Science.gov

Sample records for ningyo-toge environmental engineering

  1. CURRENT STATUS AND RECLAMATION PLAN OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING FACILITIES AT NINGYO-TOGE IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) conducted research and development projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-toge after the projects ended. Although there is no legal issue in the mine in accordance with related law and agreements at present, JNC has a notion that it is important to reduce the burden of waste management on future generations. Thus, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of JNC proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. The plan has mainly three phases: Phase I is the planning stage, and this paper corresponds to this: Phase II is the stage to perform various tests for safety analysis and site designing: Phase III is the stage to accomplish measures. Preliminarily safety analyses suggested that our supposed cover designs for both waste rock and m ill tailing are enough to keep dose limit of 1mSv/y at site boundaries. The plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first case in Japan. For the accomplishment of this plan, it is important to establish a close relationship with local communities and governments, and to maintain a policy of open-to-public.

  2. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as available…

  3. Environmental engineering 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Schafran, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1999 National Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Norfolk, Virginia, July 25--28, 1999. The conference papers address a wide range of topics including risk assessment and management, environmental system modeling, biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes, membrane applications and fouling, innovative biological and physiochemical soil and groundwater remediation processes, sludge (biosolids) treatment and transport, and copper discharges to estuarine systems. In addition, papers from sessions dealing with public health issues at federal facilities, ordinance treatment and disposal, leachate management, nonpoint source water management, and pollution prevention and waste minimization are included. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  4. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  5. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years. PMID:15193100

  6. Environmental engineering education enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since higher education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies, enhancing social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth, environment respectful, the European Commission promotes a wide range of programmes. Among the EC programmes, the TEMPUS - Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies, with the support of the DG EAC of the European Commission, has contributed to many aspects of general interest for higher education. Curricula harmonization, LifeLong Learning Programme development, ICT use, quality assessment, accreditation, innovation learning methods, growth of networks of institutions trusting each other, are the focused aspects. Such a solid cooperation framework is surely among the main outcomes of the TEMPUS Projects leaded by the University of Firenze UNIFI (Italy), DEREC - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008), and its spin-off DEREL - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), and VICES - Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012). DEREC and DEREL TEMPUS projects, through the co-operation of Universities in Italy, Austria, Germany, Greece, Macedonia, Albania and Serbia, are aimed at the development of first and second level curricula in "Environment and Resources Engineering" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - UKIM Skopje (MK). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between UNIFI and UKIM Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second level curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at UKIM Skopje, University of Novi Sad (RS) and Polytechnic University of Tirana (AL). following

  7. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  8. PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses how personal computers can be applied to environmental engineering. fter explaining some of the differences between mainframe and Personal computers, we will review the development of personal computers and describe the areas of data management, interactive...

  9. Standard handbook of environmental engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    For some time, the term sanitary engineering was used to describe the practice of those engineers who designed water and sewerage systems and the public health protection works. The area of practice then expanded when society recognized that protection of the air, land, and water environmental is necessary for all living things. Today, the term environmental engineering has evolved to describe the engineers increased emphasis on the biological, chemical, and physical reactions in the air, land, and water environments and on improved technology for reuse, recycle, and recovery measures. Recently, billions of public and private dollars have been devoted to the study, design, and construction of pollution control and environmental protection facilities. The Handbook is a comprehensive manual on the principle and practice of environmental engineering. Chapters are provided on the most significant technical aspects of air quality control, water supply, wastewater disposal, and solid waste management. Also, individual chapters are provided in stormwater and hazardous waste management; these two disciplines are of current notoriety and will become even more important in the years ahead. Emerging technologies are introduced and will be discussed in future editions when there is a more developed database and performance record. Similarly, less significant and/or specialized technologies are discussed only briefly. Additional chapters provide insight into historic and fundamental aspects of legislation, quality standards, and environmental assessment procedures, which broadly define objectives of environmental engineering services. Separate abstracts are processed for 3 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. THERMODYNAMICS USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamics is a science in which energy transformations are studied as well as their relationships to the changes in the chemical properties of a system. It is the fundamental basis of many engineering fields. The profession of environmental engineering is no exception. In pa...

  11. Engineering proteins for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D B; Schanstra, J P

    1994-06-01

    Recently, significant new insight has been obtained into the structure and catalytic mechanism of enzymes that convert environmental pollutants. Recent advances in protein engineering make it possible to use this information for improving the catalytic performance of such enzymes to achieve increased stability and expanded substrate range. PMID:7765007

  12. Environmental Engineering Teaching Reference Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John M.; Brenchley, David L.

    Dawson, Fairfax County/U.S.A. is a hypothetical community developed by the authors as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate courses in environmental engineering, providing a context for problem solving and role playing. It was contrived to provide students opportunities to: (1) identify important community relationships, (2) appreciate the…

  13. Educating engineers for environmentally sensitive practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Rosamund Anne

    This thesis addresses the question: "How can we educate undergraduate engineering students for environmentally sensitive practice?" In particular, the thesis explores possibilities for affective (attitude-related) learning goals for environmental education in engineering education. The thesis includes a case study in which an engineering hydrology course was altered to include more information about fish, and an assessment was done to determine whether the students who had used the altered curriculum showed greater awareness of the life-context of hydrology than those who had used the original curriculum. The case study is supported by preparatory research into (a) the expectations articulated by professional engineering associations about environmentally sensitive engineering practice; (b) the factors and players influencing environmental education in engineering education; (c) the literature regarding affective learning goals in environmental education, as it relates to engineering education; and (d) acceptable scholarly standards for evaluation of engineering courses and programs. The thesis findings reveal that expectations of environmentally sensitive engineering practice are high, but the response of the engineering education community is still in the early stages of development. Engineering education research has little overlap with environmental education research; because of the focus in engineering education on "knowledge" goals, the role of affective learning has thus far been neglected as a research area in environmental education in engineering education. The contribution of this civil engineering doctoral thesis on the subject of engineering education is its attempt to bring together ideas and practices from engineering education and the field of educational research in general. Because the doctoral work was based in an engineering school, supervised by engineering professors, and framed as an action research project, it stimulated discussion and

  14. Environmental engineering: A profession in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.

    1996-11-01

    This 50th Industrial Waste Conference at Purdue gives one an opportunity and excuse to reflect on progress in Environmental Engineering and speculate on future changes. The author suggests that during this 50-year period Environmental Engineering has emerged as a discrete and creditable body of knowledge, practice, and academic study. In this review he presents a personal view of the evolution of Environmental Engineering and its present status. He also suggests some future directions and principles which may prove useful, especially in the academic world. The paper discusses the sphere of the environmental engineer, the social incentive, the academic curriculum, environmental engineers and society, the chlorine controversy, research, and the electronic revolution.

  15. Undergraduate environmental engineering education in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Bero, B.N.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the development process, present situations, causes of improvement, and trends of higher education of environmental engineering in China are discussed. Several education modes in environmental engineering in China are also presented. The development process can be divided into three stages: the beginning stage, the expansion stage, and the modification stage. The 1970's and early 1980's wake of environmental consciousness and serious pollution situation in China resulted in about 20 universities setting up an environmental engineering specialty. The late 1980's and middle 1990's job opportunities for undergraduates in China resulted in many universities' creation of the environmental engineering specialty from specialties such as geography, geology, hydrology, mining engineering, and mineral separation engineering where job opportunities were stagnant. At present, adjustment and improvement of environmental engineering education are urgently required because of the excessive increase of undergraduate number, change of job opportunities and implementation of five-work-day system in China. Other problems include how to determine the ratio of social science courses to engineering science courses, how to determine the relationship of fundamental and applied courses, and how to determine the specialized direction. Hunan University, as a typical university conferring an accredited Bachelor degree in Environmental Engineering in four academic years in China, has been improving the instruction schedule for undergraduate education in environmental engineering. The curricula of the three phases for undergraduates of environmental engineering specialty at Hunan University are presented as a case study.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 5TH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Review of Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition (Joseph A. Salvato, Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy (Editors), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey. 2003.). Author wrote review per the request of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Environmental Quality.

  17. Intervention analysis in environmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Hipel, K W; McLeod, A I

    1989-11-01

    Intervention analysis techniques are described for identifying and statistically modelling trends which may be present in water quality time series. At the exploratory data analysis stage, simple graphical and modelling methods can be employed for visually detecting and examining trends in a time series caused by one or more external interventions. For instance, a plot of a robust locally weighted regression smooth through a graph of the observations over time may reveal trends and other interesting statistical properties contained in the time series. In addition, statistical tests, such as different versions of the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, can be used to detect the presence of trends caused by unknown or known external interventions. To characterize rigorously and estimate trends which may be known in advance or else detected using exploratory data analysis studies, different parametric methods can be utilized at the confirmatory data analysis stage. Specifically, the time series modelling approach to intervention analysis can be employed to estimate the magnitudes of the changes in the mean level of the series due to the interventions. Particular types of regression models can also be used for estimating trends, especially when there are many missing observations. To demonstrate how intervention analysis methods can be effectively used in environmental impact assessment, representative applications to water quality time series are presented. PMID:24243172

  18. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  19. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  20. Bayesian statistics in environmental engineering planning

    SciTech Connect

    Englehardt, J.D.; Simon, T.W.

    1999-07-01

    Today's engineer must be able to quantify both uncertainty due to information limitations, and the variability of natural processes, in order to determine risk. Nowhere is this emphasis on risk assessment more evident than in environmental engineering. The use of Bayesian inference for the rigorous assessment of risk based on available information is reviewed in this paper. Several example environmental engineering planning applications are presented: (1) assessment of losses involving the evaluation of proposed revisions to the South Florida Building Code after Hurricane Andrew; (2) development of a model to predict oil spill consequences due to proposed changes in the oil transportation network in the Gulf of Mexico; (3) studies of ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene surrounding dry cleaners and of tire particulates in residential areas near roadways in Miami, FL; (4) risk assessment from contaminated soils at a cleanup of an old transformer dump site.

  1. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  2. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science. PMID:25866322

  3. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  4. Engine environmental effects on composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A series of programs were conducted to investigate and develop the application of composite materials to turbojet engines. A significant part of that effort was directed to establishing the impact resistance and defect growth chracteristics of composite materials over the wide range of environmental conditions found in commercial turbojet engine operations. Both analytical and empirical efforts were involved. The experimental programs and the analytical methodology development as well as an evaluation program for the use of composite materials as fan exit guide vanes are summarized.

