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Sample records for ning rootsi abi

  1. Ning and Writing to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettzevoglou, Nathalie; McBride, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Writing effectively is academically and professionally crucial for students, and helping them attain that skill is a major goal for writing instruction. The social networking site Ning offers a variety of Web 2.0 tools that can help students learn to write as well as write to learn. In this article, the authors describe their personal experiment…

  2. Educators Eye Ning Transition to a Pay Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a move by the online social-networking site Ning to start charging for its services which has raised worries that new fees could stifle educators' technological collaboration and creativity and touch off similar moves by other companies that provide comparable services heavily used by educators. Ning, which provides a…

  3. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  4. Abi Cooler System Flight Module Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, R.; Pruitt, G.; Nguyen, T.; Raab, J.

    2010-04-01

    Northrop Grumman provides a long-life, low mass, efficient two-stage pulse tube cooler for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be flown on NOAA's GOES R spacecraft. This two-stage cooler design is one of a family of one and multi-stage pulse tube cooler products developed by Northrop Grumman that provides two separate cryogenic interface temperatures with an integral HEC pulse tube cooler and a remote coaxial cold head. The two-stage cold head for ABI was designed to provide simultaneous large cooling power at 53 K and 183 K. This paper summarizes the data collected on the Flight Module (FM) coolers during acceptance testing. Tests conducted on the FM coolers included applied vibration, survival at non-operational temperature extremes, thermal performance measurements over a range of operational temperatures, as well as temperature stability tests. Designed for a 10-year life, the ABI coolers have the capability to provide 1.9-2.3 W of cooling at 53 K, and between 5.1 W and 8.0 W of cooling at 183 K; while rejecting to 300 K with less than 186 W of input power to the cooler control electronics. The ABI Flight Module coolers, on average, met the cooling capability at 53 K and 183 K with average input power levels of 169 W, a performance margin of roughly 9%. All coolers demonstrated short term stability of less than 73 mKp-p and long term temperature stability of less than 83 mKp-p. These Flight Module coolers represent the full complement of coolers delivered to the ABI Program. All critical FM cooler delivery milestones were met over the course of this program.

  5. Social Networking in Physical Education: Undergraduate Students' Views on Ning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen Balcikanli, Gulfem

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate physical education undergraduate students' views on the use of social networking, one of the most typical representations of Web 2.0 technologies. In order to do so, the researcher, who was the instructor of the class, entitled "Fair Play Education in Sport", introduced Ning and its educational aspects…

  6. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud.

    PubMed

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely

    2016-01-01

    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well. PMID:26619877

  8. A Guide to Searching ONTAP ABI/INFORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Courier, Inc., Louisville, KY.

    This manual is designed to assist searchers in developing cost-effective techniques for searching ABI/INFORM, a database which provides worldwide coverage of management trends, tactics, and techniques, citing articles from more than 550 business and management journals in English and other languages. ONTAP ABI/INFORM, a subset of the database, is…

  9. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI participation. (a) Fraud or misstatement...

  10. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Risk of significant harm to system. If the participant's continued use of ABI would pose a potential risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  11. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  12. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  13. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  14. Development of synthetic GOES-R ABI aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Kondragunta, S.; Ciren, P.; Xu, C.; Zhang, H.; Huff, A.

    2014-09-01

    An Observing Systems Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) aerosol products has been carried out. The generation of simulated data involves prediction of aerosol chemical composition fields at one-hour resolution and 12 km × 12 km spacing. These data are then fed to a radiative transfer model to simulate the on-orbit radiances that the GOES-R ABI will see in six channels. This allows the ABI aerosol algorithm to be tested to produce products that will be available after launch. In cooperation with a user group of 40+ state and local air quality forecasters, the system has been tested in real-time experiments where the results mimic what the forecasters will see after 2016 when GOES-R launches. Feedback from this group has allowed refinement of the web display system for the ABI aerosol products and has creatively called for new products that were not envisaged by the satellite team.

  15. Systematic phytochemical investigation of Abies spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Li, Yong-Li; Li, Su-Mei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xia, Jia-Han; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2010-12-01

    Systematical phytochemical investigations on Abies spectabilis afforded 72 chemical constituents. On the basis of physical and spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)), and by comparison with the literature references, they were identified as 3 triterpenoids, 23 diterpenoids, 1 sesquiterpenoid, 13 flavonoids, 12 lignans, and 20 other components. Among these compounds, three were identified as new including abieta-7,13-diene-12α-methoxy-18-oic acid (1), 7α-methoxy-dehydroabietic acid (2), and 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). These three new compounds (1-3) and all the known terpenoids (4-28) were tested for cytotoxic activities against four tumor cell lines: A549, COLO-25, QGY-25, and THP-1. However, none of them showed a positive effect (IC₅₀>100 µM). PMID:21139272

  16. Negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling by the Brassica oleracea ABI1 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhao, Huixian; Guo, Aiguang; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2013-12-13

    ABI1 (ABA Insensitive 1) is an important component of the core regulatory network in early ABA (Abscisic acid) signaling. Here, we investigated the functions of an ABI1 ortholog in Brassica oleracea (BolABI1). The expression of BolABI1 was dramatically induced by drought, and constitutive expression of BolABI1 confers ABA insensitivity upon the wild-type. Subcellular localization and phosphatase assays reveal that BolABI1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors phosphatase activity. Furthermore, BolABI1 interacts with a homolog of OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1) in B. oleracea (BolOST1) and can dephosphorylate ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5) in vitro. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI1 is a functional PP2C-type protein phosphatase that is involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:24269821

  17. Triterpene derivatives from Abies spectabilis leaves of Nepalese origin.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Minesso, Paola; Comai, Stefano; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Gewali, Mohan Bikram; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-06-01

    Our ongoing studies of Nepalese medicinal plants has led to the isolation and characterization of five new triterpenes, two known triterpenes and two phenolic derivatives from Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb leaves grown in the high mountain. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and MS techniques. PMID:21815413

  18. Arabidopsis abi1-1 and abi2-1 phosphatase mutations reduce abscisic acid-induced cytoplasmic calcium rises in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, G J; Kuchitsu, K; Chu, S P; Murata, Y; Schroeder, J I

    1999-09-01

    Elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2)+](cyt)) are an important component of early abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. To determine whether defined mutations in ABA signal transduction affect [Ca(2)+](cyt) signaling, the Ca(2)+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2 was loaded into the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis guard cells. Oscillations in [Ca(2)+](cyt) could be induced when the external calcium concentration was increased, showing viable Ca(2)+ homeostasis in these dye-loaded cells. ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations in wild-type stomata were either transient or sustained, with a mean increase of approximately 300 nM. Interestingly, ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) increases were significantly reduced but not abolished in guard cells of the ABA-insensitive protein phosphatase mutants abi1 and abi2. Plasma membrane slow anion currents were activated in wild-type, abi1, and abi2 guard cell protoplasts by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt), demonstrating that the impairment in ABA activation of anion currents in the abi1 and abi2 mutants was bypassed by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt). Furthermore, increases in external calcium alone (which elevate [Ca(2)+](cyt)) resulted in stomatal closing to the same extent in the abi1 and abi2 mutants as in the wild type. Conversely, stomatal opening assays indicated different interactions of abi1 and abi2, with Ca(2)+-dependent signal transduction pathways controlling stomatal closing versus stomatal opening. Together, [Ca(2)+](cyt) recordings, anion current activation, and stomatal closing assays demonstrate that the abi1 and abi2 mutations impair early ABA signaling events in guard cells upstream or close to ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations. These results further demonstrate that the mutations can be bypassed during anion channel activation and stomatal closing by experimental elevation of [Ca(2)+](cyt). PMID:10488243

  19. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:26564029

  20. The complete plastid genome sequence of Abies koreana (Pinaceae: Abietoideae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Yang, Jong Cheol; So, Soonku; Joo, Minjung; Kim, Dong-Kap; Shin, Chang Ho; Lee, You-Mi; Choi, Kyung

    2016-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from Abies koreana is the first to have complete genome sequence from genus Abies of family Pinaceae. The circular double-stranded DNA, which consists of 121,373 base pairs (bp), contains a pair of very short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 264 bp each, which are separated by a small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 54,197 and 66,648 bp, respectively. The genome contents of 114 genes (68 peptide-encoding genes, 35 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes, six open reading frames and one pseudogene) are similar to the chloroplast DNA of other species of Abietoideae. Loss of ndh genes was also identified in the genome of A. koreana like other genomes in the family Pinaceae. Thirteen genes contain one (11 genes) or two (rps12 and ycf3 genes) introns. In phylogenetic analysis, the tree confirms that Abies, Keteleeria and Cedrus are strongly supported as monophyletic. Other inverted repeat sequences located in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp) include trnS-psaM-ycf12- ψtrnG genes. PMID:25812052

  1. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. PMID:27457990

  2. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions. PMID:26911230

  3. Cooperation of three WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in repressing two ABA-responsive genes ABI4 and ABI5 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2012-01-01

    Three evolutionarily closely related WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in Arabidopsis were previously identified as negative abscisic acid (ABA) signalling regulators, of which WRKY40 regulates ABI4 and ABI5 expression, but it remains unclear whether and how the three transcription factors cooperate to regulate expression of ABI4 and ABI5. In the present experiments, it was shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60, like WRKY40, interact with the W-box in the promoters of ABI4 and ABI5 genes, though the three WRKYs have their own preferential binding domains in the two promoters. WRKY18 and WRKY60, together with WRKY40, inhibit expression of the ABI5 and/or ABI4 genes, which is consistent with their negative roles in ABA signalling. Further, genetic evidence is provided that mutations of ABI4 and ABI5 genes suppress ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes of the null mutant alleles of WRKY18 and WRKY60 genes, demonstrating that ABI4 and ABI5 function downstream of these two WRKY transcription factors in ABA signalling. A working model of cooperation of the three WRKYs in repressing ABI4 and ABI5 expression is proposed, in which the three WRKYs antagonize or aid each other in a highly complex manner. These findings help to understand the complex mechanisms of WRKY-mediated ABA signal transduction. PMID:23095997

  4. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G. B.; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel’s I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  5. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G B; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel's I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  6. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively. PMID:27080759

  7. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  8. Students' Attitudes toward ABI/INFORM on CD-ROM: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Vicky; Lau, Shuk-fong

    Two years after the introduction of CD-ROM bibliographic database searching in the Memphis State University libraries (Tennessee), a survey was conducted to examine students' attitudes toward the business database, ABI/INFORM. ABI/INFORM contains indexes and abstracts of articles from over 800 journals on management, accounting, banking, human…

  9. Diterpenoids from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Jin, An; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Tian; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-04-01

    Five new abietane diterpenoids, named abifadines A-E (1-5), and nine known ones (6-14), together with two known podocarpenes (15 and 16), were isolated from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii. Their structures including the relative configurations were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities. Only compounds 5 and 12 exhibited weak anti-proliferative effects against three cancer cell lines (B16, MCF7, and HepG2) with IC50 values range from 14.8 to 42.8μM. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Monilia albicans of all compounds were also tested, but none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26969787

  10. Life testing of the ABI cryocooler: Two years complete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Perry G.; Swanson, Kirsten S.

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is a prime payload for the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft) series of meteorological satellites. Focal plane temperature control is provided by a two-stage cryocooler based on the NGAS HEC (Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems High Efficiency Cryocooler) design. To demonstrate the long-term operation of this cooler, a dedicated life test is being performed. The life test cooler is close to the flight design, differing only in minor details of the cold head structure. The test concept simulates continuous operation the cooler at flight like conditions. Long term testing started on 12 June 2009, and has continued to this date. Test performance and anomalies are discussed.

  11. Epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids from Abies faxoniana Rehd.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Lv, Chao; Jin, Hui-Zi; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Abies faxoniana Rehd. led to the isolation of two pairs of new epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids (1/1' and 2/2') and 11 known terpenoids (3-13). Compounds 1/1' and 2/2' were isolated as epimeric mixtures due to the C-23 ketal tautomerism in their spirolactone structures. The dynamic HPLC manifested that the C-23 epimeric mixtures interconverted into each other in solution. Structure determinations were based on extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis. Meanwhile, their cytotoxic activities were tested by MTT method. Compound 5 showed cytotoxicities against MCF-7 and A549 cells with IC50 values of 6.5 and 5.7μM, respectively. Compounds 1/1' had IC50 values of 10.0 and 12.3μM for Huh7 and SMMC7721 cells, respectively. PMID:27431772

  12. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  13. [The psychiatric treatment of Aby Warburg: a historical case report].

    PubMed

    Theiss-Abendroth, P

    2010-01-01

    Aby Warburg, one of the leading German intellectuals in the early 20 (th) century, developed a severe psychosis towards the end of WW I. Given up as incurable, he managed to recover after 6 years most of which he spent in three different mental hospitals. Although his treatment involved some of the best known psychiatrists of that time, it was later criticized as old-fashioned. As major parts of Warburg's case history have recently been published they now enable us to reconstruct and evaluate his treatment within the context of clinical concepts and methods available in the early 1920's. Apparently German-speaking psychiatry back then held no sufficient tools to adequately consider psychological factors both in the etiology and therapeutic response for Warburg's case. Instead his own scientific work played a crucial role in the "restoration of reason". PMID:20091457

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  16. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  17. New evidence for the symbiosis between Tuber aestivum and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Stobbe, Annika; Sproll, Ludger; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.), an ectomycorrhizal fungus living in association with host plants, is one of the most exclusive delicacies. The symbiosis with deciduous oak, beech, and hazel dominates our concept of truffle ecophysiology, whereas potential conifer hosts have rarely been reported. Here, we present morphological and molecular evidence of a wildlife T. aestivum symbiosis with Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and an independent greenhouse inoculation experiment, to confirm our field observation in southwest Germany. A total of 27 out of 50 P. abies seedlings developed T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae with a mean mycorrhization rate of 19.6 %. These findings not only suggest P. abies to be a productive host species under suitable biogeographic conditions but also emphasize the broad ecological amplitude and great symbiotic range of T. aestivum. While challenging common knowledge, this study demonstrates a significant expansion of the species' cultivation potential to the central European regions, where P. abies forests occur on calcareous soils. PMID:23674121

  18. “Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor co-expression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation”

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S. L.; Ritchie, Glen L.; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J.; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE), and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely, AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA- inducible promoter: GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when co-expressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthetic and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field, and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations though reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had “less stressed” molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Over-expression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  19. Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor coexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S L; Ritchie, Glen L; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J; Rock, Christopher D

    2014-06-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE) and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA-inducible promoter:GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when coexpressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthesis and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations through reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had 'less-stressed' molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Overexpression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  20. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  1. Functional analysis of the isoforms of an ABI3-like factor of Pisum sativum generated by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Gagete, Andrés P; Riera, Marta; Franco, Luis; Rodrigo, M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    At least seven isoforms (PsABI3-1 to PsABI3-7) of a putative, pea ABI3-like factor, originated by alternative splicing, have been identified after cDNA cloning. A similar variability had previously only been described for monocot genes. The full-length isoform, PsABI3-1, contains the typical N-terminal acidic domains and C-terminal basic subdomains, B1 to B3. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the gene is expressed just in seeds, starting at middle embryogenesis; no gene products are observed in embryo axes after 18 h post-imbibition although they are more persistent in cotyledons. The activity of the isoforms was studied by yeast one-hybrid assays. When yeast was transformed with the isoforms fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4p, only the polypeptides PsABI3-2 and PsABI3-7 failed to complement the activity of Gal4p. Acidic domains A1 and A2 exhibit transactivating activity, but the former requires a small C-terminal extension to be active. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PsABI3 is able to heterodimerize with Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5, thus proving that PsABI3 is functionally active. The minimum requirement for the interaction PsABI3-AtABI5 is the presence of the subdomain B1 with an extension, 81 amino acids long, at their C-terminal side. Finally, a transient onion transformation assay showed that both the active PsABI3-1 and the inactive PsABI3-2 isoforms are localized to nuclei. Considering that the major isoforms remain approximately constant in developing seeds although their relative proportion varied, the possible role of splicing in the regulatory network of ABA signalling is discussed. PMID:19261920

  2. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Shuang Shen Ning Xin Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Preserving of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueli; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Li; Guo, Yujie; Lin, Chengren; Zhang, Cuixiang; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45 mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25031602

  4. Traditional chinese medicine shuang shen ning xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by preserving of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueli; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Li; Guo, Yujie; Lin, Chengren; Zhang, Cuixiang; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45 mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25031602

  5. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  6. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  7. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  8. UPSILoN: AUtomated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars using MachIne LearNing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2015-12-01

    UPSILoN (AUtomated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars using MachIne LearNing) classifies periodic variable stars such as Delta Scuti stars, RR Lyraes, Cepheids, Type II Cepheids, eclipsing binaries, and long-period variables (i.e. superclasses), and their subclasses (e.g. RR Lyrae ab, c, d, and e types) using well-sampled light curves from any astronomical time-series surveys in optical bands regardless of their survey-specific characteristics such as color, magnitude, and sampling rate. UPSILoN consists of two parts, one which extracts variability features from a light curve, and another which classifies a light curve, and returns extracted features, a predicted class, and a class probability. In principle, UPSILoN can classify any light curves having arbitrary number of data points, but using light curves with more than ~80 data points provides the best classification quality.

