Science.gov

Sample records for ningyo-toge environmental engineering

  1. CURRENT STATUS AND RECLAMATION PLAN OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING FACILITIES AT NINGYO-TOGE IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) conducted research and development projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-toge after the projects ended. Although there is no legal issue in the mine in accordance with related law and agreements at present, JNC has a notion that it is important to reduce the burden of waste management on future generations. Thus, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of JNC proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. The plan has mainly three phases: Phase I is the planning stage, and this paper corresponds to this: Phase II is the stage to perform various tests for safety analysis and site designing: Phase III is the stage to accomplish measures. Preliminarily safety analyses suggested that our supposed cover designs for both waste rock and m ill tailing are enough to keep dose limit of 1mSv/y at site boundaries. The plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first case in Japan. For the accomplishment of this plan, it is important to establish a close relationship with local communities and governments, and to maintain a policy of open-to-public.

  2. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as available…

  3. Environmental engineering 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Schafran, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1999 National Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Norfolk, Virginia, July 25--28, 1999. The conference papers address a wide range of topics including risk assessment and management, environmental system modeling, biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes, membrane applications and fouling, innovative biological and physiochemical soil and groundwater remediation processes, sludge (biosolids) treatment and transport, and copper discharges to estuarine systems. In addition, papers from sessions dealing with public health issues at federal facilities, ordinance treatment and disposal, leachate management, nonpoint source water management, and pollution prevention and waste minimization are included. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  4. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  5. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years. PMID:15193100

  6. Environmental engineering education enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since higher education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies, enhancing social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth, environment respectful, the European Commission promotes a wide range of programmes. Among the EC programmes, the TEMPUS - Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies, with the support of the DG EAC of the European Commission, has contributed to many aspects of general interest for higher education. Curricula harmonization, LifeLong Learning Programme development, ICT use, quality assessment, accreditation, innovation learning methods, growth of networks of institutions trusting each other, are the focused aspects. Such a solid cooperation framework is surely among the main outcomes of the TEMPUS Projects leaded by the University of Firenze UNIFI (Italy), DEREC - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008), and its spin-off DEREL - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), and VICES - Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012). DEREC and DEREL TEMPUS projects, through the co-operation of Universities in Italy, Austria, Germany, Greece, Macedonia, Albania and Serbia, are aimed at the development of first and second level curricula in "Environment and Resources Engineering" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - UKIM Skopje (MK). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between UNIFI and UKIM Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second level curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at UKIM Skopje, University of Novi Sad (RS) and Polytechnic University of Tirana (AL). following

  7. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  8. PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses how personal computers can be applied to environmental engineering. fter explaining some of the differences between mainframe and Personal computers, we will review the development of personal computers and describe the areas of data management, interactive...

  9. Standard handbook of environmental engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    For some time, the term sanitary engineering was used to describe the practice of those engineers who designed water and sewerage systems and the public health protection works. The area of practice then expanded when society recognized that protection of the air, land, and water environmental is necessary for all living things. Today, the term environmental engineering has evolved to describe the engineers increased emphasis on the biological, chemical, and physical reactions in the air, land, and water environments and on improved technology for reuse, recycle, and recovery measures. Recently, billions of public and private dollars have been devoted to the study, design, and construction of pollution control and environmental protection facilities. The Handbook is a comprehensive manual on the principle and practice of environmental engineering. Chapters are provided on the most significant technical aspects of air quality control, water supply, wastewater disposal, and solid waste management. Also, individual chapters are provided in stormwater and hazardous waste management; these two disciplines are of current notoriety and will become even more important in the years ahead. Emerging technologies are introduced and will be discussed in future editions when there is a more developed database and performance record. Similarly, less significant and/or specialized technologies are discussed only briefly. Additional chapters provide insight into historic and fundamental aspects of legislation, quality standards, and environmental assessment procedures, which broadly define objectives of environmental engineering services. Separate abstracts are processed for 3 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. THERMODYNAMICS USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamics is a science in which energy transformations are studied as well as their relationships to the changes in the chemical properties of a system. It is the fundamental basis of many engineering fields. The profession of environmental engineering is no exception. In pa...

  11. Environmental Engineering Teaching Reference Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John M.; Brenchley, David L.

    Dawson, Fairfax County/U.S.A. is a hypothetical community developed by the authors as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate courses in environmental engineering, providing a context for problem solving and role playing. It was contrived to provide students opportunities to: (1) identify important community relationships, (2) appreciate the…

  12. Engineering proteins for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D B; Schanstra, J P

    1994-06-01

    Recently, significant new insight has been obtained into the structure and catalytic mechanism of enzymes that convert environmental pollutants. Recent advances in protein engineering make it possible to use this information for improving the catalytic performance of such enzymes to achieve increased stability and expanded substrate range. PMID:7765007

  13. Educating engineers for environmentally sensitive practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Rosamund Anne

    This thesis addresses the question: "How can we educate undergraduate engineering students for environmentally sensitive practice?" In particular, the thesis explores possibilities for affective (attitude-related) learning goals for environmental education in engineering education. The thesis includes a case study in which an engineering hydrology course was altered to include more information about fish, and an assessment was done to determine whether the students who had used the altered curriculum showed greater awareness of the life-context of hydrology than those who had used the original curriculum. The case study is supported by preparatory research into (a) the expectations articulated by professional engineering associations about environmentally sensitive engineering practice; (b) the factors and players influencing environmental education in engineering education; (c) the literature regarding affective learning goals in environmental education, as it relates to engineering education; and (d) acceptable scholarly standards for evaluation of engineering courses and programs. The thesis findings reveal that expectations of environmentally sensitive engineering practice are high, but the response of the engineering education community is still in the early stages of development. Engineering education research has little overlap with environmental education research; because of the focus in engineering education on "knowledge" goals, the role of affective learning has thus far been neglected as a research area in environmental education in engineering education. The contribution of this civil engineering doctoral thesis on the subject of engineering education is its attempt to bring together ideas and practices from engineering education and the field of educational research in general. Because the doctoral work was based in an engineering school, supervised by engineering professors, and framed as an action research project, it stimulated discussion and

  14. Environmental engineering: A profession in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.

    1996-11-01

    This 50th Industrial Waste Conference at Purdue gives one an opportunity and excuse to reflect on progress in Environmental Engineering and speculate on future changes. The author suggests that during this 50-year period Environmental Engineering has emerged as a discrete and creditable body of knowledge, practice, and academic study. In this review he presents a personal view of the evolution of Environmental Engineering and its present status. He also suggests some future directions and principles which may prove useful, especially in the academic world. The paper discusses the sphere of the environmental engineer, the social incentive, the academic curriculum, environmental engineers and society, the chlorine controversy, research, and the electronic revolution.

  15. Undergraduate environmental engineering education in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Bero, B.N.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the development process, present situations, causes of improvement, and trends of higher education of environmental engineering in China are discussed. Several education modes in environmental engineering in China are also presented. The development process can be divided into three stages: the beginning stage, the expansion stage, and the modification stage. The 1970's and early 1980's wake of environmental consciousness and serious pollution situation in China resulted in about 20 universities setting up an environmental engineering specialty. The late 1980's and middle 1990's job opportunities for undergraduates in China resulted in many universities' creation of the environmental engineering specialty from specialties such as geography, geology, hydrology, mining engineering, and mineral separation engineering where job opportunities were stagnant. At present, adjustment and improvement of environmental engineering education are urgently required because of the excessive increase of undergraduate number, change of job opportunities and implementation of five-work-day system in China. Other problems include how to determine the ratio of social science courses to engineering science courses, how to determine the relationship of fundamental and applied courses, and how to determine the specialized direction. Hunan University, as a typical university conferring an accredited Bachelor degree in Environmental Engineering in four academic years in China, has been improving the instruction schedule for undergraduate education in environmental engineering. The curricula of the three phases for undergraduates of environmental engineering specialty at Hunan University are presented as a case study.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 5TH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Review of Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition (Joseph A. Salvato, Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy (Editors), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey. 2003.). Author wrote review per the request of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Environmental Quality.

  17. Intervention analysis in environmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Hipel, K W; McLeod, A I

    1989-11-01

    Intervention analysis techniques are described for identifying and statistically modelling trends which may be present in water quality time series. At the exploratory data analysis stage, simple graphical and modelling methods can be employed for visually detecting and examining trends in a time series caused by one or more external interventions. For instance, a plot of a robust locally weighted regression smooth through a graph of the observations over time may reveal trends and other interesting statistical properties contained in the time series. In addition, statistical tests, such as different versions of the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, can be used to detect the presence of trends caused by unknown or known external interventions. To characterize rigorously and estimate trends which may be known in advance or else detected using exploratory data analysis studies, different parametric methods can be utilized at the confirmatory data analysis stage. Specifically, the time series modelling approach to intervention analysis can be employed to estimate the magnitudes of the changes in the mean level of the series due to the interventions. Particular types of regression models can also be used for estimating trends, especially when there are many missing observations. To demonstrate how intervention analysis methods can be effectively used in environmental impact assessment, representative applications to water quality time series are presented. PMID:24243172

  18. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  19. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  20. Bayesian statistics in environmental engineering planning

    SciTech Connect

    Englehardt, J.D.; Simon, T.W.

    1999-07-01

    Today's engineer must be able to quantify both uncertainty due to information limitations, and the variability of natural processes, in order to determine risk. Nowhere is this emphasis on risk assessment more evident than in environmental engineering. The use of Bayesian inference for the rigorous assessment of risk based on available information is reviewed in this paper. Several example environmental engineering planning applications are presented: (1) assessment of losses involving the evaluation of proposed revisions to the South Florida Building Code after Hurricane Andrew; (2) development of a model to predict oil spill consequences due to proposed changes in the oil transportation network in the Gulf of Mexico; (3) studies of ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene surrounding dry cleaners and of tire particulates in residential areas near roadways in Miami, FL; (4) risk assessment from contaminated soils at a cleanup of an old transformer dump site.

  1. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  2. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science. PMID:25866322

  3. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  4. Engine environmental effects on composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A series of programs were conducted to investigate and develop the application of composite materials to turbojet engines. A significant part of that effort was directed to establishing the impact resistance and defect growth chracteristics of composite materials over the wide range of environmental conditions found in commercial turbojet engine operations. Both analytical and empirical efforts were involved. The experimental programs and the analytical methodology development as well as an evaluation program for the use of composite materials as fan exit guide vanes are summarized.

  5. Genetic engineering strategies for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, V

    1992-06-01

    Environmental applications of genetically engineered microorganisms are currently hampered not only by legal regulations restricting their release, but also by the frequent dearth of adequate genetic tools for their construction in the laboratory. Recent approaches to strain development include the use of non-antibiotic markers as selection determinants, the use of transposon-vectors for the permanent acquisition of recombinant genes, and the utilization of expression devices based on promoters from promiscuous plasmids and biodegradative pathway genes. PMID:1369388

  6. Distance Teaching of Environmental Engineering Courses at the Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porteous, Andrew; Nesaratnam, Suresh T.; Anderson, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Describes two integrated distance learning environmental engineering degree courses offered by the environmental engineering group of the Open University in Great Britain. Discusses admission requirements for courses, advantages offered by distance learning, professional accreditation, site visits, and tutors. (AIM)

  7. Enhancing environmental engineering education in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Tuneski, Atanasko

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the environmental engineering higher education is here discussed with reference to the TEMPUS-Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies promoted by the European Commission. Among the focused aspects of TEMPUS are curricula harmonization and lifelong learning programme development in higher education. Two are the curricula, since the first TEMPUS project, coordinated in the period 2005-2008 by University of Firenze in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje. The second three years TEMPUS Joint Project denominated DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning, is active since October 2010. To the consortium activities participate 4 EU Universities (from Italy, Greece, Germany and Austria), 7 Partner Countries (PC) Universities (from FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Albania), and 1 PC Ministry, 4 PC National Agencies, 1 PC non governmental organization and 1 PC enterprise. The same 4 EU Universities and the same Macedonian Institutions participated at the first TEMPUS JEP entitled DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum. Both the first and second cycle curriculum, developed through the co-operation, exchange of know-how and expertise between partners, are based on the European Credit Transfer System and are in accordance with the Bologna Process. Within DEREC a new three-years first cycle curriculum in Environmental and Resources Engineering was opened at the University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, and the necessary conditions for offering a Joint Degree Title, on the basis of an agreement between the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University and the University of Firenze, were fulfilled. The running DEREL project, as a continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second cycle curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in

  8. Performing environmental audits: An engineer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, J.A. )

    1994-02-01

    Today, environmental auditing is both a technical exercise and a legal art. To perform a comprehensive and effective environmental audit requires a team of individuals who combined have broad engineering skills, a knowledge of chemistry, and specialized legal experience with all the relevant environmental regulations. Because the audit involves such highly qualified individuals, it is typically quite expensive. Nonetheless, the cost is well worth the investment, because of the high stakes involved in environmental legislation and litigation. Simply put, the cost of non-compliance can far outweigh the costs associated with a comprehensive audit. The paper describes starting the audit, the ideal team, a standard method, doing a compliance audit, data analysis after the audit, advantages and disadvantages, and policies on auditing. The paper briefly describes the four factors that the Department of Justice considers in deciding whether to bring criminal prosecution for violation of an environmental statute. The four factors are: voluntary disclosure; cooperation; preventive measures and compliance program; and pervasiveness of non-compliance.