  5. Genetic engineering strategies for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, V

    1992-06-01

    Environmental applications of genetically engineered microorganisms are currently hampered not only by legal regulations restricting their release, but also by the frequent dearth of adequate genetic tools for their construction in the laboratory. Recent approaches to strain development include the use of non-antibiotic markers as selection determinants, the use of transposon-vectors for the permanent acquisition of recombinant genes, and the utilization of expression devices based on promoters from promiscuous plasmids and biodegradative pathway genes. PMID:1369388

  6. Distance Teaching of Environmental Engineering Courses at the Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porteous, Andrew; Nesaratnam, Suresh T.; Anderson, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Describes two integrated distance learning environmental engineering degree courses offered by the environmental engineering group of the Open University in Great Britain. Discusses admission requirements for courses, advantages offered by distance learning, professional accreditation, site visits, and tutors. (AIM)

  7. Enhancing environmental engineering education in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Tuneski, Atanasko

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the environmental engineering higher education is here discussed with reference to the TEMPUS-Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies promoted by the European Commission. Among the focused aspects of TEMPUS are curricula harmonization and lifelong learning programme development in higher education. Two are the curricula, since the first TEMPUS project, coordinated in the period 2005-2008 by University of Firenze in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje. The second three years TEMPUS Joint Project denominated DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning, is active since October 2010. To the consortium activities participate 4 EU Universities (from Italy, Greece, Germany and Austria), 7 Partner Countries (PC) Universities (from FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Albania), and 1 PC Ministry, 4 PC National Agencies, 1 PC non governmental organization and 1 PC enterprise. The same 4 EU Universities and the same Macedonian Institutions participated at the first TEMPUS JEP entitled DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum. Both the first and second cycle curriculum, developed through the co-operation, exchange of know-how and expertise between partners, are based on the European Credit Transfer System and are in accordance with the Bologna Process. Within DEREC a new three-years first cycle curriculum in Environmental and Resources Engineering was opened at the University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, and the necessary conditions for offering a Joint Degree Title, on the basis of an agreement between the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University and the University of Firenze, were fulfilled. The running DEREL project, as a continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second cycle curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in

  8. Performing environmental audits: An engineer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, J.A. )

    1994-02-01

    Today, environmental auditing is both a technical exercise and a legal art. To perform a comprehensive and effective environmental audit requires a team of individuals who combined have broad engineering skills, a knowledge of chemistry, and specialized legal experience with all the relevant environmental regulations. Because the audit involves such highly qualified individuals, it is typically quite expensive. Nonetheless, the cost is well worth the investment, because of the high stakes involved in environmental legislation and litigation. Simply put, the cost of non-compliance can far outweigh the costs associated with a comprehensive audit. The paper describes starting the audit, the ideal team, a standard method, doing a compliance audit, data analysis after the audit, advantages and disadvantages, and policies on auditing. The paper briefly describes the four factors that the Department of Justice considers in deciding whether to bring criminal prosecution for violation of an environmental statute. The four factors are: voluntary disclosure; cooperation; preventive measures and compliance program; and pervasiveness of non-compliance.

  9. Environmental restoration value engineering guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document provides guidance on Value Engineering (VE). VE is an organized team effort led by a person trained in the methodology to analyze the functions of projects, systems, equipment, facilities, services, and processes for achieving the essential functions at the lowest life cycle cost while maintaining required performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety. VE has proven to be a superior tool to improve up-front project planning, cut costs, and create a better value for each dollar spent. This document forms the basis for the Environmental Restoration VE Program, describes the VE process, and provides recommendations on when it can be most useful on ER projects.

  10. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-05-15

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  11. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

    2002-08-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

  13. Multimedia environmental distribution of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyang Haven; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-03-18

    A compartmental multimedia model was developed to enable evaluation of the dynamic environmental multimedia mass distribution and concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The approach considers the environment as a collection of compartments, linked via fundamental environmental intermedia transport processes. Model simulations for various environmental scenarios indicated that ENM accumulation in the sediment increased significantly with increased ENMs attachment to suspended solids in water. Atmospheric dry and wet depositions can be important pathways for ENMs input to the terrestrial environment in the absence of direct and distributed ENM release to soil. Increased ENM concentration in water due to atmospheric deposition (wet and dry) is expected as direct ENM release to water diminishes. However, for soluble ENMs dissolution can be the dominant pathway for suspended ENM removal from water even compared to advection. Mass accumulation in the multimedia environment for the evaluated ENMs (metal, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNT), nanoclays) was mostly in the soil and sediment. The present modeling approach, as illustrated via different test cases, is suited for "what if" first tier analyses to assess the multimedia mass distribution of ENMs and associated potential exposure concentrations. PMID:24548277

  14. Environmental Engineering Talent Demand and Undergraduate Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huan-zhen; Li, Jian-bo; Luo, Xiang-nan; Zhao, Bin-yan; Luo, Ren-ming; Wang, Qiao-ling

    2004-01-01

    In Chinese higher environmental education, undergraduate education of environmental engineering starts earliest and develops fastest. The undergraduate has been playing an important role in controlling pollution for more than twenty years. The setting and distribution of the environmental engineering major was analyzed, the conditions of the…

  15. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  16. Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-16

    Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers (P2-EDGE) provides nearly 300 recommendations to incorporate pollution prevention into projects during the design phase. Each is supplemented by examples, references, and additional data to help the user evaluate applicability and potential benefits to their design project. Built in filters allow the user to narrow the review to only those opportunities that are applicable based on project size and design phase. User responses are saved to a custommore » data file or can also be generated into a report and printed. Other features include the ability to search the database for keywords, add opportunities to the database, or edit existing entries.« less

  17. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments. PMID:27620079

  18. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  19. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  20. Using Notable Women in Environmental Engineering to Dispel Misperceptions of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoh, Yin Kiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an activity the author has carried out with 72 high school science teachers to enable them to overcome their stereotypical perceptions of engineers. The activity introduced them to notable women in environmental engineering, and raised their awareness of these female engineers' contributions to engineering and society. The…

  1. Environmental engineering education: examples of accreditation and quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Catelani, M.; Manfrida, G.; Valdiserri, J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental engineers respond to the challenges posed by a growing population, intensifying land-use pressures, natural resources exploitation as well as rapidly evolving technology. The environmental engineer must develop technically sound solutions within the framework of maintaining or improving environmental quality, complying with public policy, and optimizing the utilization of resources. The engineer provides system and component design, serves as a technical advisor in policy making and legal deliberations, develops management schemes for resources, and provides technical evaluations of systems. Through the current work of environmental engineers, individuals and businesses are able to understand how to coordinate society's interaction with the environment. There will always be a need for engineers who are able to integrate the latest technologies into systems to respond to the needs for food and energy while protecting natural resources. In general, the environment-related challenges and problems need to be faced at global level, leading to the globalization of the engineering profession which requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. In this framework, the Europe-based EUR ACE (European Accreditation of Engineering Programmes) system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. The application of the accreditation model EUR-ACE, and of the National Italian Degree Courses Accreditation System, promoted by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (ANVUR), to the Environmental Engineering Degree Courses at the University of Firenze is presented. In

  2. Environmental engineering education at Ghent University, Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J; Janssen, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, environmental engineering education has been a rapidly growing discipline in many universities. This paper discusses the history, the current status and the near future of environmental engineering education at Ghent University. This university, with about 50% of the Flemish university environmental engineering students, can be considered as representative for the situation in Flanders, Belgium. In contrast to many other universities, environmental engineering education at Ghent University does not have its historical roots in civil engineering, but has been developed from the curricula organized by the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. As part of a reorganisation of the education and research activities at this faculty, a curriculum leading to the degree of "bio-engineer in environmental technology" was established in 1991. This curriculum covers a 5-year study and is constructed around 8 main components. Exchange of students with other European universities, e.g. within the Socrates framework, has become a prominent aspect of student life and education. This paper also briefly describes the employment opportunities of graduated bio-engineers in environmental technology. Finally, the current implementation of the bachelor's-master's structure, leading to a "master of science in environmental technology" degree is summarized. PMID:15193102

  3. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  4. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test

  5. Environmental Engineering Curricula assessment in the global world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Catelani, Marcantonio; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Valdiserri, Juna

    2014-05-01

    Environmental engineers are technicians with specific expertise on the sustainability of human presence in the environment. Among other global dilemmas, to the environmental engineers it is often demanded to be able in developing systematic, innovative solutions in order to simultaneously meet water and energy needs, to build resilience to natural and technological disasters, to more accurately gauge and manage countries' greenhouse gas emissions. The general objectives of the Environmental Engineers are to establish actions of environmental sustainability as well as to verify progress toward global goals or international commitments. The globalization of challenges and problems to be faced, leads, in general, to the globalization of the engineering profession. In particular, since the environmental issues are without boundaries, and many and different are the involved professions and the competences, the environmental engineer must have a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to adequately answer to the demand of technical innovative knowledge at global scale. The environmental engineers, more and more, are involved in international projects were the effective collaboration requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. The Europe-based EUR ACE system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education, can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. In the global frame of the knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the accreditation and quality assurance of engineering curricula in Europe is discussed with reference to the Environmental engineering curricula, of the 1st and 2nd cycle, based on the European Credit Transfer System and in

  6. Going "Green": Environmental Jobs for Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Green is often used as a synonym for environmental or ecological, especially as it relates to products and activities aimed at minimizing damage to the planet. Scientists and engineers have long had important roles in the environmental movement. Their expertise is focused on a variety of issues, including increasing energy efficiency, improving…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  8. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  9. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A model for the study of factors contributing to the solution of ecological/environmental problems is presented and examples of interdisciplinary research are described. The model implies a need for the examination of the effects of antecedent and consequent manipulation of a variety of variables including: behavioral, physiological, environmental, technical and legal conditions. It is concluded that while interdisciplinary research efforts between engineering technologists and behavioral analysts are necessary, they have not received sufficient attention in the literature nor have they focused on the comprehensive study of antecedents and consequences as they relate to ecological/environmental problems. Thus, an extended “family” of research efforts is important for the success of these efforts. PMID:22478473

  10. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concepts. Final report FY-96

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, S.L.; Carpenter, G.S.; Crockett, A.B.

    1997-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concept Project was initiated for the expedited development of new or conceptual technologies in support of groundwater fate, transport, and remediation; buried waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment; waste minimization/pollution prevention; and spent fuel handling and storage. In Fiscal Year 1996, The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory proposed 40 development projects and the Department of Energy funded 15. The projects proved the concepts of the various technologies, and all the technologies contribute to successful environmental management.