  9. Postnatal ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors in JiNing Grey goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, YunZhi; Wang, ShuYing; Bai, Shu; Huang, LiBo; Hou, YanMeng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examined the ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors levels and the precocious puberty in JiNing Gray goats by using optical microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. We found that in the ovaries of neonatal kids, high level of receptors for estrogen (ERα and ERβ) and progesterone (PR) and their mRNA were observed along with growing follicles. From 0 to 30 days of age, the weight and volume of ovaries increased significantly and the boundary between the inner and outer cortex disappeared, while the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA decreased sharply. When 60 days old, the animals began to ovulate; the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA significantly increased, and the animals reached puberty. On day 90, the animals manifested sexual maturity with biggest mature follicles 6.18mm in diameter, the expression of ERβ and PR protein and their mRNA was maintained at a high level, with decreased expression of ERα and its mRNA. Before puberty, the expression of ovarian ERα (prepubertal dominant receptor) and it's mRNA was significantly higher than that of ERβ (dominant receptor after sexual maturity). The results showed that JiNing Grey goats' ovaries had fast development and early maturation, and ERα, ERβ and PR protein and mRNA expression in the ovary had distinct specificity for time and space, which may be closely related to the strain's progenitive characteristics. PMID:25616699

  10. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  11. [Healing current through a goiter. The life, work and after effects of the magic healer Bruno Gröning].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2008-01-01

    During the years between 1949 and 1959 the wonder healer Bruno Gröning (1906-1959) gripped the public and medical interest in Germany. He explained to be a descent of Jesus Christ, sending "healing waves" to end diseases and made a lot of money. Finally he was found guilty in letting a persuaded fan dying and was convicted. But before the end of the process he died of carcinoma, which had been operated in a regular clinic. Despite this obvious problem that Gröning demanded from his admirers refusing medical help but preferred it for his own health today his successors are still promoting his legacy. PMID:18693642

  12. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses. PMID:26059040

  13. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites for Abies koreana and A. nephrolepis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hong, J K; Lim, J; Lee, B Y; Kwak, M

    2016-01-01

    Abies koreana is an endemic and rare species from Korea and is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Although the genetic diversity assessment for current population of A. koreana needs to be performed urgently, no microsatellite markers have been developed for this species. In the present study, we developed 22 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the characteristics of these loci were determined in A. koreana as well as in Abies nephrolepis, the most closely related species, and these loci were compared with previously reported microsatellite markers developed for the Abies genus. Genomic sequence (161 Mbp; 325,776 reads) was obtained from one individual of A. koreana using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing and 19,258 repeat motifs were identified from it. A total of 288 primer pairs with high copy numbers of di-repeat motifs were evaluated for amplification in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. A total of 71 primer pairs successfully amplified fragments, of which 22 showed polymorphisms in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. The average expected diversity was 0.767 and 0.717 in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis, respectively; these heterozygosity levels were moderate compared to the previously reported microsatellite loci from Abies species. This is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for A. koreana as well as A. nephrolepis and further population genetic studies of both species and genetic delimitation can be carried out for the species conservation and management. PMID:27173282

  14. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  16. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26166370

  17. Effects of clay minerals on Triassic sandstone reservoir in Shan Can Ning basin and their significance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guo Hua; Qian Kai

    1989-03-01

    Mesozoic sandstone reservoirs in the Shan Can Ning basin contain various clay minerals with different genesis and occurrences, which give rise to different effects on reservoir characteristics. The results of this study suggest that the effects of illite on permeability, electrical resistivity, and oil and water saturation of the Yan 10 sandstone are much more obvious than those due to kaolinite. Authigenic chlorite film covering the peripheral edges of sand grains restrained the coaxial secondary overgrowths of quartz, feldspar, and other grains. This restraint played an effective role in preserving the pores and texture of the Yanchang reservoir rocks. The authigenic chlorite film contains abundant micropores which can adsorb considerable pore water, which is kept in an irreducible state. Thus, given the same water saturation conditions, the water production of Yanchang reservoir rocks rich in authigenic chlorite is significantly lower than that of the rocks poor in chlorite film. Because the occurrence of the pore-lining clay (film type) reduces the size of pore throats, acidization may show notable effects on this type of sandstone reservoir.

  18. ABI1 regulates carbon/nitrogen-nutrient signal transduction independent of ABA biosynthesis and canonical ABA signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Sasaki, Yuki; Li, Xingwen; Mori, Izumi C; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hirayama, Takashi; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Plants are able to sense and mediate the balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient availability to optimize metabolism and growth, described as the C/N response. To clarify the C/N signalling mechanism, C/N-insensitive plants were obtained from an Arabidopsis FOX hunting population, which over-expresses full-length cDNAs for individuals. The resulting cni2-D (carbon/nitrogen insensitive 2-dominant) plant was found to overcome the post-germination growth checkpoint and to expand green cotyledons in disrupted high C/low N stress conditions. The CNI2 gene encodes ABI1, a phosphatase type 2C protein, which negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Over-expressors of ABI1 were found to be insensitive to disrupted C/N stress, whereas the loss-of function mutant abi1-2 was hypersensitive, suggesting that ABI1 plays an essential role in the plant C/N response. By contrast, the C/N-dependent growth phenotype observed in wild-type plants was not associated with endogenous ABA content. Accordingly, the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1, which could not bind to the ABA-ABA receptor complex, was not insensitive and restored normal sensitivity to high C/low N stress. The canonical ABA signalling mutants abi4 and abi5 were also sensitive to disrupted C/N stress. Further gene expression analysis demonstrated that several genes in the SnRK2s and SnRK1s pathways are transcriptionally affected by high C/low N stress in wild-type plants regardless of the lack of increased endogenous ABA contents, whereas the expression of these genes were significantly suppressed in ABI1 over-expressors. Taken together, these results suggest direct cross-talk between C/N and non-canonical ABA signalling pathways, regulated by ABI1, in plants. PMID:25795738

  19. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration. PMID:23504513

  20. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-10-01

    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

  1. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    PubMed Central

    Bidnenko, Elena; Chopin, Alain; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background Abortive infection (Abi) mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage). Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation. PMID:19173723

  2. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, D. F.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Hu, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity. PMID:26892681

  3. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  4. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  5. Influence of ultrasounds on some mechanical properties of fir wood (Abies alba Mill). Microscopic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parpala, V.; Pastirnac, A.; Paraschiv, N.

    1974-01-01

    It was found that as a result of ultrasonic treatment fir wood (Abies alba Mill) shows the effects of homogenization, and the modulus of elasticity for static flexure drops on an average by 50% for 45 min of treatment. The drop is more pronounced for test pieces with 8 to 12 annual rings. Study of microscopic sections disclosed that early wood with one annual ring undergoes the most powerful effect.

  6. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  7. The LEA protein, ABR, is regulated by ABI5 and involved in dark-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengying; Huang, Gan; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Chunxin; Tao, Yujin; Zhang, Shengchun; Lai, Jianbin; Yang, Chengwei; Wang, Yaqin

    2016-06-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates plant growth and developmental processes such as leaf senescence. In this study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein ABR (ABA-response protein) in delaying dark-induced leaf senescence. The ABR gene was up-regulated by treatment with ABA, NaCl and mannitol, as well as by light deprivation. In the dark, abr mutant plants displayed a premature leaf senescence phenotype, and various senescence-associated indicators, such as an increase in chlorophyll degradation and membrane leakiness, were enhanced, whereas 35S:ABR/abr transgenic lines showed a marked delay in dark-induced leaf senescence phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that ABI5 bind to the ABR promoter, indicating that ABI5 directly regulates the expression of ABR. The disruption of ABI5 function in abr abi5-1 plants abolished the senescence-accelerating phenotype of the abr mutant, demonstrating that ABI5 is epistatic to ABR. In summary, these results highlight the important role that ABR, which is negatively regulated by ABI5, plays in delaying dark-induced leaf senescence. PMID:27095403

  8. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na(+) than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na(+) levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  9. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  10. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  11. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Ruth R.

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  12. Cryptococcose neuroméningée et tuberculose osseuse chez un immunocompétent: un cas

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouali, Boubacar; Mègne, Estelle; Diomandé, Mohamed; Coulibaly, Abidou Kawalé; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de cryptococcose neuroméningée (CNM) chez un patient de 39 ans, non infecté par le VIH suivi pour une tuberculose de hanche. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une méningite subaiguë. Le diagnostic a été possible grâce à la mise en évidence de cryptocoques dans le LCR. L’évolution a été satisfaisante sous fluconazole. PMID:26090057

  13. Degradation of the ABA co-receptor ABI1 by PUB12/13 U-box E3 ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingyao; Cheng, Jinkui; Zhu, Yujuan; Ding, Yanglin; Meng, Jingjing; Chen, Zhizhong; Xie, Qi; Guo, Yan; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua; Gong, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) are abscisic acid (ABA) co-receptors that block ABA signalling by inhibiting the downstream protein kinases. ABA signalling is activated after PP2Cs are inhibited by ABA-bound PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (PYLs) in Arabidopsis. However, whether these PP2Cs are regulated by other factors remains unknown. Here, we report that ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) can interact with the U-box E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13, but is ubiquitinated only when it interacts with ABA receptors in an in vitro assay. A mutant form of ABI1-1 that is unable to interact with PYLs is more stable than the wild-type protein. Both ABI1 degradation and all tested ABA responses are reduced in pub12 pub13 mutants compared with the wild type. Introducing the abi1-3 loss-of-function mutation into pub12 pub13 mutant recovers the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the pub12 pub13 mutant. We thus uncover an important regulatory mechanism for regulating ABI1 levels by PUB12 and PUB13. PMID:26482222

  14. Nitrate sensing and uptake in Arabidopsis are enhanced by ABI2, a phosphatase inactivated by the stress hormone abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Edel, Kai H; Pervent, Marjorie; Hashimoto, Kenji; Corratgé-Faillie, Claire; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Kudla, Jörg; Lacombe, Benoît

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms sense and respond to changes in nutrient availability to cope with diverse environmental conditions. Nitrate (NO3-) is the main source of nitrogen for plants and is a major component in fertilizer. Unraveling the molecular basis of nitrate sensing and regulation of nitrate uptake should enable the development of strategies to increase the efficiency of nitrogen use and maximize nitrate uptake by plants, which would aid in reducing nitrate pollution. NPF6.3 (also known as NRT1.1), which functions as a nitrate sensor and transporter; the kinase CIPK23; and the calcium sensor CBL9 form a complex that is crucial for nitrate sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified two additional components that regulate nitrate transport, sensing, and signaling: the calcium sensor CBL1 and protein phosphatase 2C family member ABI2, which is inhibited by the stress-response hormone abscisic acid. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays and in vitro kinase assays revealed that ABI2 interacted with and dephosphorylated CIPK23 and CBL1. Coexpression studies in Xenopus oocytes and analysis of plants deficient in ABI2 indicated that ABI2 enhanced NPF6.3-dependent nitrate transport, nitrate sensing, and nitrate signaling. These findings suggest that ABI2 may functionally link stress-regulated control of growth and nitrate uptake and utilization, which are energy-expensive processes. PMID:25943353

  15. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  16. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline. PMID:15091853

  17. Characterization of evolutionarily conserved motifs involved in activity and regulation of the ABA-INSENSITIVE (ABI) 4 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Josefat; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Cordoba, Elizabeth; León, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the transcription factor ABI4 has emerged as an important node of integration for external and internal signals such as nutrient status and hormone signaling that modulates critical transitions during the growth and development of plants. For this reason, understanding the mechanism of action and regulation of this protein represents an important step towards the elucidation of crosstalk mechanisms in plants. However, this understanding has been hindered due to the negligible levels of this protein as a result of multiple posttranscriptional regulations. To better understand the function and regulation of the ABI4 protein in this work, we performed a functional analysis of several evolutionarily conserved motifs. Based on these conserved motifs, we identified ortholog genes of ABI4 in different plant species. The functionality of the putative ortholog from Theobroma cacao was demonstrated in transient expression assays and in complementation studies in plants. The function of the highly conserved motifs was analyzed after their deletion or mutagenesis in the Arabidopsis ABI4 sequence using mesophyll protoplasts. This approach permitted us to immunologically detect the ABI4 protein and identify some of the mechanisms involved in its regulation. We identified sequences required for the nuclear localization (AP2-associated motif) as well as those for transcriptional activation function (LRP motif). Moreover, this approach showed that the protein stability of this transcription factor is controlled through protein degradation and subcellular localization and involves the AP2-associated and the PEST motifs. We demonstrated that the degradation of ABI4 protein through the PEST motif is mediated by the 26S proteasome in response to changes in the sugar levels. PMID:24046063

  18. Current utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a marker of systemic atherosclerosis and associated with a three to six fold increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Furthermore, it is typically asymptomatic and under-diagnosed; this has resulted in escalating calls for the instigation of Primary Care PAD screening via Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) measurement. However, there is limited evidence regarding the feasibility of this and if the requisite core skills and knowledge for such a task already exist within primary care. This study aimed to determine the current utility of ABI measurement in general practices across Wales, with consideration of the implications for its use as a cardiovascular risk screening tool. Method A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all 478 General Practices within Wales, sent via their responsible Health Boards. Results The survey response rate was 20%. ABI measurement is primarily performed by nurses (93%) for the purpose of wound management (90%). It is infrequently (73% < 4 times per month) and often incorrectly used (42% out of compliance with current ABI guidance). Only 52% of general practitioners and 16% of nurses reported that patients with an ABI of ≤ 0.9 require aggressive cardiovascular disease risk factor modification (as recommended by current national and international guidelines). Conclusion ABI measurement is an under-utilised and often incorrectly performed procedure in the surveyed general practices. Prior to its potential adoption as a formalised screening tool for cardiovascular disease, there is a need for a robust training programme with standardised methodology in order to optimise accuracy and consistency of results. The significance of a diagnosis of PAD, in terms of associated increased cardiovascular risk and the necessary risk factor modification, needs to be highlighted. PMID:24742018

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range. PMID:26071873

  20. Tensile, creep, and ABI tests on sn5%sb solder for mechanical property evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. Linga; Haggag, Fahmy M.; Mahidhara, Rao K.