  9. Environmental restoration value engineering guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document provides guidance on Value Engineering (VE). VE is an organized team effort led by a person trained in the methodology to analyze the functions of projects, systems, equipment, facilities, services, and processes for achieving the essential functions at the lowest life cycle cost while maintaining required performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety. VE has proven to be a superior tool to improve up-front project planning, cut costs, and create a better value for each dollar spent. This document forms the basis for the Environmental Restoration VE Program, describes the VE process, and provides recommendations on when it can be most useful on ER projects.

  10. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-05-15

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  11. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

    2002-08-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

  13. Multimedia environmental distribution of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyang Haven; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-03-18

    A compartmental multimedia model was developed to enable evaluation of the dynamic environmental multimedia mass distribution and concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The approach considers the environment as a collection of compartments, linked via fundamental environmental intermedia transport processes. Model simulations for various environmental scenarios indicated that ENM accumulation in the sediment increased significantly with increased ENMs attachment to suspended solids in water. Atmospheric dry and wet depositions can be important pathways for ENMs input to the terrestrial environment in the absence of direct and distributed ENM release to soil. Increased ENM concentration in water due to atmospheric deposition (wet and dry) is expected as direct ENM release to water diminishes. However, for soluble ENMs dissolution can be the dominant pathway for suspended ENM removal from water even compared to advection. Mass accumulation in the multimedia environment for the evaluated ENMs (metal, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNT), nanoclays) was mostly in the soil and sediment. The present modeling approach, as illustrated via different test cases, is suited for "what if" first tier analyses to assess the multimedia mass distribution of ENMs and associated potential exposure concentrations. PMID:24548277

  14. Environmental Engineering Talent Demand and Undergraduate Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huan-zhen; Li, Jian-bo; Luo, Xiang-nan; Zhao, Bin-yan; Luo, Ren-ming; Wang, Qiao-ling

    2004-01-01

    In Chinese higher environmental education, undergraduate education of environmental engineering starts earliest and develops fastest. The undergraduate has been playing an important role in controlling pollution for more than twenty years. The setting and distribution of the environmental engineering major was analyzed, the conditions of the…

  15. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  16. Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-16

    Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers (P2-EDGE) provides nearly 300 recommendations to incorporate pollution prevention into projects during the design phase. Each is supplemented by examples, references, and additional data to help the user evaluate applicability and potential benefits to their design project. Built in filters allow the user to narrow the review to only those opportunities that are applicable based on project size and design phase. User responses are saved to a custommore » data file or can also be generated into a report and printed. Other features include the ability to search the database for keywords, add opportunities to the database, or edit existing entries.« less

  17. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments. PMID:27620079

  18. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  19. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  20. Using Notable Women in Environmental Engineering to Dispel Misperceptions of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoh, Yin Kiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an activity the author has carried out with 72 high school science teachers to enable them to overcome their stereotypical perceptions of engineers. The activity introduced them to notable women in environmental engineering, and raised their awareness of these female engineers' contributions to engineering and society. The…

  1. Environmental engineering education: examples of accreditation and quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Catelani, M.; Manfrida, G.; Valdiserri, J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental engineers respond to the challenges posed by a growing population, intensifying land-use pressures, natural resources exploitation as well as rapidly evolving technology. The environmental engineer must develop technically sound solutions within the framework of maintaining or improving environmental quality, complying with public policy, and optimizing the utilization of resources. The engineer provides system and component design, serves as a technical advisor in policy making and legal deliberations, develops management schemes for resources, and provides technical evaluations of systems. Through the current work of environmental engineers, individuals and businesses are able to understand how to coordinate society's interaction with the environment. There will always be a need for engineers who are able to integrate the latest technologies into systems to respond to the needs for food and energy while protecting natural resources. In general, the environment-related challenges and problems need to be faced at global level, leading to the globalization of the engineering profession which requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. In this framework, the Europe-based EUR ACE (European Accreditation of Engineering Programmes) system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. The application of the accreditation model EUR-ACE, and of the National Italian Degree Courses Accreditation System, promoted by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (ANVUR), to the Environmental Engineering Degree Courses at the University of Firenze is presented. In

  2. Environmental engineering education at Ghent University, Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J; Janssen, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, environmental engineering education has been a rapidly growing discipline in many universities. This paper discusses the history, the current status and the near future of environmental engineering education at Ghent University. This university, with about 50% of the Flemish university environmental engineering students, can be considered as representative for the situation in Flanders, Belgium. In contrast to many other universities, environmental engineering education at Ghent University does not have its historical roots in civil engineering, but has been developed from the curricula organized by the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. As part of a reorganisation of the education and research activities at this faculty, a curriculum leading to the degree of "bio-engineer in environmental technology" was established in 1991. This curriculum covers a 5-year study and is constructed around 8 main components. Exchange of students with other European universities, e.g. within the Socrates framework, has become a prominent aspect of student life and education. This paper also briefly describes the employment opportunities of graduated bio-engineers in environmental technology. Finally, the current implementation of the bachelor's-master's structure, leading to a "master of science in environmental technology" degree is summarized. PMID:15193102

  3. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  4. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test

  5. Environmental Engineering Curricula assessment in the global world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Catelani, Marcantonio; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Valdiserri, Juna

    2014-05-01

    Environmental engineers are technicians with specific expertise on the sustainability of human presence in the environment. Among other global dilemmas, to the environmental engineers it is often demanded to be able in developing systematic, innovative solutions in order to simultaneously meet water and energy needs, to build resilience to natural and technological disasters, to more accurately gauge and manage countries' greenhouse gas emissions. The general objectives of the Environmental Engineers are to establish actions of environmental sustainability as well as to verify progress toward global goals or international commitments. The globalization of challenges and problems to be faced, leads, in general, to the globalization of the engineering profession. In particular, since the environmental issues are without boundaries, and many and different are the involved professions and the competences, the environmental engineer must have a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to adequately answer to the demand of technical innovative knowledge at global scale. The environmental engineers, more and more, are involved in international projects were the effective collaboration requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. The Europe-based EUR ACE system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education, can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. In the global frame of the knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the accreditation and quality assurance of engineering curricula in Europe is discussed with reference to the Environmental engineering curricula, of the 1st and 2nd cycle, based on the European Credit Transfer System and in

  6. Going "Green": Environmental Jobs for Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Green is often used as a synonym for environmental or ecological, especially as it relates to products and activities aimed at minimizing damage to the planet. Scientists and engineers have long had important roles in the environmental movement. Their expertise is focused on a variety of issues, including increasing energy efficiency, improving…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  8. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  9. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A model for the study of factors contributing to the solution of ecological/environmental problems is presented and examples of interdisciplinary research are described. The model implies a need for the examination of the effects of antecedent and consequent manipulation of a variety of variables including: behavioral, physiological, environmental, technical and legal conditions. It is concluded that while interdisciplinary research efforts between engineering technologists and behavioral analysts are necessary, they have not received sufficient attention in the literature nor have they focused on the comprehensive study of antecedents and consequences as they relate to ecological/environmental problems. Thus, an extended “family” of research efforts is important for the success of these efforts. PMID:22478473

  10. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concepts. Final report FY-96

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, S.L.; Carpenter, G.S.; Crockett, A.B.

    1997-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Environmental Technologies Proof-of-Concept Project was initiated for the expedited development of new or conceptual technologies in support of groundwater fate, transport, and remediation; buried waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment; waste minimization/pollution prevention; and spent fuel handling and storage. In Fiscal Year 1996, The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory proposed 40 development projects and the Department of Energy funded 15. The projects proved the concepts of the various technologies, and all the technologies contribute to successful environmental management.

  12. Bioremediation: environmental clean-up through pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Kang, Seung Hyun; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-10-01

    Given the immense risk posed by widespread environmental pollution by inorganic and organic chemicals, novel methods of decontamination and clean-up are required. Owing to the relatively high cost and the non-specificity of conventional techniques, bioremediation is a promising alternative technology for pollutant clean-up. Advances in bioremediation harness molecular, genetic, microbiology, and protein engineering tools and rely on identification of novel metal-sequestering peptides, rational and irrational pathway engineering, and enzyme design. Recent advances have been made for enhanced inorganic chemical remediation and organic chemical degradation using various pathway-engineering approaches and these are discussed in this review. PMID:18760355

  13. Environmental engineering simplifies subterranean locomotion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Darya; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesize that ants engineer habitats which reduce locomotion control requirements. We studied tunnel construction, and locomotion, in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, body length L = 0 . 35 +/- 0 . 05). In their daily life, ants forage for food above ground and return resources to the nest. This steady-state tunnel traffic enables high-throughput biomechanics studies of tunnel climbing. In a laboratory experiment we challenged fire ants to climb through 8 cm long glass tunnels (D = 0.1 - 0.9 cm) that separated a nest from an open arena with food and water. During ascending and descending climbs we induced falls by a motion-activated rapid, short, downward translation of the tunnels. Normalized tunnel diameter (D / L) determined the ability of ants to rapidly recover from perturbations. Fall arrest probability was unity for small D / L , and zero for large D / L . The transition from successful to unsuccessful arrest occurred at D / L = 1 . 4 +/- 0 . 3 . Through X-Ray computed tomography study we show that the diameter of ant-excavated tunnels is independent of soil-moisture content (studied from 1-20%) and particle size (50-595 μm diameter), and has a mean value of D / L = 1 . 06 +/- 0 . 23 . Thus fire ants construct tunnels of diameter near the onset of fall instability.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  15. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  16. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  17. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  18. Introduction of Process Life Cycle Inventory in Environmental Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Norte, Felix; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a methodology for developing an environmental load balance which can be the means for conducting a life cycle inventory. The methodology described can be taught at the same level of chemical engineering fundamentals at which basic mass and energy balances are introduced. (DDR)

  19. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  20. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science Manual I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The student materials present lessons about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Included are 18 units organized by objective, information, reference, procedure, and assignment. Each lesson involves concrete trade experience where science is applied. Unit titles are: safety and housekeeping,…

  1. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science I--Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The document presents lessons for teaching about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Intended for use with the assignments in the related science manual for students, each unit provides the teacher with objectives, a list of aids needed, procedures, a summary, and testing questions. There are 18…

  2. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  3. Incorporating environmental ethics into the undergraduate engineering curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Katherine; Striebig, Bradley

    2004-04-01

    The design and economic realities associated with Personal Computers (PCs) was used as a model for implementing ethical issues into the core-engineering curriculum. Historically, products have not been designed to be recycled easily. By incorporating environmental ethics into our classrooms and industries, valuable materials can be recovered and harmful materials can be eliminated from our waste stream. Future engineers must consider the economic cost-benefit analysis of designing a product for easy material recovery and recycling versus the true cost of the disposal and continued use of virgin materials. A three hour unit on the economic and environmental impacts of product design is proposed for inclusion in the ABET accredited engineering program. PMID:15152868

  4. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (hereafter... the Chief of Engineers (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) on matters relating to environmental...

