 30 x 30 m pixel in the County. They were then tested with an independent dataset from 16 traps in adjacent New Haven County. Environmental predictors of abundance were extracted from remotely sensed data. The best predictive models included non-forested areas for Culex pipiens, surface water and distance to estuaries for Cx. salinarius, surface water and grasslands/agriculture for Aedes vexans and seasonal difference in the normalized difference vegetation index and distance to palustrine habitats for Culiseta melanura. No significant predictors were found for Cx. restuans. The sensitivity of the models ranged from 75% to 87.5% and the specificity from 75% to 93.8%. In New Haven County, the models correctly classified 81.3% of the traps for Cx. pipiens, 75.0% for Cx. salinarius, 62.5% for Ae. vexans, and 75.0% for Cs. melanura. Continuous surface maps of habitat suitability were generated for each species for both counties, which could contribute to future surveillance and intervention activities. PMID:16989568

  18. Assessing Interventions to Manage West Nile Virus Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with Risk Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hongoh, Valerie; Campagna, Céline; Panic, Mirna; Samuel, Onil; Gosselin, Pierre; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Ravel, André; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America highlights vulnerability to climate sensitive diseases and stresses the importance of preventive efforts to reduce their public health impact. Effective prevention involves reducing environmental risk of exposure and increasing adoption of preventive behaviours, both of which depend on knowledge and acceptance of such measures. When making operational decisions about disease prevention and control, public health must take into account a wide range of operational, environmental, social and economic considerations in addition to intervention effectiveness. The current study aimed to identify, assess and rank possible risk reduction measures taking into account a broad set of criteria and perspectives applicable to the management of WNV in Quebec under increasing transmission risk scenarios, some of which may be related to ongoing warming in higher-latitude regions. A participatory approach was used to collect information on categories of concern to relevant stakeholders with respect to WNV prevention and control. Multi-criteria decision analysis was applied to examine stakeholder perspectives and their effect on strategy rankings under increasing transmission risk scenarios. Twenty-three preventive interventions were retained for evaluation using eighteen criteria identified by stakeholders. Combined evaluations revealed that, at an individual-level, inspecting window screen integrity, wearing light colored, long clothing, eliminating peridomestic larval sites and reducing outdoor activities at peak times were top interventions under six WNV transmission scenarios. At a regional-level, the use of larvicides was a preferred strategy in five out of six scenarios, while use of adulticides and dissemination of sterile male mosquitoes were found to be among the least favoured interventions in almost all scenarios. Our findings suggest that continued public health efforts aimed at reinforcing individual

  19. West Nile Virus Circulation in Mosquitoes in Greece (2010–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Patsoula, Eleni; Vakali, Annita; Balatsos, Georgios; Pervanidou, Danai; Beleri, Stavroula; Tegos, Nikolaos; Baka, Agoritsa; Spanakos, Gregory; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Menounos, Panagiotis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background of the Study. Following a large West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in Northern Greece in 2010, an active mosquito surveillance system was implemented, for a 3-year period (2011, 2012, and 2013). Description of the Study Site and Methodology. Using mainly CO2 mosquito traps, mosquito collections were performed. Samples were pooled by date of collection, location, and species and examined for the presence of WNV. Results. Positive pools were detected in different areas of the country. In 2010, MIR and MLE values of 1.92 (95% CI: 0.00–4.57) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.38–7.49) were calculated for the Serres Regional Unit in Central Macedonia Region. In 2011, the highest MIR value of 3.71(95% CI: 1.52–5.91) was recorded in the Regions of Central Greece and Thessaly. In 2012, MIR and MLE values for the whole country were 2.03 (95% CI: 1.73–2.33) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.86–2.48), respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In 2013, in the Regional Unit of Attica, the one outbreak epicenter, MIR and MLE values for Cx. pipiens were 10.75 (95% CI: 7.52–13.99) and 15.76 (95% CI: 11.66–20.65), respectively. Significance of Results/Conclusions. The contribution of a mosquito-based surveillance system targeting WNV transmission is highlighted through the obtained data, as in most regions positive mosquito pools were detected prior to the date of symptom onset of human cases. Dissemination of the results on time to Public Health Authorities resulted in planning and application of public health interventions in local level. PMID:27294111

  20. West Nile Virus Circulation in Mosquitoes in Greece (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Patsoula, Eleni; Vakali, Annita; Balatsos, Georgios; Pervanidou, Danai; Beleri, Stavroula; Tegos, Nikolaos; Baka, Agoritsa; Spanakos, Gregory; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Menounos, Panagiotis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background of the Study. Following a large West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in Northern Greece in 2010, an active mosquito surveillance system was implemented, for a 3-year period (2011, 2012, and 2013). Description of the Study Site and Methodology. Using mainly CO2 mosquito traps, mosquito collections were performed. Samples were pooled by date of collection, location, and species and examined for the presence of WNV. Results. Positive pools were detected in different areas of the country. In 2010, MIR and MLE values of 1.92 (95% CI: 0.00-4.57) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.38-7.49) were calculated for the Serres Regional Unit in Central Macedonia Region. In 2011, the highest MIR value of 3.71(95% CI: 1.52-5.91) was recorded in the Regions of Central Greece and Thessaly. In 2012, MIR and MLE values for the whole country were 2.03 (95% CI: 1.73-2.33) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.86-2.48), respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In 2013, in the Regional Unit of Attica, the one outbreak epicenter, MIR and MLE values for Cx. pipiens were 10.75 (95% CI: 7.52-13.99) and 15.76 (95% CI: 11.66-20.65), respectively. Significance of Results/Conclusions. The contribution of a mosquito-based surveillance system targeting WNV transmission is highlighted through the obtained data, as in most regions positive mosquito pools were detected prior to the date of symptom onset of human cases. Dissemination of the results on time to Public Health Authorities resulted in planning and application of public health interventions in local level. PMID:27294111

  1. Urban Habitat Evaluation For West Nile Virus Surveillance In Mosquitoes In Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Christine M.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  2. Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

    2007-06-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  3. Comparison of mosquito trapping method efficacy for West Nile virus surveillance in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Glass, Gregory E

    2006-06-01

    As part of the West Nile virus surveillance program for the state of New Mexico, 13 sites along the Rio Grande River were sampled for mosquitoes during spring and summer 2003. We evaluated 3 different trapping procedures for their effectiveness at capturing selected species of mosquitoes. The 3 methods used were a dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap set 1.5 m above the ground (standard method), a CDC light trap suspended within the forest canopy, and a gravid trap set on the ground. Thirteen sites were sampled for 10 1-night periods biweekly from May through September. The relative numbers of captured Culex tarsalis, Cx. salinarius, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Aedes vexans as well as the numbers of total recorded captures of all species were compared for each trapping method. Significant differences were observed for each species by location and by trapping method. Culex tarsalis was most commonly caught in canopy or standard CDC traps, especially in cottonwood bosque. Culex salinarius was found most frequently in association with marshy water, and was most often caught in gravid or standard light traps. Culex quinquefasciatus was captured almost exclusively in gravid traps within urban areas. Aedes vexans was primarily sampled in standard CDC light traps and found most frequently in wooded areas near floodplains. With the exception of Cx. Quinquefasciatus, no species was collected significantly more frequently in gravid or canopy traps than in the standard CDC light trap. Our findings do not support altering the methods currently used in New Mexico, namely, the use of 1.5-m CDC light traps and gravid traps. An increased use of gravid traps seems to be warranted in monitoring urban vector populations (specifically Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. salinarius) that may be involved in human transmission. PMID:17019770

  4. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

    2006-04-01

    Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted. PMID

  5. Comparison Of Mosquito Trapping Method Efficacy For West Nile Virus Surveillance In New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the West Nile virus surveillance program for the state of New Mexico, 13 sites along the Rio Grande River were sampled for mosquitoes during spring and summer 2003. We evaluated 3 different trapping procedures for their effectiveness at capturing selected species of mosquitoes. The 3 methods used were a dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap set 1.5 m above the ground (standard method), a CDC light trap suspended within the forest canopy, and a gravid trap set on the ground. Thirteen sites were sampled for 10 1-night periods biweekly from May through September. The relative numbers of captured Culex tarsalis, Cx. salinarius, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Aedes vexans as well as the numbers of total recorded captures of all species were compared for each trapping method. Significant differences were observed for each species by location and by trapping method. Culex tarsalis was most commonly caught in canopy or standard CDC traps, especially in cottonwood bosque. Culex salinarius was found most frequently in association with marshy water, and was most often caught in gravid or standard light traps. Culex quinquefasciatus was captured almost exclusively in gravid traps within urban areas. Aedes vexans was primarily sampled in standard CDC light traps and found most frequently in wooded areas near floodplains. With the exception of Cx. quinquefasciatus, no species was collected significantly more frequently in gravid or canopy traps than in the standard CDC light trap. Our findings do not support altering the methods currently used in New Mexico, namely, the use of 1.5-m CDC light traps and gravid traps. An increased use of gravid traps seems to be warranted in monitoring urban vector populations (specifically Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. salinarius) that may be involved in human transmission. PMID:17019770