    1997-07-01

    Sn5%Sb is one of the materials considered for replacing lead containing alloys for soldering in electronic packaging. We evaluated the tensile properties of the bulk material at varied strain-rates and temperatures (to 473K) to determine the underlying deformation mechanisms. Stress exponents of about three and seven were observed at low and high stresses, respectively, and very low activation energies for creep (about 16.7 and 37.7 kJ/mole) were noted. A maximum ductility of about 350% was noted at ambient temperature. Creep tests performed in the same temperature regime also showed two distinct regions, albeit with slightly different exponents (three and five) and activation energy (about 54.4 kJ/mole). Ball indentation tests were performed on the shoulder portions of the creep samples (prior to creep tests) using a Stress-Strain Microprobe@ (Advanced Technology Corporation) at varied indentation rates (strain-rates). The automated ball indentation (ABI) data were at relatively high strain-rates; however, they were in excellent agreement with creep data, while both these results deviated from the tensile test data. Work is planned to perform creep at high stresses at ambient and extend ABI tests to elevated temperatures.

  1. Kinetic modeling of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Picea abies bark.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Liliana; Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of polyphenols extraction from spruce bark (Picea abies) under ultrasounds action was investigated. Studies were performed in order to express the effect of some specific parameters (as: ultrasounds, surface contact between solvent and solid, extraction time and temperature) on the total phenolic content (TPC). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasounds, using different contact surfaces between solvent and solid, for times from 5 to 75min and temperatures of 318, 323 and 333K. All these factors have a positive influence on the process, enhancing the extraction rate by recovering higher amounts of polyphenols. The process takes place in two stages: a fast one in the first 20-30min (first stage), followed by a slow one approaching to an equilibrium concentration after 40min (second stage). In these conditions, the second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from P. abies bark. Based on this model, values of second-order extraction rate constant (k), initial extraction rate (h), saturation concentration (Cs) and activation energy (Ea) could be predicted. Model validation was done by plotting experimental and predicted values of TPC's, revealing a very good correlation between the obtained data (R(2)>0.98). PMID:27150760

  2. Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C ABI1 interacts with type I ACC synthases and is involved in the regulation of ozone-induced ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Mituła, Filip; Tajdel, Małgorzata; Gałgański, Łukasz; Ziółkowski, Piotr A; Kubiak, Piotr; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Szabat, Marta; Górska, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Ibragimow, Izabela; Sadowski, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Ethylene plays a crucial role in various biological processes and therefore its biosynthesis is strictly regulated by multiple mechanisms. Posttranslational regulation, which is pivotal in controlling ethylene biosynthesis, impacts 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) protein stability via the complex interplay of specific factors. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase type 2C, ABI1, a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling, is involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis under oxidative stress conditions. We found that ABI1 interacts with ACS6 and dephosphorylates its C-terminal fragment, a target of the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase, MPK6. In addition, ABI1 controls MPK6 activity directly and by this means also affects the ACS6 phosphorylation level. Consistently with this, ozone-induced ethylene production was significantly higher in an ABI1 knockout strain (abi1td) than in wild-type plants. Importantly, an increase in stress-induced ethylene production in the abi1td mutant was compensated by a higher ascorbate redox state and elevated antioxidant activities. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that ABI1 restricts ethylene synthesis by affecting the activity of ACS6. The ABI1 contribution to stress phenotype underpins its role in the interplay between the abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling pathways. PMID:24637173

  3. A possibility as a new type of thermoelectric application on organic-inorganic hybrid perovsike ABI3 system: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhoon; Hong, Jisook; Shim, Ji Hoon; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Postech Team

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structures of organic-inorganic hybrid systems ABI3 (A = CH3NH3, NH2CHNH2; B = Sn, Pb; X = I) in the distorted phase from their patent cubic phase are systematically studied using the first-principles calculations. Here, we examine thermoelectric properties for ABI3 compounds based on the DFT electronic structures of their optimized crystal structures. The ABI3 compounds should be considered for good thermoelectric application. We reveal that good thermoelectric performance of ABI3 systems originate from large seebeck coefficients and low thermal conductivities. As a consequence, we predict that ABI3 system is a promising material for new thermoelectric application compared to thermoelectric properties of well-known thermoelectric material Bi2Te3. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2060341).

  4. Convergence of light and chloroplast signals for de-etiolation through ABI4-HY5 and COP1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiumei; Chi, Wei; Sun, Xuwu; Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Li, Jing; Lin, Rongcheng; Lu, Congming; Wang, Haiyang; Leister, Dario; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Seedling de-etiolation prepares plants to switch from heterotrophic to photoautotrophic growth, a transition essential for plant survival. This delicate de-etiolation process is precisely controlled by environmental and endogenous signals. Although intracellular plastid-derived retrograde signalling is essential for the de-etiolation process, the molecular nature of these retrograde signals remains elusive(1-3). Here we show that chloroplast and light signals antagonistically fine-tune a suite of developmental and physiological responses associated with de-etiolation through a transcriptional module of ABA INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). Moreover, ABI4 and HY5 antagonistically regulate the expression of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and the subsequent greening process. In turn, ABI4 and HY5 are targeted for degradation by COP1 in the light and dark, respectively, to ensure a proper interplay of ABI4 and HY5 actions during seedling de-etiolation. Our study provides a new molecular mechanism for understanding how chloroplast signals converge with light signals to optimize early plant development. PMID:27255835

  5. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  6. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the timing of bud burst in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Partanen, Jouni; Koski, Veikko; Hänninen, Heikki

    1998-12-01

    We examined the effects of several photoperiod and temperature regimes imposed during the winter-spring period on the timing of bud burst in rooted cuttings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown in a greenhouse in Finland. The treatments were initiated in November and December after the cuttings had been exposed to natural chilling and freezing events. Irrespective of the treatments applied, time to bud burst decreased with increased duration of previous exposure to natural chilling and freezing events. Fluctuating day/night temperatures and continuous lengthening of the photoperiod hastened bud burst. Shortening the photoperiod delayed bud burst, suggesting that little or no ontogenetic development toward bud burst takes place during mild periods before the winter solstice. In the case of climatic warming, this phenomenon may prevent the premature onset of growth that has been predicted by computer simulations with models that only consider temperature regulation of bud burst. PMID:12651402

  7. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from <0.1 S in the weakly protected areas to >2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested. PMID:25736831

  8. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered. PMID:25589928

  9. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  10. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Modified versions of the Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were transferred into Norway spruce (Picea abies). Both the biolistic approach and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedure were employed for transformation of embryogenic tissue (ET) cultures. The latter method proved to be more efficient yielding 70 transgenic embryogenic tissue lines compared with 18 lines obtained by biolistics. The modified Cry3A genes were driven by a 35S promoter and the nptII screenable selection marker gene was used in all vectors. The transgenic ETs were molecularly characterized and converted into mature somatic embryos. Germinating embryos formed plantlets which were finally planted into perlite and their Cry3A gene transcription activities were demonstrated by RT-PCR. PMID:23888296

  11. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation. PMID:26413905

  12. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  13. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  14. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-05-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  15. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  16. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations. PMID:26058547

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tang-Luo-Ning Ameliorates Sciatic Nerve Injuries in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Da-Wei; Gao, Yan-Bin; Zhu, Zhi-Yao; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Tao-Jing; Li, Bu-Man; Wang, Jin-Yang; Li, Min-Zhou; Ma, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Na

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes associated with high disability rate and low quality of life. Tang-Luo-Ning (TLN) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of DPN. To illustrate the underlying neural protection mechanisms of TLN, the effect of TLN on electrophysiology and sciatic nerve morphology was investigated in a model of streptozotocin-induced DPN, as well as the underlying mechanism. Sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and digital sensory nerve conduction velocity were reduced in DPN and were significantly improved by TLN or α-lipoic acid at 10 and 20 weeks after streptozotocin injection. It was demonstrated that TLN intervention for 20 weeks significantly alleviated pathological injury as well as increased the phosphorylation of ErbB2, Erk, Bad (Ser112), and the mRNA expression of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (Mtor) in injured sciatic nerve. These novel therapeutic properties of TLN to promote Schwann cell survival may offer a promising alternative medicine for the patients to delay the progression of DPN. The underlying mechanism may be that TLN exerts neural protection effect after sciatic nerve injury through Nrg1/ErbB2→Erk/Bad Schwann cell survival signaling pathway. PMID:24288572

  18. One-pot β-cyclodextrin-assisted extraction of active ingredients from Xue-Zhi-Ning basing its encapsulated ability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Liu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Yue-Fei; Deng, Yan-Ru; Cui, Ming-Lei; Ren, Xiao-Liang; Qi, Ai-Di

    2015-11-01

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula, containing active ingredients with poor solubility in water, which has been demonstrated to be helpful for patients with hyperlipidemia. One-pot β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-assisted extraction of active ingredients from XZN has been carried out to develop an efficient and eco-friendly extraction process. Five active compounds--rubrofusarin gentiobioside, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin, nuciferine and quercetin--were identified by UPLC/DAD/MS and used as indexes to evaluate the process optimized by an orthogonal test. The results showed that addition of β-CD significantly enhanced the extraction ratios of all five components. The enhancement of extraction ratios was positively correlated with the apparent formation constants between β-CD and the compounds. The study also showed that the stabilities and dissolution rates of the active ingredients were improved in the presence of β-CD. This one-pot β-cyclodextrin-assisted extraction has the potential to be applied in pharmaceutical preparations directly. PMID:26256368

  19. Regulation of Arabidopsis MAPKKK18 by ABI1 and SnRK2, components of the ABA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tajdel, Małgorzata; Mituła, Filip; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), a key regulator in many crucial developmental and physiological processes, recruits diverse components into precisely regulated signaling network. We recently discovered that MAPKKK18, an ABA-activated kinase, is regulated by the protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) ABI1 and the kinase SnRK2.6, both components of the ABA core signaling pathway. ABI1 acts to inhibit MAPKKK18 kinase activity, but also affects MAPKKK18 protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. SnRK2.6 kinase also seems to be important for the regulation of MAPKKK18 function. In this review we summarize the mechanisms that are exclusively involved in MAPKKK18 kinase regulation and that ensure specificity in its activation. PMID:26852793

  20. Involvement of the major capsid protein and two early-expressed phage genes in the activity of the lactococcal abortive infection mechanism AbiT.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Simon J; Tremblay, Denise M; Moisan, Maxim; Villion, Manuela; Magadán, Alfonso H; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian; Moineau, Sylvain

    2012-10-01

    The dairy industry uses the mesophilic, Gram-positive, lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Lactococcus lactis to produce an array of fermented milk products. Milk fermentation processes are susceptible to contamination by virulent phages, but a plethora of phage control strategies are available. One of the most efficient is to use LAB strains carrying phage resistance systems such as abortive infection (Abi) mechanisms. Yet, the mode of action of most Abi systems remains poorly documented. Here, we shed further light on the antiviral activity of the lactococcal AbiT system. Twenty-eight AbiT-resistant phage mutants derived from the wild-type AbiT-sensitive lactococcal phages p2, bIL170, and P008 were isolated and characterized. Comparative genomic analyses identified three different genes that were mutated in these virulent AbiT-insensitive phage derivatives: e14 (bIL170 [e14(bIL170)]), orf41 (P008 [orf41(P008)]), and orf6 (p2 [orf6(p2)] and P008 [orf6(P008)]). The genes e14(bIL170) and orf41(P008) are part of the early-expressed genomic region, but bioinformatic analyses did not identify their putative function. orf6 is found in the phage morphogenesis module. Antibodies were raised against purified recombinant ORF6, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that it is the major capsid protein (MCP). Coexpression in L. lactis of ORF6(p2) and ORF5(p2), a protease, led to the formation of procapsids. To our knowledge, AbiT is the first Abi system involving distinct phage genes. PMID:22820334

  1. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL–GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth. PMID:26163700

  2. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  3. Developmental and stress regulation on expression of a novel miRNA, Fan-miR73, and its target ABI5 in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Mou, Wangshu; Luo, Zisheng; Li, Li; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a critical plant hormone for fruit ripening and adaptive stress responses in strawberry. Previous high-throughput sequencing results indicated that ABA-insensitive (ABI)5, an important transcription factor in the ABA signaling pathway, was a target for a novel microRNA (miRNA), Fan-miR73. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment was found to accelerate fruit ripening through differentially regulating the transcripts of ABA metabolism and signal transduction related genes, including NCED1, PYR1, ABI1, and SnRK2.2. Expression of Fan-miR73 was down-regulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment in a dosage-dependent manner, which resulted in an accumulation of ABI5 transcripts in the ripening-accelerated fruits. In addition, both UV-B radiation and salinity stress reduced the transcript levels of Fan-miR73, whereas promoted ABI5 expression. Furthermore, high negative correlations between the transcriptional abundance of Fan-miR73 and ABI5 were observed during ripening and in response to stress stimuli. These results enriched the possible regulatory role of miRNA involved in the post-transcriptional modification of ABI5 during strawberry ripening, as well as responses to environmental stresses. PMID:27325048

  4. Developmental and stress regulation on expression of a novel miRNA, Fan-miR73, and its target ABI5 in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Mou, Wangshu; Luo, Zisheng; Li, Li; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a critical plant hormone for fruit ripening and adaptive stress responses in strawberry. Previous high-throughput sequencing results indicated that ABA-insensitive (ABI)5, an important transcription factor in the ABA signaling pathway, was a target for a novel microRNA (miRNA), Fan-miR73. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment was found to accelerate fruit ripening through differentially regulating the transcripts of ABA metabolism and signal transduction related genes, including NCED1, PYR1, ABI1, and SnRK2.2. Expression of Fan-miR73 was down-regulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment in a dosage-dependent manner, which resulted in an accumulation of ABI5 transcripts in the ripening-accelerated fruits. In addition, both UV-B radiation and salinity stress reduced the transcript levels of Fan-miR73, whereas promoted ABI5 expression. Furthermore, high negative correlations between the transcriptional abundance of Fan-miR73 and ABI5 were observed during ripening and in response to stress stimuli. These results enriched the possible regulatory role of miRNA involved in the post-transcriptional modification of ABI5 during strawberry ripening, as well as responses to environmental stresses. PMID:27325048