  5. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  6. Engineering parameters for environmental remediation technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkeri, S.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document identifies engineering parameters and establishes ranges of values for 33 environmental remediation technologies. The main purpose is to provide U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) civil engineering personnel with summarized information regarding matrix characteristics and design parameters that are applicable to each of the technologies. This information is intended to guide USCG personnel when making decisions regarding the selection of appropriate remediation technologies. This document has been developed to be used as a companion document to the Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide (EPN542/B-94/013).

  7. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  8. 78 FR 4138 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: February 15, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. through 12:30 p.m. Location: The ``Caf[eacute] Conference Room'' on the second floor of the Sandra Day O'Connor United States Courthouse (SDOCH),......

  9. 77 FR 46428 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: August 28, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. through 12:00 p.m. Location: Ralph H. Metcalfe Federal Building (RMFB), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Room 331, Chicago, IL 60604. Agenda: The Board will......

  10. 76 FR 81485 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...In accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB). Date: January 19, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. through 12 p.m. Location: U.S. Government Accountability Office Building, 441 G Street Northwest, Washington, DC 20548-0002 (202) 512-6000. Agenda: The......

  11. Engineering dioxygenases for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Dioxygenases have recently been engineered to improve their capabilities for environmental pollutant degradation. The techniques used to achieve this include in vitro DNA shuffling and subunit or domain exchanges between dioxygenases of different bacterial origins. Such evolved enzymes acquire novel and enhanced degradation capabilities of xenobiotic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene and a variety of aromatic compounds. Hybrid strains in which the evolved genes are integrated into the chromosomal operons exhibit efficient degradation of xenobiotic chlorinated compounds. PMID:10851151

  12. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  13. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  14. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: COMM ENGINEERING, USA ENVIRONMENTAL VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT (EVRU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the testing of a new technology that recovers and utilizes vapors from crude oil storage tanks employed in the oil production and processing industry. The COMM Engineering, USA Environmental Vapor Recovery Unit (EVRU) is a non-mechanical eductor, or jet pump...

  16. Environmental noise-a challenge for an acoustical engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    People live in a landscape full of noises which are composed of both natural environmental noises and technically created sounds. Regarding environmental noise, more and more people feel heavily annoyed by noises. Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence or an intentional sound listening or leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters such as the A-weighted sound pressure level or the equivalent continuous sound pressure level. The question of whether a sound is judged as noise can only be made after the transformation from the sound event into an auditory event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psycho-acoustical features of the human ear, as well as on the psychological aspects of man. For the acoustical design of environmental noise and in order to create a better soundscape the acoustical engineer has to consider these aspects. That means a specific challenge for the sound engineering.

  17. Increasing Capacity for Environmental Engineering in Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rajal, Verónica B.; Cid, Alicia G.; Cruz, Mercedes C.; Poma, Hugo R.; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B.; Last, Jerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The “International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health” Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Results Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After six years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. Conclusions This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. PMID:22467330

  18. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  19. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  1. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems. PMID:10335581

  3. Environmental behavior of engineered nanomaterials in porous media: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-05-15

    A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. PMID:26882524

  4. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-12-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the second quarter 1999 is based on 618 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, drinking water, sheep, wild game tissues, and environmental radiation. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  5. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Consolidated Transportation Facility. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0822, addressing environmental impacts that could result from siting, construction, and operation of a consolidated transportation facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The DOE proposes to construct and operate a new transportation facility at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) at the INEL. The proposed facility would replace outdated facilities and consolidate in one location operations that are conducted at six different locations at the CFA. The proposed facility would be used for vehicle and equipment maintenance and repair, administrative support, bus parking, and bus driver accommodation. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  7. Dynamic Probabilistic Modeling of Environmental Emissions of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian Yin; Bornhöft, Nikolaus A; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The need for an environmental risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials (ENM) necessitates the knowledge about their environmental concentrations. Despite significant advances in analytical methods, it is still not possible to measure the concentrations of ENM in natural systems. Material flow and environmental fate models have been used to provide predicted environmental concentrations. However, almost all current models are static and consider neither the rapid development of ENM production nor the fact that many ENM are entering an in-use stock and are released with a lag phase. Here we use dynamic probabilistic material flow modeling to predict the flows of four ENM (nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT) to the environment and to quantify their amounts in (temporary) sinks such as the in-use stock and ("final") environmental sinks such as soil and sediment. Caused by the increase in production, the concentrations of all ENM in all compartments are increasing. Nano-TiO2 had far higher concentrations than the other three ENM. Sediment showed in our worst-case scenario concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg/kg (CNT) to about 40 000 μg/kg (nano-TiO2). In most cases the concentrations in waste incineration residues are at the "mg/kg" level. The flows to the environment that we provide will constitute the most accurate and reliable input of masses for environmental fate models which are using process-based descriptions of the fate and behavior of ENM in natural systems and rely on accurate mass input parameters. PMID:27043743

  8. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B.; Brooks, R.W.; Roush, D.; Martin, D.B.; Lantz, B.S.

    1998-08-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site at which nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway whereby radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to the DOE-Headquarters. This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1997 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the INEEL operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines.

  9. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-09-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the first quarter 1999 is based on 564 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, and wild game tissues. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons ! testing, an d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Fourth Quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. Saffle; R. Evans

    1999-08-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts the Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the fourth quarter 1998 is based on 622 samples collected of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, water, milk, potatoes, and game animals. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radioactivity, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, an! d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL, although statistical differences did exist between on-site and distant gross beta concentrations. No evidence could be found to link these differences with a specific INEEL source. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  13. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    2000-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an offsite environmental surveillance program for the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the third quarter of 1999 is based on 704 samples of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, milk, and food. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No! measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  14. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional...

  19. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  20. Environmentally friendly plasma-based surface engineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, A.; Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Cvelbar, U.

    2010-01-01

    Weakly ionised reactive plasmas are characterised by a very low degree of ionization, which rarely exceeds the order of 10-4, and by a very high degree of dissociation, which often reaches values above 50%. Thus the most numerous plasma species are free neutral atoms originated from the dissociation of the source gas molecules. Neutral atoms are chemically very reactive species, which makes such plasma suitable for material processing. At the same time the neutral atoms have a low kinetic energy and therefore they cannot penetrate into the bulk material, so their effect is restricted to the topmost atomic layers of the material surface hence weakly ionised, reactive plasmas are suitable for surface engineering. Here we present examples of weakly ionised plasma applications as environmentally friendly alternatives to processes that otherwise utilise aggressive chemicals and produce toxic waste.

  1. Systems analysis in environmental engineering: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Gujer, W

    2004-01-01

    Systems analysis is identified as a unifying topic of environmental engineering. Based on a questionnaire sent out to peers and based on the experience with an advanced systems analysis course the possible content and association of the content with bachelor and master's programs is discussed. At the bachelor's level it is concluded that an array of topics should be introduced more in an inductive way, going along with the discussion of examples. At the master's level it is suggested that a substantial course, which systematically introduces a broad variety of systems analysis tools, is provided. Such a course should go along with the introduction of a simulation tool, which supports application of systems analysis methods. PMID:15193092

  2. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  3. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  4. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University at SAGEEP 2008: Geophysical Instruction for Non-Geophysicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey G. Paine

    2009-03-13

    The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), a nonprofit professional organization, conducted an educational series of seminars at the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) in Philadelphia in April 2008. The purpose of these seminars, conducted under the name Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University (EEGU) over three days in parallel with the regular SAGEEP technical sessions, was to introduce nontraditional geophysical conference attendees to the appropriate use of geophysics in environmental and engineering projects. Five half-day, classroom-style sessions were led by recognized experts in the application of seismic, electrical, gravity, magnetics, and ground-penetrating radar methods. Classroom sessions were intended to educate regulators, environmental program managers, consultants, and students who are new to near-surface geophysics or are interested in learning how to incorporate appropriate geophysical approaches into characterization or remediation programs or evaluate the suitability of geophysical methods for general classes of environmental or engineering problems.

  5. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect

  6. Influence of an Environmental Studies Course on Attitudes of Undergraduates at an Engineering University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Shih-Yun; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed…

  7. Environmental Transformations of Engineered Nanoparticles: Implications for Nanoparticle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, G. V.; Levard, C.; Reinsch, B.; Ma, R.; Kirschling, T.; Brown, G. E.; Tilton, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical transformations that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may undergo in different environments very poorly characterized. Sulfidation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), particularly class B soft metals such as Ag NPs, is expected in the environment. Transformation will alter the surface properties and fate of Ag NPs. ENMs are often coated with a polymeric coating to prevent aggregation or to provide specific functionality. These coatings dramatically impact their transport properties. The potential for biological processes to remove covalently bound polymeric coatings from nanoparticles, and the effect of coating loss on the particle's transport properties is not known. The objectives of this work were to 1) better understand the environmental conditions that would promote sufidation of class B soft metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs and ZnO NPs), and to determine the effect that this has on their surface properties and aggregation potential, and 2) to determine if microbes can access covalently bound polymeric coatings from an engineered NP, and the effect on their surface properties and aggregation potential. Ag and ZnO NPs were synthesized and characterized for size, shape, coating mass, charge, crystal structure, and chemical composition using a range of analytical methods (TEM, DLS, TGA, EPM, XAS). These particles were sulfidized in the laboratory, biosolids, and wetland soils and the transformed materials were characterized. Sulfidation was rapid in all cases and resulted in a mixed crystalline/amorphous Ag2S/Ag2O particle depending on the ratio of Ag to HS- in the system. Sulfidation decreased surface charge and displayed significant aggregation compared to the unsulfidized materials. Sulfidation also occurred in biosolids and in wetland soils. Polymer coatings covalently bound to ENMs are bioavailable. Model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush-coated nanoparticles (30 nm hydrodynamic radius) were synthesized to obtain a nanomaterial in which biodegradation was

  8. Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Systems Integration and Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Geiselhart, Karl A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study documents the design and analysis of four types of advanced technology commercial transport airplane configurations (small, medium large and very large) with an assumed technology readiness date of 2010. These airplane configurations were used as a platform to evaluate the design concept and installed performance of advanced technology engines being developed under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. Upon installation of the UEET engines onto the UEET advanced technology airframes, the small and medium airplanes both achieved an additional 16% increase in fuel efficiency when using GE advanced turbofan engines. The large airplane achieved an 18% increase in fuel efficiency when using the P&W geared fan engine. The very large airplane (i.e. BWB), also using P&W geared fan engines, only achieved an additional 16% that was attributed to a non-optimized airplane/engine combination.

  9. Environmental concerns associated with the design of genetic engineering facilities.

    PubMed

    Watt, J C; Wroniewicz, V S; Ioli, D F

    1988-01-01

    complex problem. Systems to treat these wastewaters can include many diverse unit operations, from pretreatment of selected streams to tertiary treatment of the combined streams to meet stringent effluent criteria. While biological treatment is almost always applicable, waste loads are very high, and multiple-stage systems could be required. Early and ongoing interface between the process development scientists and engineers and the environmental disciplines allows for the early recognition of potential environmental problems. With early recognition, many of these problems can be economically and efficiently addressed in the design of the facility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3178641

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Evans; D. Roush; R. W. Brooks; D. B. Martin

    1998-08-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines. The maximum potential population dose from submersion, ingestion, inhalation, and deposition to the approximately 121,500 people residing within an 80-km (50-mi) radius from the geographical center of the INEEL was estimated to be 0.2 person-rem (2 x 10-3 person-Sv) using the MDIFF air dispersion model. This population dose is less than 0.0005% of the estimated 43,700 person-rem (437 person-Sv) population dose from background radioactivity.