  6. Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.P.; Ramsay, B.H.; Gallo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70??N, 45.50??W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km2 resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p<0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p<0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. Cascade of ecological consequences for West Nile virus transmission when aquatic macrophytes invade stormwater habitats.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Andrew J; Muturi, Ephantus J; Ward, Michael P; Allan, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Artificial aquatic habitats are ubiquitous in anthropogenic landscapes and highly susceptible to colonization by invasive plant species. Recent research into the ecology of infectious diseases indicates that the establishment of invasive plant species can trigger ecological cascades which alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens that imperil human health. Here, we examined whether the presence or management of two invasive, emergent plants, cattails (Typha spp.) and phragmites (Phragmites australis), in stormwater dry detention basins (DDBs) alter the local distribution of vectors, avian hosts, or West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk in an urban residential setting. Mosquitoes and birds were surveyed at 14 DDBs and paired adjacent residential sites. During the study period, emergent vegetation was mowed by site managers in three DDBs. In the absence of vegetation management, the overall abundance and species composition of both adult vectors and avian hosts differed between residential and DDB habitats; however, WNV entomological risk indices were equivalent. Communal bird roosts composed primarily of three species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), representing a broad range of WNV reservoir competence, were observed at half (three out of six) of the DDBs containing unmanaged stands of phragmites; however, their presence was associated with a lower seasonal increase in vector infection rate. Conversely, mowing of emergent vegetation resulted in a significant and sustained increase in the abundance of WNV-infected vectors in DDBs and the increase in risk extended to adjacent residential sites. These findings indicate that management of invasive plants in DDBs during the growing season can increase, while presence of communal bird roosts can decrease, WNV transmission risk. PMID:27039521

  8. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  9. Assessing Interventions to Manage West Nile Virus Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with Risk Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hongoh, Valerie; Campagna, Céline; Panic, Mirna; Samuel, Onil; Gosselin, Pierre; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Ravel, André; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America highlights vulnerability to climate sensitive diseases and stresses the importance of preventive efforts to reduce their public health impact. Effective prevention involves reducing environmental risk of exposure and increasing adoption of preventive behaviours, both of which depend on knowledge and acceptance of such measures. When making operational decisions about disease prevention and control, public health must take into account a wide range of operational, environmental, social and economic considerations in addition to intervention effectiveness. The current study aimed to identify, assess and rank possible risk reduction measures taking into account a broad set of criteria and perspectives applicable to the management of WNV in Quebec under increasing transmission risk scenarios, some of which may be related to ongoing warming in higher-latitude regions. A participatory approach was used to collect information on categories of concern to relevant stakeholders with respect to WNV prevention and control. Multi-criteria decision analysis was applied to examine stakeholder perspectives and their effect on strategy rankings under increasing transmission risk scenarios. Twenty-three preventive interventions were retained for evaluation using eighteen criteria identified by stakeholders. Combined evaluations revealed that, at an individual-level, inspecting window screen integrity, wearing light colored, long clothing, eliminating peridomestic larval sites and reducing outdoor activities at peak times were top interventions under six WNV transmission scenarios. At a regional-level, the use of larvicides was a preferred strategy in five out of six scenarios, while use of adulticides and dissemination of sterile male mosquitoes were found to be among the least favoured interventions in almost all scenarios. Our findings suggest that continued public health efforts aimed at reinforcing individual

  10. A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K.D.; Macedo, Paula A.; Davis, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public about the risks from insecticide use. The objective of this study was to use reasonable worst-case risk assessment methodologies to evaluate human-health risks for WNV and the insecticides most commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. We evaluated documented health effects from WNV infection and determined potential population risks based on reported frequencies. We determined potential acute (1-day) and subchronic (90-day) multiroute residential exposures from each insecticide for several human subgroups during a WNV disease outbreak scenario. We then compared potential insecticide exposures to toxicologic and regulatory effect levels. Risk quotients (RQs, the ratio of exposure to toxicologic effect) were < 1.0 for all subgroups. Acute RQs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.4726, and subchronic RQs ranged from 0.00014 to 0.2074. Results from our risk assessment and the current weight of scientific evidence indicate that human-health risks from residential exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and are not likely to exceed levels of concern. Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. PMID:16507459

  11. Reproductive biology and susceptibility of Florida Culex coronator to infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Alto, Barry W; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Meara, George F; Hickman, Dustin; Karr, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Ornithophilic Culex species are considered the primary amplification vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in bird hosts as well as vectors responsible for epidemic transmission. Culex coronator was first collected from Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and Washington Counties in Florida in 2005 and has since spread throughout the state. The vector competence of Cx. coronator for WNV, known to be infected in nature, has not been assessed. Without this knowledge, we are unable to assess this species' potential as an enzootic and epidemic vector of WNV in Florida. In the current study, we investigate the reproductive biology and susceptibility to WNV infection, dissemination, and transmission by Cx. coronator. We show that Cx. coronator is capable of delaying oviposition for several weeks after blood feeding and that the number of eggs laid is greater for avian than mammalian hosts. Cx. coronator were highly susceptible to infection (∼80-100%) and dissemination (∼65-85% by 18 days since exposure) with lower rates of transmission (0-17% at 25°C and 28-67% at 28°C), suggesting that it is a competent vector of WNV under some conditions. The proportion of mosquitoes with disseminated infections related to the time since exposure and was higher at 28°C than at 25°C. The rapid and statewide distribution of Cx. coronator throughout Florida poses as a potential public health risk. This baseline knowledge is essential information for mosquito control and public health agencies to assess current and future disease risk to Southeastern United States. PMID:25072992

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  13. A Hierarchical Approach Embedding Hydrologic and Population Modeling for a West Nile Virus Vector Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Y.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.; Saltarin, A.; Chillemi, G.

    2012-12-01

    We applied a hierarchical state space model to predict the abundance of Cx.pipiens (a West Nile Virus vector) in the Po River Delta Region, Northeastern Italy. The study area has large mosquito abundance, due to a favorable environment and climate as well as dense human population. Mosquito data were collected on a weekly basis at more than 20 sites from May to September in 2010 and 2011. Cx.pipiens was the dominant species in our samples, accounting for about 90% of the more than 300,000 total captures. The hydrological component of the model accounted for evapotranspiration, infiltration and deep percolation to infer, in a 0D context, the local dynamics of soil moisture as a direct exogenous forcing of mosquito dynamics. The population model had a Gompertz structure, which included exogenous meteorological forcings and delayed internal dynamics. The models were coupled within a hierarchical statistical structure to overcome the relatively short length of the samples by exploiting the large number of concurrent observations available. The results indicated that Cx.pipiens abundance had significant density dependence at 1 week lag, which approximately matched its development time from larvae to adult. Among the exogenous controls, temperature, daylight hours, and soil moisture explained most of the dynamics. Longer daylight hours and lower soil moisture values resulted in higher abundance. The negative correlation of soil moisture and mosquito population can be explained with the abundance of water in the region (e.g. due to irrigation) and the preference for eutrophic habitats by Cx.pipien. Variations among sites were explained by land use factors as represented by distance to the nearest rice field and NDVI values: the carrying capacity decreased with increased distance to the nearest rice filed, while the maximum growth rate was positively related with NDVI. The model shows a satisfactory performance in predicting (potentially one week in advance) mosquito

  14. Estimating biologically relevant parameters under uncertainty for experimental within-host murine West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya; Guedj, Jeremie; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Moses, Melanie; Perelson, Alan S

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen that has decimated bird populations and caused severe outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans. Currently, little is known about the within-host viral kinetics of WNV during infection. We developed mathematical models to describe viral replication, spread and host immune response in wild-type and immunocompromised mice. Our approach fits a target cell-limited model to viremia data from immunocompromised knockout mice and an adaptive immune response model to data from wild-type mice. Using this approach, we first estimate parameters governing viral production and viral spread in the host using simple models without immune responses. We then use these parameters in a more complex immune response model to characterize the dynamics of the humoral immune response. Despite substantial uncertainty in input parameters, our analysis generates relatively precise estimates of important viral characteristics that are composed of nonlinear combinations of model parameters: we estimate the mean within-host basic reproductive number,R0, to be 2.3 (95% of values in the range 1.7-2.9); the mean infectious virion burst size to be 2.9 plaque-forming units (95% of values in the range 1.7-4.7); and the average number of cells infected per infectious virion to be between 0.3 and 0.99. Our analysis gives mechanistic insights into the dynamics of WNV infection and produces estimates of viral characteristics that are difficult to measure experimentally. These models are a first step towards a quantitative understanding of the timing and effectiveness of the humoral immune response in reducing host viremia and consequently the epidemic spread of WNV. PMID:27075003

  15. Land cover, landscape structure, and West Nile virus circulation in southern France.

    PubMed

    Pradier, S; Leblond, A; Durand, B

    2008-04-01

    The transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is strongly influenced by environmental factors. In France, two endemic areas for WNV have been identified: Camargue and Var. The objective of our study was to test whether landscape characteristics could be associated with the risk of endemic circulation of WNV in these two ecologically different areas. Equine serological data collected during outbreaks in Var (2003) and Camargue (2004) were used. Both areas were marked out in cells of 5 km(2), and data were aggregated for each cell. Sixteen cells, classified as "high" level viral circulation, and 28 cells, classified as "low" level viral circulation were used for the analysis. The Corine Land Cover database (European Environment Agency) was used to evaluate, for each geographic cell, the area covered by 12 land cover classes, as well as the value of 5 landscape metrics (patch richness and density, edge density, the Shannon's diversity index, and interspersion and juxtaposition index (IJI). Multivariate linear generalized regression showed that IJI as well as the surface covered by heterogeneous agricultural areas were significantly higher in high level WNV circulation cells than in low level ones (p = 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). Both variables are indicators of a complex spatial biotope configuration that may favor the co-existence of competent vectors and reservoir hosts: the structure of the landscape thus appeared as a key element in WNV circulation. An internal validation was performed and the model was used to compute a risk map for the French Mediterranean coast. Cells with a probability > 0.8 of having a high level of viral circulation were found near Aix-en-Provence, Beziers, and Perpignan, areas where no serological study has yet been conducted. Equine cases reported in 2006 were all located in the neighborhood of cells having a > 0.8 probability for high WNV circulation status. PMID:18429693