  12. Bioremediation: environmental clean-up through pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Kang, Seung Hyun; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-10-01

    Given the immense risk posed by widespread environmental pollution by inorganic and organic chemicals, novel methods of decontamination and clean-up are required. Owing to the relatively high cost and the non-specificity of conventional techniques, bioremediation is a promising alternative technology for pollutant clean-up. Advances in bioremediation harness molecular, genetic, microbiology, and protein engineering tools and rely on identification of novel metal-sequestering peptides, rational and irrational pathway engineering, and enzyme design. Recent advances have been made for enhanced inorganic chemical remediation and organic chemical degradation using various pathway-engineering approaches and these are discussed in this review. PMID:18760355

  13. Environmental engineering simplifies subterranean locomotion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Darya; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesize that ants engineer habitats which reduce locomotion control requirements. We studied tunnel construction, and locomotion, in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, body length L = 0 . 35 +/- 0 . 05). In their daily life, ants forage for food above ground and return resources to the nest. This steady-state tunnel traffic enables high-throughput biomechanics studies of tunnel climbing. In a laboratory experiment we challenged fire ants to climb through 8 cm long glass tunnels (D = 0.1 - 0.9 cm) that separated a nest from an open arena with food and water. During ascending and descending climbs we induced falls by a motion-activated rapid, short, downward translation of the tunnels. Normalized tunnel diameter (D / L) determined the ability of ants to rapidly recover from perturbations. Fall arrest probability was unity for small D / L , and zero for large D / L . The transition from successful to unsuccessful arrest occurred at D / L = 1 . 4 +/- 0 . 3 . Through X-Ray computed tomography study we show that the diameter of ant-excavated tunnels is independent of soil-moisture content (studied from 1-20%) and particle size (50-595 μm diameter), and has a mean value of D / L = 1 . 06 +/- 0 . 23 . Thus fire ants construct tunnels of diameter near the onset of fall instability.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  15. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  16. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  17. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  18. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  19. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science Manual I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The student materials present lessons about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Included are 18 units organized by objective, information, reference, procedure, and assignment. Each lesson involves concrete trade experience where science is applied. Unit titles are: safety and housekeeping,…

  20. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science I--Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The document presents lessons for teaching about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Intended for use with the assignments in the related science manual for students, each unit provides the teacher with objectives, a list of aids needed, procedures, a summary, and testing questions. There are 18…

  1. Introduction of Process Life Cycle Inventory in Environmental Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Norte, Felix; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a methodology for developing an environmental load balance which can be the means for conducting a life cycle inventory. The methodology described can be taught at the same level of chemical engineering fundamentals at which basic mass and energy balances are introduced. (DDR)

  2. Incorporating environmental ethics into the undergraduate engineering curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Katherine; Striebig, Bradley

    2004-04-01

    The design and economic realities associated with Personal Computers (PCs) was used as a model for implementing ethical issues into the core-engineering curriculum. Historically, products have not been designed to be recycled easily. By incorporating environmental ethics into our classrooms and industries, valuable materials can be recovered and harmful materials can be eliminated from our waste stream. Future engineers must consider the economic cost-benefit analysis of designing a product for easy material recovery and recycling versus the true cost of the disposal and continued use of virgin materials. A three hour unit on the economic and environmental impacts of product design is proposed for inclusion in the ABET accredited engineering program. PMID:15152868

  3. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  4. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (hereafter... the Chief of Engineers (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) on matters relating to environmental...

  5. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  6. Engineering parameters for environmental remediation technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkeri, S.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document identifies engineering parameters and establishes ranges of values for 33 environmental remediation technologies. The main purpose is to provide U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) civil engineering personnel with summarized information regarding matrix characteristics and design parameters that are applicable to each of the technologies. This information is intended to guide USCG personnel when making decisions regarding the selection of appropriate remediation technologies. This document has been developed to be used as a companion document to the Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide (EPN542/B-94/013).

  7. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  8. 76 FR 81485 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: January 19, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. through 12 p.m. Location: U.S. Government Accountability Office Building, 441 G Street Northwest, Washington, DC 20548-0002 (202) 512-6000. Agenda: The......

  9. 77 FR 46428 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: August 28, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. through 12:00 p.m. Location: Ralph H. Metcalfe Federal Building (RMFB), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Room 331, Chicago, IL 60604. Agenda: The Board will......

  10. Engineering dioxygenases for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Dioxygenases have recently been engineered to improve their capabilities for environmental pollutant degradation. The techniques used to achieve this include in vitro DNA shuffling and subunit or domain exchanges between dioxygenases of different bacterial origins. Such evolved enzymes acquire novel and enhanced degradation capabilities of xenobiotic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene and a variety of aromatic compounds. Hybrid strains in which the evolved genes are integrated into the chromosomal operons exhibit efficient degradation of xenobiotic chlorinated compounds. PMID:10851151

  11. 78 FR 4138 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: February 15, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. through 12:30 p.m. Location: The ``Caf[eacute] Conference Room'' on the second floor of the Sandra Day O'Connor United States Courthouse (SDOCH),......

  12. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  13. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  14. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: COMM ENGINEERING, USA ENVIRONMENTAL VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT (EVRU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the testing of a new technology that recovers and utilizes vapors from crude oil storage tanks employed in the oil production and processing industry. The COMM Engineering, USA Environmental Vapor Recovery Unit (EVRU) is a non-mechanical eductor, or jet pump...

  16. Environmental noise-a challenge for an acoustical engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    People live in a landscape full of noises which are composed of both natural environmental noises and technically created sounds. Regarding environmental noise, more and more people feel heavily annoyed by noises. Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence or an intentional sound listening or leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters such as the A-weighted sound pressure level or the equivalent continuous sound pressure level. The question of whether a sound is judged as noise can only be made after the transformation from the sound event into an auditory event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psycho-acoustical features of the human ear, as well as on the psychological aspects of man. For the acoustical design of environmental noise and in order to create a better soundscape the acoustical engineer has to consider these aspects. That means a specific challenge for the sound engineering.

  17. Increasing Capacity for Environmental Engineering in Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rajal, Verónica B.; Cid, Alicia G.; Cruz, Mercedes C.; Poma, Hugo R.; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B.; Last, Jerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The “International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health” Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Results Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After six years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. Conclusions This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. PMID:22467330

  18. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  19. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems. PMID:10335581

  1. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  3. Environmental behavior of engineered nanomaterials in porous media: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-05-15

    A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. PMID:26882524

  4. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-12-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the second quarter 1999 is based on 618 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, drinking water, sheep, wild game tissues, and environmental radiation. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  5. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Consolidated Transportation Facility. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0822, addressing environmental impacts that could result from siting, construction, and operation of a consolidated transportation facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The DOE proposes to construct and operate a new transportation facility at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) at the INEL. The proposed facility would replace outdated facilities and consolidate in one location operations that are conducted at six different locations at the CFA. The proposed facility would be used for vehicle and equipment maintenance and repair, administrative support, bus parking, and bus driver accommodation. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  7. Dynamic Probabilistic Modeling of Environmental Emissions of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian Yin; Bornhöft, Nikolaus A; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The need for an environmental risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials (ENM) necessitates the knowledge about their environmental concentrations. Despite significant advances in analytical methods, it is still not possible to measure the concentrations of ENM in natural systems. Material flow and environmental fate models have been used to provide predicted environmental concentrations. However, almost all current models are static and consider neither the rapid development of ENM production nor the fact that many ENM are entering an in-use stock and are released with a lag phase. Here we use dynamic probabilistic material flow modeling to predict the flows of four ENM (nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT) to the environment and to quantify their amounts in (temporary) sinks such as the in-use stock and ("final") environmental sinks such as soil and sediment. Caused by the increase in production, the concentrations of all ENM in all compartments are increasing. Nano-TiO2 had far higher concentrations than the other three ENM. Sediment showed in our worst-case scenario concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg/kg (CNT) to about 40 000 μg/kg (nano-TiO2). In most cases the concentrations in waste incineration residues are at the "mg/kg" level. The flows to the environment that we provide will constitute the most accurate and reliable input of masses for environmental fate models which are using process-based descriptions of the fate and behavior of ENM in natural systems and rely on accurate mass input parameters. PMID:27043743

  8. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B.; Brooks, R.W.; Roush, D.; Martin, D.B.; Lantz, B.S.

    1998-08-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site at which nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway whereby radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to the DOE-Headquarters. This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1997 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the INEEL operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines.

  9. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    2000-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an offsite environmental surveillance program for the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the third quarter of 1999 is based on 704 samples of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, milk, and food. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No! measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-09-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the first quarter 1999 is based on 564 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, and wild game tissues. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons ! testing, an d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  13. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Fourth Quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. Saffle; R. Evans

    1999-08-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts the Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the fourth quarter 1998 is based on 622 samples collected of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, water, milk, potatoes, and game animals. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radioactivity, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, an! d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL, although statistical differences did exist between on-site and distant gross beta concentrations. No evidence could be found to link these differences with a specific INEEL source. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  14. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  19. Environmentally friendly plasma-based surface engineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, A.; Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Cvelbar, U.

    2010-01-01

    Weakly ionised reactive plasmas are characterised by a very low degree of ionization, which rarely exceeds the order of 10-4, and by a very high degree of dissociation, which often reaches values above 50%. Thus the most numerous plasma species are free neutral atoms originated from the dissociation of the source gas molecules. Neutral atoms are chemically very reactive species, which makes such plasma suitable for material processing. At the same time the neutral atoms have a low kinetic energy and therefore they cannot penetrate into the bulk material, so their effect is restricted to the topmost atomic layers of the material surface hence weakly ionised, reactive plasmas are suitable for surface engineering. Here we present examples of weakly ionised plasma applications as environmentally friendly alternatives to processes that otherwise utilise aggressive chemicals and produce toxic waste.

  20. Systems analysis in environmental engineering: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Gujer, W

    2004-01-01

    Systems analysis is identified as a unifying topic of environmental engineering. Based on a questionnaire sent out to peers and based on the experience with an advanced systems analysis course the possible content and association of the content with bachelor and master's programs is discussed. At the bachelor's level it is concluded that an array of topics should be introduced more in an inductive way, going along with the discussion of examples. At the master's level it is suggested that a substantial course, which systematically introduces a broad variety of systems analysis tools, is provided. Such a course should go along with the introduction of a simulation tool, which supports application of systems analysis methods. PMID:15193092

  1. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  2. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  3. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  4. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University at SAGEEP 2008: Geophysical Instruction for Non-Geophysicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey G. Paine

    2009-03-13

    The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), a nonprofit professional organization, conducted an educational series of seminars at the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) in Philadelphia in April 2008. The purpose of these seminars, conducted under the name Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University (EEGU) over three days in parallel with the regular SAGEEP technical sessions, was to introduce nontraditional geophysical conference attendees to the appropriate use of geophysics in environmental and engineering projects. Five half-day, classroom-style sessions were led by recognized experts in the application of seismic, electrical, gravity, magnetics, and ground-penetrating radar methods. Classroom sessions were intended to educate regulators, environmental program managers, consultants, and students who are new to near-surface geophysics or are interested in learning how to incorporate appropriate geophysical approaches into characterization or remediation programs or evaluate the suitability of geophysical methods for general classes of environmental or engineering problems.

  5. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect

  6. Influence of an Environmental Studies Course on Attitudes of Undergraduates at an Engineering University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Shih-Yun; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed…

  7. Environmental Transformations of Engineered Nanoparticles: Implications for Nanoparticle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, G. V.; Levard, C.; Reinsch, B.; Ma, R.; Kirschling, T.; Brown, G. E.; Tilton, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical transformations that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may undergo in different environments very poorly characterized. Sulfidation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), particularly class B soft metals such as Ag NPs, is expected in the environment. Transformation will alter the surface properties and fate of Ag NPs. ENMs are often coated with a polymeric coating to prevent aggregation or to provide specific functionality. These coatings dramatically impact their transport properties. The potential for biological processes to remove covalently bound polymeric coatings from nanoparticles, and the effect of coating loss on the particle's transport properties is not known. The objectives of this work were to 1) better understand the environmental conditions that would promote sufidation of class B soft metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs and ZnO NPs), and to determine the effect that this has on their surface properties and aggregation potential, and 2) to determine if microbes can access covalently bound polymeric coatings from an engineered NP, and the effect on their surface properties and aggregation potential. Ag and ZnO NPs were synthesized and characterized for size, shape, coating mass, charge, crystal structure, and chemical composition using a range of analytical methods (TEM, DLS, TGA, EPM, XAS). These particles were sulfidized in the laboratory, biosolids, and wetland soils and the transformed materials were characterized. Sulfidation was rapid in all cases and resulted in a mixed crystalline/amorphous Ag2S/Ag2O particle depending on the ratio of Ag to HS- in the system. Sulfidation decreased surface charge and displayed significant aggregation compared to the unsulfidized materials. Sulfidation also occurred in biosolids and in wetland soils. Polymer coatings covalently bound to ENMs are bioavailable. Model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush-coated nanoparticles (30 nm hydrodynamic radius) were synthesized to obtain a nanomaterial in which biodegradation was

  8. Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Systems Integration and Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Geiselhart, Karl A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study documents the design and analysis of four types of advanced technology commercial transport airplane configurations (small, medium large and very large) with an assumed technology readiness date of 2010. These airplane configurations were used as a platform to evaluate the design concept and installed performance of advanced technology engines being developed under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. Upon installation of the UEET engines onto the UEET advanced technology airframes, the small and medium airplanes both achieved an additional 16% increase in fuel efficiency when using GE advanced turbofan engines. The large airplane achieved an 18% increase in fuel efficiency when using the P&W geared fan engine. The very large airplane (i.e. BWB), also using P&W geared fan engines, only achieved an additional 16% that was attributed to a non-optimized airplane/engine combination.