  11. Harnessing the Environmental Professional Expertise of Engineering Students—The Course: ``Environmental Management Systems in the Industry''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Ayal, Nitzan

    2010-12-01

    More and more technical universities now advocate integrating sustainability in higher education and including it as a strategic goal for improving education's quality and relevance to society. This study examines 30 fourth-year chemical engineering students, graduates of a university course designed to combine their terminological domain with sustainability-oriented goals, focusing on topics like corporate sustainability, developing environmental policy, introduction to ISO 14001—Environmental Management Systems (EMS), and environmental legislation. The study explores their perception of industrial-environmental issues and asks—How did the study unit influence the students' ability to use their preexisting scientific knowledge, while relating to industrial-environmental issues? Our findings indicate that engineering students can develop industrial-environmental awareness, and make use of interdisciplinary knowledge beyond that strictly related to the realm of engineering. Regarding the research's particular aim—i.e. determining the study unit's influence on students' ability to relate industrial-environmental issues to their own field of engineering—the findings indeed show a change in the students' conceptions of environmental elements related to industry. The course graduates became more attentive to the environmental aspects associated with building and opening a factory, and the concepts they raised in connection with the topic gained in variety.

  12. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three. PMID:15193089

  13. Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

    2002-07-01

    The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATION CONTROLS FOR STATIONARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment of combustion modification techniques for stationary internal combustion engines, with respect to NOx control reduction effectiveness, operational impact, thermal efficiency impact, capital and annualized operating costs, an...

  15. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-14

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations.

  16. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  17. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.

  18. Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers through Development of a New Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerther, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a molecular biology course designed for environmental engineering majors using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-targeted technology that allows students to identify and study microorganisms in bioreactor environments. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  19. Environmental and Mechanical Stability of Environmental Barrier Coated SA Tyrannohex SiC Composites Under Simulated Turbine Engine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael Charles; Sing, Mrityunjay

    2014-01-01

    The environmental stability and thermal gradient cyclic durability performance of SA Tyrannohex composites were investigated for turbine engine component applications. The work has been focused on investigating the combustion rig recession, cyclic thermal stress resistance and thermomechanical low cycle fatigue of uncoated and environmental barrier coated Tyrannohex SiC SA composites in simulated turbine engine combustion water vapor, thermal gradients, and mechanical loading conditions. Flexural strength degradations have been evaluated, and the upper limits of operating temperature conditions for the SA composite material systems are discussed based on the experimental results.

  20. Environmental regulation of valvulogenesis: implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Riem Vis, Paul W; Kluin, Jolanda; Sluijter, Joost P G; van Herwerden, Lex A; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing research efforts aim at improving the creation of tissue-engineered heart valves for in vivo systemic application. Hence, in vitro studies concentrate on optimising culture protocols incorporating biological as well as biophysical stimuli for tissue development. Important lessons can be drawn from valvulogenesis to mimic natural valve development in vitro. Here, we review the up-to-date status of valvulogenesis, focussing on the biomolecular and biophysical regulation of semilunar valve development. In addition, we discuss potential benefits of incorporating concepts derived from valvulogenesis, as well as alternative approaches, in tissue-engineering protocols, to improve in vitro valve development. The combined efforts from clinicians, cell biologists and engineers are required to implement and evaluate these approaches to achieve optimised protocols for heart-valve tissue engineering. PMID:20637649

  1. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  2. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Saffle; R. G. Mitchell; R. B. Evans; D. B. Martin

    2000-07-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1998 indicated that radioactivity from the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines. Gross alpha and gross beta measurements, used as a screening technique for air filters, were investigated by making statistical comparisons between onsite or boundary location concentrations and the distant community group concentrations. Gross alpha activities were generally higher at distant locations than at boundary and onsite locations. Air samples were also analyzed for specific radionuclides. Some human-made radionuclides were detected at offsite locations, but most were near the minimum detectable concentration and their presence was attributable to natural sources, worldwide fallout, and statistical variations in the analytical results rather than to INEEL operations. Low concentrations of 137Cs were found in muscle tissue and liver of some game animals and sheep. These levels were mostly consistent with background concentrations measured in animals sampled onsite and offsite in recent years. Ionizing radiation measured simultaneously at the INEEL boundary and distant locations using environmental dosimeters were similar and showed only background levels. The maximum potential population dose from submersion, ingestion, inhalation, and deposition to the approximately 121,500 people residing within an 80-km (50-mi) radius from the geographical center of the INEEL was estimated to be 0.08 person-rem (8 x 10-4 person-Sv) using the MDIFF air dispersion model. This population dose is less than 0.0002 percent of the estimated 43,7 00

  3. Surface Immobilization of Engineered Nanomaterials for in Situ Study of their Environmental Transformations and Fate

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transformation and environmental fate of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is the focus of intense research due to concerns about their potential impacts in the environment as a result of their uniquely engineered properties. Many approaches are being applied to investigate th...

  4. Development and Test of a Rocket Engine Using Environmentally Friendly Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Develop and test a rocket engine that operates on environmentally friendly propellants; Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4). Due to modifications the rocket engine designed last summer (KJ_REX) is not the same rocket thruster tested this summer, but very similar. The new modified rocket thruster was built for NASA by Orion Propulsion Inc. (OPI), Huntsville, AL.

  5. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  6. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  7. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  8. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  9. 78 FR 37533 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Engineered High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announces its intent to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and conduct public scoping meetings to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action to implement one or more programs to catalyze the development and demonstration of engineered high energy crops......

  10. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  11. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  12. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  13. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  14. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  15. 78 FR 50052 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...). Date: September 11, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. through 12:00 p.m. Location: Room 3K10, Headquarters, U.S... river ecosystems; Corps' outreach opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics... disabilities. Attendees need to arrive in time to complete the security screening and arrive at the...

  16. Environmental Study: Science and Engineering Buildings. ABS Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is the first of a series which present the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level conducted by the Academic Building Systems (ABS) program. The document includes (1) a user survey (data and conclusions from a series of studies involving a spectrum of…

  17. Engineering radiation-resistant bacteria for environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Daly, M J

    2000-06-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. PMID:10851141

  18. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Turbine Engines: A Design and Performance Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis; Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBC) for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating long-term durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature, strength and stability requirements in engine high heat-flux combustion environments, especially for highly-loaded rotating turbine components. Advanced TEBC systems, including nano-composite based HfO2-aluminosilicate and rare earth silicate coatings are being developed and tested for higher temperature capable SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade applications. This paper will emphasize coating composite and multilayer design approach and the resulting performance and durability in simulated engine high heat-flux, high stress and high pressure combustion environments. The advances in the environmental barrier coating development showed promise for future rotating CMC blade applications.

  19. Preliminary Outcomes from a Week-Long Environmental Engineering Summer Camp for High School Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for environment engineers and sustainability managers to address global environmental, energy and health challenges. Environmental literacy programs at K-12 level provide a unique opportunity in motivating young minds in joining STEM and also provide additional value in learning about "saving planet earth". The Women in Engineering at the University of Illinois organize an annual week long camp, for female high school students with tracks corresponding to different fields of Engineering. The Environmental Engineering and Sustainability (EES) track is organized by faculty and graduate students of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department and introduces students to concepts in sustainability and systems thinking in connection with air and water quality, climate change and renewable energy. This study is a preliminary assessment of the relevance of the EES outreach track conducted in July 2014 in student learning. Specific goals include assessing (a) demographics of participants and their motivation to join this camp, (b) educational and enjoyability quotients of the modules and (c) learning and motivational outcomes using the Likert scale. A pre-camp survey indicated keen interest in learning about environmental engineering (4.56/5.0) and expected this camp to be a venue to learn about related career choices (4.9/5.0). Five days of instruction were divided thematically and included a mix of lectures, activity based learning, demonstrations and field visits. Overall modules were rated as educational (4.4/5.0) and enjoyable (4.5/5.0). Modules with hands-on learning were best received (4.67/5.0) and rated unique (4.7/5.0). Post camp, participants acknowledged the important contribution of environmental engineers to society (4.8/5.0) and could relate the different modules to the role engineer's play (4.06/5.0) for sustainability. On an average, the participants evinced interest in engineering as a career choice (4.0/5.0) but there was a broader

  20. Greenhorn engineering: How to avoid environmental quicksand and other mistakes

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.

    1997-03-01

    There is a new awareness in business and industry. It has to do with how one approaches responsibilities toward the environment. In the past, a responsible company made efforts to learn the environmental laws/regulations and comply with them. People were hired to keep up with changing rules. If errors were made, fines were paid and due diligence was given to future compliance. Much money was spent fixing old problems and complying with tighter standards. It was expensive and difficult to stay out of trouble--i.e., living on quicksand--and it was easy to make mistakes. Now, an increasing number of companies are going beyond compliance and becoming proactive in their approach to environmental issues. Efforts are made to prevent pollution, save energy, minimize waste and emissions, reuse/recycle old products, etc. Employees at all levels are being educated and empowered to make proactive environmental decisions. In the Old West, greenhorns were cattle with young -- i.e., green -- horns. The word has evolved to mean a raw, inexperienced person. In companies being environmentally proactive, everyone is, to some extent, a greenhorn. Even those that have been proactive for several years find they are pioneers. There is a lack of data on many impacts materials have on the environment throughout their lifetime. There is a lack of agreement on what impacts are better or worse than others. The field is new, all the data are not available, and all are greenhorns in proactivity. There are, however, many compelling reasons for business and industry to become involved now.

  1. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  2. Department of Energy environmental management complex-wide integration using systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbourn, P.

    1997-10-01

    A systems engineering approach was successfully used to recommend changes to environmental management activities across the DOE Complex. A team of technical experts and systems engineers developed alternatives that could save tax payers billions of dollars if the barriers are removed to allow complete implementation. The alternatives are technically-based and defensible, and are being worked through the stakeholder review process. The integration process and implementing project structure are both discussed.

  3. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  4. The method of solid rocket motors firings environmental engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Baojun; Xu, Ke; Peng, Keke; Mi, Yaoqi

    The solid rocket motors firings is one main source of space debris, the solid rocket motors firings model is a part of space debris engineering model. In this paper, researching the NASA and ESA model to achieve an appropriate firing model, using the discrete method to model the solid rocket motors firings; application of the long-term approximation orbit evolution algorithm to calculate the evolution of firings generated by a single solid rocket motors ignition event in space; finally, application of space debris environment space debris density algorithm to calculate the distribution of firings generated by a single solid rocket motors ignition event in space, analysing the influence on the space environment and spacecraft.

  5. Environmental concept for engineering software on MIMD computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, L. A.; Valimohamed, K.

    1989-01-01

    The issues related to developing an environment in which engineering systems can be implemented on MIMD machines are discussed. The problem is presented in terms of implementing the finite element method under such an environment. However, neither the concepts nor the prototype implementation environment are limited to this application. The topics discussed include: the ability to schedule and synchronize tasks efficiently; granularity of tasks; load balancing; and the use of a high level language to specify parallel constructs, manage data, and achieve portability. The objective of developing a virtual machine concept which incorporates solutions to the above issues leads to a design that can be mapped onto loosely coupled, tightly coupled, and hybrid systems.

  6. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  7. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2002-02-15

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  8. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  9. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  10. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  11. Planetary boundaries and environmental citizenship: enhancing environmental science through the Princeton University Science and Engineering Education Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; Caylor, K. K.; Wilcove, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Introductory courses in environmental science are challenging to teach effectively because instructors need to balance the breadth of content coverage with the depth needed to solve complex, interdisciplinary environmental problems. For three years, the Council on Science and Technology at Princeton University has been collaborating with faculty to enhance the introductory environmental science course as part of the Science and Engineering Education Initiative, which aims to ensure that all students, regardless of discipline, graduate with an appreciation for and literacy in science and engineering. Our primary aim in the course is to foster improved environmental citizenship by helping students develop a mechanistic understanding of our individual, societal, and global role as agents of environmental change; an ability to predict or forecast the potential impact that decisions may have on the future structure and function of Earth systems; and a sense of responsibility that leads to informed action and decision-making related to environmental issues. Toward those ends, we have 1) reframed the course curriculum to focus on the central theme of "planetary boundaries" (Rockstrom et al., 2009), including their scientific evidence and policy implications, 2) developed hands-on laboratory exercises that give students authentic research experiences, and 3) modified the assessment to ensure that the students have consistent and clear indications of their mastery of the material. Student feedback through course surveys has been positive, although challenges remain, including coordination across a large teaching staff (two lead instructors for lecture and three TAs for discussion sections, plus a lead lab instructor and one lab TA), optimizing learning activities across the course structure (lecture, precept, and an optional lab), and engaging students that have diverse academic interests.