  16. Comparison of the efficiency and cost of West Nile virus surveillance methods in California.

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica M; Reisen, William K; Kramer, Vicki L; Fischer, Marc; Lindsey, Nicole P; Nasci, Roger S; Macedo, Paula A; White, Gregory; Takahashi, Richard; Khang, La; Barker, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    Surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) combine several methods to determine the location and timing of viral amplification. The value of each surveillance method must be measured against its efficiency and costs to optimize integrated vector management and suppress WNV transmission to the human population. Here we extend previous comparisons of WNV surveillance methods by equitably comparing the most common methods after standardization on the basis of spatial sampling density and costs, and by estimating optimal levels of sampling effort for mosquito traps and sentinel chicken flocks. In general, testing for evidence of viral RNA in mosquitoes and public-reported dead birds resulted in detection of WNV approximately 2-5 weeks earlier than serological monitoring of sentinel chickens at equal spatial sampling density. For a fixed cost, testing of dead birds reported by the public was found to be the most cost effective of the methods, yielding the highest number of positive results per $1000. Increased spatial density of mosquito trapping was associated with more precise estimates of WNV infection prevalence in mosquitoes. Our findings also suggested that the most common chicken flock size of 10 birds could be reduced to six to seven without substantial reductions in timeliness or sensitivity. We conclude that a surveillance system that uses the testing of dead birds reported by the public complemented by strategically timed mosquito and chicken sampling as agency resources allow would detect viral activity efficiently in terms of effort and costs, so long as susceptible bird species that experience a high mortality rate from infection with WNV, such as corvids, are present in the area. PMID:25700046

  17. Integrated human surveillance systems of West Nile virus infections in Italy: the 2012 experience.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-12-01

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June-30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008-2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a "one health" perspective. PMID:24351740

  18. Methods for detection of West Nile virus antibodies in mosquito blood meals.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Basile, Alison J

    2015-03-01

    We describe and compare 2 qualitative serologic techniques for detecting West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in mosquito blood meals. The techniques are the biotin microsphere immunoassay (b-MIA) and the inhibition platform of the VectorTest™ WNV antigen assay (VecTest-inhibition). To demonstrate the ability of these tests to detect WNV-neutralizing antibodies, we experimentally exposed feeding mosquitoes to blood containing 5 concentrations of 6B6C-1, a flavivirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Antibody concentrations were quantified using the 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90). After 24 h of blood-meal digestion at 22.5°C, the threshold PRNT90 titer of detection was ≤18 for b-MIA and ≤50 for VecTest-inhibition. Both tests reliably detected antibodies in 3 of 3 blood meals that had been digested for up to 30 h, or were about 25% digested. The b-MIA was also applied to mosquitoes that had engorged on avian blood in Arizona following a WNV epidemic in 2010. There was no significant difference in the WNV antibody prevalence determined by b-MIA (52% of 71 avian blood meals) compared to the WNV-neutralizing antibody prevalence in birds determined by direct sampling (49% of 234 birds). VecTest-inhibition requires fewer resources and may be used in the field without a laboratory, but consumes the entire blood meal and relies on subjective interpretation of results. The b-MIA requires a laboratory and sophisticated equipment and reagents. Results for b-MIA are analyzed objectively and can be applied to mosquito blood meals with greater confidence than the VecTest-inhibition method and thus can contribute substantially to research and surveillance programs that would benefit from the detection of specific WNV antibodies in mosquito blood meals. PMID:25843170

  19. Detection of West Nile virus antigen in mosquitoes and avian tissues by a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ann R; Hall, Roy A; Kerst, Amy J; Nasci, Roger S; Savage, Harry M; Panella, Nicholas A; Gottfried, Kristy L; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Roehrig, John T

    2002-06-01

    An antigen capture immunoassay to detect West Nile (WN) virus antigen in infected mosquitoes and avian tissues has been developed. With this assay purified WN virus was detected at a concentration of 32 pg/0.1 ml, and antigen in infected suckling mouse brain and laboratory-infected mosquito pools could be detected when the WN virus titer was 10(2.1) to 10(3.7) PFU/0.1 ml. In a blindly coded set of field-collected mosquito pools (n = 100), this assay detected WN virus antigen in 12 of 18 (66.7%) TaqMan-positive pools, whereas traditional reverse transcriptase PCR detected 10 of 18 (55.5%) positive pools. A sample set of 73 organ homogenates from naturally infected American crows was also examined by WN virus antigen capture immunoassay and TaqMan for the presence of WN virus. The antigen capture assay detected antigen in 30 of 34 (88.2%) TaqMan-positive tissues. Based upon a TaqMan-generated standard curve of infectious WN virus, the limit of detection in the antigen capture assay for avian tissue homogenates was approximately 10(3) PFU/0.1 ml. The recommended WN virus antigen capture protocol, which includes a capture assay followed by a confirmatory inhibition assay used to retest presumptive positive samples, could distinguish between the closely related WN and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in virus-infected mosquito pools and avian tissues. Therefore, this immunoassay demonstrates adequate sensitivity and specificity for surveillance of WN virus activity in mosquito vectors and avian hosts, and, in addition, it is easy to perform and relatively inexpensive compared with the TaqMan assay. PMID:12037058

  20. Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Human Infections: Overview and Proposal of Diagnostic Protocols Considering the Results of External Quality Assessment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sambri, Vittorio; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Cavrini, Francesca; Charrel, Rémi; Donoso-Mantke, Olivier; Escadafal, Camille; Franco, Leticia; Gaibani, Paolo; Gould, Ernest A.; Niedrig, Matthias; Papa, Anna; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Sanchini, Andrea; Tenorio, Antonio; Varani, Stefania; Vázquez, Ana; Vocale, Caterina; Zeller, Herve

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus, genus Flavivirus, is transmitted between birds and occasionally other animals by ornithophilic mosquitoes. This virus also infects humans causing asymptomatic infections in about 85% of cases and <1% of clinical cases progress to severe neuroinvasive disease. The virus also presents a threat since most infections remain unapparent. However, the virus contained in blood and organs from asymptomatically infected donors can be transmitted to recipients of these infectious tissues. This paper reviews the presently available methods to achieve the laboratory diagnosis of West Nile virus infections in humans, discussing the most prominent advantages and disadvantages of each in light of the results obtained during four different External Quality Assessment studies carried out by the European Network for ‘Imported’ Viral Diseases (ENIVD). PMID:24072061

  1. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting. PMID:26807720

  2. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting. PMID:26807720

  3. Remote Sensing of Climatic Anomalies and West Nile Virus Risk in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Chuang, T.; Henebry, G. M.; Kimball, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America, and the national resurgence of human WNV cases during the summer of 2012 has highlighted the persistent threat posed by this potentially fatal disease. Advance warning of the timing and locations of WNV outbreaks can help public health officials to more effectively target WNV prevention and control efforts. To this end, we used environmental monitoring data from earth observing satellites to develop environmental indices of WNV risk and applied these indices to model seasonal and interannual patterns of mosquito populations and human disease cases. Our overarching hypothesis is that anomalies of cumulative temperature and moisture throughout the mosquito season affect the risk of WNV transmission to humans through their influences on mosquito populations, bird communities, and the extrinsic incubation period of the virus itself. In a preliminary study, we developed a model of WNV in the northern Great Plains using satellite optical-IR remote sensing products from MODIS, including land surface temperature, vegetation indices, and actual evapotranspiration computed using the simplified surface energy balance method. This model was applied in 2011 and 2012 to forecast spatial patterns of WNV relative risk prior to the main transmission season in July-September. We expanded this modeling approach to a national level using a daily global land surface parameter database developed from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). This dataset provides several novel environmental variables that are potentially relevant to mosquito ecology, including near-surface air temperature, surface soil moisture, fractional open water cover, and estimates of vegetation canopy opacity to microwave emissions at three microwave frequencies. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that higher temperatures during the amplification season are consistently

  4. Genetic Variability of West Nile Virus in U.S. Blood Donors from the 2012 Epidemic Season

    PubMed Central

    Grinev, Andriyan; Chancey, Caren; Volkova, Evgeniya; Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Winkelman, Valerie; Foster, Gregory A.; Williamson, Phillip; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus maintained in nature in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle which can also infect other vertebrates including humans. WNV is now endemic in the United States (U.S.), causing yearly outbreaks that have resulted in an estimated total of 4–5 million human infections. Over 41,700 cases of West Nile disease, including 18,810 neuroinvasive cases and 1,765 deaths, were reported to the CDC between 1999 and 2014. In 2012, the second largest West Nile outbreak in the U.S. was reported, which caused 5,674 cases and 286 deaths. WNV continues to evolve, and three major WNV lineage I genotypes (NY99, WN02, and SW/WN03) have been described in the U.S. since introduction of the virus in 1999. We report here the WNV sequences obtained from 19 human samples acquired during the 2012 U.S. outbreak and our examination of the evolutionary dynamics in WNV isolates sequenced from 1999–2012. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to perform the phylogenetic analyses. Selection pressure analyses were performed with the HyPhy package using the Datamonkey web-server. Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models, we detected a number of codons subjected to positive pressure in WNV genes. Thirteen of the 19 completely sequenced isolates from 10 U.S. states were genetically similar, sharing up to 55 nucleotide mutations and 4 amino acid substitutions when compared with the prototype isolate WN-NY99. Overall, these analyses showed that following a brief contraction in 2008–2009, WNV genetic divergence in the U.S. continued to increase in 2012, and that closely related variants were found across a broad geographic range of the U.S., coincident with the second-largest WNV outbreak in U.S. history. PMID:27182734