  9. Environmental concerns associated with the design of genetic engineering facilities.

    PubMed

    Watt, J C; Wroniewicz, V S; Ioli, D F

    1988-01-01

    complex problem. Systems to treat these wastewaters can include many diverse unit operations, from pretreatment of selected streams to tertiary treatment of the combined streams to meet stringent effluent criteria. While biological treatment is almost always applicable, waste loads are very high, and multiple-stage systems could be required. Early and ongoing interface between the process development scientists and engineers and the environmental disciplines allows for the early recognition of potential environmental problems. With early recognition, many of these problems can be economically and efficiently addressed in the design of the facility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3178641

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Evans; D. Roush; R. W. Brooks; D. B. Martin

    1998-08-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines. The maximum potential population dose from submersion, ingestion, inhalation, and deposition to the approximately 121,500 people residing within an 80-km (50-mi) radius from the geographical center of the INEEL was estimated to be 0.2 person-rem (2 x 10-3 person-Sv) using the MDIFF air dispersion model. This population dose is less than 0.0005% of the estimated 43,700 person-rem (437 person-Sv) population dose from background radioactivity.

  11. Harnessing the Environmental Professional Expertise of Engineering Students—The Course: ``Environmental Management Systems in the Industry''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Ayal, Nitzan

    2010-12-01

    More and more technical universities now advocate integrating sustainability in higher education and including it as a strategic goal for improving education's quality and relevance to society. This study examines 30 fourth-year chemical engineering students, graduates of a university course designed to combine their terminological domain with sustainability-oriented goals, focusing on topics like corporate sustainability, developing environmental policy, introduction to ISO 14001—Environmental Management Systems (EMS), and environmental legislation. The study explores their perception of industrial-environmental issues and asks—How did the study unit influence the students' ability to use their preexisting scientific knowledge, while relating to industrial-environmental issues? Our findings indicate that engineering students can develop industrial-environmental awareness, and make use of interdisciplinary knowledge beyond that strictly related to the realm of engineering. Regarding the research's particular aim—i.e. determining the study unit's influence on students' ability to relate industrial-environmental issues to their own field of engineering—the findings indeed show a change in the students' conceptions of environmental elements related to industry. The course graduates became more attentive to the environmental aspects associated with building and opening a factory, and the concepts they raised in connection with the topic gained in variety.

  12. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three. PMID:15193089

  13. Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

    2002-07-01

    The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard

  14. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATION CONTROLS FOR STATIONARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment of combustion modification techniques for stationary internal combustion engines, with respect to NOx control reduction effectiveness, operational impact, thermal efficiency impact, capital and annualized operating costs, an...

  16. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-14

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations.

  17. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  18. Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers through Development of a New Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerther, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a molecular biology course designed for environmental engineering majors using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-targeted technology that allows students to identify and study microorganisms in bioreactor environments. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  19. Environmental and Mechanical Stability of Environmental Barrier Coated SA Tyrannohex SiC Composites Under Simulated Turbine Engine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael Charles; Sing, Mrityunjay

    2014-01-01

    The environmental stability and thermal gradient cyclic durability performance of SA Tyrannohex composites were investigated for turbine engine component applications. The work has been focused on investigating the combustion rig recession, cyclic thermal stress resistance and thermomechanical low cycle fatigue of uncoated and environmental barrier coated Tyrannohex SiC SA composites in simulated turbine engine combustion water vapor, thermal gradients, and mechanical loading conditions. Flexural strength degradations have been evaluated, and the upper limits of operating temperature conditions for the SA composite material systems are discussed based on the experimental results.

  20. Environmental regulation of valvulogenesis: implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Riem Vis, Paul W; Kluin, Jolanda; Sluijter, Joost P G; van Herwerden, Lex A; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing research efforts aim at improving the creation of tissue-engineered heart valves for in vivo systemic application. Hence, in vitro studies concentrate on optimising culture protocols incorporating biological as well as biophysical stimuli for tissue development. Important lessons can be drawn from valvulogenesis to mimic natural valve development in vitro. Here, we review the up-to-date status of valvulogenesis, focussing on the biomolecular and biophysical regulation of semilunar valve development. In addition, we discuss potential benefits of incorporating concepts derived from valvulogenesis, as well as alternative approaches, in tissue-engineering protocols, to improve in vitro valve development. The combined efforts from clinicians, cell biologists and engineers are required to implement and evaluate these approaches to achieve optimised protocols for heart-valve tissue engineering. PMID:20637649

  1. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  2. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Saffle; R. G. Mitchell; R. B. Evans; D. B. Martin

    2000-07-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1998 indicated that radioactivity from the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines. Gross alpha and gross beta measurements, used as a screening technique for air filters, were investigated by making statistical comparisons between onsite or boundary location concentrations and the distant community group concentrations. Gross alpha activities were generally higher at distant locations than at boundary and onsite locations. Air samples were also analyzed for specific radionuclides. Some human-made radionuclides were detected at offsite locations, but most were near the minimum detectable concentration and their presence was attributable to natural sources, worldwide fallout, and statistical variations in the analytical results rather than to INEEL operations. Low concentrations of 137Cs were found in muscle tissue and liver of some game animals and sheep. These levels were mostly consistent with background concentrations measured in animals sampled onsite and offsite in recent years. Ionizing radiation measured simultaneously at the INEEL boundary and distant locations using environmental dosimeters were similar and showed only background levels. The maximum potential population dose from submersion, ingestion, inhalation, and deposition to the approximately 121,500 people residing within an 80-km (50-mi) radius from the geographical center of the INEEL was estimated to be 0.08 person-rem (8 x 10-4 person-Sv) using the MDIFF air dispersion model. This population dose is less than 0.0002 percent of the estimated 43,7 00

  3. Surface Immobilization of Engineered Nanomaterials for in Situ Study of their Environmental Transformations and Fate

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transformation and environmental fate of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is the focus of intense research due to concerns about their potential impacts in the environment as a result of their uniquely engineered properties. Many approaches are being applied to investigate th...

  4. Development and Test of a Rocket Engine Using Environmentally Friendly Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Develop and test a rocket engine that operates on environmentally friendly propellants; Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4). Due to modifications the rocket engine designed last summer (KJ_REX) is not the same rocket thruster tested this summer, but very similar. The new modified rocket thruster was built for NASA by Orion Propulsion Inc. (OPI), Huntsville, AL.

  5. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  6. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  7. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  8. 78 FR 37533 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Engineered High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announces its intent to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and conduct public scoping meetings to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action to implement one or more programs to catalyze the development and demonstration of engineered high energy crops......

  9. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  10. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  11. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  12. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  13. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  14. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  15. 78 FR 50052 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...). Date: September 11, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. through 12:00 p.m. Location: Room 3K10, Headquarters, U.S... river ecosystems; Corps' outreach opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics... disabilities. Attendees need to arrive in time to complete the security screening and arrive at the...

  16. Engineering radiation-resistant bacteria for environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Daly, M J

    2000-06-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. PMID:10851141

  17. Environmental Study: Science and Engineering Buildings. ABS Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is the first of a series which present the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level conducted by the Academic Building Systems (ABS) program. The document includes (1) a user survey (data and conclusions from a series of studies involving a spectrum of…

  18. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Turbine Engines: A Design and Performance Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis; Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBC) for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating long-term durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature, strength and stability requirements in engine high heat-flux combustion environments, especially for highly-loaded rotating turbine components. Advanced TEBC systems, including nano-composite based HfO2-aluminosilicate and rare earth silicate coatings are being developed and tested for higher temperature capable SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade applications. This paper will emphasize coating composite and multilayer design approach and the resulting performance and durability in simulated engine high heat-flux, high stress and high pressure combustion environments. The advances in the environmental barrier coating development showed promise for future rotating CMC blade applications.

  19. Preliminary Outcomes from a Week-Long Environmental Engineering Summer Camp for High School Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for environment engineers and sustainability managers to address global environmental, energy and health challenges. Environmental literacy programs at K-12 level provide a unique opportunity in motivating young minds in joining STEM and also provide additional value in learning about "saving planet earth". The Women in Engineering at the University of Illinois organize an annual week long camp, for female high school students with tracks corresponding to different fields of Engineering. The Environmental Engineering and Sustainability (EES) track is organized by faculty and graduate students of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department and introduces students to concepts in sustainability and systems thinking in connection with air and water quality, climate change and renewable energy. This study is a preliminary assessment of the relevance of the EES outreach track conducted in July 2014 in student learning. Specific goals include assessing (a) demographics of participants and their motivation to join this camp, (b) educational and enjoyability quotients of the modules and (c) learning and motivational outcomes using the Likert scale. A pre-camp survey indicated keen interest in learning about environmental engineering (4.56/5.0) and expected this camp to be a venue to learn about related career choices (4.9/5.0). Five days of instruction were divided thematically and included a mix of lectures, activity based learning, demonstrations and field visits. Overall modules were rated as educational (4.4/5.0) and enjoyable (4.5/5.0). Modules with hands-on learning were best received (4.67/5.0) and rated unique (4.7/5.0). Post camp, participants acknowledged the important contribution of environmental engineers to society (4.8/5.0) and could relate the different modules to the role engineer's play (4.06/5.0) for sustainability. On an average, the participants evinced interest in engineering as a career choice (4.0/5.0) but there was a broader

  20. Greenhorn engineering: How to avoid environmental quicksand and other mistakes

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.

    1997-03-01

    There is a new awareness in business and industry. It has to do with how one approaches responsibilities toward the environment. In the past, a responsible company made efforts to learn the environmental laws/regulations and comply with them. People were hired to keep up with changing rules. If errors were made, fines were paid and due diligence was given to future compliance. Much money was spent fixing old problems and complying with tighter standards. It was expensive and difficult to stay out of trouble--i.e., living on quicksand--and it was easy to make mistakes. Now, an increasing number of companies are going beyond compliance and becoming proactive in their approach to environmental issues. Efforts are made to prevent pollution, save energy, minimize waste and emissions, reuse/recycle old products, etc. Employees at all levels are being educated and empowered to make proactive environmental decisions. In the Old West, greenhorns were cattle with young -- i.e., green -- horns. The word has evolved to mean a raw, inexperienced person. In companies being environmentally proactive, everyone is, to some extent, a greenhorn. Even those that have been proactive for several years find they are pioneers. There is a lack of data on many impacts materials have on the environment throughout their lifetime. There is a lack of agreement on what impacts are better or worse than others. The field is new, all the data are not available, and all are greenhorns in proactivity. There are, however, many compelling reasons for business and industry to become involved now.