  12. Evaporation Basin Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0501, on the construction and operation of the proposed Evaporation Basin at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  13. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  14. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  15. Detecting and Characterizing Engineered Nanomaterials: A Key Tool for Environmentally Responsible Nanotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The same properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that are the basis for their many novel applications also raise important issues related to their environmental impact. ENMs might not behave similarly in the environment to the dissolved or solid forms of the chemicals from ...

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  17. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S-J; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO(2) ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  18. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  19. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  20. Collaborative-Large scale Engineering Assessment Networks for Environmental Research: The Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moo-Young, H.

    2004-05-01

    A networked infrastructure for engineering solutions and policy alternatives is necessary to assess, manage, and protect complex, anthropogenic ally stressed environmental resources effectively. Reductionist and discrete disciplinary methodologies are no longer adequate to evaluate and model complex environmental systems and anthropogenic stresses. While the reductonist approach provides important information regarding individual mechanisms, it cannot provide complete information about how multiple processes are related. Therefore, it is not possible to make accurate predictions about system responses to engineering interventions and the effectiveness of policy options. For example, experts cannot agree on best management strategies for contaminated sediments in riverine and estuarine systems. This is due, in part to the fact that existing models do not accurately capture integrated system dynamics. In addition, infrastructure is not available for investigators to exchange and archive data, to collaborate on new investigative methods, and to synthesize these results to develop engineering solutions and policy alternatives. Our vision for the future is to create a network comprising field facilities and a collaboration of engineers, scientists, policy makers, and community groups. This will allow integration across disciplines, across different temporal and spatial scales, surface and subsurface geographies, and air sheds and watersheds. Benefits include fast response to changes in system health, real-time decision making, and continuous data collection that can be used to anticipate future problems, and to develop sound engineering solutions and management decisions. CLEANER encompasses four general aspects: 1) A Network of environmental field facilities instrumented for the acquisition and analysis of environmental data; 2) A Virtual Repository of Data and information technology for engineering modeling, analysis and visualization of data, i.e. an environmental

  1. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  2. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  3. Draft environmental assessment -- Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.B.; Irving, J.S.; Staley, C.S.; Stanley, N.

    1996-04-01

    The DOE-Idaho Operations Office has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the environmental impacts of closing the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of radioactive and hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce these risks to human health and the environment and to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements. The WCF closure project is described in the DOE Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement (Programmatic EIS). DOE determined in the Programmatic EIS Record of Decision (ROD) that certain actions would be implemented and other actions deferred. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations. Based on the analysis in the EA, the action will not have a significant effect on the human environment.

  4. In Summary: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    A. A. Luft; R. B. Evans; T. Saffle; R. G. Mitchell; D. B. Martin

    2000-06-01

    Scientists from the Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO), the US Geological Survey, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Naval Reactors Facility, Argonne National Laboratory-West, and others monitored the environment on and around the INEEL to find contaminants attributable to the INEEL. During 1998, exposures from the INEEL to the public were found to be negligible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LMITCO made progress in developing and implementing a site-wide Environmental Management System. This system provides an underlying structure to make the management of environmental activities at the INEEL more systematic and predictable. Pathways by which INEEL contaminants might reach people off the INEEL were monitored. These included air, precipitation, water, locally grown food (milk, lettuce, wheat, and potatoes), livestock, game animals, soil, and direct ionizing radiation. Results from samples collected to monitor these pathways often contain ''background radioactivity,'' which is radioactivity from natural sources and nuclear weapons tests carried out between 1945 and 1980. According to results obtained in 1998, radioactivity from operations at the INEEL could not be distinguished from this background radioactivity in the regions surrounding the INEEL. Because radioactivity from the INEEL was not detected by offsite environmental surveillance methods, computer models were used to estimate the radiation dose to the public. The hypothetical maximum dose to an individual from INEEL operations was calculated to be 0.08 millirem. That is 0.002 percent of an average person's annual dose of 360 millirem from natural background radiation in southeast Idaho.

  5. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  6. Environmental education and socioresponsive engineering. Report of an educational initiative in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ali Uddin; Jafari, Ashfaque; Mirzana, Ishrat Meera; Imtiaz, Zulfia; Lukacs, Heather

    2003-07-01

    A recent initiative at Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India, has resulted in setting up a program called Centre for Environment Studies and Socioresponsive Engineering which seeks to involve undergraduate students in studying and solving environmental problems in and around the city of Hyderabad, India. Two pilot projects have been undertaken--one focusing on design and construction of an eco-friendly house, The Natural House, and another directed at improving environmental and general living conditions in a slum area. The paper describes our attempts and experience of motivating our students to take interest in such projects. In an interesting development we invited a member of a student-faculty team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) that is doing a project in Nepal on safe drinking water. We report in our paper how the presentation by the guest from M.I.T. served as a catalyst for generating interest among civil and mechanical engineering students in our own projects. The paper includes contributions from one of our students and the M.I.T. staff member, reporting on their experiences related to the slum development project. We also discuss the Natural House project and its international and educational significance as a means of inculcating sensitivity and interest in nature among engineering students. We propose a pledge for engineers similar to the Hippocratic Oath for medical professionals. PMID:12971300

  7. Environmental and high strain rate effects on composites for engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    The complex environmental and loading conditions experienced by many turbine engine components impose severe durability and damage tolerance requirements for component materials. Programs are being conducted to establish the structural performance of composite materials under anticipated engine operating environments. A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with several of these programs. A comparison of predicted and measured hygrothermal effects is considered along with hygrothermal effects on defect growth, high strain rate effects on composite mechanical properties, dynamic stress intensity factors for composites, and the indentation laws for composite impact analysis.

  8. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  9. Environmental engineering: energy value of replacing waste disposal with resource recovery

    PubMed

    Iranpour; Stenstrom; Tchobanoglous; Miller; Wright; Vossoughi

    1999-07-30

    Although in the past, environmental engineering has been primarily concerned with waste disposal, the focus of the field is now shifting toward viewing wastes as potential resources. Because reclamation usually consumes less energy than producing new materials, increasing reclamation not only reduces pollution but saves energy. Technological innovations contributing to this shift are summarized here, and are variously classified as emerging technologies or research topics, as either new departures or incremental improvements, and as opportunistic innovations, or examples of a unifying strategy. Both liquid and solid waste examples are given, such as a recent discovery of effects in disinfecting microfiltered reclaimed wastewater with ultraviolet light. In addition to its value in reducing pollution and conserving energy, this reorientation of environmental engineering could contribute to a more general shift toward greater cooperation among organizations dealing with the environment. PMID:10426987

  10. TRU waste absorbent addition project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Colson, R Griff; Auman, Laurence E

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT In order to meet a commitment to ship 3,100 m3 of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) developed a process to add absorbent to TRU waste drums that did not meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The development, implementation, and safe completion of this project contributed to the INEEL's success in meeting the commitment three months early. PMID:12865753

  11. In Summary: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. G. Mitchell; D. E. Roush, Jr.; R. B. Evans

    1998-10-01

    Scientists from the Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, the US Geological Survey, and other INEEL contractors monitored the environment on and around the INEEL to find contaminants attributable to the INEEL. During 1997, exposures from the INEEL to the public were found to be negligible. Pathways by which INEEL contaminants might reach people were monitored. These included air, precipitation, water, locally grown food (wheat, milk, potatoes, and lettuce), livestock, game animals, and direct radiation. Results from samples collected to monitor these pathways often contain radioactivity from natural sources and nuclear weapons testing carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, termed ''background radioactivity.'' According to the results obtained in 1997, radioactivity from operations at the INEEL could not be distinguished from this background radioactivity in the regions surrounding the INEEL. Because radioactivity from t! he INEEL wa s not detected by offsite environmental surveillance methods, computer models were used to estimate a radiation dose to people. The hypothetical maximum individual dose from the INEEL was calculated to be 0.03 millirem. That is 0.008 percent of an average person's annual dose from background radiation in southeast Idaho.

  12. Engineered nanomaterial transformation under oxidative environmental conditions: Development of an in vitro biomimetic assay

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Kevin M.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Bierman, Matthew J.; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered nanomaterials may be transformed by microbially mediated redox processes altering their toxicity and fate. Little information currently exists on engineered nanomaterial transformation under environmentally relevant conditions. Here, we report the development of an in vitro biomimetic assay for investigation of nanomaterial transformation under simulated oxidative environmental conditions. The assay is based on the extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction used by lignolytic fungi. We demonstrate the utility of the assay using CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol). QD transformation was assessed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). QDs were readily degraded under simulated oxidative environmental conditions: the ZnS shell eroded and cadmium was released from the QD core. TEM, electron diffraction analysis and EDX of transformed QDs revealed formation of amorphous Se aggregates. The biomimetic hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction degraded QDs to a larger extent than did H2O2 and classical Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+). This assay provides a new method to characterize transformations of nanoscale materials expected to occur under oxidative environmental conditions. PMID:19350941

  13. The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers

  14. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taam, I H; da Rosa, L A R; Crispim, V R

    2008-09-01

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected. PMID:18348907

  15. Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER)Science Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnoor, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Haas, C. N.

    2005-12-01

    The Project Office of the Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER) was awarded a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (NSF)and began operations on August 1, 2005. Since that time we have organized six standing committees and an executive committee with an advisory board. The first all-hands meeting of CLEANER took place at NSF and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Access facility in Arlington, Virginia, in September. Among the initial tasks of CLEANER is to join with the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences Incorporated (CUAHSI) in developing a joint science plan for a national observatory for environmental research utilizing NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) funds slated for 2011. This presentation describes our initial thinking on the science plan and our vision for the national environmental observatory and cyberinfrastructure.

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1995 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1995, the offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Onsite surveillance was performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). Ground-water monitoring, both on and offsite, was performed by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This report also presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. This report, prepared in accordance with the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, is not intended to cover the numerous special environmental research programs being conducted at the INEL by the Foundation, LITCO, USGS, and others.

  17. From Environmental History to Environmental Engineering: Learning the Tools of the New Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The social sciences and humanities are typically framed in terms of being completely disparate from the "hard sciences", and although this bipolarity is far from accurate, the skills required in each area are indeed quite different. In this short talk, the author discusses her experience in shifting from a doctoral program in environmental history to a doctoral program in hydrology. The experience of having to learn a radically new skill set is both frightening and hugely rewarding and requires a confidence in one's ability to master new and ostensibly insurmountable concepts and a dedication to pushing beyond the initial endless frustrations. But after overcoming these initial hurdles, it became extremely useful to have a broad background in the geosciences. Conceptualizing the impact of climate change on water resources in terms of human livelihoods, for example, is both necessary and productive to understanding long-term policy impacts. This broader framing of research questions is thus significant in moving beyond the sometimes narrow conversations that are had behind the closed doors of each academic discipline.

  18. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  19. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  20. Modeling Approaches for Characterizing and Evaluating Environmental Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials in Support of Risk-Based Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the use of engineered nanomaterials becomes more prevalent, the likelihood of unintended exposure to these materials also increases. Given the current scarcity of experimental data regarding fate, transport, and bioavailability, determining potential environmental exposure to ...

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed reservation occupying about 890 square miles in southeastern Idaho. The INEEL lies within the upper Snake River Plain sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Much of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem throughout the west has been segmented and lost to development and agriculture. The remaining sagebrush steppe ecosystem and the habitat it provides is threatened with irreversible conversion to non-native annual weeds by rangeland management practices in combination with the natural fire process. The sagebrush steppe of the INEEL is now threatened and DOE must evaluate its management role and alternatives available to preserve this important component of the western ecosystem.