  5. Genetic Variability of West Nile Virus in U.S. Blood Donors from the 2012 Epidemic Season.

    PubMed

    Grinev, Andriyan; Chancey, Caren; Volkova, Evgeniya; Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A R; Winkelman, Valerie; Foster, Gregory A; Williamson, Phillip; Stramer, Susan L; Rios, Maria

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus maintained in nature in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle which can also infect other vertebrates including humans. WNV is now endemic in the United States (U.S.), causing yearly outbreaks that have resulted in an estimated total of 4-5 million human infections. Over 41,700 cases of West Nile disease, including 18,810 neuroinvasive cases and 1,765 deaths, were reported to the CDC between 1999 and 2014. In 2012, the second largest West Nile outbreak in the U.S. was reported, which caused 5,674 cases and 286 deaths. WNV continues to evolve, and three major WNV lineage I genotypes (NY99, WN02, and SW/WN03) have been described in the U.S. since introduction of the virus in 1999. We report here the WNV sequences obtained from 19 human samples acquired during the 2012 U.S. outbreak and our examination of the evolutionary dynamics in WNV isolates sequenced from 1999-2012. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to perform the phylogenetic analyses. Selection pressure analyses were performed with the HyPhy package using the Datamonkey web-server. Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models, we detected a number of codons subjected to positive pressure in WNV genes. Thirteen of the 19 completely sequenced isolates from 10 U.S. states were genetically similar, sharing up to 55 nucleotide mutations and 4 amino acid substitutions when compared with the prototype isolate WN-NY99. Overall, these analyses showed that following a brief contraction in 2008-2009, WNV genetic divergence in the U.S. continued to increase in 2012, and that closely related variants were found across a broad geographic range of the U.S., coincident with the second-largest WNV outbreak in U.S. PMID:27182734

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile virus and other arboviruses among Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Dwyer, James F; Morrison, Joan L; Fraser, James D

    2009-07-01

    We documented the antibody prevalence to three arboviruses, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV), in Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway; n = 80) in Florida from 2007 to 2008. Antibody prevalence to WNV was higher (9%) than for the other viruses. Most seropositive birds were adults (< or =3 yr of age), with 55% of adults testing positive for antibodies to at least one virus. Adults were significantly more likely to have antibodies to WNV than nonadults (P<0.001). Prevalence of SLEV and EEEV antibodies among Crested Caracaras was 3% for each virus, and three adult caracaras had indistinguishable anti-flavivirus antibodies. The susceptibility of Crested Caracaras to adverse effects of WNV, SLEV, or EEEV infection remains unknown; however, we observed that some free-ranging individuals survived infection and successfully fledged young. Knowledge of arboviral infection among Florida's Crested Caracara, which is both state and federally threatened, is valuable considering increasing pressure on this population from rapid and extensive habitat alterations. PMID:19617494

  7. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays for rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J

    2001-12-01

    The development and application of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for the detection of West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are reported. Two unique detection formats were developed for the NASBA assays: a postamplification detection step with a virus-specific internal capture probe and electrochemiluminescence (NASBA-ECL assay) and a real-time assay with 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled virus-specific molecular beacon probes (NASBA-beacon assay). The sensitivities and specificities of these NASBA assays were compared to those of a newly described standard reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and TaqMan assays for SLE virus and to a previously published TaqMan assay for WN virus. The NASBA assays demonstrated exceptional sensitivities and specificities compared to those of virus isolation, the TaqMan assays, and standard RT-PCR, with the NASBA-beacon assay yielding results in less than 1 h. These assays should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing diagnostic testing methodologies and as a tool in conducting flavivirus surveillance in the United States. PMID:11724870

  8. Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura.

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, T. G.; Anderson, J. F.; Vossbrinck, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens [5], Cx. restuans [4], Cx. salinarius [2], and Culiseta melanura [3]) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow sightings were reported and where WN virus was detected in 1999. Minimum field infection rates per 1,000 mosquitoes ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 (county based) and from 1.3 to 76.9 (site specific). Cx. restuans appears to be important in initiating WN virus transmission among birds in early summer; Cx. pipiens appears to play a greater role in amplifying virus later in the season. Cs. melanura could be important in the circulation of WN virus among birds in sylvan environments; Cx. salinarius is a suspected vector of WN virus to humans and horses. PMID:11585530

  9. Serological Evidence of Widespread Circulation of West Nile Virus and Other Flaviviruses in Equines of the Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region. PMID:24551266

  10. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Apperson, Charles S; Hassan, Hassan K; Harrison, Bruce A; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Benedict, Mark; Anderson, Michael; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts. PMID:15018775

  11. Short report: Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Egstad, K.F.; Griffin, K.M.; Nolden, C.A.; Karwal, L.; Ip, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for < 1 year. Mesopredators may be sensitive indicators of West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Discovery of a Non-Peptidic Inhibitor of West Nile Virus NS3 Protease by High-Throughput Docking

    PubMed Central

    Ekonomiuk, Dariusz; Su, Xun-Cheng; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Bodenreider, Christophe; Lim, Siew Pheng; Yin, Zheng; Keller, Thomas H.; Beer, David; Patel, Viral; Otting, Gottfried; Caflisch, Amedeo; Huang, Danzhi

    2009-01-01

    Background The non-structural 3 protease (NS3pro) is an essential flaviviral enzyme and therefore one of the most promising targets for drug development against West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue infections. Methodology In this work, a small-molecule inhibitor of the WNV NS3pro has been identified by automatic fragment-based docking of about 12000 compounds and testing by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of only 22 molecules. Specific binding of the inhibitor into the active site of NS3pro and its binding mode are confirmed by 15N-HSQC NMR spectra. The inhibitory activity is further validated by an enzymatic assay and a tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay. Conclusion The inhibitor [4-(carbamimidoylsulfanylmethyl)-2,5-dimethylphenyl]-methylsulfanylmethanimidamide has a good ratio of binding affinity versus molecular weight (ligand efficiency of 0.33 kcal/mol per non-hydrogen atom), and thus has good potential as lead compound for further development to combat West Nile virus infections. PMID:19159012

  13. Refolding, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of the West Nile virus envelope (E) protein domain III

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Fang; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yu Wai; Bell, John I.; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.

    2005-04-01

    Domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein, the putative receptor-binding domain, was reported to be intrinsically unstable and has defied previous crystallization attempts. It has now been purified from inclusion bodies by protein refolding and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein, the putative receptor-binding domain, is a major virion-surface determinant for virulence. This protein was reported to be intrinsically unstable and has defied previous crystallization attempts. It has now been purified from inclusion bodies by protein refolding and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. The crystals belong to space group P222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.6, b = 59.7, c = 95.0 Å. A complete data set was collected to 2.8 Å at 100 K with Cu Kα X-rays from a rotating-anode generator.

  14. Estimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Humblet, Marie-France; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne; Léonard, Philippe; Gosset, Christiane; Balenghien, Thomas; Durand, Benoît; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vaccination and replacement value of dead or euthanised horses. The choice of the vaccination strategy would have important consequences in terms of cost. Vaccination of the country's whole population of horses, based on a worst-case scenario, would cost more than EUR 30 million; for areas at risk, the cost would be around EUR 16-17 million. Regarding the impact on human health, short-term costs and socio-economic losses were estimated for patients who developed the neuroinvasive form of the disease, as no vaccine is available yet for humans. Hospital charges of around EUR 3,600 for a case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and EUR 4,500 for a case of acute flaccid paralysis would be the major financial consequence of an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans in Belgium. PMID:27526394

  15. The Role of Australian Mosquito Species in the Transmission of Endemic and Exotic West Nile Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Cassie C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemic activity and its introduction into the Western Hemisphere have drawn attention to West Nile virus (WNV) as an international public health problem. Of particular concern has been the ability for the virus to cause outbreaks of disease in highly populated urban centers. Incrimination of Australian mosquito species is an essential component in determining the receptivity of Australia to the introduction and/or establishment of an exotic strain of WNV and can guide potential management strategies. Based on vector competence experiments and ecological studies, we suggest candidate Australian mosquito species that would most likely be involved in urban transmission of WNV, along with consideration of the endemic WNV subtype, Kunjin. We then examine the interaction of entomological factors with virological and vertebrate host factors, as well as likely mode of introduction, which may influence the potential for exotic WNV to become established and be maintained in urban transmission cycles in Australia. PMID:23965926

  16. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission routes in the murine model: intrauterine, by breastfeeding and after cannibal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Sáiz, Juan-Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Since its first detection in New York in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has already caused over 1000 human deaths in the U.S. Although the virus is usually transmitted by mosquito bites; other routes, such as intrauterine and breastfeeding, have been occasionally reported in humans. To investigate alternative routes of WNV transmission, mice were inoculated during gestation and after delivery, and offspring from infected and non-infected mothers were interchanged and nursed as foster babies. Intrauterine and breastfeeding transmission was confirmed after WNV detection, by quantitative RT-PCR and viral culture infectivity, in babies born to infected mothers and in newborns that were nursed by mothers infected after delivery. All infected mothers, either experimentally or after cannibal ingestion of infected fostered babies, succumbed to the disease, as did most of their nursed babies. These results indicate that WNV is efficiently transmitted by vertical routes (intrauterine and lactation) and after cannibal ingestion of infected animals. PMID:20438776

  17. Plasticity of a critical antigenic determinant in the West Nile virus NY99 envelope protein domain III.

    PubMed

    Plante, Jessica A; Torres, Maricela; Huang, Claire Y-H; Beasley, David W C

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes febrile illness, encephalitis, and occasionally death in humans. The envelope protein is the main component of the WNV virion surface, and domain III of the envelope protein (EIII) is both a putative receptor binding domain and a target of highly specific, potently neutralizing antibodies. Envelope E-332 (E-332) is known to have naturally occurring variation and to be a key determinant of neutralization for anti-EIII antibodies. A panel of viruses containing all possible amino acid substitutions at E-332 was constructed. E-332 was found to be highly tolerant of mutation, and almost all of these changes had large impacts on antigenicity of EIII but only limited effects on growth or virulence phenotypes. PMID:27284640

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of DNA derived from the West Nile virus genome using magnetic capture of Raman-active gold nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model paramagnetic nanoparticle (MNP) assay is demonstrated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of DNA oligonucleotides derived from the West Nile virus (WNV) genome. Detection is based on the capture of WNV target sequences by hybridization with complementary oligonucleotide pr...