  1. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  2. Department of Energy environmental management complex-wide integration using systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbourn, P.

    1997-10-01

    A systems engineering approach was successfully used to recommend changes to environmental management activities across the DOE Complex. A team of technical experts and systems engineers developed alternatives that could save tax payers billions of dollars if the barriers are removed to allow complete implementation. The alternatives are technically-based and defensible, and are being worked through the stakeholder review process. The integration process and implementing project structure are both discussed.

  3. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  4. Environmental concept for engineering software on MIMD computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, L. A.; Valimohamed, K.

    1989-01-01

    The issues related to developing an environment in which engineering systems can be implemented on MIMD machines are discussed. The problem is presented in terms of implementing the finite element method under such an environment. However, neither the concepts nor the prototype implementation environment are limited to this application. The topics discussed include: the ability to schedule and synchronize tasks efficiently; granularity of tasks; load balancing; and the use of a high level language to specify parallel constructs, manage data, and achieve portability. The objective of developing a virtual machine concept which incorporates solutions to the above issues leads to a design that can be mapped onto loosely coupled, tightly coupled, and hybrid systems.

  5. The method of solid rocket motors firings environmental engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Baojun; Xu, Ke; Peng, Keke; Mi, Yaoqi

    The solid rocket motors firings is one main source of space debris, the solid rocket motors firings model is a part of space debris engineering model. In this paper, researching the NASA and ESA model to achieve an appropriate firing model, using the discrete method to model the solid rocket motors firings; application of the long-term approximation orbit evolution algorithm to calculate the evolution of firings generated by a single solid rocket motors ignition event in space; finally, application of space debris environment space debris density algorithm to calculate the distribution of firings generated by a single solid rocket motors ignition event in space, analysing the influence on the space environment and spacecraft.

  6. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  7. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2002-02-15

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  8. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  9. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  10. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  11. Evaporation Basin Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0501, on the construction and operation of the proposed Evaporation Basin at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  12. Planetary boundaries and environmental citizenship: enhancing environmental science through the Princeton University Science and Engineering Education Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; Caylor, K. K.; Wilcove, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Introductory courses in environmental science are challenging to teach effectively because instructors need to balance the breadth of content coverage with the depth needed to solve complex, interdisciplinary environmental problems. For three years, the Council on Science and Technology at Princeton University has been collaborating with faculty to enhance the introductory environmental science course as part of the Science and Engineering Education Initiative, which aims to ensure that all students, regardless of discipline, graduate with an appreciation for and literacy in science and engineering. Our primary aim in the course is to foster improved environmental citizenship by helping students develop a mechanistic understanding of our individual, societal, and global role as agents of environmental change; an ability to predict or forecast the potential impact that decisions may have on the future structure and function of Earth systems; and a sense of responsibility that leads to informed action and decision-making related to environmental issues. Toward those ends, we have 1) reframed the course curriculum to focus on the central theme of "planetary boundaries" (Rockstrom et al., 2009), including their scientific evidence and policy implications, 2) developed hands-on laboratory exercises that give students authentic research experiences, and 3) modified the assessment to ensure that the students have consistent and clear indications of their mastery of the material. Student feedback through course surveys has been positive, although challenges remain, including coordination across a large teaching staff (two lead instructors for lecture and three TAs for discussion sections, plus a lead lab instructor and one lab TA), optimizing learning activities across the course structure (lecture, precept, and an optional lab), and engaging students that have diverse academic interests.

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  15. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  16. Detecting and Characterizing Engineered Nanomaterials: A Key Tool for Environmentally Responsible Nanotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The same properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that are the basis for their many novel applications also raise important issues related to their environmental impact. ENMs might not behave similarly in the environment to the dissolved or solid forms of the chemicals from ...

  17. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S-J; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO(2) ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  18. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  19. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  20. Collaborative-Large scale Engineering Assessment Networks for Environmental Research: The Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moo-Young, H.

    2004-05-01

    A networked infrastructure for engineering solutions and policy alternatives is necessary to assess, manage, and protect complex, anthropogenic ally stressed environmental resources effectively. Reductionist and discrete disciplinary methodologies are no longer adequate to evaluate and model complex environmental systems and anthropogenic stresses. While the reductonist approach provides important information regarding individual mechanisms, it cannot provide complete information about how multiple processes are related. Therefore, it is not possible to make accurate predictions about system responses to engineering interventions and the effectiveness of policy options. For example, experts cannot agree on best management strategies for contaminated sediments in riverine and estuarine systems. This is due, in part to the fact that existing models do not accurately capture integrated system dynamics. In addition, infrastructure is not available for investigators to exchange and archive data, to collaborate on new investigative methods, and to synthesize these results to develop engineering solutions and policy alternatives. Our vision for the future is to create a network comprising field facilities and a collaboration of engineers, scientists, policy makers, and community groups. This will allow integration across disciplines, across different temporal and spatial scales, surface and subsurface geographies, and air sheds and watersheds. Benefits include fast response to changes in system health, real-time decision making, and continuous data collection that can be used to anticipate future problems, and to develop sound engineering solutions and management decisions. CLEANER encompasses four general aspects: 1) A Network of environmental field facilities instrumented for the acquisition and analysis of environmental data; 2) A Virtual Repository of Data and information technology for engineering modeling, analysis and visualization of data, i.e. an environmental

  1. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  2. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  3. Draft environmental assessment -- Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.B.; Irving, J.S.; Staley, C.S.; Stanley, N.

    1996-04-01

    The DOE-Idaho Operations Office has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the environmental impacts of closing the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of radioactive and hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce these risks to human health and the environment and to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements. The WCF closure project is described in the DOE Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement (Programmatic EIS). DOE determined in the Programmatic EIS Record of Decision (ROD) that certain actions would be implemented and other actions deferred. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations. Based on the analysis in the EA, the action will not have a significant effect on the human environment.

  4. In Summary: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    A. A. Luft; R. B. Evans; T. Saffle; R. G. Mitchell; D. B. Martin

    2000-06-01

    Scientists from the Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO), the US Geological Survey, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Naval Reactors Facility, Argonne National Laboratory-West, and others monitored the environment on and around the INEEL to find contaminants attributable to the INEEL. During 1998, exposures from the INEEL to the public were found to be negligible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LMITCO made progress in developing and implementing a site-wide Environmental Management System. This system provides an underlying structure to make the management of environmental activities at the INEEL more systematic and predictable. Pathways by which INEEL contaminants might reach people off the INEEL were monitored. These included air, precipitation, water, locally grown food (milk, lettuce, wheat, and potatoes), livestock, game animals, soil, and direct ionizing radiation. Results from samples collected to monitor these pathways often contain ''background radioactivity,'' which is radioactivity from natural sources and nuclear weapons tests carried out between 1945 and 1980. According to results obtained in 1998, radioactivity from operations at the INEEL could not be distinguished from this background radioactivity in the regions surrounding the INEEL. Because radioactivity from the INEEL was not detected by offsite environmental surveillance methods, computer models were used to estimate the radiation dose to the public. The hypothetical maximum dose to an individual from INEEL operations was calculated to be 0.08 millirem. That is 0.002 percent of an average person's annual dose of 360 millirem from natural background radiation in southeast Idaho.

  5. Environmental education and socioresponsive engineering. Report of an educational initiative in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ali Uddin; Jafari, Ashfaque; Mirzana, Ishrat Meera; Imtiaz, Zulfia; Lukacs, Heather

    2003-07-01

    A recent initiative at Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India, has resulted in setting up a program called Centre for Environment Studies and Socioresponsive Engineering which seeks to involve undergraduate students in studying and solving environmental problems in and around the city of Hyderabad, India. Two pilot projects have been undertaken--one focusing on design and construction of an eco-friendly house, The Natural House, and another directed at improving environmental and general living conditions in a slum area. The paper describes our attempts and experience of motivating our students to take interest in such projects. In an interesting development we invited a member of a student-faculty team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) that is doing a project in Nepal on safe drinking water. We report in our paper how the presentation by the guest from M.I.T. served as a catalyst for generating interest among civil and mechanical engineering students in our own projects. The paper includes contributions from one of our students and the M.I.T. staff member, reporting on their experiences related to the slum development project. We also discuss the Natural House project and its international and educational significance as a means of inculcating sensitivity and interest in nature among engineering students. We propose a pledge for engineers similar to the Hippocratic Oath for medical professionals. PMID:12971300

  6. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  7. Environmental and high strain rate effects on composites for engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    The complex environmental and loading conditions experienced by many turbine engine components impose severe durability and damage tolerance requirements for component materials. Programs are being conducted to establish the structural performance of composite materials under anticipated engine operating environments. A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with several of these programs. A comparison of predicted and measured hygrothermal effects is considered along with hygrothermal effects on defect growth, high strain rate effects on composite mechanical properties, dynamic stress intensity factors for composites, and the indentation laws for composite impact analysis.

  8. Environmental engineering: energy value of replacing waste disposal with resource recovery

    PubMed

    Iranpour; Stenstrom; Tchobanoglous; Miller; Wright; Vossoughi

    1999-07-30

    Although in the past, environmental engineering has been primarily concerned with waste disposal, the focus of the field is now shifting toward viewing wastes as potential resources. Because reclamation usually consumes less energy than producing new materials, increasing reclamation not only reduces pollution but saves energy. Technological innovations contributing to this shift are summarized here, and are variously classified as emerging technologies or research topics, as either new departures or incremental improvements, and as opportunistic innovations, or examples of a unifying strategy. Both liquid and solid waste examples are given, such as a recent discovery of effects in disinfecting microfiltered reclaimed wastewater with ultraviolet light. In addition to its value in reducing pollution and conserving energy, this reorientation of environmental engineering could contribute to a more general shift toward greater cooperation among organizations dealing with the environment. PMID:10426987

  9. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  10. TRU waste absorbent addition project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Colson, R Griff; Auman, Laurence E

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT In order to meet a commitment to ship 3,100 m3 of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) developed a process to add absorbent to TRU waste drums that did not meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The development, implementation, and safe completion of this project contributed to the INEEL's success in meeting the commitment three months early. PMID:12865753

  11. In Summary: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. G. Mitchell; D. E. Roush, Jr.; R. B. Evans

    1998-10-01

    Scientists from the Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, the US Geological Survey, and other INEEL contractors monitored the environment on and around the INEEL to find contaminants attributable to the INEEL. During 1997, exposures from the INEEL to the public were found to be negligible. Pathways by which INEEL contaminants might reach people were monitored. These included air, precipitation, water, locally grown food (wheat, milk, potatoes, and lettuce), livestock, game animals, and direct radiation. Results from samples collected to monitor these pathways often contain radioactivity from natural sources and nuclear weapons testing carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, termed ''background radioactivity.'' According to the results obtained in 1997, radioactivity from operations at the INEEL could not be distinguished from this background radioactivity in the regions surrounding the INEEL. Because radioactivity from t! he INEEL wa s not detected by offsite environmental surveillance methods, computer models were used to estimate a radiation dose to people. The hypothetical maximum individual dose from the INEEL was calculated to be 0.03 millirem. That is 0.008 percent of an average person's annual dose from background radiation in southeast Idaho.