  2. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  3. Princeton Science and Engineering Education Initiative: Revising Undergraduate Environmental Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; Sealfon, C. D.; Paine, E. N.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Wilcove, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Science and Engineering Education Initiative at Princeton University aims to inspire and prepare all undergraduates, irrespective of their majors, to become scientifically and technologically literate citizens and decision-makers. Launched by the faculty on the Council on Science and Technology in September 2011, the initiative involves revising and creating science and engineering courses that emphasize the role of science in society. The course "Fundamentals of Environmental Studies" will serve as a model course for the initiative starting with revisions to the course in Fall 2012. Given the general interest undergraduates have for sustainability topics and the obvious connections between sustainability and society, this course should generate ample interest from students across the campus. We have begun the Initiative by defining student-centered learning goals and surveying students' attitudes towards science and engineering. Course by course, we are also gradually applying research-based teaching methods to better align course activities with learning goals, assessing learning gains, and creating a repository of successful methods and courses. Among the changes to "Fundamentals of Environmental Studies" will be a greater emphasis on science communication, such as incorporating an assignment in which students track the evolution of communicating a research project, from journal article to newspaper coverage to editorials.

  4. Environmental assessment: Fuel processing restoration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide sufficient evidence to assist DOE decision makers in determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact for the proposed construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The FPR project includes (a) a replacement facility, to be called the Fuels Processing Facility (FPF), which would safely, efficiently, and effectively process recoverable irradiated naval and research reactor fuels to recover uranium for recycle and reuse in defense programs; and (b) a new liquid low-level waste (LLW) treatment and disposal system to improve waste management practices at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The EA examines and compares the environmental impacts of the proposed FPR project and reasonable alternatives at the ICPP. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the requirements of the CEQ Regulations. 214 refs., 32 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  6. Thermal efficiency and environmental performances of a biogas-diesel stationary engine.

    PubMed

    Bilcan, A; Le Corre, O; Delebarre, A

    2003-09-01

    Municipal and agricultural waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment represent a large source of pollution. Gaseous fuels can be produced from waste decomposition and then used to run internal combustion engines for power and heat generation. The present paper focuses on thermal efficiency and environmental performances of dual-fuel engines fuelled with biogas. Experiments have been carried out on a Lister-Petter single cylinder diesel engine, modified for dual-fuel operation. Natural gas was first used as the primary fuel. An empirical correlation was determined to predict the engine load for a given mass flow rate for the pilot fuel (diesel) and for the primary fuel (natural gas). That correlation has then been tested for three synthesized biogas compositions. Computations were performed and the error was estimated to be less than 10%. Additionally, NOx and CO2 contents were measured from exhaust gases. Based on exhausts gas temperature, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of an Arrhenius law were then proposed, resulting in a simpler mean to predict NOx. PMID:14599150

  7. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. PMID:21796771

  8. Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry; Khan, Muhammad S.; Allison, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in biotechnology. The successful engineering of tomato chromoplasts for high-level transgene expression in fruits, coupled to hyper-expression of vaccine antigens, and the use of plant-derived antibiotic-free selectable markers, augur well for oral delivery of edible vaccines and biopharmaceuticals that are currently beyond the reach of those who need them most. PMID:11832280

  9. Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Daniell, Henry; Khan, Muhammad S; Allison, Lori

    2002-02-01

    Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in biotechnology. The successful engineering of tomato chromoplasts for high-level transgene expression in fruits, coupled to hyper-expression of vaccine antigens, and the use of plant-derived antibiotic-free selectable markers, augur well for oral delivery of edible vaccines and biopharmaceuticals that are currently beyond the reach of those who need them most. PMID:11832280

  10. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

  11. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    PubMed

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications. PMID:18569289

  12. Safety Analyses at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Test Reactor Area - Past to Present

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, Richard Garry; Ingram, Frederick William

    1999-11-01

    Test reactors are unique in that the core configuration may change with each operating interval. The process of safety analyses for test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Test Reactor Area has evolved as the computing capabilities, software, and regulatory requirements have changed. The evaluations for experiments and the reactor have moved from measurements in a set configuration and then application to other configurations with a relatively large error to modeling in three-dimensions and explicit analyses for each experiment and operating interval. This evolution is briefly discussed for the Test Reactor Area.

  13. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  14. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  15. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  16. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Bowman, G.C.; Moore, R.

    1990-06-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities have remained very small, each site at which nuclear activities are underway operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway where radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers or members of the public. This report presents data collected in 1989 for the routine environmental surveillance program conducted by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) of DOE and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site. The environmental surveillance program for the INEL and vicinity for 1989 included the collection and analysis of samples from potential exposure pathways. Three basic groups of samples were collected. Those collected within the INEL boundaries will be referred to as onsite samples. Samples collected outside, but near, the Site boundaries will be referred to as boundary samples or part of a group of offsite samples. Samples collected from locations considerably beyond the Site boundaries will be referred to as distant samples or part of the offsite group. With the exception of Craters of the Moon National Monument, the distant locations are sufficiently remote from the Site to ensure that detectable radioactivity is primarily due to natural background sources or sources other than INEL operations. 35 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Expansion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Research Center: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to expand and upgrade facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC) by constructing a research laboratory addition on the northeast corner of existing laboratory building; upgrading the fume hood system in the existing laboratory building; and constructing a hazardous waste handling facility and a chemical storage building. The DOE also proposes to expand the capabilities of biotechnology research programs by increasing use of radiolabeled compounds to levels in excess of current facility limits for three radionuclides (carbon-14, sulfur-35, and phosphorus-32). This Environmental assessment identifies the need for the new facilities, describes the proposed projects and environmental setting, and evaluates the potential environmental effects. Impacts associated with current operation are discussed and established as a baseline. Impacts associated with the proposed action and cumulative impacts are described against this background. Alternatives to the proposed action (No action; Locating proposed facilities at a different site) are discussed and a list of applicable regulations is provided. The no action alternative is continuation of existing operations at existing levels as described in Section 4 of this EA. Proposed facilities could be constructed at a different location, but these facilities would not be useful or practical since they are needed to provide a support function for IRC operations. Further, the potential environmental impacts would not be reduced if a different site was selected.

  18. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  19. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  20. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    In populated delta environments, it is impossible to separate human and natural systems. Human activities change the landscape by altering the dynamics of water and sediment and in return, humans themselves are affected by the natural and anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Such interactions can also have significant impacts on the ecology and natural resources of a delta system, affecting local and regional food supply, livelihoods, and economies, particularly in developing nations. Successful adaptation to environmental change in a strongly coupled human-natural system, such as the Bengal delta, requires understanding how the physical environment and the changing social, political, and economic conditions of people's lives interact. Research on human-delta interactions has largely focused on macro-scale effects from major dams, water diversions, and catchment-scale land use; but at the smaller scale of households and communities, decisions, actions, and outcomes may occur abruptly and have significant local impacts (positive or negative). Southwest Bangladesh experiences profound environmental problems at the local human-landscape interface, including groundwater salinity, soil fertility, conflicting land-use practices, management of engineering structures, and declining land-surface elevations. The impacts of climate-induced sea-level rise, especially with respect to population migration, receive great attention and concern, but neither sea level rise nor migration occurs against a background of static physical or human environments. For example, changing land use (e.g., building embankments, which affect drainage, sediment transport, and the evolution of tidal channels; and the transformation of rice fields to shrimp aquaculture, which affects soil chemistry, labor markets, river ecology, and possibly the integrity of embankments) can significantly change the impact that sea level rise will have on flood hazards and the resulting effect on people living on

  1. Impairments of cells and genomic DNA by environmentally transformed engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip; Sugino, Sakiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Lacy, Fred; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2013-09-01

    Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) encompassed in liposomes or not and transformed by simulated solar UV light can be model systems for studying the environmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells (H1650) are exposed to photoirradiated CdSe QDs or ZnO nanopowder included or not in liposomes. The release of cadmium and zinc ions from the nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation is detected and quantified by measuring the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence of the metal ion sensor tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin (TCPP) or the commercial Measure iT Pd/Cd sensor. Viability of cells treated with nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation for different durations is measured by MTT assay. Enhanced etching of the nanoparticles exposed to solar simulated UV radiation results in the release of toxic levels of heavy metal ions, which considerably lower the viability of H1650 cells is due to the deactivation of DNA repair enzymes as evidenced by the pinching off of nuclear DNA in comet assays and DNA samples in electrophoresis. Results from this study highlight the need to obtain not only quantitative information about the environmental risks posed by engineered nanomaterials but also environment friendly nanomaterials for practical applications.Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles

  2. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  3. Impairments of cells and genomic DNA by environmentally transformed engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Sugino, Sakiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Lacy, Fred; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2013-10-21

    Enormous increase in the production of nanomaterials and their growing applications in the device technology, biotechnology and biomedical areas suggest the need for developing models for predicting the environmental health and safety (EHS) risks posed by such nanomaterials. We hypothesize that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) encompassed in liposomes or not and transformed by simulated solar UV light can be model systems for studying the environmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells (H1650) are exposed to photoirradiated CdSe QDs or ZnO nanopowder included or not in liposomes. The release of cadmium and zinc ions from the nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation is detected and quantified by measuring the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence of the metal ion sensor tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin (TCPP) or the commercial Measure iT Pd/Cd sensor. Viability of cells treated with nanomaterials exposed to solar simulated UV radiation for different durations is measured by MTT assay. Enhanced etching of the nanoparticles exposed to solar simulated UV radiation results in the release of toxic levels of heavy metal ions, which considerably lower the viability of H1650 cells is due to the deactivation of DNA repair enzymes as evidenced by the pinching off of nuclear DNA in comet assays and DNA samples in electrophoresis. Results from this study highlight the need to obtain not only quantitative information about the environmental risks posed by engineered nanomaterials but also environment friendly nanomaterials for practical applications. PMID:23868511

  4. Influences of use activities and waste management on environmental releases of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Henning; Hackmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Till; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; von Gleich, Arnim

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) offer enhanced or new functionalities and properties that are used in various products. This also entails potential environmental risks in terms of hazard and exposure. However, hazard and exposure assessment for ENM still suffer from insufficient knowledge particularly for product-related releases and environmental fate and behavior. This study therefore analyzes the multiple impacts of the product use, the properties of the matrix material, and the related waste management system (WMS) on the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) by applying nine prospective life cycle release scenarios based on reasonable assumptions. The products studied here are clothing textiles treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), since they constitute a controversial application. Surprisingly, the results show counter-intuitive increases by a factor of 2.6 in PEC values for the air compartment in minimal AgNP release scenarios. Also, air releases can shift from washing to wearing activity; their associated release points may shift accordingly, potentially altering release hot spots. Additionally, at end-of-life, the fraction of AgNP-residues contained on exported textiles can be increased by 350% when assuming short product lifespans and globalized WMS. It becomes evident that certain combinations of use activities, matrix material characteristics, and WMS can influence the regional PEC by several orders of magnitude. Thus, in the light of the findings and expected ENM market potential, future assessments should consider these aspects to derive precautionary design alternatives and to enable prospective global and regional risk assessments. PMID:25728395

  5. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: review of modeling and analytical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO2) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. PMID:23856352

  6. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory institutional plan -- FY 2000--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    In this first institutional plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus its efforts on three strategic thrusts: (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R and D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemicals from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EMs environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex--the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NEs needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this institutional plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this institutional plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  7. Rapid Detection of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples by Using Engineered Reporter Phages.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Natasha J; Molineux, Ian J; Page, Martin A; Schofield, David A

    2016-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, was utilized as a bioterrorism agent in 2001 when spores were distributed via the U.S. postal system. In responding to this event, the Federal Bureau of Investigation used traditional bacterial culture viability assays to ascertain the extent of contamination of the postal facilities within 24 to 48 h of environmental sample acquisition. Here, we describe a low-complexity, second-generation reporter phage assay for the rapid detection of viableB. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The assay uses an engineered B. anthracis reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-2) which transduces bioluminescence to infected cells. To facilitate low-level environmental detection and maximize the signal response, expression of luxABin an earlier version of the reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-1) was optimized. These alterations prolonged signal kinetics, increased light output, and improved assay sensitivity. Using Wβ::luxAB-2, detection of B. anthracis spores was 1 CFU in 8 h from pure cultures and as low as 10 CFU/g in sterile soil but increased to 10(5)CFU/g in unprocessed soil due to an unstable signal and the presence of competing bacteria. Inclusion of semiselective medium, mediated by a phage-expressed antibiotic resistance gene, maintained signal stability and enabled the detection of 10(4)CFU/g in 6 h. The assay does not require spore extraction and relies on the phage infecting germinating cells directly in the soil sample. This reporter phage displays promise for the rapid detection of low levels of spores on clean surfaces and also in grossly contaminated environmental samples from complex matrices such as soils. PMID:26873316

  8. The Role of Chemistry in the AgroEnvironmental Engineering Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    The basic sciences in general and chemistry in particular play an important role in the training of students in the new degree of Agro-Environmental Engineering. A redefinition of the objectives at higher education, which is the process of European Convergence, implies a profound change in the approach to the traditional teaching. The schema change: teaching content, matter is the centre and technical training to teach to learn, the student is the centre and to comprehensive training, assumes that students should acquire not only the specific knowledge of its specialty, but also numerous capabilities and skills. This work is a study of the various subjects based in chemistry, their contents, teaching methodologies, specific and transversal competences that provide and interrelationships with other subjects of this degree.