  19. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  20. Outdoor Hazards & Preventive Measures: West Nile Virus: A Clinical Commentary for the Camp Health Care Community; Poison Ivy: A Primer for Prevention; Lyme Disease Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ellen; Bauer, Holly; Ratner-Connolly, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Transmitted by mosquitos, West Nile virus may cause serious illness, but the actual likelihood of infection is low. Prevention, implications, and recommendations for camps are discussed. Poison ivy identification, treatment, and complications are presented; a prevention quiz is included. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are described, as are…

  1. Creating a disease risk map for West Nile virus for surveillance in Central Texas using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...

  2. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe. PMID:26675459

  3. Surveillance for Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viruses Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Ball, Cameron S; Langevin, Stanley A; Fang, Ying; Coffey, Lark L; Meagher, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized public health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance. PMID:26807734

  4. Surveillance for Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meagher, Robert J.; Ball, Cameron Scott; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Coffey, Lark L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized publicmore » health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance.« less

  5. Surveillance for Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viruses Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Ball, Cameron S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Coffey, Lark L.; Meagher, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized public health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance. PMID:26807734

  6. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  7. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV. PMID:25305334

  8. Avian GIS models signal human risk for West Nile virus in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, William H; Grala, Katarzyna; Wallis, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Mississippi. Physicians and state health officials are interested in new and efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) models have the potential to support these efforts. Environmental conditions favorable for mosquito habitat were modeled using GIS to derive WNV risk maps for Mississippi. Variables important to WNV dissemination were selected and classified as static and dynamic. The static variables included road density, stream density, slope, and vegetation. The dynamic variable represented seasonal water budget and was calculated using precipitation and evaporation estimates. Significance tests provided deterministic evidence of variable importance to the models. Results Several models were developed to estimate WNV risk including a landscape-base model and seasonal climatic sub-models. P-values from t-tests guided variable importance ranking. Variables were ranked and weights assigned as follows: road density (0.4), stream density (0.3), slope (0.2) and vegetation (0.1). This landscape-base model was modified by climatic conditions to assess the importance of climate to WNV risk. Human case data at the zip code level were used to validate modeling results. All models were summarized by zip codes for interpretation and model validation. For all models, estimated risk was higher for zip codes with at least one human case than for zip codes where no human cases were recorded. Overall median measure of risk by zip code indicated that 67% of human cases occurred in the high-risk category. Conclusion Modeling results indicated that dead bird occurrences are correlated with human WNV risk and can facilitate the assessment of environmental variables that contribute to that risk. Each variable's importance in GIS-based risk predictions was assigned deterministically. Our models indicated non-uniform distribution

  9. Associations between two mosquito populations and West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas, 2003-06.

    PubMed

    Dennett, James A; Bala, Adilelkhidir; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Christopher B; Guzman, Hilda; Siirin, Marina; Hassan, Hassan K; Reyna-Nava, Martin; Unnasch, Thomas R; Tesh, Robert B; Parsons, Ray E; Bueno, Rudy

    2007-09-01

    Associations between Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and West Nile virus (WNV) activity, temperature, and rainfall in Harris County, Texas 2003-06 are discussed. Human cases were highly correlated to Cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and Ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and Ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not Cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). Human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correlated with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively) and Cx. quinqueftsciatus pools (r = 0.75), but not Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.55). Both species (collections and pools) and blue jays were weakly correlated (r 5 0.41) with rainfall, but blue jays were better correlated with Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.87), compared with Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.67), Ae. albopictus collections (r = 0.69), and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.46). Peak minimum infection rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.55), and Ae. albopictus (4.41) was in August with highest human cases (17.87), blue jays (55.58), and temperature (29.01 degrees C). Between both species, blood meal analysis indicated 68.18% of Cx. quinquefasciatus mammalian hosts were dog, while 22.72% were human, whereas Ae. albopictus had higher human (44.44%) but fewer dog hosts (22.22%). Ten bird species were identified as hosts for Cx. quinquefasciatus, with northern cardinal and blue jay representing 26.66% and 20.00%, respectively. No bird feeding activity was observed in Ae. albopictus. The earliest and latest human blood meal occurred in May (Ae. albopictus) and November (Cx. quinquefasciatus); 66.66% of human host identifications between both species occurred in October-November, after the seasonal human case peak. Based upon our data, WNV activity in both mosquito species warrants further investigation of their individual roles in WNV ecology within this region. PMID

  10. Mosquito vectors of West Nile virus during an epizootic outbreak in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Barrera, R; MacKay, A; Amador, M; Vasquez, J; Smith, J; Díaz, A; Acevedo, V; Cabán, B; Hunsperger, E A; Muñoz-Jordán, J L

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) during an epizootic WNV outbreak in eastern Puerto Rico in 2007. In June 2006, 12 sentinel chicken pens with five chickens per pen were deployed in six types of habitats: herbaceous wetlands, mangrove forests, deciduous forests, evergreen forests, rural areas, and urban areas. Once WNV seroconversion in chickens was detected in June 2007, we began trapping mosquitoes using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature (light/CO2-baited) traps, CMT-20 collapsible mosquito (CO2- and ISCA SkinLure-baited) traps, and CDC gravid (hay infusion-baited) traps. We placed the CDC miniature traps both 2-4 m and >30 m from the chicken pens, the collapsible traps 2-4 m from the pens, and the gravid traps in backyards of houses with sentinel chicken pens and in a wetland adjacent to an urban area. We found numerous blood-engorged mosquitoes in the traps nearest to the sentinel chickens and reasoned that any such mosquitoes with a disseminated WNV infection likely served as vectors for the transmission of WNV to the sentinels. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and isolation (C636) on pools of heads, thoraxes/ abdomens, and legs of collected blood-engorged mosquitoes to determine whether the mosquitoes carried WNV. We detected WNV-disseminated infections in and obtained WNV isolates from Culex nigripalpus Theo (minimum infection rate [MIR] 1.1-9.7/1,000), Culex bahamensis Dyar and Knab (MIR 1.8-6.0/1,000), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) (MIR 0.34-0.36/1,000). WNV was also identified in and isolated from the pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (4.17/1,000) and identified in one pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex habilitator Dyar and Knab (13.39/1,000). Accumulated evidence since 2002 suggests that WNV has not become endemic in Puerto Rico. PMID:21175071

  11. Wild bird mortality and West Nile virus surveillance: Biases associated with detection, reporting, and carcass persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.R.; Stallknecht, D.E.; Willis, J.; Conroy, M.J.; Davidson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance targeting dead wild birds, in particular American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), plays a critical role in West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the United States. Using crow decoy surrogates, detection and reporting of crow carcasses within urban and rural environments of DeKalb County, Georgia were assessed for potential biases that might occur in the county's WNV surveillance program. In each of two replicated trials, during July and September 2003, 400 decoys were labeled with reporting instructions and distributed along randomly chosen routes throughout designated urban and rural areas within DeKalb County. Information-theoretic methods were used to compare alternative models incorporating the effects of area and trial on probabilities of detection and reporting. The model with the best empirical support included the effects of area on both detection and reporting of decoys. The proportion of decoys detected in the urban area (0.605, SE=0.024) was approximately twice that of the rural area (0.293, SE =0.023), and the proportion of decoys reported in the urban area (0.273, SE =0.023) was approximately three times that of the rural area (0.103, SE=0.028). These results suggest that human density and associated factors can substantially influence dead crow detection and reporting and, thus, the perceived distribution of WNV. In a second and separate study, the persistence and fate of American crow and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) carcasses were assessed in urban and rural environments in Athens-Clarke, Madison, and Oconee counties, Georgia. Two replicated trials using 96 carcasses of each species were conducted during July and September 2004. For a portion of the carcasses, motion sensitive cameras were used to monitor scavenging species visits. Most carcasses (82%) disappeared or were decayed by the end of the 6-day study. Carcass persistence averaged 1.6 days in rural areas and 2.1 days in urban areas. We analyzed carcass persistence rates