  12. Engineered nanomaterial transformation under oxidative environmental conditions: Development of an in vitro biomimetic assay

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Kevin M.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Bierman, Matthew J.; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered nanomaterials may be transformed by microbially mediated redox processes altering their toxicity and fate. Little information currently exists on engineered nanomaterial transformation under environmentally relevant conditions. Here, we report the development of an in vitro biomimetic assay for investigation of nanomaterial transformation under simulated oxidative environmental conditions. The assay is based on the extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction used by lignolytic fungi. We demonstrate the utility of the assay using CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol). QD transformation was assessed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). QDs were readily degraded under simulated oxidative environmental conditions: the ZnS shell eroded and cadmium was released from the QD core. TEM, electron diffraction analysis and EDX of transformed QDs revealed formation of amorphous Se aggregates. The biomimetic hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction degraded QDs to a larger extent than did H2O2 and classical Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+). This assay provides a new method to characterize transformations of nanoscale materials expected to occur under oxidative environmental conditions. PMID:19350941

  13. The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers

  14. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taam, I H; da Rosa, L A R; Crispim, V R

    2008-09-01

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected. PMID:18348907

  15. Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER)Science Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnoor, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Haas, C. N.

    2005-12-01

    The Project Office of the Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER) was awarded a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (NSF)and began operations on August 1, 2005. Since that time we have organized six standing committees and an executive committee with an advisory board. The first all-hands meeting of CLEANER took place at NSF and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Access facility in Arlington, Virginia, in September. Among the initial tasks of CLEANER is to join with the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences Incorporated (CUAHSI) in developing a joint science plan for a national observatory for environmental research utilizing NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) funds slated for 2011. This presentation describes our initial thinking on the science plan and our vision for the national environmental observatory and cyberinfrastructure.

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1995 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1995, the offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Onsite surveillance was performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). Ground-water monitoring, both on and offsite, was performed by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This report also presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. This report, prepared in accordance with the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, is not intended to cover the numerous special environmental research programs being conducted at the INEL by the Foundation, LITCO, USGS, and others.

  17. From Environmental History to Environmental Engineering: Learning the Tools of the New Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The social sciences and humanities are typically framed in terms of being completely disparate from the "hard sciences", and although this bipolarity is far from accurate, the skills required in each area are indeed quite different. In this short talk, the author discusses her experience in shifting from a doctoral program in environmental history to a doctoral program in hydrology. The experience of having to learn a radically new skill set is both frightening and hugely rewarding and requires a confidence in one's ability to master new and ostensibly insurmountable concepts and a dedication to pushing beyond the initial endless frustrations. But after overcoming these initial hurdles, it became extremely useful to have a broad background in the geosciences. Conceptualizing the impact of climate change on water resources in terms of human livelihoods, for example, is both necessary and productive to understanding long-term policy impacts. This broader framing of research questions is thus significant in moving beyond the sometimes narrow conversations that are had behind the closed doors of each academic discipline.

  18. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  19. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  20. Modeling Approaches for Characterizing and Evaluating Environmental Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials in Support of Risk-Based Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the use of engineered nanomaterials becomes more prevalent, the likelihood of unintended exposure to these materials also increases. Given the current scarcity of experimental data regarding fate, transport, and bioavailability, determining potential environmental exposure to ...

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed reservation occupying about 890 square miles in southeastern Idaho. The INEEL lies within the upper Snake River Plain sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Much of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem throughout the west has been segmented and lost to development and agriculture. The remaining sagebrush steppe ecosystem and the habitat it provides is threatened with irreversible conversion to non-native annual weeds by rangeland management practices in combination with the natural fire process. The sagebrush steppe of the INEEL is now threatened and DOE must evaluate its management role and alternatives available to preserve this important component of the western ecosystem.

  2. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  3. Princeton Science and Engineering Education Initiative: Revising Undergraduate Environmental Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; Sealfon, C. D.; Paine, E. N.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Wilcove, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Science and Engineering Education Initiative at Princeton University aims to inspire and prepare all undergraduates, irrespective of their majors, to become scientifically and technologically literate citizens and decision-makers. Launched by the faculty on the Council on Science and Technology in September 2011, the initiative involves revising and creating science and engineering courses that emphasize the role of science in society. The course "Fundamentals of Environmental Studies" will serve as a model course for the initiative starting with revisions to the course in Fall 2012. Given the general interest undergraduates have for sustainability topics and the obvious connections between sustainability and society, this course should generate ample interest from students across the campus. We have begun the Initiative by defining student-centered learning goals and surveying students' attitudes towards science and engineering. Course by course, we are also gradually applying research-based teaching methods to better align course activities with learning goals, assessing learning gains, and creating a repository of successful methods and courses. Among the changes to "Fundamentals of Environmental Studies" will be a greater emphasis on science communication, such as incorporating an assignment in which students track the evolution of communicating a research project, from journal article to newspaper coverage to editorials.

  4. Environmental assessment: Fuel processing restoration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide sufficient evidence to assist DOE decision makers in determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact for the proposed construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The FPR project includes (a) a replacement facility, to be called the Fuels Processing Facility (FPF), which would safely, efficiently, and effectively process recoverable irradiated naval and research reactor fuels to recover uranium for recycle and reuse in defense programs; and (b) a new liquid low-level waste (LLW) treatment and disposal system to improve waste management practices at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The EA examines and compares the environmental impacts of the proposed FPR project and reasonable alternatives at the ICPP. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the requirements of the CEQ Regulations. 214 refs., 32 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  6. Thermal efficiency and environmental performances of a biogas-diesel stationary engine.

    PubMed

    Bilcan, A; Le Corre, O; Delebarre, A

    2003-09-01

    Municipal and agricultural waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment represent a large source of pollution. Gaseous fuels can be produced from waste decomposition and then used to run internal combustion engines for power and heat generation. The present paper focuses on thermal efficiency and environmental performances of dual-fuel engines fuelled with biogas. Experiments have been carried out on a Lister-Petter single cylinder diesel engine, modified for dual-fuel operation. Natural gas was first used as the primary fuel. An empirical correlation was determined to predict the engine load for a given mass flow rate for the pilot fuel (diesel) and for the primary fuel (natural gas). That correlation has then been tested for three synthesized biogas compositions. Computations were performed and the error was estimated to be less than 10%. Additionally, NOx and CO2 contents were measured from exhaust gases. Based on exhausts gas temperature, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of an Arrhenius law were then proposed, resulting in a simpler mean to predict NOx. PMID:14599150

  7. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. PMID:21796771

  8. Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry; Khan, Muhammad S.; Allison, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in biotechnology. The successful engineering of tomato chromoplasts for high-level transgene expression in fruits, coupled to hyper-expression of vaccine antigens, and the use of plant-derived antibiotic-free selectable markers, augur well for oral delivery of edible vaccines and biopharmaceuticals that are currently beyond the reach of those who need them most. PMID:11832280

  9. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

  10. Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Daniell, Henry; Khan, Muhammad S; Allison, Lori

    2002-02-01

    Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in biotechnology. The successful engineering of tomato chromoplasts for high-level transgene expression in fruits, coupled to hyper-expression of vaccine antigens, and the use of plant-derived antibiotic-free selectable markers, augur well for oral delivery of edible vaccines and biopharmaceuticals that are currently beyond the reach of those who need them most. PMID:11832280

  11. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    PubMed

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications. PMID:18569289

  12. Safety Analyses at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Test Reactor Area - Past to Present

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, Richard Garry; Ingram, Frederick William

    1999-11-01

    Test reactors are unique in that the core configuration may change with each operating interval. The process of safety analyses for test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Test Reactor Area has evolved as the computing capabilities, software, and regulatory requirements have changed. The evaluations for experiments and the reactor have moved from measurements in a set configuration and then application to other configurations with a relatively large error to modeling in three-dimensions and explicit analyses for each experiment and operating interval. This evolution is briefly discussed for the Test Reactor Area.

  13. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  14. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  15. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  16. Expansion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Research Center: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to expand and upgrade facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC) by constructing a research laboratory addition on the northeast corner of existing laboratory building; upgrading the fume hood system in the existing laboratory building; and constructing a hazardous waste handling facility and a chemical storage building. The DOE also proposes to expand the capabilities of biotechnology research programs by increasing use of radiolabeled compounds to levels in excess of current facility limits for three radionuclides (carbon-14, sulfur-35, and phosphorus-32). This Environmental assessment identifies the need for the new facilities, describes the proposed projects and environmental setting, and evaluates the potential environmental effects. Impacts associated with current operation are discussed and established as a baseline. Impacts associated with the proposed action and cumulative impacts are described against this background. Alternatives to the proposed action (No action; Locating proposed facilities at a different site) are discussed and a list of applicable regulations is provided. The no action alternative is continuation of existing operations at existing levels as described in Section 4 of this EA. Proposed facilities could be constructed at a different location, but these facilities would not be useful or practical since they are needed to provide a support function for IRC operations. Further, the potential environmental impacts would not be reduced if a different site was selected.

  17. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Bowman, G.C.; Moore, R.

    1990-06-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities have remained very small, each site at which nuclear activities are underway operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway where radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers or members of the public. This report presents data collected in 1989 for the routine environmental surveillance program conducted by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) of DOE and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site. The environmental surveillance program for the INEL and vicinity for 1989 included the collection and analysis of samples from potential exposure pathways. Three basic groups of samples were collected. Those collected within the INEL boundaries will be referred to as onsite samples. Samples collected outside, but near, the Site boundaries will be referred to as boundary samples or part of a group of offsite samples. Samples collected from locations considerably beyond the Site boundaries will be referred to as distant samples or part of the offsite group. With the exception of Craters of the Moon National Monument, the distant locations are sufficiently remote from the Site to ensure that detectable radioactivity is primarily due to natural background sources or sources other than INEL operations. 35 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  19. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  20. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    In populated delta environments, it is impossible to separate human and natural systems. Human activities change the landscape by altering the dynamics of water and sediment and in return, humans themselves are affected by the natural and anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Such interactions can also have significant impacts on the ecology and natural resources of a delta system, affecting local and regional food supply, livelihoods, and economies, particularly in developing nations. Successful adaptation to environmental change in a strongly coupled human-natural system, such as the Bengal delta, requires understanding how the physical environment and the changing social, political, and economic conditions of people's lives interact. Research on human-delta interactions has largely focused on macro-scale effects from major dams, water diversions, and catchment-scale land use; but at the smaller scale of households and communities, decisions, actions, and outcomes may occur abruptly and have significant local impacts (positive or negative). Southwest Bangladesh experiences profound environmental problems at the local human-landscape interface, including groundwater salinity, soil fertility, conflicting land-use practices, management of engineering structures, and declining land-surface elevations. The impacts of climate-induced sea-level rise, especially with respect to population migration, receive great attention and concern, but neither sea level rise nor migration occurs against a background of static physical or human environments. For example, changing land use (e.g., building embankments, which affect drainage, sediment transport, and the evolution of tidal channels; and the transformation of rice fields to shrimp aquaculture, which affects soil chemistry, labor markets, river ecology, and possibly the integrity of embankments) can significantly change the impact that sea level rise will have on flood hazards and the resulting effect on people living on