  5. ABI4 Activates DGAT1 Expression in Arabidopsis Seedlings during Nitrogen Deficiency1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Xiangchun; Song, Lianfen; An, Chengcai

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major seed storage lipid and is important for biofuel and other renewable chemical uses. Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the TAG biosynthesis pathway, but the mechanism of its regulation is unknown. Here, we show that TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings increased significantly during nitrogen deprivation (0.1 mm nitrogen) with concomitant induction of genes involved in TAG biosynthesis and accumulation, such as DGAT1 and OLEOSIN1. Nitrogen-deficient seedlings were used to determine the key factors contributing to ectopic TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues. Under low-nitrogen conditions, the phytohormone abscisic acid plays a crucial role in promoting TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), an important transcriptional factor in the abscisic acid signaling pathway, bound directly to the CE1-like elements (CACCG) present in DGAT1 promoters. Genetic studies also revealed that TAG accumulation and DGAT1 expression were reduced in the abi4 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that abscisic acid signaling is part of the regulatory machinery governing TAG ectopic accumulation and that ABI4 is essential for the activation of DGAT1 in Arabidopsis seedlings during nitrogen deficiency. PMID:21515696

  6. Isolation of the GA-response mutant sly1 as a suppressor of ABI1-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Steber, C M; Cooney, S E; McCourt, P

    1998-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination in higher plants are partially controlled by the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). ABA establishes dormancy during embryo maturation, whereas GA breaks dormancy and induces germination. Previous attempts to identify GA response genes were confounded because GA mutants are not expected to germinate and, unlike GA auxotrophs, should fail to be rescued by exogenous GA. Here, we describe a screen for suppressors of the ABA-insensitive mutant ABI1-1 that enriches for GA auxotrophs and GA-insensitive mutants. The vast majority (76%) of the suppressors of ABI1-1 strongly resemble GA auxotrophs in that they are severely dwarfed and have dark green foliage and flowers with underdeveloped petals and stamen. Three isolates were alleles of the GA auxotroph ga1. The remaining severe dwarves were not rescued by GA and belong to a single complementation group that we designate sly1 (Sleepy 1). The alleles of sly1 identified are the first recessive GA-insensitive mutations to reflect the full spectrum of GA-associated phenotypes, including the failure to germinate in the absence of the ABI1-1 lesion. Thus, we postulate that SLY1 is a key factor in GA reception. PMID:9611170

  7. Antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous preparation of Abies alba and Viscum album se abies, on a L-1210 malignant cell line and tumor-bearing Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, S; Assimakopoulos, D; Malamas, M; Skaltsounis, A L; Leonce, S; Zelovitis, J; Stefanou, D; Evangelou, A

    2000-01-01

    Extracts of plants have been widely tested for possible anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study a traditional remedy, consisting of an aqueous extract of mixed parts of the tree Abies alba and its mistletoe Viscum album se abies was tested on benzo(alpha)pyrene(BaP)-induced tumors in Wistar rats and on the L-1210 malignant cell line. Two main groups of male Wistar rats subcutaneously injected by 10 mg of BaP, a dose inducing 100% carcinogenesis, a control group (C-G, 15 rats) and a treatment group(TR-G, 18 rats), were used for the study. Five animals bearing BaP-induced tumors were also tested (TR-1-G). Animals of the TR-G were orally administered with the aqueous extract at doses of 50 ml/kg b.w, from the day of BaP injection and of the TR-1-G, from the 120th day of injection, till death. L-1210 malignant cells in cultivation, were administered with a powder obtained by condensation and lyophilization of the extract, at various concentrations and cytotoxicity was measured by the microculture tetrazolium assay. Autopsy of the rats, revealed metastasis in the lungs of the animals of all groups and the tumors developed were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. The results indicated that the extract of the above plants possess anticarcinogenic effects, documented by: a) its antiproliferative effects on L-1210 cells (IC50 = 49.6 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml), b) the significant prolongation of life and reduction of tumor growth rate of the animals of the TR-G in comparison to the C-G, c) the inhibition by 16.6% of tumor induction in the TR-G and d) the prolongation of life and the necrotic effects of the extract on the tumors of the animals in the TR-1-G. The antiproliferative effects of the Abies alba and Viscum album se abies extract may be due to the lectins and thionins contained in Viscum album, as well as to the monoterpenes contained in Abies alba. Soft tissue tumors sensitive to the extract, are widespread among human organs, even in larynx, and are

  8. Assessing the dendrochronological and dendroclimatic potential of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbenson, M. C. A.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present five new ring-width records from Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis) stands in northern California and southwestern Oregon to evaluate growth trends and their relation to climate across the species' latitudinal range. The chronologies are made up of 173 living trees in total, and earliest adequate replication ranges from AD 1624 to AD 1812. The oldest tree sampled has an inner-ring date of AD 1340. Chronologies display shared variability in ring-width at inter-annual timescales; however, reliable cross-dating across the full study region is not possible. The five chronologies, together with one publicly available record, were compared to local and regional climate data. Significant correlations between red fir tree growth and local climate were found at all six sites but no relationship was consistent throughout the latitudinal gradient. Prior analysis has suggested that the growth of the species is primarily limited by summer minimum temperature, but this relationship was not apparent at most sites within our network. Instead, the associations observed between red fir growth and climate are multivariate, dependent on the temporal resolution of climate data used, and may also be influenced by both latitude and elevation.

  9. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  10. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  11. Phytochemical and antioxidant-related investigations on bark of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Spach. from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Minesso, Paola; Shresta, Bharat Babu; Comai, Stefano; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Gewali, Mohan Bikram; Greco, Emanuela; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2012-01-01

    The bark of several coniferous species, a waste product of the timber industry, contains significant amounts of natural antioxidants. In our ongoing studies of Nepalese medicinal plants, we examined the bark from Abies spectabilis as the starting material for extracting antioxidant compounds. In vitro antioxidant activity evaluated by means of three antioxidant methods, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction (BR) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and total phenol contents with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent; the ferrous iron chelating capacity was also assessed. The methanol extract of A. spectabilis showed significant antioxidant activity and polyphenol contents (IC(50) 4.13 µg/mL, 0.20 μg/mL eq. resorcinol, 4.22 mM eq. Trolox, 3.9 µg/g eq. gallic Acid in the DPPH, BR, TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau tests, respectively) and weak Fe(2+) chelating capacity. Phytochemical studies were also carried out with 1D- and 2D NMR experiments and DI-ESI-MS, HPLC-DAD and LC-MSn measurements. Oligomeric C-type proanthocyanidins, mainly trimeric gallocatechin derivatives, were the most abundant compounds (16% of extract expressed as procyanindin B1). Gallocatechin oligomers (up to six units) and prodelphynidin-gallocatechin polymers were also identified in the extract. Prodelphynidin B4, cyclograndisolide and trans-docosanil ferulate were also isolated and characterized by NMR and MS spectroscopy. PMID:22318324

  12. Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, K N; Diomandé, D; Ouattara, A; Koné, Y J M; Gourène, G

    2008-09-15

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones. PMID:19137831

  13. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. PMID:25764460

  14. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Mutch, L.S.; Johnson, V.G.; Esperanza, A.M.; Parsons, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  15. Inheritance and diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite markers in various families of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Reza; Scotti, Ivan; Jansson, Gunnar; Plomion, Christophe; Mathur, Gaurav

    2003-01-01

    A large number of sequence-specific SSRs were screened by using electrophoresis on metaphore agarose gels with the bands visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Many SSRs appeared as codominant and many as dominant markers, with presence or absence of bands. A simple Mendelian inheritance pattern for most codominant and dominant SSR loci was found. For many codominant SSR markers, null alleles were detected. The proportion of dominant microsatellites detected in this study (close to 50 %) was much higher than that commonly reported in many other studies. A high proportion of dominant markers together with a high frequency of codominant markers with null alleles may represent two important limitations for the use of microsatellites in different studies. On the other hand, many polymorphic codominant SSR microsatellite markers were found to be highly repeatable, and can be used for population studies, seed certification, quality control of controlled crosses, paternity analysis, pollen contamination, and mapping of QTL in related families. In this paper, we report on the inheritance pattern and diversity of codominant and dominant SSR microsatellites in seven families of Picea abies sharing a common mother. PMID:14641487

  16. Heat induced changes in protein expression profiles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) ecotypes from different elevations.

    PubMed

    Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Lalanne, Céline; Plomion, Christophe; Schlink, Katja

    2008-10-01

    Although tree species typically exhibit low genetic differentiation between populations, ecotypes adapted to different environmental conditions can vary in their capacity to withstand and recover from environmental stresses like heat stress. Two month old seedlings of a Picea abies ecotype adapted to high elevation showed lower level of thermotolerance and higher level of tolerance to oxidative stress relative to a low elevation ecotype. Protein expression patterns following exposure to severe heat stress of the two ecotypes were compared by means of 2-DE. Several proteins exhibiting ecotype and tissue specific expression were identified by MS/MS. Among them, small heat shock proteins of the HSP 20 family and proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress displayed qualitative and quantitative differences in expression between the ecotypes correlated with the observed phenotypic differences. On the basis of these results, it can be speculated that the observed interpopulation polymorphism of protein regulation in response to heat stress could underlie their different capacities to withstand and recover from heat stress. These local adaptations are potentially relevant for the species adaptation to the conditions predicted by the current models for climate change. PMID:18814337

  17. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  18. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  19. Composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil from Abies sachalinensis from Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Matsuura, Mariko; Murakami, Shio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Koike, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled essential oil from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Mast. cultivated in Hokkaido (Japan) was studied by GC-MS. The seasonal variation in the main volatile constituents was also investigated. Analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 21 compounds with monoterpenes comprising 99.9% of the total. alpha-Pinene was the most abundant compound, followed by camphene, bornyl acetate, limonene, beta-pinene and beta-phellandrene. The sesquiterpene content was low, and was mainly represented by beta-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene, and gamma-selinene. The essential oil from the leaves, collected at eight different collection periods over more than 5 years, showed significant differences in composition. Alpha-Pinene was the predominant constituent during the collection periods, with a few exceptions. The alpha-pinene content of the oil was abundant in April-June, and decreased in November-December. Levels of bornyl acetate showed the greatest increase in December, when the temperature was very low. The enantiomeric distribution of alpha-pinene was suggested to relate to seasonal transformation. (+)-alpha-Pinene showed a tendency to increase when total precipitation, average temperature, and total duration of sunshine were high. PMID:19634334

  20. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. PMID:26543154

  1. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fraction collector by adapting the standard gel block to accommodate a collection tube at the distal end of capillary. The time to collect the desired peaks was estimated by extrapolating from standard capillary electrophoresis using the original gel block. Fraction collection from a mixture of DNA fragments amplified from wild type and several internal tandem duplication mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) gene yielded highly purified DNA fragments containing internal tandem duplication mutations and predictable electrokinetics using the reconstructed gel block. The reconfigured instrument could successfully isolate DNA amplicons from extremely low-amplitude peaks (110 relative fluorescent units), which were undetectable using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, we successfully isolated bands that were only three bases apart that comigrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing was used to confirm that the correct peaks were recovered at sufficient purity. PMID:17916601

  2. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  3. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants. PMID:25626739

  4. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees. PMID:26209615

  5. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. PMID:17504300

  6. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics. PMID:24273870

  7. Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2014-08-01

    The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

  8. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    PubMed Central

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  9. A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Sundås-Larsson, A.; Svenson, M.; Liao, H.; Engström, P.

    1998-01-01

    Many homeobox genes control essential developmental processes in animals and plants. In this report, we describe the first cDNA corresponding to a homeobox gene isolated from a gymnosperm, the HBK1 gene from the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce). The sequence shows distinct similarities specifically to the KNOX (knotted-like homeobox) class of homeobox genes known from different angiosperm plants. The deduced amino acid sequence of HBK1 is strikingly similar within the homeodomain (84% identical) to the maize gene Knotted1 (Kn1), which acts to regulate cell differentiation in the shoot meristem. This similarity suggested that the phylogenetic association of HBK1 with the KNOX genes might be coupled to a conservation of gene function. In support of this suggestion, we have found HBK1 to be expressed in the apical meristem in the central population of nondifferentiated stem cells, but not in organ primordia developing at the flanks of the meristem. This pattern of expression is similar to that of Kn1 in the maize meristem. We show further that HBK1, when expressed ectopically in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, causes aberrations in leaf development that are similar to the effects of ectopic expression of angiosperm KNOX genes on Arabidopsis development. Taken together, these data suggest that HBK1 has a role, similar to the KNOX genes in angiosperms, in the control of cellular differentiation in the apical meristem of spruce. The data also indicate that KNOX-gene regulation of vegetative development is an ancient feature of seed plants that was present in the last common ancestor of conifers and angiosperms. PMID:9844025

  10. Embolism Formation during Freezing in the Wood of Picea abies1

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of −2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding. PMID:17041033

  11. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  12. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  13. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii. PMID:24954386

  14. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  15. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality. PMID:20838816

  16. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bao-Qing; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content (exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu (HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+ , HCO- and SO4(2-) were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na: (Na + Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering (internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+ , Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs(external source). The highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern were suggested. PMID:15559799

  17. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils. PMID:26861482

  18. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30–50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ~40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at −3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at −3.9 and −3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by

  19. Ethylene evolution, radial growth and carbohydrate concentrations in Abies balsamea shoots ringed with Ethrel.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Leif; Little, C. H. Anthony

    1998-06-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, 2-year-old Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings was either left untreated or ringed with 0, 1 or 10 mg Ethrel g(-1) lanolin. After 5 weeks of culture under environmental conditions favorable for growth, the shoots were harvested to measure ethylene evolution and carbohydrate concentrations by gas chromatography, and tracheid number and bark radial width by microscopy. In untreated shoots, the basal rate of ethylene evolution followed the order: cambial region > cortex + periderm = xylem + pith = needles. Wound-induced ethylene production was not detected until at least 4 h after excision, but was evident in all fractions 24 h after excision; the increase in wound-induced ethylene evolution followed the order: cambial region > cortex + periderm > xylem + pith > needles. Compared with untreated controls, the application of plain lanolin, which involved the removal of needles and periderm, increased bark radial width and wound-induced ethylene production by the cambial region and the cortex + periderm, but decreased cambial region concentrations of fructose, glucose and starch at the application point. At the application point, Ethrel concomitantly increased ethylene evolution from the cambial region and the cortex + periderm, tracheid number, bark radial width, and the cambial region concentrations of fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch. No effects of Ethrel treatment were detected above or below the application point, with the exception that the 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment stimulated ethylene evolution and decreased starch concentration of the cambial region. The results indicate that: (1) the cambial region is the major source of endogenous ethylene in the 1-year-old shoot; (2) the magnitude of the difference in ethylene evolution between particular shoot fractions is different before and after the start of wound-induced ethylene production; (3) the Ethrel-induced increase in tracheid number and bark radial width at