  12. AUF1 p45 Promotes West Nile Virus Replication by an RNA Chaperone Activity That Supports Cyclization of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Susann; Schmidt, Tobias; Geissler, René; Lilie, Hauke; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Liebert, Uwe G.; Golbik, Ralph P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A central aspect of current virology is to define the function of cellular proteins (host factors) that support the viral multiplication process. This study aimed at characterizing cellular proteins that assist the RNA replication process of the prevalent human pathogen West Nile virus (WNV). Using in vitro and cell-based approaches, we defined the p45 isoform of AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) as a host factor that enables efficient WNV replication. It was demonstrated that AUF1 p45 has an RNA chaperone activity, which aids the structural rearrangement and cyclization of the WNV RNA that is required by the viral replicase to initiate RNA replication. The obtained data suggest the RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45 is an important determinant of the WNV life cycle. IMPORTANCE In this study, we identified a cellular protein, AUF1 (also known as heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNPD]), acting as a helper (host factor) of the multiplication process of the important human pathogen West Nile virus. Several different variants of AUF1 exist in the cell, and one variant, AUF1 p45, was shown to support viral replication most significantly. Interestingly, we obtained a set of experimental data indicating that a main function of AUF1 p45 is to modify and thus prepare the West Nile virus genome in such a way that the viral enzyme that generates progeny genomes is empowered to do this considerably more efficiently than in the absence of the host factor. The capability of AUF1 p45 to rearrange the West Nile virus genome was thus identified to be an important aspect of a West Nile virus infection. PMID:25078689

  13. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines

  14. Community diversity of mosquitoes and their microbes across different habitats endemic for West Nile Virus and other arthropod-borne diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Bennett, S. N.; Thongsripong, P.; Chandler, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes have long been vectors for disease, and humans, birds, and other vertebrates have served their role as hosts in the transmission cycle of arthropod-borne viruses. In California, there are several mosquito species that act as vectors, transmitting such disease agents as Western equine and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, filarial nematodes, Plasmodium (which causes malaria), and West Nile virus (WNV). Last year (2012-2013), California had over 450 reported cases of West Nile Virus in humans (http://westnile.ca.gov/). To begin to understand mosquitoes and their role in the bay area as vectors of diseases, including West Nile Virus, we trapped mosquitoes from various sites and examined their microbiomes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes. Study sites were in Marin, San Mateo, and San Francisco counties, in areas that represented, respectively, rural, suburban, and urban habitats. The mosquitoes were identified through morphological characteristics, and verified molecularly by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene extracted from a leg. Most mosquitoes were collected from San Mateo and Mill Valley and were identified as Culiseta incidens. Data from traditional culture-based and next-generation 454 sequencing methods applied to mosquito whole bodies, representing their microbiomes, will be discussed, to determine how mosquito and microbial diversity varies across sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay area.

  15. [Mechanism of Cryptococcus Meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are fungal pathogens that cause diseases in humans. Cryptococcal species mainly enter the body by inhalation and in most cases are eliminated by host defense mechanisms. Some cases, however, progress to pneumonia and subsequent dissemination of the infection to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to meningoencephalitis. Cryptococcus can cross the blood-brain barrier transcellularly, paracellularly and through infected phagocytes (the Trojan horse mechanism). The reason for the tropism of Cryptococcus to the CNS could be partially explained by the abundance of inositol in the brain, which causes the hyaluronic acid in fungal cells to bind to host CD44 receptors. There are differences in the clinical characteristics of C. neoformans and C. gattii. HIV infection is the most common risk factor for cryptococcosis due to C. neoformans, whereas C. gattii infection with CNS involvement is frequently found in otherwise healthy individuals exposed to plant propagules found in tropical and subtropical regions. As the virulence traits of C. neoformans contributing to CNS disease, high macrophage uptake and laccase activity are associated with the fungal burden and the rate of clearance of the infection from the brain. Recent reports suggested that the C. gattii VGII strain suppresses host immune responses in the lung and causes more lung infections than CNS diseases. Furthermore, the anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies are a risk factor for CNS infection by the C. gattii VGI strain. To understand the mechanism by which Cryptococcus causes CNS disease, it is important to consider the specific characteristics of the species and the molecular types. PMID:26936349

  16. Fluid Spatial Dynamics of West Nile Virus in the United States: Rapid Spread in a Permissive Host Environment

    PubMed Central

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Docherty, Douglas E.; McLean, Robert G.; Zody, Michael C.; Qu, James; Yang, Xiao; Birren, Bruce W.; Malboeuf, Christine M.; Newman, Ruchi M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 is a classic example of viral emergence in a new environment, with its subsequent dispersion across the continent having a major impact on local bird populations. Despite the importance of this epizootic, the pattern, dynamics, and determinants of WNV spread in its natural hosts remain uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the virus encountered major barriers to transmission, or spread in an unconstrained manner, and if specific viral lineages were favored over others indicative of intrinsic differences in fitness. To address these key questions in WNV evolution and ecology, we sequenced the complete genomes of approximately 300 avian isolates sampled across the United States between 2001 and 2012. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a relatively star-like tree structure, indicative of explosive viral spread in the United States, although with some replacement of viral genotypes through time. These data are striking in that viral sequences exhibit relatively limited clustering according to geographic region, particularly for those viruses sampled from birds, and no strong phylogenetic association with well-sampled avian species. The genome sequence data analyzed here also contain relatively little evidence for adaptive evolution, particularly of structural proteins, suggesting that most viral lineages are of similar fitness and that WNV is well adapted to the ecology of mosquito vectors and diverse avian hosts in the United States. In sum, the molecular evolution of WNV in North America depicts a largely unfettered expansion within a permissive host and geographic population with little evidence of major adaptive barriers. IMPORTANCE How viruses spread in new host and geographic environments is central to understanding the emergence and evolution of novel infectious diseases and for predicting their likely impact. The emergence of the vector-borne West Nile virus (WNV) in North

  17. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  18. A Simple Modification to the Mosquito Homogenization Protocol Safely Inactivates West Nile Virus and Allows Virus Detection by the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP®) ASSAY.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Savage, Harry M

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP(®)) mosquito-grinding buffer to inactivate West Nile virus (WNV) by subjecting WNV-positive samples ground in RAMP buffer to incubation intervals ranging from 5 min to 60 min. At each time point an aliquot was removed and serially diluted in bovine albumin (BA)-1 cell culture media to stop the inactivation process by RAMP buffer. Each BA-1 sample was tested for viable virus using Vero 6-well cell culture plaque assay and observed for plaques. We observed very limited inactivation of WNV (1-2 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) by RAMP buffer. Concerned for RAMP operators who may be using this assay in low-level biocontainment facilities, we developed an alternate sample homogenization protocol using Triton X-100 detergent that ensures complete WNV inactivation without compromising the performance of the RAMP assay. PMID:27280345

  19. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV): a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Pierre; Lebel, Germain; Rivest, Sonia; Douville-Fradet, Monique

    2005-01-01

    Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help support the monitoring activities, the Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV) has been developed. Results The ISPHM-WNV is a real-time geographic information system for public health surveillance of West Nile virus and includes information on Corvidae, mosquitoes, humans, horses, climate, and preventive larvicide interventions. It has been in operation in the province of Quebec, Canada, since May 2003. The ISPHM-WNV facilitates the collection, localization, management and analysis of monitoring data; it also allows for the display of the results of analyses on maps, tables and statistical diagrams. Conclusion The system is very helpful for field workers in all regions of the province, as well as for central authorities. It represents the common authoritative source of data for analysis, exchange and decision-making. PMID:16159403

  20. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000.

    PubMed

    Komar, N; Burns, J; Dean, C; Panella, N A; Dusza, S; Cherry, B

    2001-01-01

    After an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in people, horses, and wildlife in Staten Island, NY, during the summer of 2000, we surveyed the bird population of the island for evidence of infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 59 of 257 (23.0%) resident birds and none of 96 transient (migrating) birds sampled in early October. Species with the greatest seroprevalence were northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) (69.2%) and rock dove (Columba livia) (54.5%). House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and chickens (Gallus gallus) had lower than expected seroprevalences, 8.6% and 5.5%, respectively. The geographic distribution of seropositivity suggested focal transmission at several locations on the island. The concentration of seropositive birds among resident bird populations on Staten Island supports the concept that many birds survive WNV infection and that some of these play an important role in the WNV-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. PMID:12653147

  1. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of the West Nile Virus IgM capture Elisa assay. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-10-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the West Nile Virus IgM Capture Elisa assay into class II (special controls). The agency is taking this action in response to a petition submitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The agency is classifying this device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance document that will serve as the special control for the device. PMID:14587527

  2. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Caillouët, Kevin A.; Robertson, Charles W.; Wheeler, David C.; Komar, Nicholas; Bulluck, Lesley P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV). Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae) across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity. PMID:24287858

  3. Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France

    PubMed Central

    Ponçon, Nicolas; Balenghien, Thomas; Toty, Céline; Ferré, Jean Baptiste; Thomas, Cyrille; Dervieux, Alain; L’Ambert, Grégory; Schaffner, Francis; Bardin, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence. PMID:18258028

  4. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado [Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  5. A mutation in the envelope protein fusion loop attenuates mouse neuroinvasiveness of the NY99 strain of West Nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shuliu; Li Li; Woodson, Sara E.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Kinney, Richard M.; Barrett, Alan D.T. ||||; Beasley, David W.C. |||. E-mail: d.beasley@utmb.edu

    2006-09-15

    Substitutions were engineered individually and in combinations at the fusion loop, receptor-binding domain and a stem-helix structure of the envelope protein of a West Nile virus strain, NY99, and their effects on mouse virulence and presentation of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were assessed. A single substitution within the fusion loop (L107F) attenuated mouse neuroinvasiveness of NY99. No substitutions attenuated NY99 neurovirulence. The L107F mutation also abolished binding of a non-neutralizing MAb, 3D9, whose epitope had not been previously identified. MAb 3D9 was subsequently shown to be broadly cross-reactive with other flaviviruses, consistent with binding near the highly conserved fusion loop.