  9. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  10. Pre-engineering Spaceflight Validation of Environmental Models and the 2005 HZETRN Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Dachev, Ts. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Walker, Steven A.; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been identified by NASA for engineering design in the next phase of space exploration highlighting a return to the Moon in preparation for a Mars mission. In response, a new series of algorithms beginning with 2005 HZETRN, will be issued by correcting some prior limitations and improving control of propagated errors along with established code verification processes. Code validation processes will use new/improved low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental models with a recently improved International Space Station (ISS) shield model to validate computational models and procedures using measured data aboard ISS. These validated models will provide a basis for flight-testing the designs of future space vehicles and systems of the Constellation program in the LEO environment.

  11. Compliance program data management system for The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory/Environmental Protection Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, C.L.; Poloski, J.P.; Bates, R.A.; Van Haaften, D.H.; Shea, J.P.; Fritz, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Compliance Program Data Management System (DMS) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) validates and maintains the integrity of data collected to support the Consent Order and Compliance Agreement (COCA) between the INEL and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The system uses dBase III Plus programs and dBase III Plus in an interactive mode to enter, store, validate, manage, and retrieve analytical information provided on EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) forms and CLP forms modified to accommodate 40 CFR 264 Appendix IX constituent analyses. Data analysis and presentation is performed utilizing SAS, a statistical analysis software program. Archiving of data and results is performed at appropriate stages of data management. The DMS is useful for sampling and analysis programs where adherence to EPA CLP protocol, along with maintenance and retrieval of waste site investigation sampling results is desired or requested. 3 refs.

  12. Case study: a decade of changes in a small environmental engineering graduate program.

    PubMed

    Leung, S W

    2004-01-01

    For a small graduate program in environmental engineering in a rural state in the US, it is important for the program curriculum to stay in the mainstream. While resident student enrollment is approaching a steady level, international student enrollment increases steadily, this is due in part to the out-of-state tuition waiver provided to the students. Part-time students are a significant part of the program, these students have special needs that are different from traditional full-time students that must be taken into consideration in program planning. A small program provides an attentive atmosphere for students' learning, but it also has problems that a larger program would not encounter, such as competitiveness, personal conflicts, program identity, etc. Despite success in the past, the program is likely to merge with other related programs in the university during times of budget restrictions. PMID:15193104

  13. Modulating conductivity, environmental stability of transparent conducting nanotube films on flexible substrates by interfacial engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Joong Tark; Kim, Jun Suk; Jeong, Hae Deuk; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2010-08-24

    We have characterized the previously undescribed parameters for engineering the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films for technological applications. First, the interfacial tension between bare SWCNT network films and a top coating passivation material was shown to dictate the variability of the films' sheet resistance (R(s)) after application of the top coating. Second, the electrical stability of the coated SWCNT films was affected by the mismatch between the CTE of the supporting substrate and the SWCNT network film. An upshift in the Raman G-band spectrum of SWCNTs on bare PET suggested that compressive strain was induced by the CTE mismatch after heating and cooling. These findings provide important guidelines for the choice of substrate and passivation coating materials that promote environmental stability in SWCNT-based transparent conductive films. PMID:20731438

  14. Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot Environmental Information Engines: A Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    We conduct numerical simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the environmental order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.

  15. RH-TRU Waste Characterization by Acceptable Knowledge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, C.; Givens, C.; Bhatt, R.; Whitworth, J.

    2003-02-24

    Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is conducting an effort to characterize approximately 620 drums of remote-handled (RH-) transuranic (TRU) waste currently in its inventory that were generated at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) between 1971 and 1995. The waste was generated at the AGHCF during the destructive examination of irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins, targets, and other materials from reactor programs at ANL-West (ANL-W) and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors. In support of this effort, Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure (formerly IT Corporation) developed an acceptable knowledge (AK) collection and management program based on existing contact-handled (CH)-TRU waste program requirements and proposed RH-TRU waste program requirements in effect in July 2001. Consistent with Attachments B-B6 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) and th e proposed Class 3 permit modification (Attachment R [RH-WAP] of this permit), the draft AK Summary Report prepared under the AK procedure describes the waste generating process and includes determinations in the following areas based on AK: physical form (currently identified at the Waste Matrix Code level); waste stream delineation; applicability of hazardous waste numbers for hazardous waste constituents; and prohibited items. In addition, the procedure requires and the draft summary report contains information supporting determinations in the areas of defense relationship and radiological characterization.

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  17. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  18. Environmental, health, and safety effects of engineered nanomaterials: challenges and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Howard

    2010-04-01

    The number of technologies and consumer products that incorporate engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has grown rapidly. Indeed, ENMs such as carbon nanotubes and nano-silver, are revolutionizing many commercial technologies and have already been incorporated into more than 800 commercial products, including polymer composites, cell phone batteries, sporting equipment and cosmetics. The global market for ENMs has grown steadily from 7.5 billion in 2003 to 12.7 billion in 2008. Over the next five years, their market value is expected to exceed $27 billion. This surge in demand has been responsible for a corresponding increase in the annual production rates of ENMs. For example, Bayer anticipates that single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT) production rates will reach 3,000 tons/yr by 2012. Inevitably, some of these synthetic materials will enter the environment either from incidental release during manufacture and transport, or following use and disposal. Consequently, intense scientific research is now being directed towards understanding the environmental, health and safety (EHS) risks posed by ENMs. I will highlight some of the key research challenges and needs in this area, include (i) developing structure-property relationships that will enable physicochemical properties of ENMs to be correlated with environmentally relevant behavior (e.g. colloidal properties, toxicity), (ii) determining the behavior of nanoproducts, and (iii) developing analytical techniques capable of detecting and quantifying the concentration of ENMs in the environment.

  19. Floodplain mesocosm system for studying environmental fate and effects of engineered nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Steinmetz, Zacharias; Metreveli, George; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Bundschuh, Mirco; Baumann, Thomas; Schulz, Ralf; Lang, Friederike; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R.; Manz, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINPs) will undergo chemical and physical transformation processes. The fate, ecotoxicological potential, and mobility of EINPs in environmental compartments will be influenced predominantly by their aging and current speciation status. In order to understand the aging mechanisms and impact of ENP transformations on their distribution and bioavailability in real environmental systems, mesocosm studies can be helpful. The INTERNANO floodplain mesocosm links aquatic and terrestrial aging phases in one system and has been conceived as near-natural test system to evaluate and further develop process understanding on aging and functioning of EINP in the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. The mesocosm system is run with a pulse input function of EINP in order to investigate the response of the chemical, physico-chemical and biological systems over time. Immission into the soil system is performed via flooding events. The system is run with natural river water, natural repacked soil but with quartz sand as sediment phase. Convective water exchange between soil and aquatic compartments occurs at high water level. On this poster, we will present the design of the mesocosm system together with first findings on fate and biological effects of silver nanoparticles.

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  1. A modular cell-based biosensor using engineered genetic logic circuits to detect and integrate multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

    2013-02-15

    Cells perceive a wide variety of cellular and environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate particular phenotypic responses. Here, we employ both single and mixed cell type populations, pre-programmed with engineered modular cell signalling and sensing circuits, as processing units to detect and integrate multiple environmental signals. Based on an engineered modular genetic AND logic gate, we report the construction of a set of scalable synthetic microbe-based biosensors comprising exchangeable sensory, signal processing and actuation modules. These cellular biosensors were engineered using distinct signalling sensory modules to precisely identify various chemical signals, and combinations thereof, with a quantitative fluorescent output. The genetic logic gate used can function as a biological filter and an amplifier to enhance the sensing selectivity and sensitivity of cell-based biosensors. In particular, an Escherichia coli consortium-based biosensor has been constructed that can detect and integrate three environmental signals (arsenic, mercury and copper ion levels) via either its native two-component signal transduction pathways or synthetic signalling sensors derived from other bacteria in combination with a cell-cell communication module. We demonstrate how a modular cell-based biosensor can be engineered predictably using exchangeable synthetic gene circuit modules to sense and integrate multiple-input signals. This study illustrates some of the key practical design principles required for the future application of these biosensors in broad environmental and healthcare areas. PMID:22981411

  2. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  3. Introducing a Transdisciplinary Approach in Studies regarding Risk Assessment and Management in Educational Programs for Environmental Engineers and Planners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menoni, Scira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how long term risk prevention and civil protection may enter in university programs for environmental engineers and urban and regional planners. Design/methodology/approach: First the distinction between long term risk prevention and emergency preparedness is made, showing that while the first has…

  4. Adsorption of Oxy-Anions in the Teaching Laboratory: An Experiment to Study a Fundamental Environmental Engineering Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Bullough, Florence; Moffat, Chris; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Teh, Micheal; Vilar, Ramon; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesizing and testing bicomposite adsorbents for the removal of environmentally problematic oxy-anions is high on the agenda of research-led universities. Here we present a laboratory module successfully developed at Imperial College London that introduces the advanced undergraduate student in engineering (chemical, civil, earth) and science…

  5. Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Nancy J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Dewoolkar, Mandar M.; Neumann, Maureen D.; Lathem, Sandra; Sadek, Adel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: "A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects") and some of the effects of these changes on…

  6. A Technique of Two-Stage Clustering Applied to Environmental and Civil Engineering and Related Methods of Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, S.; Nakayama, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of two-stage clustering of literature based on citation frequency is applied to 5,065 articles from 57 journals in environmental and civil engineering. Results of related methods of citation analysis (hierarchical graph, clustering of journals, multidimensional scaling) applied to same set of articles are compared. Ten references are…

  7. Value engineering as applied at the Savannah River Site for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.J.; Morgenstern, M.R.; Richardson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Value Engineering (VE) has been defined as the organized study of functions which satisfy the user's needs at the lowest life cycle costs through applied creativity. VE was established in the World War II era when Mr. Lawrence Miles formed the concept of intentionally substituting materials to perform the function of more expensive standard materials. Since that time, VE has spread throughout the Department of Defense procurement agencies, and has in recent times been applied to almost every government agency. DOE Order 4040.1 states the policy to establish VE programs and use VE, where appropriate, to reduce nonessential costs and improve productivity for Departmental Elements. The order states that these VE programs shall, at a minimum, provide for the management and procurement practices as required by the OMB Circular A-131. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the prime DOE contractor at the Savannah River Site (SRS), has adopted a policy of applying Value Engineering to all major projects with a Total Estimated Cost (TEC) of $10 million or greater. Projects of a lesser TEC may also have VE studies performed if management has determined that a significant potential exists for cost savings and/or cost avoidance. Within the Environmental Restoration (ER) Department, many of the groundwater remediation and waste site closure project represent individual projects that make up an overall SRS requirement to meet Federal RCRA or CERCLA clean up requirements. Many of these individual projects are not initially considered for VE studies because they never reach the $10 million TEC level. Because many remediation projects are duplicated throughout the site, there is a large potential for cross-link savings throughout the site.