  20. Modern sedimentation and varve formation processes in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonk, Alicja; Tylmann, Wojciech; Enters, Dirk; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Lake Żabińskie is the main study site of CLIMPOL, a project which aims at establishing a quantitative reconstruction of climate change in northern Poland during the last millennium. The lake is located in the Masurian Lake District (54°07'54.5"N; 21°59'01.1"E) and presents features typical for kettle-hole lakes, i.e. a small surface area (41.6 ha) and a considerable depth (44.4 m) in the central part of the lake bottom. A set of gravity and piston cores collected from the deepest part of the lake indicate that the sediment record contains an undisturbed and continuous sequence of varved deposits. A regular monitoring of lake water properties and modern sedimentation was initiated to better understand the influences of limnology on the processes of varve formation and preservation in this lake. During monthly field campaigns a broad range of physical and chemical parameters of the lake water column as well as sediment fluxes were measured. Seasonal changes in sediment composition registered in sediment trap allow establishing documentation of an annual deposition model which is here compared with results of microstratigraphic investigations of thin sections and high-resolution XRF scanning of impregnated sediment slabs. Multiple calcite deposition during growing season of one year is well reflected in the complex structure of varves which include up to six individual calcite laminae. During spring and summer, pennate and centric diatoms occur in addition to calcite crystals. In the late summer grains of vivianite and pyrite are present. Chrysophyte cysts are also very common but no distinct seasonality can be observed. During autumn and winter period minerogenic and organic detritus occurs. XRF measurements confirm that highest Ca concentrations occur during spring and summer which are followed by distinct maxima in Fe, K and S concentrations. Si concentrations, which represent mainly biogenic silica content in the sediments are consistent with Ca while Mn

  1. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  2. Quantifying Species' Range Shifts in Relation to Climate Change: A Case Study of Abies spp. in China

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Liu, Shirong

    2011-01-01

    Predicting species range shifts in response to climatic change is a central aspect of global change studies. An ever growing number of species have been modeled using a variety of species distribution models (SDMs). However, quantitative studies of the characteristics of range shifts are rare, predictions of range changes are hard to interpret, analyze and summarize, and comparisons between the various models are difficult to make when the number of species modeled is large. Maxent was used to model the distribution of 12 Abies spp. in China under current and possible future climate conditions. Two fuzzy set defined indices, range increment index (I) and range overlapping index (O), were used to quantify range shifts of the chosen species. Correlation analyses were used to test the relationships between these indices and species distribution characteristics. Our results show that Abies spp. range increments (I) were highly correlated with longitude, latitude, and mean roughness of their current distributions. Species overlapping (O) was moderately, or not, correlated with these parameters. Neither range increments nor overlapping showed any correlation with species prevalence. These fuzzy sets defined indices provide ideal measures of species range shifts because they are stable and threshold-free. They are reliable indices that allow large numbers of species to be described, modeled, and compared on a variety of taxonomic levels. PMID:21887231

  3. Reciprocal regulation of Abl kinase by Crk Y251 and Abi1 controls invasive phenotypes in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Lu, Bin; Dixit, Updesh; Hossain, Sajjad; Liu, Yongzhang; Li, Jing; Hornbeck, Peter; Zheng, Weiming; Sowalsky, Adam G.; Kotula, Leszek; Birge, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    Crk is the prototypical member of a class of Src homology 2 (SH2) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor proteins that positively regulate cell motility via the activation of Rac1 and, in certain tumor types such as GBM, can promote cell invasion and metastasis by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that Crk, via its phosphorylation at Tyr251, promotes invasive behavior of tumor cells, is a prominent feature in GBM, and correlating with aggressive glioma grade IV staging and overall poor survival outcomes. At the molecular level, Tyr251 phosphorylation of Crk is negatively regulated by Abi1, which competes for Crk binding to Abl and attenuates Abl transactivation. Together, these results show that Crk and Abi1 have reciprocal biological effects and act as a molecular rheostat to control Abl activation and cell invasion. Finally, these data suggest that Crk Tyr251 phosphorylation regulate invasive cell phenotypes and may serve as a biomarker for aggressive GBM. PMID:26473374

  4. Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Endangered Fir Tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST-based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  5. Genetic structure and diversity of the endangered fir tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST -based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  6. Mutational Analysis of the Antitoxin in the Lactococcal Type III Toxin-Antitoxin System AbiQ

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    The lactococcal abortive phage infection mechanism AbiQ recently was classified as a type III toxin-antitoxin system in which the toxic protein (ABIQ) is regulated following cleavage of its repeated noncoding RNA antitoxin (antiQ). In this study, we investigated the role of the antitoxin in antiphage activity. The cleavage of antiQ by ABIQ was characterized using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and was located in an adenine-rich region of antiQ. We next generated a series of derivatives with point mutations within antiQ or with various numbers of antiQ repetitions. These modifications were analyzed for their effect on the antiphage activity (efficiency of plaquing) and on the endoribonuclease activity (Northern hybridization). We observed that increasing or reducing the number of antiQ repeats significantly decreased the antiphage activity of the system. Several point mutations had a similar effect on the antiphage activity and were associated with changes in the digestion profile of antiQ. Interestingly, a point mutation in the putative pseudoknot structure of antiQ mutants led to an increased AbiQ antiphage activity, thereby offering a novel way to increase the activity of an abortive infection mechanism. PMID:25819963

  7. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  8. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  9. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding. PMID:25344442

  10. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    PubMed

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  11. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  12. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  13. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  14. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  15. Abies concolor growth responses to vegatation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, S.G.; Sparks, S.R.

    1993-08-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor (Gord, and Glendl.) Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the northern Sierra Nevada to assess the responses of naturally regenerated A. concolor saplings to vegetation recovery 8-9 years after release treatments. Treatments caused major and persistent shifts in vegetation structure and composition on both sites. Differences in individual tree growth within treatments were strongly correlated with structure and composition of neighboring vegetation, even where no treatment effects were observed. Great variability in response between sites illustrates the strong effect of site characteristics on response to release treatments and the importance to managers of anticipating such differences before making treatment decisions.

  16. DFT Calculations and ROESY NMR Data for the Diastereochemical Characterization of Cytotoxic Tetraterpenoids from the Oleoresin of Abies balsamea.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Serge; Gauthier, Charles; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Legault, Jean; Roger, Benoit; Pichette, André

    2015-12-24

    Eight non-carotenoid tetraterpenoids, abibalsamins C-J (3-10), were isolated from the oleoresin of Abies balsamea. Their chemical structures were determined based on analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The assignment of their relative configurations was accomplished using homonuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. However, the presence of two stereogenic centers on a flexible side chain complicated the characterization. In silico models and ROESY data were analyzed in order to assign relative configurations of the isolated tetraterpenoids. Abibalsamins B and H-J showed moderate cytotoxicity against human A549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging between 6.7 and 10 μM. PMID:26592897

  17. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  18. [Preparation and evaluation of the oral gel containing the essential oil from Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.)].

    PubMed

    Ajupova, Rizvangul; Masteiková, Ruta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Zemlička, Milan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Vetchý, David

    2014-06-01

    Essential oil of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) ranks among the substances with potential use in prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. Therefore, the aim of the study was the formulation, preparation and evaluation of an oral gel containing 0.3% of this essential oil. Carbopol 974P NF in 1% concentration was used as the gelling agent, some samples were additionally stabilized by an addition of polysorbate 80 (0.1-0.5%). Xylitol in concentrations of 10% or 20% was added with the aim to modify the taste properties of the gel. Following microscopic evaluation (mean oil droplet size, degree of dispersity) immediately after preparation and after 6-month storage, it has been found that the optimal concentration of polysorbate 80 is 0.3%. The results of the experiment also demonstrated that xylitol was not only an excipient adjusting the organoleptic properties of the preparation - its use enabled significant improvement of the quality parameters and stability. PMID:25115663

  19. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts.

    PubMed

    Schneuwly, Dominique M; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed in many conifer species. This reaction can be used to date past events of geomorphic processes such as rockfall, debris flow and snow avalanches. However, only few points are known about the tangential spread or the timing of callus tissue and TRD formation after wounding. We analyzed 19 Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) and eight Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees that were severely damaged by rockfall activity, resulting in a total of 111 injuries. Callus tissue appeared sparsely on the cross sections and was detected on only 4.2% of the L. decidua samples and 3.6% of the P. abies samples. In contrast, TRDs were present on all cross sections following wounding and were visible on more than one-third (34% in L. decidua and 36.4% in P. abies) of the circumference where the cambium was not destroyed by the rockfall impact. We observe different reactions in the trees depending on the seasonal timing of wounding. The tangential spread of callus tissue and TRDs was more important if the injury occurred during the growth period than during the dormant season, with the difference between seasons being more pronounced for callus tissue formation than for TRD formation. We observed an intra-annual radial migration of TRDs with increasing tangential distance from the wound in 73.2% of the L. decidua samples and 96.6% of the P. abies samples. The persistence of TRD formation in the years following wounding showed that only L. decidua trees produced TRDs 2 years after wounding (10.5%), whereas P. abies trees produced TRDs 5 years after wounding (> 50%). PMID:19203953

  20. Arabidopsis HY1-Modulated Stomatal Movement: An Integrative Hub Is Functionally Associated with ABI4 in Dehydration-Induced ABA Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Zhou, Heng; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-03-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has recently been proposed as a novel component in mediating wide ranges of the plant adaptive signaling processes. However, the physiological significance and molecular basis underlying Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HO1 (HY1) functioning in drought tolerance remained unclear. Here, we report that mutation of HY1 promoted, but overexpression of this gene impaired, Arabidopsis drought tolerance. This was attributed to the abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive or -hyposensitive phenotypes, with the regulation of stomatal closure in particular. However, comparative transcriptomic profile analysis showed that the induction of numerous ABA/stress-dependent genes in dehydrated wild-type plants was differentially impaired in the hy1 mutant. In agreement, ABA-induced ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript accumulation was strengthened in the hy1 mutant. Genetic analysis further identified that the hy1-associated ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance were arrested in the abi4 background. Moreover, the promotion of ABA-triggered up-regulation of RbohD abundance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the hy1 mutant was almost fully blocked by the mutation of ABI4, suggesting that the HY1-ABI4 signaling in the wild type involved in stomatal closure was dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS production. However, hy1-promoted stomatal closure was not affected by a nitric oxide scavenger. Correspondingly, ABA-insensitive behaviors in rbohD stomata were not affected by either the mutation of HY1 or its ectopic expression in the rbohD background, both of which responded significantly to exogenous ROS. These data indicate that HY1 functioned negatively and acted upstream of ABI4 in drought signaling, which was casually dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS in the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:26704641

  1. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  2. Screening and identification of multi-components in Re Du Ning injections using LC/TOF-MS coupled with UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhenzhong; Peng, Ying; Fu, Xiaohuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Xiao, Wei; Song, Shaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-UV-irradiation (HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in Re Du Ning Injections (RDNI). A total of 20 potentially bioactive compounds including 10 caffeoylquinic acids and 10 iridoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized in RDNI by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. In particular, UV-irradiation was employed in the identification of the cis/trans isomers of caffeoylquinic acids. Furthermore, each compound was assigned to the individual raw materials (Artemisia annua L., Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) present in RDNI. This is the first time that an HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV analytical method has been used for the identification of caffeoylquinic acids in RDNI. PMID:25265866

  3. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  4. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  5. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26038901

  6. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  7. Plastic and locally adapted phenology in cambial seasonality and production of xylem and phloem cells in Picea abies from temperate environments.

    PubMed

    Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gryc, Vladimír; Vavrčík, Hanuš; de Luis, Martin; Cufar, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    Despite its major economic importance and the vulnerability of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. to climate change, how its radial growth at intra-annual resolution is influenced by weather conditions in forest stands with a high production capacity has scarcely been explored. Between 2009 and 2011, phenological variation in seasonal cambial cell production (CP) was analysed in adult P. abies trees from three contrasting sites, differing in altitude and latitude. The results indicate that the timing of cambial CP is a highly synchronic process within populations since in all cases the cambium simultaneously started and stopped producing xylem and phloem cells. Our results also demonstrate that the phenology of cambial CP is highly variable and plastic between years, depending on seasonal temperature and precipitation variation. Differences among sites, however, are only partially explained by different environmental (elevation and altitude) and climatic conditions, suggesting that local adaptation may also play a decisive role in the strategy of P. abies for adapting wood and phloem increments to function optimally under local conditions. PMID:24728295

  8. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website. PMID:19941194

  9. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  10. Natural decay process affects the abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Archaea in Picea abies logs.

    PubMed

    Rinta-Kanto, J M; Sinkko, H; Rajala, T; Al-Soud, W A; Sørensen, S J; Tamminen, M V; Timonen, S

    2016-07-01

    Prokaryotes colonize decaying wood and contribute to the degradation process, but the dynamics of prokaryotic communities during wood decay is still poorly understood. We studied the abundance and community composition of Bacteria and Archaea inhabiting naturally decaying Picea abies logs and tested the hypothesis that the variations in archaeal and bacterial abundances and community composition are coupled with environmental parameters related to the decay process. The data set comprises >500 logs at different decay stages from five geographical locations in south and central Finland. The results show that Bacteria and Archaea are an integral and dynamic component of decaying wood biota. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes increase as wood decay progresses. Changes in bacterial community composition are clearly linked to the loss of density of wood, while specific fungal-bacterial interactions may also affect the distribution of bacterial taxa in decaying wood. Thaumarchaeota were prominent members of the archaeal populations colonizing decaying wood, providing further evidence of the versatility and cosmopolitan nature of this phylum in the environment. The composition and dynamics of the prokaryotic community suggest that they are an active component of biota that are involved in processing substrates in decaying wood material. PMID:27127195

  11. Bisphenol A disrupts microtubules and induces multipolar spindles in dividing root tip cells of the gymnosperm Abies cephalonica.

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine chemical disruptor extensively used in the plastic and epoxy resin industry, on dividing root tip cells of the gymnosperm Abies cephalonica Loudon were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after tubulin and endoplasmic reticulum immunolocalization and DNA staining. Microtubule arrays of all mitotic stages were disrupted within a few hours of treatment: preprophase bands exhibited asymmetric width; prometaphase, metaphase and anaphase spindles appeared sharply pointed, sigmoid or multipolar; phragmoplast microtubules were elongated and occasionally bended toward the daughter nuclei. Depending on the mitotic stage, the chromosomes appeared condensed at prophase, as a compact mass at metaphase and anaphase, unsegregated or bridged at telophase. Endoplasmic reticulum patterns were also affected, reflecting those of the respective microtubule arrays. Recovery of the microtubules after oryzalin treatment was more effective in a BPA solution than in water. It is concluded that the plant mitotic apparatus microtubules are very sensitive to BPA, the effect of which depends on the specific cell cycle stage. The formation of multipolar spindles is reminiscent of animal cells and is ascribed to the induction of multiple microtubule nucleation sites, deriving from the centrosomal properties of gymnosperms. PMID:26855225

  12. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water. PMID:26377871

  13. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  14. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems. PMID:18266759

  15. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste. PMID:25711043

  16. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  17. Structural studies of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L. Biological activity of pectins of A. sibirica.