  6. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of combined monoterpene alcohols against West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pliego Zamora, Adriana; Edmonds, Judith H; Reynolds, Maxwell J; Khromykh, Alexander A; Ralph, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and animals for which no therapies are currently available. We studied an established combination of monoterpene alcohols (CMA) derived from Melaleuca alternifolia, against WNV infection. The in vitro results show that CMA exhibits virucidal activity, as well as reduces the viral titres and percentage of infected cells. The antiviral mechanism of action of CMA was studied. We found that CMA did not alter the intracellular pH, neither induced apoptosis, but did induce cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase although that was not the antiviral mechanism. Furthermore, we tested CMA in vivo using IRF 3(-)(/)(-)/7(-/-)mice and it was found that CMA treatment significantly delayed morbidity due to WNV infection, reduced the loss of body weight and reduced the viral titres in brain. These findings suggest that CMA could be a therapeutic agent against WNV infection. PMID:27152479

  7. Regional Differences in the Association Between Land Cover and West Nile Virus Disease Incidence in Humans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Sarah E.; Magori, Krisztian; Drake, John M.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is generally considered to be an urban pathogen in the United States, but studies associating land cover and disease incidence, seroprevalence, or infection rate in humans, birds, domesticated and wild mammals, and mosquitoes report varying and sometimes contradictory results at an array of spatial extents. Human infection can provide insight about basic transmission activity; therefore, we analyzed data on the incidence of WNV disease in humans to obtain a comprehensive picture of how human disease and land cover type are associated across the United States. Human WNV disease incidence in Northeastern regions was positively associated with urban land covers, whereas incidence in the Western United States was positively associated with agricultural land covers. We suggest that these regional associations are explained by the geographic distributions of prominent WNV vectors: Culex pipiens complex (including Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in the Northeast and Cx. tarsalis in the Western United States. PMID:21292890

  8. Seasonality and survival associated with three outbreak seasons of West Nile virus disease in Oklahoma--2003, 2007, and 2012.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew G; Adams, Jaymes; McDonald-Hamm, Christie; Wendelboe, Aaron; Bradley, Kristy K

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) activity has fluctuated in the south-central United States since its introduction. Seasonal outbreaks are common, with three in Oklahoma during 2003, 2007, and 2012. Morbidity and mortality rates vary during each outbreak. Long-term neurologic sequelae in association with West Nile virus disease (WNVD) are well-described, but limited information is available about delayed mortality among acute WNV infection survivors. A retrospective cohort analysis of all confirmed and probable WNVD cases reported to the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) during 2003, 2007, and 2012 was performed. OSDH surveillance data and mortality data from Oklahoma's vital statistics database were used to construct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis of the geography, temporality, severity, and associated mortality for each outbreak season. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to measure survival of the 2003 and 2007 WNVD cohorts. Seventy-nine cases during 2003, 107 cases during 2007, and 180 cases during 2012 met inclusion criteria. Median ages of the 2003, 2007, and 2012 cohorts were 48, 58, and 59 years, respectively; race, sex, and symptom information were not substantially different. Each outbreak season had a different severity, temporality, and geography. Age- and sex-adjusted SMRs for the combined 2003 and 2007 cohorts censored at 5 years was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.51-1.75); no substantial difference was observed between the survival curves. Although similar patterns of long-term mortality were evident on the survival curves, SMRs did not demonstrate increased 5-year cumulative risk for death for patients surviving acute WNV infection. PMID:25946680

  9. Wetlands Management and risk for West Nile Virus Circulation in Camargue, Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Agnes; Pradier, Sophie; Paul, Mathilde; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Sandoz, Alain

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between mosquitoes (mainly the genus Culex) and wild birds. Horses and humans are incidental hosts and can develop severe neurological disorders. During last decades, the number of WNV cases reported in Europe has increased dramatically. Large outbreaks of increased clinical severity have been reported in parts of Russia, Southern and Eastern Europe. In the Camargue area, WNV outbreaks have been reported in 2000, 2004 and more recently in 2015. We hypothesize that the management of Camargue wetlands could play a key role in the emergence of outbreaks in this area during recent years. WNV transmission requires competent vectors, receptive hosts, and environmental parameters which allow contact between the vectors and the different hosts. The Rhône Delta is known for its landscape of wetlands and its wealth of different bird species. It is also a region where mosquito populations are very abundant. Recent observations have shown that environmental changes, mainly resulting from anthropogenic practices, have had an impact on inter-annual variations in the wetlands and consequently on the abundance of mosquitoes. Water is provided either by rainfall or by a very tight canal network diverted from the river Rhone. Water management is under the control of individual field owners and dependent on its various uses (grazing, rice culture, hunting reserves). This specific management of water resources could play a role in the circulation of WNV in the area. Non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) were sampled in 2007 and 2008 in the Camargue area and a serological test was performed to identify a possible contact with the WNV. Environmental variables related to water resources and management were collected through fifteen Landsat images. Areas with open water and flooded vegetation and their variations within a year and between years (2007-08) were quantified for buffers of 2 km radius around the stables. Mean

  10. Potential transmission of West Nile virus in the British Isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Snow, K R; Leach, S

    2005-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans. After its discovery in tropical Africa, sporadic outbreaks of WNV occurred during recent decades in Eurasia, but not the British Isles. WNV reached New York in 1999 and spread to California by 2003, causing widespread outbreaks of West Nile encephalitis across North America, transmitted by many species of mosquitoes, mainly Culex spp. The periodic reappearance of WNV in parts of continental Europe (from southern France to Romania) gives rise to concern over the possibility of WNV invading the British Isles. The British Isles have about 30 endemic mosquito species, several with seasonal abundance and other eco-behavioural characteristics predisposing them to serve as potential WNV bridge vectors from birds to humans. These include: the predominantly ornithophilic Culex pipiens L. and its anthropophilic biotype molestus Forskal; tree-hole adapted Anopheles plumbeus Stephens; saltmarsh-adapted Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas, Oc. detritus Haliday and Oc. dorsalis (Meigen); Coquillettidia richiardii Ficalbi, Culiseta annulata Schrank and Cs. morsitans (Theobald) from vegetated freshwater pools; Aedes cinereus Meigen, Oc. cantans Meigen and Oc. punctor Kirby from seasonal woodland pools. Those underlined have been found carrying WNV in other countries (12 species), including the rarer British species Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex europaeus Ramos et al., Cx. modestus Ficalbi and Oc. sticticus (Meigen) as well as the Anopheles maculipennis Meigen complex (mainly An. atroparvus van Thiel and An. messeae Falleroni in Britain). Those implicated as key vectors of WNV in Europe are printed bold (four species). So far there is no proof of any arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes in the British Isles, although antibodies to Sindbis, Tahyna, Usutu and West Nile viruses have been detected in British birds. Neighbouring European countries have

  11. Preclinical and Clinical Development of a YFV 17 D-Based Chimeric Vaccine against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Gustavo H.; Pugachev, Konstantin; Bevilacqua, Joan; Lang, Jean; Monath, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial success has been achieved in the development and implementation of West Nile (WN) vaccines for horses; however, no human WN vaccines are approved. This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that ChimeriVax-WN02 was significantly less neurovirulent than YF 17D in mice and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. Safety, viremia and immunogenicity of ChimeriVax-WN02 were assessed in one phase I study and in two phase II clinical trials. No safety signals were detected in the three clinical trials with no remarkable differences in incidence of adverse events (AEs) between vaccine and placebo recipients. Viremia was transient and the mean viremia levels were low. The vaccine elicited strong and durable neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses. WN epidemiology impedes a classical licensure pathway; therefore, innovative licensure strategies should be explored. PMID:24351795

  12. Phylogeography of West Nile Virus: from the Cradle of Evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas▿ †

    PubMed Central

    May, Fiona J.; Davis, C. Todd; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed of the encephalitic flaviviruses and is a major cause of encephalitis, with isolates obtained from all continents, apart from Antarctica. Subsequent to its divergence from the other members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex, presumably in Africa, WNV has diverged into individual lineages that mostly correspond with geographic distribution. Here we elucidate the phylogeography and evolutionary history of isolates from lineage 1 of WNV. Interestingly, there are many examples of the same amino acid having evolved independently on multiple occasions. In Africa, WNV exists in an endemic cycle, whereas it is epidemic in Europe, being reintroduced regularly from Africa either directly (in western Europe) or via the Middle East (in eastern Europe). Significantly, introduction into other geographic areas has occurred on one occasion only in each region, leading to subsequent establishment and expansion of the virus in these areas. Only one endemic genotype each is present in India and Australia, suggesting that WNV was successfully introduced into these locations once only. Each introduction occurred many centuries ago, probably due to trade and exploration during the 19th century. Likewise, in the Americas, WNV was successfully introduced in 1999 and subsequently became endemic across most temperate regions of North America (NA). In contrast to previous suggestions, an isolate from the epidemic in Israel in 1998 was not the direct progenitor of the NA epidemic; rather, both epidemics originated from the same (unknown) location. PMID:21159871

  13. Fluid spatial dynamics of West Nile virus in the USA: Rapid spread in a permissive host environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francesca Di Giallonardo; Jemma L. Geoghegan; Douglas E. Docherty; Robert G. McLeanand; Zody, Michael C.; Qu, James; Yang, Xiao; Birren, Bruce W.; Malboeuf, Christine M.; Newman, R.; Ip, Hon S.; Edward C. Holmes

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 is a classical example of viral emergence in a new environment, with its subsequent dispersion across the continent having a major impact on local bird populations. Despite the importance of this epizootic, the pattern, dynamics and determinants of WNV spread in its natural hosts remain uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the virus encountered major barriers to transmission, or spread in an unconstrained manner, and if specific viral lineages were favored over others indicative of intrinsic differences in fitness. To address these key questions in WNV evolution and ecology we sequenced the complete genomes of approximately 300 avian isolates sampled across the USA between 2001-2012. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a relatively ‘star-like' tree structure, indicative of explosive viral spread in US, although with some replacement of viral genotypes through time. These data are striking in that viral sequences exhibit relatively limited clustering according to geographic region, particularly for those viruses sampled from birds, and no strong phylogenetic association with well sampled avian species. The genome sequence data analysed here also contain relatively little evidence for adaptive evolution, particularly on structural proteins, suggesting that most viral lineages are of similar fitness, and that WNV is well adapted to the ecology of mosquito vectors and diverse avian hosts in the USA. In sum, the molecular evolution of WNV in North America depicts a largely unfettered expansion within a permissive host and geographic population with little evidence of major adaptive barriers.