  1. Impairments of cells and genomic DNA by environmentally transformed engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip; Sugino, Sakiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Lacy, Fred; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2013-09-01

    Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) encompassed in liposomes or not and transformed by simulated solar UV light can be model systems for studying the environmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells (H1650) are exposed to photoirradiated CdSe QDs or ZnO nanopowder included or not in liposomes. The release of cadmium and zinc ions from the nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation is detected and quantified by measuring the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence of the metal ion sensor tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin (TCPP) or the commercial Measure iT Pd/Cd sensor. Viability of cells treated with nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation for different durations is measured by MTT assay. Enhanced etching of the nanoparticles exposed to solar simulated UV radiation results in the release of toxic levels of heavy metal ions, which considerably lower the viability of H1650 cells is due to the deactivation of DNA repair enzymes as evidenced by the pinching off of nuclear DNA in comet assays and DNA samples in electrophoresis. Results from this study highlight the need to obtain not only quantitative information about the environmental risks posed by engineered nanomaterials but also environment friendly nanomaterials for practical applications.Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles

  2. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  3. Impairments of cells and genomic DNA by environmentally transformed engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Sugino, Sakiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Lacy, Fred; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2013-10-21

    Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) encompassed in liposomes or not and transformed by simulated solar UV light can be model systems for studying the environmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells (H1650) are exposed to photoirradiated CdSe QDs or ZnO nanopowder included or not in liposomes. The release of cadmium and zinc ions from the nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation is detected and quantified by measuring the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence of the metal ion sensor tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin (TCPP) or the commercial Measure iT Pd/Cd sensor. Viability of cells treated with nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation for different durations is measured by MTT assay. Enhanced etching of the nanoparticles exposed to solar simulated UV radiation results in the release of toxic levels of heavy metal ions, which considerably lower the viability of H1650 cells is due to the deactivation of DNA repair enzymes as evidenced by the pinching off of nuclear DNA in comet assays and DNA samples in electrophoresis. Results from this study highlight the need to obtain not only quantitative information about the environmental risks posed by engineered nanomaterials but also environment friendly nanomaterials for practical applications. PMID:23868511

  4. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: review of modeling and analytical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO2) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. PMID:23856352

  5. Influences of use activities and waste management on environmental releases of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Henning; Hackmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Till; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; von Gleich, Arnim

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) offer enhanced or new functionalities and properties that are used in various products. This also entails potential environmental risks in terms of hazard and exposure. However, hazard and exposure assessment for ENM still suffer from insufficient knowledge particularly for product-related releases and environmental fate and behavior. This study therefore analyzes the multiple impacts of the product use, the properties of the matrix material, and the related waste management system (WMS) on the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) by applying nine prospective life cycle release scenarios based on reasonable assumptions. The products studied here are clothing textiles treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), since they constitute a controversial application. Surprisingly, the results show counter-intuitive increases by a factor of 2.6 in PEC values for the air compartment in minimal AgNP release scenarios. Also, air releases can shift from washing to wearing activity; their associated release points may shift accordingly, potentially altering release hot spots. Additionally, at end-of-life, the fraction of AgNP-residues contained on exported textiles can be increased by 350% when assuming short product lifespans and globalized WMS. It becomes evident that certain combinations of use activities, matrix material characteristics, and WMS can influence the regional PEC by several orders of magnitude. Thus, in the light of the findings and expected ENM market potential, future assessments should consider these aspects to derive precautionary design alternatives and to enable prospective global and regional risk assessments. PMID:25728395

  6. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory institutional plan -- FY 2000--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    In this first institutional plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus its efforts on three strategic thrusts: (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R and D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemicals from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EMs environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex--the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NEs needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this institutional plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this institutional plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  7. Rapid Detection of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples by Using Engineered Reporter Phages.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Natasha J; Molineux, Ian J; Page, Martin A; Schofield, David A

    2016-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, was utilized as a bioterrorism agent in 2001 when spores were distributed via the U.S. postal system. In responding to this event, the Federal Bureau of Investigation used traditional bacterial culture viability assays to ascertain the extent of contamination of the postal facilities within 24 to 48 h of environmental sample acquisition. Here, we describe a low-complexity, second-generation reporter phage assay for the rapid detection of viableB. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The assay uses an engineered B. anthracis reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-2) which transduces bioluminescence to infected cells. To facilitate low-level environmental detection and maximize the signal response, expression of luxABin an earlier version of the reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-1) was optimized. These alterations prolonged signal kinetics, increased light output, and improved assay sensitivity. Using Wβ::luxAB-2, detection of B. anthracis spores was 1 CFU in 8 h from pure cultures and as low as 10 CFU/g in sterile soil but increased to 10(5)CFU/g in unprocessed soil due to an unstable signal and the presence of competing bacteria. Inclusion of semiselective medium, mediated by a phage-expressed antibiotic resistance gene, maintained signal stability and enabled the detection of 10(4)CFU/g in 6 h. The assay does not require spore extraction and relies on the phage infecting germinating cells directly in the soil sample. This reporter phage displays promise for the rapid detection of low levels of spores on clean surfaces and also in grossly contaminated environmental samples from complex matrices such as soils. PMID:26873316

  8. Pre-engineering Spaceflight Validation of Environmental Models and the 2005 HZETRN Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Dachev, Ts. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Walker, Steven A.; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been identified by NASA for engineering design in the next phase of space exploration highlighting a return to the Moon in preparation for a Mars mission. In response, a new series of algorithms beginning with 2005 HZETRN, will be issued by correcting some prior limitations and improving control of propagated errors along with established code verification processes. Code validation processes will use new/improved low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental models with a recently improved International Space Station (ISS) shield model to validate computational models and procedures using measured data aboard ISS. These validated models will provide a basis for flight-testing the designs of future space vehicles and systems of the Constellation program in the LEO environment.

  9. Case study: a decade of changes in a small environmental engineering graduate program.

    PubMed

    Leung, S W

    2004-01-01

    For a small graduate program in environmental engineering in a rural state in the US, it is important for the program curriculum to stay in the mainstream. While resident student enrollment is approaching a steady level, international student enrollment increases steadily, this is due in part to the out-of-state tuition waiver provided to the students. Part-time students are a significant part of the program, these students have special needs that are different from traditional full-time students that must be taken into consideration in program planning. A small program provides an attentive atmosphere for students' learning, but it also has problems that a larger program would not encounter, such as competitiveness, personal conflicts, program identity, etc. Despite success in the past, the program is likely to merge with other related programs in the university during times of budget restrictions. PMID:15193104

  10. Modulating conductivity, environmental stability of transparent conducting nanotube films on flexible substrates by interfacial engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Joong Tark; Kim, Jun Suk; Jeong, Hae Deuk; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2010-08-24

    We have characterized the previously undescribed parameters for engineering the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films for technological applications. First, the interfacial tension between bare SWCNT network films and a top coating passivation material was shown to dictate the variability of the films' sheet resistance (R(s)) after application of the top coating. Second, the electrical stability of the coated SWCNT films was affected by the mismatch between the CTE of the supporting substrate and the SWCNT network film. An upshift in the Raman G-band spectrum of SWCNTs on bare PET suggested that compressive strain was induced by the CTE mismatch after heating and cooling. These findings provide important guidelines for the choice of substrate and passivation coating materials that promote environmental stability in SWCNT-based transparent conductive films. PMID:20731438

  11. The Role of Chemistry in the AgroEnvironmental Engineering Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    The basic sciences in general and chemistry in particular play an important role in the training of students in the new degree of Agro-Environmental Engineering. A redefinition of the objectives at higher education, which is the process of European Convergence, implies a profound change in the approach to the traditional teaching. The schema change: teaching content, matter is the centre and technical training to teach to learn, the student is the centre and to comprehensive training, assumes that students should acquire not only the specific knowledge of its specialty, but also numerous capabilities and skills. This work is a study of the various subjects based in chemistry, their contents, teaching methodologies, specific and transversal competences that provide and interrelationships with other subjects of this degree.

  12. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  13. Compliance program data management system for The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory/Environmental Protection Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, C.L.; Poloski, J.P.; Bates, R.A.; Van Haaften, D.H.; Shea, J.P.; Fritz, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Compliance Program Data Management System (DMS) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) validates and maintains the integrity of data collected to support the Consent Order and Compliance Agreement (COCA) between the INEL and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The system uses dBase III Plus programs and dBase III Plus in an interactive mode to enter, store, validate, manage, and retrieve analytical information provided on EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) forms and CLP forms modified to accommodate 40 CFR 264 Appendix IX constituent analyses. Data analysis and presentation is performed utilizing SAS, a statistical analysis software program. Archiving of data and results is performed at appropriate stages of data management. The DMS is useful for sampling and analysis programs where adherence to EPA CLP protocol, along with maintenance and retrieval of waste site investigation sampling results is desired or requested. 3 refs.

  14. Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot Environmental Information Engines: A Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    We conduct numerical simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the environmental order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.

  15. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  16. Floodplain mesocosm system for studying environmental fate and effects of engineered nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Steinmetz, Zacharias; Metreveli, George; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Bundschuh, Mirco; Baumann, Thomas; Schulz, Ralf; Lang, Friederike; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R.; Manz, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINPs) will undergo chemical and physical transformation processes. The fate, ecotoxicological potential, and mobility of EINPs in environmental compartments will be influenced predominantly by their aging and current speciation status. In order to understand the aging mechanisms and impact of ENP transformations on their distribution and bioavailability in real environmental systems, mesocosm studies can be helpful. The INTERNANO floodplain mesocosm links aquatic and terrestrial aging phases in one system and has been conceived as near-natural test system to evaluate and further develop process understanding on aging and functioning of EINP in the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. The mesocosm system is run with a pulse input function of EINP in order to investigate the response of the chemical, physico-chemical and biological systems over time. Immission into the soil system is performed via flooding events. The system is run with natural river water, natural repacked soil but with quartz sand as sediment phase. Convective water exchange between soil and aquatic compartments occurs at high water level. On this poster, we will present the design of the mesocosm system together with first findings on fate and biological effects of silver nanoparticles.

  17. RH-TRU Waste Characterization by Acceptable Knowledge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, C.; Givens, C.; Bhatt, R.; Whitworth, J.

    2003-02-24

    Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is conducting an effort to characterize approximately 620 drums of remote-handled (RH-) transuranic (TRU) waste currently in its inventory that were generated at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) between 1971 and 1995. The waste was generated at the AGHCF during the destructive examination of irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins, targets, and other materials from reactor programs at ANL-West (ANL-W) and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors. In support of this effort, Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure (formerly IT Corporation) developed an acceptable knowledge (AK) collection and management program based on existing contact-handled (CH)-TRU waste program requirements and proposed RH-TRU waste program requirements in effect in July 2001. Consistent with Attachments B-B6 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) and th e proposed Class 3 permit modification (Attachment R [RH-WAP] of this permit), the draft AK Summary Report prepared under the AK procedure describes the waste generating process and includes determinations in the following areas based on AK: physical form (currently identified at the Waste Matrix Code level); waste stream delineation; applicability of hazardous waste numbers for hazardous waste constituents; and prohibited items. In addition, the procedure requires and the draft summary report contains information supporting determinations in the areas of defense relationship and radiological characterization.