    PubMed

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Toukach, Philip V; Michailowa, Capital Ie Cyrilliclena А; Makarova, Elena N

    2014-11-26

    Highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, containing 84% of arabinose, was extracted from wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. The structure of arabinan was studied by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The macromolecule backbone was represented mainly by RG-I (molar ratio GalA:Rha ∼ 1.3:1) patterns with high degree of rhamnose branching. Side chains were comprised of 1,5-linked α-L-Araf residues (the major part of polymer mass), 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-linked α-L-Araf residues, confirming the presence of highly branched 1,5-α-L-arabinan. Although most L-Araf were in α-anomeric form, minor terminal β-L-Araf-(1 →... was detected. 1,4-β-D-linked Galp residues found in the side chains account for minor AG-I or 1,4-galactan, as compared to arabinan. A tentative structure was proposed. Polysaccharides obtained from Siberian fir greenery were screened for biological activity. Galacturonan had a strongest stimulating effect on germination and growth rate of seeds, germs and roots of Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, and Secale cereale. PMID:25256514

  18. VOC emissions from Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in the field—Results of a dynamic enclosure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabmer, W.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Cojocariu, C.; Graus, M.; Rennenberg, H.; Steigner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.; Hansel, A.

    During the 2002 summer intensive field campaign of BEWA2000 a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in a dynamic sampling enclosure. Emissions of isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) and oxygenated VOC (OVOC; acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, and ethanol) were investigated. Emissions showed clear diurnal patterns with high daytime emission rates amounting to 1.8 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for the sum of monoterpenes and in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for isoprene>acetone>ethanol>methanol. Data were used to validate existing models on isoprene and monoterpene emissions and to discuss environmental and physiological factors affecting VOC emissions. Isoprene and acetaldehyde emission rates were best modelled applying the Guenther 1993 temperature and solar radiation algorithm. Emissions of monoterpenes, acetone and ethanol were best described by a temperature-only exponential algorithm. Using these model approaches a maximum emission variability of 66% was covered (isoprene). Poor r2 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.42 were typical for oxygenated VOC emission modelling indicating the need for model improvement e.g. development of process-based models describing the emission as a result of biochemical de novo synthesis as well as physico-chemical transport properties inside the leaves.

  19. Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Saplings and Mature Trees (Modulation of this Wound Response by Light and Water Stresses).

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, E.; Gijzen, M.; Muzika, R. M.; Barton, K.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    The stem content of diterpene resin acids (rosin) increases dramatically following wounding of grand fir (Abies grandis) saplings, but the level of monoterpene olefins (turpentine) in the stem decreases following injury, in spite of a significant increase in monoterpene cyclase (synthase) activity. However, this observation was explained when rapid evaporative losses of the volatile monoterpenes from the wound site was demonstrated by trapping experiments, a finding consistent with a role of turpentine as a solvent for the mobilization and deposition of rosin to seal the injury. Mature forest trees responded to stem wounding by the enhancement of monoterpene cyclization capacity in a manner similar to 2-year-old grand fir saplings raised in the greenhouse. Light and water stresses greatly reduced the constitutive level of monoterpene cyclase activity and abolished the wound-induced response. The diminution in monoterpene biosynthetic capacity was correlated with a dramatic decrease in cyclase protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. Relief of stress conditions resulted in the restoration of cyclase activity (both constitutive and wound induced) to control levels. The results of these experiments indicate that grand fir saplings are a suitable model for studies of the regulation of defensive oleoresinosis in conifers. PMID:12231755

  20. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  1. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium. PMID:25348909

  2. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  3. [Characteristics of soil nematode community in Abies georgei var. smithii forest gaps in south-east Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Luo, Da-Qing

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of soil nematode community in the Abies georgei var. smithii forest gaps in southeast Tibet, an investigation was conducted to study the variations of soil nematode community at different depths of 0-30 cm soil layer in the gaps and non-gaps. The nematode individual density, diversity index, and trophic group index were taken to analyze the composition and structural characteristics of the soil nematode community. A total of 26801 soil nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 5 orders, and 64 genera were collected by shallow dish method. The nematode individual density was averagely 3552 ind x 100 g(-1) dry soil, and the individuals had a highly surface-gathering characteristics. In the gap soils, the dominant genera were Tylencholaimus and Filenchus, while the dominant trophic group was bacterivores. The soil organic matter was decomposed by both bacteria and fungi. The ecological index results showed that the nematodes diversity and richness were related to gap size. The characteristics of soil nematode community in the gaps were different from those in closed stand and forest open land, and this difference indicated the potential for using nematodes as the environmental indicator species. PMID:24417106

  4. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported. Purpose We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula. Materials and methods Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay. Results BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus. Conclusion These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. PMID:26357466

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Drug-induced Effects of ReDuNing Injection on Human Disease: From Drug Molecules to Clinical Symptoms of Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fang; Gu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Chen, Lirong; Cao, Liang; Li, Na; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    ReDuNing injection (RDN) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine, and the components of it were proven to have antiviral and important anti-inflammatory activities. Several reports showed that RDN had potential effects in the treatment of influenza and pneumonia. Though there were several experimental reports about RDN, the experimental results were not enough and complete due to that it was difficult to predict and verify the effect of RDN for a large number of human diseases. Here we employed multiscale model by integrating molecular docking, network pharmacology and the clinical symptoms information of diseases and explored the interaction mechanism of RDN on human diseases. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relation among the drug molecules, target proteins, biological pathways, human diseases and the clinical symptoms about it. Then we predicted potential active ingredients of RDN, the potential target proteins, the key pathways and related diseases. These attempts may offer several new insights to understand the pharmacological properties of RDN and provide benefit for its new clinical applications and research.

  6. Impact of parameter fluctuations on the performance of ethanol precipitation in production of Re Du Ning Injections, based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qiong; Wang, Shu-Yao; Li, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Bi, Yu-An; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationships between the performance of ethanol precipitation and seven process parameters in the ethanol precipitation process of Re Du Ning Injections, including concentrate density, concentrate temperature, ethanol content, flow rate and stir rate in the addition of ethanol, precipitation time, and precipitation temperature. Under the experimental and simulated production conditions, a series of precipitated resultants were prepared by changing these variables one by one, and then examined by HPLC fingerprint analyses. Different from the traditional evaluation model based on single or a few constituents, the fingerprint data of every parameter fluctuation test was processed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to comprehensively assess the performance of ethanol precipitation. Our results showed that concentrate density, ethanol content, and precipitation time were the most important parameters that influence the recovery of active compounds in precipitation resultants. The present study would provide some reference for pharmaceutical scientists engaged in research on pharmaceutical process optimization and help pharmaceutical enterprises adapt a scientific and reasonable cost-effective approach to ensure the batch-to-batch quality consistency of the final products. PMID:26850350

  7. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  8. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction. PMID:25001865

  9. Laterally applied Ethrel causes local increases in radial growth and indole-3-acetic acid concentration in Abies balsamea shoots.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Anthony Little, C H

    1996-05-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, two-year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings was ringed with lanolin containing 0, 1 or 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel, an ethylene-generating compound, and cultured for 6 weeks under environmental conditions favorable for growth. Bud break and the elongation of the current-year terminal shoot were monitored, and the subjacent previous-year terminal shoot that had been treated with Ethrel was harvested to measure stem radial growth by microscopy, shoot ethylene evolution by gas chromatography, and cambial region indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the lanolin controls, Ethrel at 1 and 10 mg g(-1) did not affect bud break or longitudinal growth, but stimulated tracheid production and bark increment up to about 2-fold at the application site, though not above or below it. In addition, the 1 and 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatments increased the cambial region IAA concentration about 3-fold and the evolution of ethylene at least 40-fold at the application site, compared with unwounded portions of both treated and control shoots. The 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment also stimulated ethylene evolution about 10-fold, both above and below the application site. However, this stimulation was not associated with an elevation in cambial region IAA concentration. Similarly, the lanolin control treatment increased ethylene evolution at the application site about 10-fold, without affecting the cambial region IAA concentration. Our results suggest that the localized stimulation of radial growth in woody shoots ringed with Ethrel is mediated by an increase in IAA concentration, which in turn is induced by a threshold, abnormally high concentration of Ethrel-derived ethylene. PMID:14871721

  10. Large-scale canopy opening causes decreased photosynthesis in the saplings of shade-tolerant conifer, Abies veitchii.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Masako; Yamamura, Yasuo; Nakano, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Although the environmental change by canopy gap formation in a forest improves the light availability for the saplings on the forest floor, it may result in stresses on the saplings due to high radiation and drought. In large-scale gaps, the photosynthesis of shade-tolerant species may be inhibited by high radiation and drought stress if they lack effective tolerance or avoidance mechanisms for the stresses. We investigated the photosynthetic traits and water relations of Abies veitchii Lindl. saplings in an open habitat created by an avalanche and in a nearby forest floor habitat undisturbed by the avalanche. We analyzed the influence of exposed conditions on sapling photosynthesis. The maximum photosynthetic rate of the saplings in the open habitat was lower than that in the forest habitat. The ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) was lower in the open habitat than that in the forest habitat during the late growing season, indicating that the open habitat saplings suffer photoinhibition of photosystem II for a long period. A lower Rubisco concentration in needles in the open habitat indicated the breakdown of this photosynthetic protein because of excess solar energy resulting from serious photoinhibition. The shoot water potential of the saplings in the open habitat at daytime was higher than that of the saplings in the forest habitat because of less transpiration caused by the remarkable stomatal closure in the open habitat. Although these acclimations to high radiation improve the tolerance of A. veitchii saplings to high radiation and drought stress, they would result in low gain of daily carbon and a reduction in growth in the open habitat. PMID:19203939

  11. Linking carbon supply to root cell-wall chemistry and mechanics at high altitudes in Abies georgei

    PubMed Central

    Genet, Marie; Li, Mingcai; Luo, Tianxiang; Fourcaud, Thierry; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Stokes, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The mobile carbon supply to different compartments of a tree is affected by climate, but its impact on cell-wall chemistry and mechanics remains unknown. To understand better the variability in root growth and biomechanics in mountain forests subjected to substrate mass movement, we investigated root chemical and mechanical properties of mature Abies georgei var. smithii (Smith fir) growing at different elevations on the Tibet–Qinghai Plateau. Methods Thin and fine roots (0·1–4·0 mm in diameter) were sampled at three different elevations (3480, 3900 and 4330 m, the last corresponding to the treeline). Tensile resistance of roots of different diameter classes was measured along with holocellulose and non-structural carbon (NSC) content. Key Results The mean force necessary to break roots in tension decreased significantly with increasing altitude and was attributed to a decrease in holocellulose content. Holocellulose was significantly lower in roots at the treeline (29·5 ± 1·3 %) compared with those at 3480 m (39·1 ± 1·0 %). Roots also differed significantly in NSC, with 35·6 ± 4·1 mg g−1 dry mass of mean total soluble sugars in roots at 3480 m and 18·8 ± 2·1 mg g−1 dry mass in roots at the treeline. Conclusions Root mechanical resistance, holocellulose and NSC content all decreased with increasing altitude. Holocellulose is made up principally of cellulose, the biosynthesis of which depends largely on NSC supply. Plants synthesize cellulose when conditions are optimal and NSC is not limiting. Thus, cellulose synthesis in the thin and fine roots measured in our study is probably not a priority in mature trees growing at very high altitudes, where climatic factors will be limiting for growth. Root NSC stocks at the treeline may be depleted through over-demand for carbon supply due to increased fine root production or winter root growth. PMID:21186240

  12. [Spatial point pattern analysis of Abies georgei var. smithii in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-qi; Tian, Min-xia; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zheng, Wei-lie; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, based on a 4 hm2 stem-mapping plot, we analyzed spatial distributions of Abies georgei var. smithii, the dominant species in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China. Pair-correlation function was used to characterize univariate spatial point patterns of three size classes of the population and bivariate spatial patterns between those and different sizes of dead wood. A. georgei var. smithii population was characterized by reverse J-shaped DBH distribution, indicating an increasing population. Saplings of the population were spatially obviously aggregated at the small scales (0-7 m), and mid-sized trees and large-sized trees of the population were randomly or uniformly distributed. The aggregation intensities of A. georgei var. smithii decreased with the increasing diameter classes and spatial scales. Saplings and mid-sized trees were significantly and negatively associated with large-sized trees at the small scales (0-35 and 0-30 m), but the associations reversed at the large scales (45-100 and 80-100 m). In addition, with the increasing age difference between diameter classes of the population, the intensities of positive or negative correlations increased. Spatial associations between saplings and dead large-sized trees, and between mid-sized trees and dead large-sized trees were negative at the small scales (0-34 and 5-27 m), but positive at the large scales (49-100 and 73-100 m). This suggested that released niche space due to dead large-sized trees is not enough to weaken their negative impacts on saplings. We concluded that self-thinning effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis may be the main mechanisms for the spatial pattern formation of A. georgei var. smithii population. PMID:26572011

  13. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  14. Estimation of geohydraulic parameters from fractured shales and sandstone aquifers of Abi (Nigeria) using electrical resistivity and hydrogeologic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Onwuegbuche, Anthony A.

    2014-08-01

    Geohydraulic parameters are essential elements in groundwater resource management and conservation. Most of these parameters especially the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity are usually estimated from pumping test carried out on drilled boreholes. This paper presents a study conducted in Abi area of the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment with the objective of estimating aquifer parameters from 30 evenly distributed vertical electrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration and hydrogeologic measurements from 28 boreholes within the area as an alternative way of generating an initial data for groundwater characterisation and quality assessment in the area. The results showed low resistivity ⩽45 Ωm, hydraulic conductivity ⩽2.0 × 10-5 m/s (⩽1.7 m/day) and transmissivity ⩽5.2 × 10-4 m2/s (⩽45 m2/day) for the water-bearing aquifer horizons in the northeastern and northwestern parts of the study area due to the nature of the aquifer system that were predominantly fractured shale. The sand based aquifers had higher values in the neighbourhood of ∼100-800 Ωm, ∼4.0 × 10-5-1.0 × 10-4 m/s (∼3.46-9.04 m/day) and ∼6.94 × 10-4-3.81 × 10-3 m2/s (∼60-330 m2/day) for the respective parameters mentioned above. The potability of the groundwater system as observed from hydrogeologic measurements of water samples from most boreholes were relatively poor, having electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids values of ∼250-931.0 μS/cm and ∼500-623.77 mg/l respectively due to the influence of clay minerals within the aquifer horizon. Some of the vertical electrical sounding points were taken in the vicinity were pumping tests and lithologic data were available for adequate comparison of the results.