  14. Identification of host genes leading to West Nile virus encephalitis in mice brain using RNA-seq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Belcaid, Mahdi; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2016-01-01

    Differential host responses may be critical determinants of distinct pathologies of West Nile virus (WNV) NY99 (pathogenic) and WNV Eg101 (non-pathogenic) strains. We employed RNA-seq technology to analyze global differential gene expression in WNV-infected mice brain and to identify the host cellular factors leading to lethal encephalitis. We identified 1,400 and 278 transcripts, which were differentially expressed after WNV NY99 and WNV Eg101 infections, respectively, and 147 genes were common to infection with both the viruses. Genes that were up-regulated in infection with both the viruses were mainly associated with interferon signaling. Genes associated with inflammation and cell death/apoptosis were only expressed after WNV NY99 infection. We demonstrate that differences in the activation of key pattern recognition receptors resulted in the induction of unique innate immune profiles, which corresponded with the induction of interferon and inflammatory responses. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after WNV NY99 infection, TREM-1 mediated activation of toll-like receptors leads to the high inflammatory response. In conclusion, we have identified both common and specific responses to WNV NY99 and WNV Eg101 infections as well as genes linked to potential resistance to infection that may be targets for therapeutics. PMID:27211830

  15. Patterns of West Nile virus infection in Ohio blue jays: implications for initiation of the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Tarvin, Keith A; Smith, Jennifer; Ohajuruka, Ojimadu A; Grimes, Sheila

    2004-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in New York City in 1999 and rapidly moved westward. Understanding the mechanisms by which the amplification cycle is reinitiated each year increases our ability to predict epizootics and geographic expansion of the disease. Such understanding is enhanced by knowledge of the patterns of infection in the vertebrate reservoir hosts. Blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) may serve as reservoir hosts for WNV. We examined the influence of age and date on the prevalence of WNV in jay carcasses in Ohio during May-August 2002. Percent of carcasses that were infected increased significantly with time from 3% in May to more than 90% by August. We found no difference in prevalence between juvenile (nestlings and fledglings) and adult jays early in the season, which contradicts the expected pattern if the majority of the adults sampled in 2002 had been exposed to the virus in 2001. Therefore, jays infected in 2001 were unlikely to have been important in initiating the 2002 virus cycle in Ohio. PMID:15155993

  16. Cross-protection between West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A

    2009-09-01

    Similar to West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has a history of intercontinental spread, and birds are important for the maintenance and transmission of both of these closely related viruses. We examined viremic and serologic responses of blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), with and without immunity to WNV, following experimental inoculation with two strains of JEV. Japanese encephalitis (JE) viremia was detected in only one of 16 (6.3%) WNV-immune birds, while all 16 nonimmune birds had detectable JE viremia. Two weeks after JEV inoculation, all birds without pre-existing WNV immunity had clearly distinguishable anti-JEV antibodies, while in all birds with pre-existing WNV immunity, antibodies to WNV and JEV were either indistinguishable or the anti-WNV antibody titers were significantly higher. As WNV is endemic throughout much of North America, WNV immunity among birds may dampen transmission while complicating the serologic diagnosis of JEV, should this pathogen be introduced to North America. PMID:19848083

  17. Ecology of West Nile virus across four European countries: review of weather profiles, vector population dynamics and vector control response.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; L'Ambert, Gregory; Petric, Dusan; Bellini, Romeo; Zgomba, Marija; Groen, Thomas A; Marrama, Laurence; Bicout, Dominique J

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) represents a serious burden to human and animal health because of its capacity to cause unforeseen and large epidemics. Until 2004, only lineage 1 and 3 WNV strains had been found in Europe. Lineage 2 strains were initially isolated in 2004 (Hungary) and in 2008 (Austria) and for the first time caused a major WNV epidemic in 2010 in Greece with 262 clinical human cases and 35 fatalities. Since then, WNV lineage 2 outbreaks have been reported in several European countries including Italy, Serbia and Greece. Understanding the interaction of ecological factors that affect WNV transmission is crucial for preventing or decreasing the impact of future epidemics. The synchronous co-occurrence of competent mosquito vectors, virus, bird reservoir hosts, and susceptible humans is necessary for the initiation and propagation of an epidemic. Weather is the key abiotic factor influencing the life-cycles of the mosquito vector, the virus, the reservoir hosts and the interactions between them. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare mosquito population dynamics, and weather conditions, in three ecologically different contexts (urban/semi-urban, rural/agricultural, natural) across four European countries (Italy, France, Serbia, Greece) with a history of WNV outbreaks. Local control strategies will be described as well. Improving our understanding of WNV ecology is a prerequisite step for appraising and optimizing vector control strategies in Europe with the ultimate goal to minimize the probability of WNV infection. PMID:27590848

  18. Evaluation of a West Nile virus surveillance and early warning system in Greece, based on domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Gewehr, Sandra; Danis, Kostas; Beck, Cécile; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Antalis, Vasilis; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Mourelatos, Spiros; Zientara, Stéphan; Papadopoulos, Orestis

    2014-03-01

    In the summer of 2010 an epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred in Central Macedonia, Greece, with 197 human neuroinvasive disease (WNND) cases. In the following years the virus spread to new areas, with a total of 76 WNND cases in 2011, and 109 WNND cases in 2012 (14 and 12 WNND cases, respectively, in Central Macedonia). We established a surveillance system based on serological testing of domestic pigeons, using cELISA confirmed by serum neutralization test. In Central Macedonia, pigeon seroprevalence was 54% (95% CI: 49-59%) and 31% (95% CI: 24-37%) at the end of the 2010 and 2011 epidemic seasons, respectively. One serum was positive for neutralizing antibodies directed against Usutu virus. Pigeon WNV seroprevalence and incidence rates of human WNND after the 2010 epidemic were positively correlated (ρ=0.94, at the regional unit level), while in 2011 the correlation (ρ=0.56) was not statistically significant, possibly due to small number of human WNND cases recorded. To evaluate the efficacy of the system at alerting upon WNV enzootic circulation before the onset of human cases, we tested 270 pigeons in 2011 and 240 pigeons in 2012. In Central Macedonia, the first seroconversions in pigeons were recorded 44 and 47 days, respectively, before the first human WNND cases. Pigeon surveillance was used successfully for identification of areas with WNV enzootic transmission and for early warning. Timely diffusion of information to health authorities facilitated the implementation of preparedness plans to protect public health. PMID:24503179

  19. Identification of host genes leading to West Nile virus encephalitis in mice brain using RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Belcaid, Mahdi; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2016-01-01

    Differential host responses may be critical determinants of distinct pathologies of West Nile virus (WNV) NY99 (pathogenic) and WNV Eg101 (non-pathogenic) strains. We employed RNA-seq technology to analyze global differential gene expression in WNV-infected mice brain and to identify the host cellular factors leading to lethal encephalitis. We identified 1,400 and 278 transcripts, which were differentially expressed after WNV NY99 and WNV Eg101 infections, respectively, and 147 genes were common to infection with both the viruses. Genes that were up-regulated in infection with both the viruses were mainly associated with interferon signaling. Genes associated with inflammation and cell death/apoptosis were only expressed after WNV NY99 infection. We demonstrate that differences in the activation of key pattern recognition receptors resulted in the induction of unique innate immune profiles, which corresponded with the induction of interferon and inflammatory responses. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after WNV NY99 infection, TREM-1 mediated activation of toll-like receptors leads to the high inflammatory response. In conclusion, we have identified both common and specific responses to WNV NY99 and WNV Eg101 infections as well as genes linked to potential resistance to infection that may be targets for therapeutics. PMID:27211830

  20. Avian Communal Roosts as Amplification Foci for West Nile Virus in Urban Areas in Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Molaei, Goudarz; Simpson, Jennifer E.; Folsom-O’Keefe, Corrine M.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, and Theodore G.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) perpetuates in an enzootic transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and virus-competent avian hosts. In the northeastern United States, the enzootic vectors, Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, feed preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius), suggesting a key role for this bird species in the WNV transmission cycle. We examined the role of American robin communal roosts as virus amplification foci in greater New Haven, Connecticut. Robin communal roosts were located by radio tracking. After mid-August, when most robins were using the roosts, Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans fed often on robins and were significantly more infected with WNV at communal roosts than at non-roosting sites. We also identified 6.4% human-derived blood meals in Aedes vexans in communal roosts. Our results indicate that communal roosts act as late-season amplification foci facilitating transmission to humans because of high infection rates, high abundance, and feeding patterns of enzootic and bridge vectors. PMID:20134014