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety effects of engineered nanomaterials: challenges and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Howard

    2010-04-01

    The number of technologies and consumer products that incorporate engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has grown rapidly. Indeed, ENMs such as carbon nanotubes and nano-silver, are revolutionizing many commercial technologies and have already been incorporated into more than 800 commercial products, including polymer composites, cell phone batteries, sporting equipment and cosmetics. The global market for ENMs has grown steadily from 7.5 billion in 2003 to 12.7 billion in 2008. Over the next five years, their market value is expected to exceed $27 billion. This surge in demand has been responsible for a corresponding increase in the annual production rates of ENMs. For example, Bayer anticipates that single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT) production rates will reach 3,000 tons/yr by 2012. Inevitably, some of these synthetic materials will enter the environment either from incidental release during manufacture and transport, or following use and disposal. Consequently, intense scientific research is now being directed towards understanding the environmental, health and safety (EHS) risks posed by ENMs. I will highlight some of the key research challenges and needs in this area, include (i) developing structure-property relationships that will enable physicochemical properties of ENMs to be correlated with environmentally relevant behavior (e.g. colloidal properties, toxicity), (ii) determining the behavior of nanoproducts, and (iii) developing analytical techniques capable of detecting and quantifying the concentration of ENMs in the environment.

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  1. Introducing a Transdisciplinary Approach in Studies regarding Risk Assessment and Management in Educational Programs for Environmental Engineers and Planners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menoni, Scira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how long term risk prevention and civil protection may enter in university programs for environmental engineers and urban and regional planners. Design/methodology/approach: First the distinction between long term risk prevention and emergency preparedness is made, showing that while the first has…

  2. A modular cell-based biosensor using engineered genetic logic circuits to detect and integrate multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

    2013-02-15

    Cells perceive a wide variety of cellular and environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate particular phenotypic responses. Here, we employ both single and mixed cell type populations, pre-programmed with engineered modular cell signalling and sensing circuits, as processing units to detect and integrate multiple environmental signals. Based on an engineered modular genetic AND logic gate, we report the construction of a set of scalable synthetic microbe-based biosensors comprising exchangeable sensory, signal processing and actuation modules. These cellular biosensors were engineered using distinct signalling sensory modules to precisely identify various chemical signals, and combinations thereof, with a quantitative fluorescent output. The genetic logic gate used can function as a biological filter and an amplifier to enhance the sensing selectivity and sensitivity of cell-based biosensors. In particular, an Escherichia coli consortium-based biosensor has been constructed that can detect and integrate three environmental signals (arsenic, mercury and copper ion levels) via either its native two-component signal transduction pathways or synthetic signalling sensors derived from other bacteria in combination with a cell-cell communication module. We demonstrate how a modular cell-based biosensor can be engineered predictably using exchangeable synthetic gene circuit modules to sense and integrate multiple-input signals. This study illustrates some of the key practical design principles required for the future application of these biosensors in broad environmental and healthcare areas. PMID:22981411

  3. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  4. A Technique of Two-Stage Clustering Applied to Environmental and Civil Engineering and Related Methods of Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, S.; Nakayama, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of two-stage clustering of literature based on citation frequency is applied to 5,065 articles from 57 journals in environmental and civil engineering. Results of related methods of citation analysis (hierarchical graph, clustering of journals, multidimensional scaling) applied to same set of articles are compared. Ten references are…

  5. Adsorption of Oxy-Anions in the Teaching Laboratory: An Experiment to Study a Fundamental Environmental Engineering Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Bullough, Florence; Moffat, Chris; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Teh, Micheal; Vilar, Ramon; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesizing and testing bicomposite adsorbents for the removal of environmentally problematic oxy-anions is high on the agenda of research-led universities. Here we present a laboratory module successfully developed at Imperial College London that introduces the advanced undergraduate student in engineering (chemical, civil, earth) and science…

  6. Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Nancy J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Dewoolkar, Mandar M.; Neumann, Maureen D.; Lathem, Sandra; Sadek, Adel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: "A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects") and some of the effects of these changes on…

  7. Value engineering as applied at the Savannah River Site for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.J.; Morgenstern, M.R.; Richardson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Value Engineering (VE) has been defined as the organized study of functions which satisfy the user's needs at the lowest life cycle costs through applied creativity. VE was established in the World War II era when Mr. Lawrence Miles formed the concept of intentionally substituting materials to perform the function of more expensive standard materials. Since that time, VE has spread throughout the Department of Defense procurement agencies, and has in recent times been applied to almost every government agency. DOE Order 4040.1 states the policy to establish VE programs and use VE, where appropriate, to reduce nonessential costs and improve productivity for Departmental Elements. The order states that these VE programs shall, at a minimum, provide for the management and procurement practices as required by the OMB Circular A-131. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the prime DOE contractor at the Savannah River Site (SRS), has adopted a policy of applying Value Engineering to all major projects with a Total Estimated Cost (TEC) of $10 million or greater. Projects of a lesser TEC may also have VE studies performed if management has determined that a significant potential exists for cost savings and/or cost avoidance. Within the Environmental Restoration (ER) Department, many of the groundwater remediation and waste site closure project represent individual projects that make up an overall SRS requirement to meet Federal RCRA or CERCLA clean up requirements. Many of these individual projects are not initially considered for VE studies because they never reach the $10 million TEC level. Because many remediation projects are duplicated throughout the site, there is a large potential for cross-link savings throughout the site.

  8. Value engineering as applied at the Savannah River Site for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.J.; Morgenstern, M.R.; Richardson, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Value Engineering (VE) has been defined as the organized study of functions which satisfy the user`s needs at the lowest life cycle costs through applied creativity. VE was established in the World War II era when Mr. Lawrence Miles formed the concept of intentionally substituting materials to perform the function of more expensive standard materials. Since that time, VE has spread throughout the Department of Defense procurement agencies, and has in recent times been applied to almost every government agency. DOE Order 4040.1 states the policy to establish VE programs and use VE, where appropriate, to reduce nonessential costs and improve productivity for Departmental Elements. The order states that these VE programs shall, at a minimum, provide for the management and procurement practices as required by the OMB Circular A-131. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the prime DOE contractor at the Savannah River Site (SRS), has adopted a policy of applying Value Engineering to all major projects with a Total Estimated Cost (TEC) of $10 million or greater. Projects of a lesser TEC may also have VE studies performed if management has determined that a significant potential exists for cost savings and/or cost avoidance. Within the Environmental Restoration (ER) Department, many of the groundwater remediation and waste site closure project represent individual projects that make up an overall SRS requirement to meet Federal RCRA or CERCLA clean up requirements. Many of these individual projects are not initially considered for VE studies because they never reach the $10 million TEC level. Because many remediation projects are duplicated throughout the site, there is a large potential for cross-link savings throughout the site.

  9. Modeling approaches for characterizing and evaluating environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials in support of risk-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Lowry, Michael; Grieger, Khara D; Money, Eric S; Johnston, John M; Wiesner, Mark R; Beaulieu, Stephen M

    2013-02-01

    As the use of engineered nanomaterials becomes more prevalent, the likelihood of unintended exposure to these materials also increases. Given the current scarcity of experimental data regarding fate, transport, and bioavailability, determining potential environmental exposure to these materials requires an in depth analysis of modeling techniques that can be used in both the near- and long-term. Here, we provide a critical review of traditional and emerging exposure modeling approaches to highlight the challenges that scientists and decision-makers face when developing environmental exposure and risk assessments for nanomaterials. We find that accounting for nanospecific properties, overcoming data gaps, realizing model limitations, and handling uncertainty are key to developing informative and reliable environmental exposure and risk assessments for engineered nanomaterials. We find methods suited to recognizing and addressing significant uncertainty to be most appropriate for near-term environmental exposure modeling, given the current state of information and the current insufficiency of established deterministic models to address environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials. PMID:23293982

  10. Environmental surveillance for EG&G Idaho Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.; Borsella, B.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1993 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of EG&G Idaho, Inc., performed at EG&G Idaho operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1993 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  11. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  12. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  13. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Elzey, Sherrie; Johnson, Ronald; Park, Heaweon; Grassian, Vicki H; Maher, Tabitha; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    that airborne nanoparticles in this facility are dominated by "incidental" sources (e.g., welding or grinding), and that the airborne "engineered" product is predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometers. The methods presented here are applicable to any occupational or environmental setting in which one needs to distinguish incidental sources from engineered product. PMID:19034793

  14. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  15. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate that airborne nanoparticles in this facility are dominated by "incidental" sources (e.g., welding or grinding), and that the airborne "engineered" product is predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometers. The methods presented here are applicable to any occupational or environmental setting in which one needs to distinguish incidental sources from engineered product. PMID:19034793

  16. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  18. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  19. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  1. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radiological control performance indicator report. Third quarter, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document provides a report and analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the third quarter of calendar year 1997 (CY-97) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under the direction of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation exposure goal (deep dose) has been revised from 137 person-rem to 102.465 person-rem. Aggressive application of ALARA protective measures has resulted in a 66.834 person-rem deep dose compared to projected third quarter goal of 85.5 person-rem. Dose savings at the ICPP Tank Farm and rescheduling of some of the ROVER work account for most of the difference in the goal and actual dose year to date. Work at the ICPP Tank farm has resulted in about 14 rem dose savings. The RWMC has also reduced exposure by moving waste to new temporary storage facilities well ahead of schedule.

  2. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.

  3. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report -- Fourth Quarter, Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, F.L.

    1999-02-01

    This document provides a report of an analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of Calendar Year (CY-98) and is the annual report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  4. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.

  5. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  6. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to pubic access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians. PMID:10330305

  7. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagnier, Don; Hayner, Rick; Roza, Michael; Nosek, Thomas; Razzaghi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric science instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments that will be flown on the Aura s p a c m and of the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA's Earth Observing System @OS) Program missions managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the spacecraft and instrument command and data handling (C&DH) subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during (and not before) the flight hardware integration phase can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The testing successfully surfaced problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule time. This approach could be used on future environmental satellite programs involving multiple, complex scientific instruments being integrated onto a bus.

  8. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  9. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for calendar Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Moore, R.; Shaw, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1990 indicate that most radioactivity from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) operations could not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEL Site. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during Site operations, concentrations and doses to the surrounding population were of no health consequence and were far less than State of Idaho and Federal health protection guidelines. The first section of the report summarizes Calendar Year 1990 and January 1 through April 1, 1991, INEL activities related to compliance with environmental regulations and laws. The balance of the report describes the surveillance program, the collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations and offsite boundary and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results and discusses implications, if any. Nonradioactive and radioactive effluent monitoring at the Site, and the US Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water monitoring program are also summarized. 33 refs., 18 figs., 29 tabs.