  15. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate–growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April–October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  16. [Community characteristics of soil nematode in Abies georgei var. smithii forest in Sejila Mountain of Tibet, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Luo, Da-Qing; Yu, Bao-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the present status of nematode diversity in soil ecosystem of Abies georgei var. smithii forest, the typical forest type in subalpine zone of southeastern Tibet, an investigation was made on the nematode community in different soil layers of 0-30 cm depth from the summer, 2010 to the spring, 2011. The nematode individual density, diversity index, and trophic group index were taken to analyze the composition and structural characteristics of the soil nematode community. A total of 7915 soil nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 6 orders, 38 families, and 67 genera were collected by shallow dish method. The nematode individual density was averagely 620 nematodes x 100 g(-1) dry soil, and the nematode individuals in surface soil layer (0-5 cm) accounted for 56.9% of the total, indicating the obvious surface gathering characteristics of the nematode community. Tylencholaimus, Helicotylenchus, and Plectus were the dominant genus. Plant-parasite nematode was the dominant trophic group, while fungi-feeding nematode had the largest proportion among the non plant-parasite nematodes. Soil organic matter was mainly decomposed by fungi. The ANOVA analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the Shannon, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of soil nematode community among different seasons. The Pielou index had no significant difference among different soil layers, while the differences of Shannon, Margalef, and Simpson indices tended to be increased with increasing soil depth. It was concluded that the A. georgei var. smithii forest ecosystem in Sejila Mountain had a high maturity, with strong resistance to environment disturbances. PMID:23479883

  17. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species. PMID:26054703

  18. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) powders

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weiming; Liang, Shijing; Wang, Xiaowei; Bi, Jinhong; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ling

    2011-01-15

    Microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique, BET surface area analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that single-phase orthorhombic SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} could be obtained after being calcined above 650 {sup o}C, while BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} was tetragonal. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gaps of the obtained samples were calculated to be around 3.34-3.54 eV. For the photocatalytic redox reaction of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation, SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The effects of the crystallinities, BET surface areas and crystal structures of the samples on the photocatalytic activities were discussed in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Aurivillius-type ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} showed different photocatalytic performances in the redox reaction of methyl orange (MO) under UV-light ({lambda}=254 nm), due to the different crystal structures of ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba). Display Omitted

  19. Different Alleles of a Gene Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase (PaLAR3) Influence Resistance against the Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ihrmark, Katarina; Källman, Thomas; Olson, Åke; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Elfstrand, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. In this study, gene sequences showed the presence of two PaLAR3 allelic lineages in P. abies. Higher resistance was associated with the novel allele, which was found in low frequency in the four P. abies populations that we studied. Norway spruce plants carrying at least one copy of the novel allele showed a significant reduction in FGS after inoculation with Heterobasidion parviporum compared to their half-siblings carrying no copies, indicating dominance of this allele. The amount of (+) catechin, the enzymatic product of PaLAR3, was significantly higher in bark of trees homozygous for the novel allele. Although we observed that the in vitro activities of the enzymes encoded by the two alleles were similar, we could show that allele-specific transcript levels were significantly higher for the novel allele, indicating that regulation of gene expression is responsible for the observed effects in resistance, possibly caused by differences in cis-acting elements that we observe in the promoter region of the two alleles. PMID:27317690

  20. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  1. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta

    2005-03-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the

  2. Hémorragie méningée et hématome parenchymateux révélant une thrombose veineuse cérébrale

    PubMed Central

    Joulali, Toufik; Derkaoui, Ali; Besri, Sophia; Malki, Mohammed; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La thrombophlébite cérébrale (TVC) est une cause non négligeable des accidents vasculaires cérébraux avec une grande diversité de leur présentation Clinique source d'errance et de retard thérapeutique. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente présentant une TVC révélée par une hémorragie méningée. Le diagnostic a été suspecté à l'artériographie réalisée dans le cadre du bilan étiologique et thérapeutique de l'hémorragie méningée et confirmé par la suite sur l'angio-scanner. La particularité de cette observation est la difficulté aussi bien diagnostique de la TVC et sa révélation par une hémorragie méningée, que thérapeutique concernant l'utilisation des anticoagulants. PMID:26161216

  3. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  4. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  5. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  6. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  7. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata)

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; von Balthazar, Leopold; Stritt, Bianca; Pruntsch, Doreen; Ramos, Mac; Urech, Konrad; Rist, Lukas; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Viviani, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs) obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu), apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M), pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P) or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A), on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50) varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI) led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract), intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract), and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract) and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract). As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger than, that of the

  8. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    PubMed

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization. PMID:21657100

  9. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  10. Studies on Structural and Dielectric Properties of ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A Ba, Sr and Pb) Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T. Gopal; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2010-12-01

    Bismuth Titanate based electroceramics of layered perovskite structures are technologically important materials for high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications, due to their high Curie temperature (675 deg. C), Stable piezoelectric response and excellent dielectric properties. The compounds ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) belongs to Aurivillius family (n = 4) in which BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in tetragonal I4/mmm space group, Sr Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} and PbBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in orthorhombic space group A2{sub 1}am. In the present work ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) ceramic samples are prepared through the solid state reaction by conventional mixed oxides by calcination at high temperature. Dielectric constant ({epsilon}'{sub r}) and Dielectric Loss (D) for all the compositions as a function of temperature measured from frequencies 100 Hz to 100 KHz using a HIOKI 3532-50 LCR meter. The dielectric constant increases gradually with an increase in temperature up to transition temperature (T{sub c,} K) and then decreases.

  11. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. PMID:27229374

  12. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC. PMID:21299139

  13. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled C0{sub 2} climates was estimated.

  14. Fine root biomass, necromass and chemistry during seven years of elevated aluminium concentrations in the soil solution of a middle-aged Picea abies stand.

    PubMed

    Eldhuset, Toril D; Lange, Holger; de Wit, Helene A

    2006-10-01

    Toxic effects of aluminium (Al) on Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees are well documented in laboratory-scale experiments, but field-based evidence is scarce. This paper presents results on fine root growth and chemistry from a field manipulation experiment in a P. abies stand that was 45 years old when the experiment started in 1996. Different amounts of dissolved aluminium were added as AlCl3 by means of periodic irrigation during the growing season in the period 1997-2002. Potentially toxic concentrations of Al in the soil solution were obtained. Fine roots were studied from direct cores (1996) and sequential root ingrowth cores (1999, 2001, 2002) in the mineral soil (0-40 cm). We tested two hypotheses: (1) elevated concentration of Al in the root zone leads to significant changes in root biomass, partitioning into fine, coarse, living or dead fractions, and distribution with depth; (2) elevated Al concentration leads to a noticeable uptake of Al and reduced uptake of Ca and Mg; this results in Ca and Mg depletion in roots. Hypothesis 1 was only marginally supported, as just a few significant treatment effects on biomass were found. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part; Al addition led to increased root concentrations of Al in 1999 and 2002 and reduced Mg/Al in 1999. Comparison of roots from subsequent root samplings showed a decrease in Al and S over time. The results illustrated that 7 years of elevated Al(tot) concentrations in the soil solution up to 200 microM are not likely to affect root growth. We also discuss possible improvements of the experimental approach. PMID:16806407

  15. Past and future evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.

    PubMed

    Ruosch, Melanie; Spahni, Renato; Joos, Fortunat; Henne, Paul D; van der Knaap, Willem O; Tinner, Willy

    2016-02-01

    Information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. Palaeo data suggest that Abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in Europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) under future global warming conditions. Here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data, modern observations, and results from transient simulations with the LPX-Bern dynamic global vegetation model to assess past and future distributions of A. alba in Europe. LPX-Bern is forced with climate anomalies from a run over the past 21 000 years with the Community Earth System Model, modern climatology, and with 21st-century multimodel ensemble results for the high-emission RCP8.5 and the stringent mitigation RCP2.6 pathway. The simulated distribution for present climate encompasses the modern range of A. alba, with the model exceeding the present distribution in north-western and southern Europe. Mid-Holocene pollen data and model results agree for southern Europe, suggesting that at present, human impacts suppress the distribution in southern Europe. Pollen and model results both show range expansion starting during the Bølling-Allerød warm period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cold, and resuming during the Holocene. The distribution of A. alba expands to the north-east in all future scenarios, whereas the potential (currently unrealized) range would be substantially reduced in southern Europe under RCP8.5. A. alba maintains its current range in central Europe despite competition by other thermophilous tree species. Our combined palaeoecological and model evidence suggest that A. alba may ensure important ecosystem services including stand and slope stability, infrastructure protection, and carbon sequestration under significantly warmer

  16. A[Bi(3)Ti(4)O(13)] and A[Bi(3)PbTi(5)O(16)] (A = K, Cs): New n = 4 and n = 5 Members of the Layered Perovskite Series, A[A'(n)()(-)(1)B(n)()O(3)(n)()(+1)], and Their Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Sivakumar, T.; Thangadurai, V.; Subbanna, G. N.

    1999-06-14

    We describe the synthesis and structural characterization of new layered bismuth titanates, A[Bi(3)Ti(4)O(13)] and A[Bi(3)PbTi(5)O(16)] for A = K, Cs, corresponding to n = 4 and 5 members of the Dion-Jacobson series of layered perovskites of the general formula, A[A'(n)()(-)(1)B(n)()O(3)(n)()(+1)]. These materials have been prepared by solid state reaction of the constituents containing excess alkali, which is required to suppress the formation of competitive Aurivillius phases. Unlike the isostructural niobates and niobium titanates of the same series, the new phases reported here are spontaneously hydrated-a feature which could make them potentially useful as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction. On hydration of the potassium compounds, the c axis expands by ca. 2 Å and loses its doubling [for example, the tetragonal lattice parameters of K[Bi(3)Ti(4)O(13)] and its dihydrate are respectively a = 3.900(1) Å, c = 37.57(2) Å; a = 3.885(1) Å, c = 20.82(4) Å]; surprisingly, the cesium analogues do not show a similar change on hydration. PMID:11671024

  17. Defining how aging Pseudotsuga and Abies compensate for multiple stresses through multi-criteria assessment of a functional-structural model.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Maureen C; Ford, E David; Hinckley, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been advanced about factors that control tree longevity. We use a simulation model with multi-criteria optimization and Pareto optimality to determine branch morphologies in the Pinaceae that minimize the effect of growth limitations due to water stress while simultaneously maximizing carbohydrate gain. Two distinct branch morphologies in the Pareto optimal space resemble Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl., respectively. These morphologies are distinguished by their performance with respect to two pathways of compensation for hydraulic limitation: minimizing the mean path length to terminal foliage (Pseudotsuga) and minimizing the mean number of junction constrictions to terminal foliage (Abies). Within these two groups, we find trade-offs between the criteria for foliage display and the criteria for hydraulic functioning, which shows that an appropriate framework for considering tree longevity is how trees compensate, simultaneously, for multiple stresses. The diverse morphologies that are found in a typical old-growth conifer forest may achieve compensation in different ways. The method of Pareto optimization that we employ preserves all solutions that are successful in achieving different combinations of criteria. The model for branch development that we use simulates the process of delayed adaptive reiteration (DAR), whereby new foliage grows from suppressed buds within the established branch structure. We propose a theoretical synthesis for the role of morphology in the persistence of old Pseudotsuga based on the characteristics of branch morphogenesis found in branches simulated from the optimal set. (i) The primary constraint on branch growth for Pseudotsuga is the mean path length; (ii) as has been previously noted, DAR is an opportunistic architecture; and (iii) DAR is limited by the number of successive reiterations that can form. We show that Pseudotsuga morphology is not the only

  18. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing.

    PubMed

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3-5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1-3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1-1.5% in the >0.5-1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5-1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  19. The ABI4-Induced Arabidopsis ANAC060 Transcription Factor Attenuates ABA Signaling and Renders Seedlings Sugar Insensitive when Present in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Suli; Wang, Yufeng; Peng, Yu; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Smeekens, Sjef C.; Teng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seedling establishment is inhibited on media containing high levels (∼6%) of glucose or fructose. Genetic loci that overcome the inhibition of seedling growth on high sugar have been identified using natural variation analysis and mutant selection, providing insight into sugar signaling pathways. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed for seedling sensitivity to high sugar in a Col/C24 F2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana. A glucose and fructose-sensing QTL, GSQ11, was mapped through selective genotyping and confirmed in near-isogenic lines in both Col and C24 backgrounds. Allelism tests and transgenic complementation showed that GSQ11 lies within the ANAC060 gene. The Col ANAC060 allele confers sugar insensitivity and was dominant over the sugar-sensitive C24 allele. Genomic and mRNA analyses showed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Col ANAC060 affects the splicing patterns of ANAC060 such that 20 additional nucleotides are present in the mRNA. The insertion created a stop codon, resulting in a truncated ANAC60 protein lacking the transmembrane domain (TMD) that is present in the C24 ANAC060 protein. The absence of the TMD results in the nuclear localization of ANAC060. The short version of the ANAC060 protein is found in ∼12% of natural Arabidopsis accessions. Glucose induces GSQ11/ANAC060 expression in a process that requires abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 directly binds to the GSQ11/ANAC060 promoter to activate transcription. Interestingly, Col ANAC060 reduced ABA sensitivity and Glc-induced ABA accumulation, and ABI4 expression was also reduced in Col ANAC060 lines. Thus, the sugar-ABA signaling cascade induces ANAC060 expression, but the truncated Col ANAC060 protein attenuates ABA induction and ABA signaling. This negative feedback from nuclear ANAC060 on ABA signaling results in sugar insensitivity. PMID:24625790

  20. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3–5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1–3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1–1.5% in the >0.5–1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5–1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  1. Composition and structure of varves in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland: a potential for high-resolution reconstruction of meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Amann, Benjamin; Butz, Christoph; Enters, Dirk; Kinder, Małgorzata; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data from sediment records require a detailed knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological factors which influence sediment-formation processes and signal preservation in lake sediments. This can be achieved by process studies and high-resolution analysis of sediments that provide an opportunity to calibrate varves and paleolimnological proxies against instrumental hydrological and meteorological data. Here we present results from Lake Żabińskie located in northeastern Poland with the aim to understand the relationship between meteorological conditions, sedimentation processes and climate signal preservation in varve structure and chemical composition. This eutrophic and hardwater lake exhibits well preserved biogenic varves with high sedimentation rates (5-8 mm/yr). We conducted a three-year long observation of limnological conditions within the water column and recent sediment fluxes as well as analyzed a 70-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 125 years. Thin sections were prepared and analyzed microscopically for individual laminae composition. We also measured chemical variability within varves using high-resolution XRF scanning of impregnated sediment slabs. We demonstrate that different mixing patterns may occur in Lake Żabińskie, from dimictic to meromictic depending on the meteorological conditions. Sediment fluxes varied substantially during the observation period with characteristic spring maxima and, optionally, a second late fall maxima. Considerable variability was also observed for the fluxes of total organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcite. Microscopic investigation of the topmost sediments revealed a complex varve structure showing a distinct spring calcite lamina followed by one or more fine calcite laminae interbedded with diatom-rich laminae and, finally, by an organic-rich lamina with minerogenic admixtures deposited during winter

  2. Un syndrome malin des neuroleptiques compliqué d'hémorragie méningée et révélant une vascularite cérébrale

    PubMed Central

    Jouali, Toufik; Boukatta, Brahim; Bechri, Brahim; Houari, Nawfel; Bouazzaoui, Abderahim; Sbai, Hicham; Kanjaa, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome malin des neuroleptiques est une complication du traitement par les neuroleptiques. Son incidence est estimée à 0,02% dans la population générale. Le traitement reste symptomatique et repose essentiellement sur l'arrêt immédiat du traitement antérieur. Nous rapportons l'observation clinique d'une patiente de 26 ans, schizophrénique sous Chlorpromazine, se présentant aux urgences pour la prise en charge d'un syndrome malin des neuroleptiques compliqué d'une hémorragie méningée et révélant une vascularite cérébrale. PMID:25852790

  3. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  4. Effects of light availability and tree size on the architecture of assimilative surface in the canopy of Picea abies: variation in needle morphology.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, U; Kull, O

    1995-05-01

    Needle dimensions, needle surface area, needle dry weight per area (LWA) and needle density (ND, needle weight per volume) were measured in terminal current-year shoots in a natural canopy of variably sized Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing along a light gradient. Needle shape was described as a rhomboid. Needle width (D(2)) increased with increasing diffuse site factor, a(d) (relative amount of penetrating diffuse solar radiation), whereas needle thickness (D(1)) remained nearly constant, resulting in an inverse relationship between D(1)/D(2) and a(d) and an increase in the ratio of total (TLA) to projected needle surface area (PLA) with increasing a(d). Because of the variations in needle morphology with respect to light availability, the shoot parameters used in present canopy models are also expected to be light-sensitive, and studies involving shoot morphology should also consider the variability in needle geometry. Needle dimensions and total tree height were not correlated. However, LWA increase with both increasing a(d) and total tree height. When LWA was expressed as the product of ND and needle height (NH, height of the rhomboidal transverse section of a needle), LWA appeared to increase with irradiance, because of changing NH, and with total tree height, because of changing needle density. PMID:14965954

  5. Effects of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Uotila, Antti; Arhipova, Natalija; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate impact of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut. Four non-replicated site preparation treatments included: (1) mounding (M), (2) removal of stumps (K), (3) mounding and removal of logging slash (HM) and (4) removal of logging slash and stumps (HK). Results showed that height increment of the seedlings was highest in K and lowest in M after the third growing season, and similar pattern remained after the fourth season. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation of seedling roots was highest in M (96.6%) and lowest in K (72.3%), and even in HK (76.0%) and HM (76.3%). Morphotyping and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA revealed a total of 13 ECM species. Among those, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum were the most common, found on 27.4% and 26.3% of roots, respectively. The rest of species colonised 26.6% of roots. Richness of ECM species was highest in M (10 species) and lowest in K (three species). Consequently, stump and slash removal from clear-felled sites had a positive effect on growth of outplanted spruce seedlings, but negative effect on their mycorrhization. This suggests that altered soil conditions due to site disturbance by stump and slash removal might be more favourable for tree growth than more abundant mycorrhization of their root systems in less disturbed soil. PMID:20174952

  6. Occurrence and impact of the root-rot biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea on soil fungal communities in Picea abies forests of northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Burokienė, Daiva; Gaitnieks, Talis; Uotila, Antti; Johannesson, Hanna; Rosling, Anna; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess belowground occurrence, persistence and possible impact of the biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea (Fr.) Jülich on soil fungi. Sampling of soil and roots of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. was carried out at 12 P. gigantea-treated and five nontreated control sites representing 1- to 60-month-old clear-cuts and thinned forest sites in Finland and Latvia. The 454-sequencing of ITS rRNA from fine roots, humus and mineral soil resulted in 8626 high-quality fungal sequences. Phlebiopsis gigantea represented 1.3% of all fungal sequences and was found in 14 treated and nontreated sites and in all three substrates. In different substrates, the relative abundance of P. gigantea at stump treatment sites either did not differ significantly or was significantly lower than in nontreated controls. No significant correlation was found between the time elapsed since the tree harvesting and/or application of the biocontrol and abundance of P. gigantea in different substrates. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that P. gigantea occasionally occurs belowground in forest ecosystems but that stump treatment with the biocontrol agent has little or no impact on occurrence and persistence of P. gigantea belowground, and consequently no significant impact on soil fungi. PMID:22443512

  7. Modeling intraspecific adaptation of Abies sachalinensis to local altitude and responses to global warming, based on a 36-year reciprocal transplant experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific adaptation in Abies sachalinensis was examined using models based on long-term monitoring data gathered during a reciprocal transplant experiment with eight seed source populations and six transplantation sites along an altitudinal gradient. The consequence of local adaptation was evaluated by testing the home-site advantage for upslope and downslope transplants at five ages. The populations’ fitness-linked trait was set as their productivity (tree height × survival rate) at each age. The effects of global warming were evaluated on the basis of the 36-year performance of downslope transplants. Evidence was found for adaptive genetic variation affecting both height and survival from an early age. Increasing the distance between seed source and planting site significantly reduced productivity for both upslope and downslope transplantation, demonstrating the existence of a significant home-site advantage. The decrease in productivity was most distinct for upslope transplantations, indicating strong local adaptation to high altitudes. Global warming is predicted to increase the productivity of high-altitude populations. However, owing to their existing local adaptation, all tested populations exhibited lower productivity under warming than demes that were optimal for the new climate. These negative predictions should be considered when planning the management of locally adapted plant species such as A. sachalinensis. PMID:25568044

  8. Quantitative structure-property relationships on photolysis of PCDD/Fs adsorbed to spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle surfaces under sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Huang, Liping; Chen, Jingwen; Yu, Gang; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-02-01

    By partial least squares (PLS) regression, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed for photolysis half-life (t1/2) of PCDD/Fs and PAHs sorbed to spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle surfaces and irradiated by sunlight. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by PM3 Hamiltonian were used predictor variables. PLS analysis for the PCDDs and PAHs respectively resulted in no correlation by our statistical methods. The cross-validated Qcum2 value for the optimal QSPR model of PCDFs is 0.722, indicating a good predictive ability for logt1/2 of PCDFs adsorbed to spruce needle surfaces. The QSPR results show that the number of chlorine atoms bonded to the parent structure and (E(LUMO)-E(HOMO))2 has a dominant effect on t1/2 values of PCDFs. Increasing the number of chlorine atoms and (E(LUMO)-E(HOMO))2 values leads to increase of logt1/2 values of PCDFs. PMID:15639263

  9. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers. PMID:27169226

  10. Combined effect of elevated UVB, elevated temperature and fertilization on growth, needle structure and phytochemistry of young Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Virjamo, Virpi; Sutinen, Sirkka; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2014-07-01

    Simultaneously with warming climate, other climatic and environmental factors are also changing. Here, we investigated for the first time the effects of elevated temperature, increased ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation, fertilization and all combinations of these on the growth, secondary chemistry and needle structure of 1-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in an outdoor experiment. After one growing season, elevated temperature increased root : shoot ratio and concentrations of needle piperidine alkaloids, while concentrations of needle catechins and acetophenones and bark flavonoids decreased compared with ambient temperature seedlings. UVB-radiation increased concentrations of bark condensed tannins, while fertilization increased total biomass and concentrations of needle catechins. In addition to the main effects, concentrations of some individual phenolic compounds showed UV × temperature or UV × temperature × fertilization interactions, and fertilization modified temperature response on root : shoot ratio. All the treatments described here affected the defence chemistry profiles of the seedlings, which may imply some changes in plant-herbivore interactions in connection with changing climate. The interactions between treatments indicate a need for further experiments involving several simultaneously affecting environmental changes. PMID:24804850

  11. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  12. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  13. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  14. The Abi-domain protein Abx1 interacts with the CovS histidine kinase to control virulence gene expression in group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Firon, Arnaud; Tazi, Asmaa; Da Cunha, Violette; Brinster, Sophie; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Golenbock, Douglas T; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a common commensal of the female genital tract, is the leading cause of invasive infections in neonates. Expression of major GBS virulence factors, such as the hemolysin operon cyl, is regulated directly at the transcriptional level by the CovSR two-component system. Using a random genetic approach, we identified a multi-spanning transmembrane protein, Abx1, essential for the production of the GBS hemolysin. Despite its similarity to eukaryotic CaaX proteases, the Abx1 function is not involved in a post-translational modification of the GBS hemolysin. Instead, we demonstrate that Abx1 regulates transcription of several virulence genes, including those comprising the hemolysin operon, by a CovSR-dependent mechanism. By combining genetic analyses, transcriptome profiling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Abx1 is a regulator of the histidine kinase CovS. Overexpression of Abx1 is sufficient to activate virulence gene expression through CovS, overcoming the need for an additional signal. Conversely, the absence of Abx1 has the opposite effect on virulence gene expression consistent with CovS locked in a kinase-competent state. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, direct interaction between Abx1 and CovS was mapped specifically to CovS domains involved in signal processing. We demonstrate that the CovSR two-component system is the core of a signaling pathway integrating the regulation of CovS by Abx1 in addition to the regulation of CovR by the serine/threonine kinase Stk1. In conclusion, our study reports a regulatory function for Abx1, a member of a large protein family with a characteristic Abi-domain, which forms a signaling complex with the histidine kinase CovS in GBS. PMID:23436996

  15. Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps.

    PubMed

    Roschanski, Anna M; Csilléry, Katalin; Liepelt, Sascha; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Huard, Frédéric; Ullrich, Kristian K; Postolache, Dragos; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east-west transect. The analysis of 267 SNP loci from 175 candidate genes suggested a neutral pattern of east-west isolation by distance among mountain sites. F(ST) outlier tests revealed 16 SNPs that showed patterns of divergent selection. Plot climate was characterized using both in situ measurements and gridded data that revealed marked differences between and within mountains with different trends depending on the season. Association between allelic frequencies and bioclimatic variables revealed eight genes that contained candidate SNPs, of which two were also detected using F(ST) outlier methods. All SNPs were associated with winter drought, and one of them showed strong evidence of selection with respect to elevation. Q(ST)-F(ST) tests for fitness-related traits measured in a common garden suggested adaptive divergence for the date of bud flush and for growth rate. Overall, our results suggest a complex adaptive picture for A. alba in the southern French Alps where, during the east-to-west Holocene recolonization, locally advantageous genetic variants established at both the landscape and local scales. PMID:26676992

  16. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Smith, William K

    2008-11-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem [Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] of the southern Appalachian mountains, USA, is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65% of all days annually. We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, and water relations of Fraser fir trees in open areas during cloud-immersed, low-cloud, or sunny periods. In contrast to sunny periods, cloud immersion reduced instantaneous sunlight irradiance by 10-50%, and midday atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was 85% lower. Needle surfaces were wet for up to 16 h per day during cloud-immersed days compared to <1 h for clear days. Shoot-level light-saturated photosynthesis (A (sat)) on both cloud-immersed (16.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and low-cloud (17.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) days was greater than A (sat) on sunny days (14.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Daily mean A was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to reduced sunlight levels, while leaf conductance (g) was significantly higher, with a mean value of 0.30 mol m(-2) s(-1). These g values were greater than commonly reported for conifer tree species with needle-like leaves, and declined exponentially with increasing leaf-to-air VPD. Daily mean transpiration (E) on immersed days was 43 and 20% lower compared to sunny and low-cloud days, respectively. As a result, daily mean water use efficiency (A/E) was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to light limitation of A, and high humidity resulted in greater uncoupling of A from g. Thus, substantial differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and corresponding water relations, were strongly associated with cloud conditions that occur over substantial periods of the summer growth season. PMID:18825418

  17. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  18. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  19. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change. PMID:26016682

  20. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  1. [Spatial distribution pattern of main populations and gap makers in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin; Wang, Ting; Du, Shan; Zhang, Yu-shuan; Chen, Qi-min

    2015-10-01

    Species composition and diameter class structure were investigated in 1.5 hm2 (100 m x 150 n) permanent plot in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains. The spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of main populations and gap makers were analyzed by using point pattern analysis. The results showed that there were a total of 13 species with diameters at breast height greater than 2 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. The importance values of A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis, Betula platyphylla and Acer ukurunduense were ranked in the first 4 in the plot. The diameter class structure of their populations presented an inverse 'J' curve. The spatial distribution patterns for A. nephrolepis and P. koraiensis were similar, which changed from aggregated, random to uniform distribution with the spatial scale. For B. platyphylla, the distribution was aggregated at ≤40 m scale, and random at >40 m scale, whereas A. ukurunduense presented an aggregated distribution pattern at the whole research scale. Except that the negative correlation between B. platyphylla and A. ukurunduense existed at the whole research scale, positive correlation between the other populations at small scale and negative correlation at large scale were observed. Only A. nephrolepis and B. platyphylla had significant positive correlation, and generally no significant correlation existed between other populations. Spatial distribution pattern of gap makers was characterized as aggregated distribution at small and middle scales, and random distribution with increasing scale. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by uprooting exhibited unimodal type distribution, and random, aggregated, and uniform distribution also occurred. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by breaking overall presented a little fluctuation, random and aggregated distributions alternatively appeared at small scale, and random

  2. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48–68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53–66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994–2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages. PMID:24032035

  3. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  4. The polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA impairs embryo morphology and increases the expression of an auxin efflux facilitator protein PIN during Picea abies somatic embryo development.

    PubMed

    Hakman, Inger; Hallberg, Henrik; Palovaara, Joakim

    2009-04-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo patterning and development in angiosperms but less is known from the gymnosperms. The aims of this study were to determine at what stages of conifer embryo development auxin and polar auxin transport are the most important for normal development and to analyze the changes in embryos after treatment with the polar auxin inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). For these studies, somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) were used. Growth on medium containing NPA leads to the formation of embryos with poor shoot apical meristem (SAM) and fused cotyledons, and to a pin-formed phenotype of the regenerated plantlets. The effect of NPA on embryo morphology was most severe if embryos were transferred to NPA-containing medium immediately before cotyledon initiation and SAM specification. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified by immunolocalization in developing embryos. The highest staining intensity was seen in early staged embryos and then decreased as the embryos matured. No clear IAA-maxima was seen, although the apical parts of embryos, particularly the protoderm, and the suspensor cells appear to accumulate more IAA, as reflected by the staining pattern. The NPA treatment also caused expanded procambium and a broader root apical meristem in embryos, and a significant increase in the expression of a PIN1-like gene. Taken together, our results show that, for proper cotyledon initiation, correct auxin transport is needed only during a short period at the transition stage of embryo development, probably involving PIN efflux proteins and that a common mechanism is behind proper cotyledon formation within the species of angiosperms and conifers, despite their cotyledon number which normally differs. PMID:19203973

  5. Abietadiene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase involved in resin acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B S; Wildung, M R; Vogel, G; Croteau, R

    1996-09-20

    (-)-Abietic acid, the principal diterpenoid resin acid of the wound-induced oleoresin secreted by grand fir (Abies grandis), is synthesized by the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (-)-abieta-7(8),13(14)-diene, followed by sequential three-step oxidation of the C-18 methyl group of the olefin to a carboxyl function. The enzyme catalyzing the cyclization reaction, abietadiene synthase, was purified from stems of wounded grand fir saplings and was digested with trypsin. Amino acid sequence information from the resulting peptides allowed construction of degenerate oligonucleotide primers, which amplified a 551-base pair fragment from a wound-induced stem cDNA library. This hybridization probe was then utilized to screen the wound-induced stem cDNA library, from which three cDNA clones were isolated that were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, thereby confirming that a single protein catalyzes the complex, multistep cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to abietadiene. cDNA isolate Ac22.1, which yielded the highest expressed level of cyclase activity, was 2861 base pairs in length and encoded an 868-amino acid open reading frame that included a putative plastidial transit peptide. Deduced amino acid sequence comparison to other terpene cyclases revealed an amino-terminal region of the abietadiene synthase, which resembles those of enzymes that employ substrate double bond protonation to initiate the carbocationic reaction cascade, and a carboxyl-terminal region of the synthase, which resembles those of enzymes that employ ionization of the substrate allylic diphosphate ester function to initiate the cyclization reaction. This apparent fusion of segments of the two distinct terpenoid cyclase types is consistent with the novel mechanism of the bifunctional abietadiene synthase in catalyzing both protonation-initiated and ionization-initiated cyclization steps. PMID:8798524

  6. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  7. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  8. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  9. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  10. Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used