  8. Value engineering as applied at the Savannah River Site for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.J.; Morgenstern, M.R.; Richardson, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Value Engineering (VE) has been defined as the organized study of functions which satisfy the user`s needs at the lowest life cycle costs through applied creativity. VE was established in the World War II era when Mr. Lawrence Miles formed the concept of intentionally substituting materials to perform the function of more expensive standard materials. Since that time, VE has spread throughout the Department of Defense procurement agencies, and has in recent times been applied to almost every government agency. DOE Order 4040.1 states the policy to establish VE programs and use VE, where appropriate, to reduce nonessential costs and improve productivity for Departmental Elements. The order states that these VE programs shall, at a minimum, provide for the management and procurement practices as required by the OMB Circular A-131. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the prime DOE contractor at the Savannah River Site (SRS), has adopted a policy of applying Value Engineering to all major projects with a Total Estimated Cost (TEC) of $10 million or greater. Projects of a lesser TEC may also have VE studies performed if management has determined that a significant potential exists for cost savings and/or cost avoidance. Within the Environmental Restoration (ER) Department, many of the groundwater remediation and waste site closure project represent individual projects that make up an overall SRS requirement to meet Federal RCRA or CERCLA clean up requirements. Many of these individual projects are not initially considered for VE studies because they never reach the $10 million TEC level. Because many remediation projects are duplicated throughout the site, there is a large potential for cross-link savings throughout the site.

  9. Modeling approaches for characterizing and evaluating environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials in support of risk-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Lowry, Michael; Grieger, Khara D; Money, Eric S; Johnston, John M; Wiesner, Mark R; Beaulieu, Stephen M

    2013-02-01

    As the use of engineered nanomaterials becomes more prevalent, the likelihood of unintended exposure to these materials also increases. Given the current scarcity of experimental data regarding fate, transport, and bioavailability, determining potential environmental exposure to these materials requires an in depth analysis of modeling techniques that can be used in both the near- and long-term. Here, we provide a critical review of traditional and emerging exposure modeling approaches to highlight the challenges that scientists and decision-makers face when developing environmental exposure and risk assessments for nanomaterials. We find that accounting for nanospecific properties, overcoming data gaps, realizing model limitations, and handling uncertainty are key to developing informative and reliable environmental exposure and risk assessments for engineered nanomaterials. We find methods suited to recognizing and addressing significant uncertainty to be most appropriate for near-term environmental exposure modeling, given the current state of information and the current insufficiency of established deterministic models to address environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials. PMID:23293982

  10. Environmental surveillance for EG&G Idaho Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.; Borsella, B.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1993 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of EG&G Idaho, Inc., performed at EG&G Idaho operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1993 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  11. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  12. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  13. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Elzey, Sherrie; Johnson, Ronald; Park, Heaweon; Grassian, Vicki H; Maher, Tabitha; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    that airborne nanoparticles in this facility are dominated by "incidental" sources (e.g., welding or grinding), and that the airborne "engineered" product is predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometers. The methods presented here are applicable to any occupational or environmental setting in which one needs to distinguish incidental sources from engineered product. PMID:19034793

  14. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  15. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  16. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate that airborne nanoparticles in this facility are dominated by "incidental" sources (e.g., welding or grinding), and that the airborne "engineered" product is predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometers. The methods presented here are applicable to any occupational or environmental setting in which one needs to distinguish incidental sources from engineered product. PMID:19034793

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  18. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  19. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  1. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagnier, Don; Hayner, Rick; Roza, Michael; Nosek, Thomas; Razzaghi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric science instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments that will be flown on the Aura s p a c m and of the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA's Earth Observing System @OS) Program missions managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the spacecraft and instrument command and data handling (C&DH) subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during (and not before) the flight hardware integration phase can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The testing successfully surfaced problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule time. This approach could be used on future environmental satellite programs involving multiple, complex scientific instruments being integrated onto a bus.

  2. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  3. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  4. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for calendar Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Moore, R.; Shaw, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1990 indicate that most radioactivity from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) operations could not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEL Site. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during Site operations, concentrations and doses to the surrounding population were of no health consequence and were far less than State of Idaho and Federal health protection guidelines. The first section of the report summarizes Calendar Year 1990 and January 1 through April 1, 1991, INEL activities related to compliance with environmental regulations and laws. The balance of the report describes the surveillance program, the collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations and offsite boundary and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results and discusses implications, if any. Nonradioactive and radioactive effluent monitoring at the Site, and the US Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water monitoring program are also summarized. 33 refs., 18 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-01-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

  6. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.

  7. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report -- Fourth Quarter, Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, F.L.

    1999-02-01

    This document provides a report of an analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of Calendar Year (CY-98) and is the annual report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  8. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.

  9. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radiological control performance indicator report. Third quarter, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document provides a report and analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the third quarter of calendar year 1997 (CY-97) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under the direction of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation exposure goal (deep dose) has been revised from 137 person-rem to 102.465 person-rem. Aggressive application of ALARA protective measures has resulted in a 66.834 person-rem deep dose compared to projected third quarter goal of 85.5 person-rem. Dose savings at the ICPP Tank Farm and rescheduling of some of the ROVER work account for most of the difference in the goal and actual dose year to date. Work at the ICPP Tank farm has resulted in about 14 rem dose savings. The RWMC has also reduced exposure by moving waste to new temporary storage facilities well ahead of schedule.

  11. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to pubic access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians. PMID:10330305

  12. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt Core Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Colello; J. J. Rosentreter; R. C. Bartholomay; M. J. Liszewski

    1998-12-01

    Strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) were measured for 24 basalt core samples collected from selected sites at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The measurements were made to help assess the variability of strontium Kd's as part of an ongoing investigation of strontium transport properties through geologic materials at the INEEL. The investigation is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were used to measure Kd's of basalt core samples using an aqueous solution representative of wastewater in waste-disposal ponds at the INEEL. Calculated strontium Kd's of the 24 basalt core samples ranged from 3.6{+-}1.3 to 29.4{+-}1.6 milliliters per gram. These results indicate a narrow range of variability in the strontium sorptive capacities of basalt relative to those of the sedimentary materials at the INEEL. The narrow range of the basalt Kd's can be attributed to physical and chemical properties of the basalt, and to compositional changes in the equilibrated solutions after being mixed with the basalt. The small Kd's indicate that basalt is not a major contributor in preventing the movement of strontium-90 in solution.

  13. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  14. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

    2000-09-01

    Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and

  15. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total

  16. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 2: Design definition document and environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  17. Harnessing the Environmental Professional Expertise of Engineering Students--The Course: "Environmental Management Systems in the Industry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Ayal, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    More and more technical universities now advocate integrating sustainability in higher education and including it as a strategic goal for improving education's quality and relevance to society. This study examines 30 fourth-year chemical engineering students, graduates of a university course designed to combine their terminological domain with…

  18. Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Swen O

    2002-08-01

    Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

  19. Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.

    2002-05-10

    Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

  20. Replacement of environmentally hazardous corrosion protection paints on the space shuttle main engine using wire arc sprayed aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.L.; Sanders, H.L.; Mendrek, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting hazardous emissions, environmentally safe thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against pitting corrosion leading to stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. Coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test, cryogenic flexibility and thermal cycle test results will be presented. Wire arc sprayed aluminum is proving to provide corrosion protection in cryogenic aerospace applications.

  1. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Two types of projects in the spent nuclear fuel and environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described. These are: foreseeable proposed projects where some funding for preliminary planning and/or conceptual design may already be authorized, but detailed design or planning will not begin until the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act process for the project have been completed; planned or ongoing projects not yet completed but whose National Environmental Policy Act documentation is already completed or is expected to be completed before the Record of Decision for this Envirorunental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. The section on project summaries describe the projects (both foreseeable proposed and ongoing).They provide specific information necessary to analyze the environmental impacts of these projects. Chapter 3 describes which alternative(s) each project supports. Summaries are included for (a) spent nuclear fuel projects, (b) environmental remediation projects, (c) the decontamination and decommissioning of surplus INEL facilities, (d) the construction, upgrade, or replacement of existing waste management facilities, (e) infrastructure projects supporting waste management activities, and (f) research and development projects supporting waste management activities.

  2. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  3. Short-Term and Long-Term Technology Needs/Matching Status at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Claggett

    1999-12-01

    This report identifies potential technology deployment opportunities for the Environmental Management (EM) programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The focus is on identifying candidates for Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) proposals within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The 86 technology needs on the Site Technology Coordination Group list were verified in the field. Six additional needs were found, and one listed need was no longer required. Potential technology matches were identified and then investigated for applicability, maturity, cost, and performance. Where promising, information on the technologies was provided to INEEL managers for evaluation. Eleven potential ASTD projected were identified, seven for near-term application and four for application within the next five years.

  4. Active learning in forensic science using Brownfield Action in a traditional or hybrid course in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat (2), J.

    2009-04-01

    Brownfield Action (BA - http://www.brownfieldaction.org) is a web-based, interactive, three-dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collaboratively to explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA is being used in the United States at 10 colleges and universities in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences undergraduate and graduate courses. As a semester-long activity or done in modular form for specific topics, BA encourages active learning that requires attention to detail, intuition, and positive interaction between peers that results in Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments. Besides use in higher education courses, BA also can be adapted for instruction to local, state, and federal governmental employees, and employees in industry where brownfields need to be investigated or require remediation.

  5. Environmental management practices and engineering science: a review and typology for future research.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, Konstantinos I; Allan, Stuart; Jones, Keith; Nikolaou, Ioannis E

    2014-04-01

    Current literature describes a number of environmental management practices and cleaner production methods that facilitate different industrial sectors to address their various environmental impacts. The high number of present practices makes their use especially difficult and complicated. This paper aims to shed light on this field by providing a typology of those environmental management practices (such as environmental management systems, environmental indicators assessment methodologies, and cleaner productions methods) and their limitations. It also describes the strengths and weaknesses of using such tools and thoughts for future research. PMID:24243581

  6. Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage - An Irish case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Peter; Morrissey, Patrick; O'Mahony, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the displacement of harmful emissions from internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) tailpipes to the sources of electricity generation used to charge electric vehicles (EV). The degree to which EVs can reduce the environmental impacts of road transportation is dependent on the fuel mix of electricity generation within a country and on the real-time charging behaviours of EV users since the fuel mix of electricity generation frequently changes. This paper analyses the varying environmental impacts of EVs based on contrasting user behaviours and compares them to the environmental impacts of ICEVs. Individual EV user profiles are developed which comprise real data emerging from charge events undertaken in Ireland, and information is gathered on the actual CO2 intensity of the electrical grid in real-time, allowing for the carbon intensity of every individual charge event to be determined using time and date information. The results show that the environmental impacts of EVs are highly influenced by the charging behaviours of individual users, and night-time charging was found to produce the largest environmental impact. EVs are shown to be a more environmentally friendly choice of vehicle than ICEVs under a wide majority of scenarios.

  7. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  8. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Chen, S-Y; Parker, F. L.; Phillips, A. M.; Tripp, J. L.; Meservey, R. H.

    2000-09-22

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, ``Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' contains provisions pertinent to releasing potentially radioactive materials from DOE facilities for reuse or recycle. A process of authorized release for materials recovered from radiation areas is permitted under Order 5400.5 and the proposed rule in Title 10, Part 834, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 834). A generic disposition protocol to facilitate release of concrete under these provisions has been developed. This report analyzes the application of that generic protocol to site-specific cases at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The potential radiological doses and costs for several concrete disposition alternatives for the sewage treatment plant (STP) at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) of INEEL were evaluated in this analysis. Five disposition alternatives were analyzed for the concrete: (A) decontaminate, crush, and reuse; (B) crush and reuse without decontamination; (C) decontaminate, demolish, and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill; (D) demolish and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill without decontamination; and (E) demolish and dispose of at a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) facility. The analysis was performed for disposition of concrete from four INEEL structures: (1) trickle filter, (2) primary clarifier, (3) secondary clarifier, and (4) CFA-691 pumphouse for a generic case (based on default parameters from the disposition protocol) and an INEEL-specific case (based on INEEL-specific parameters). The results of the analysis indicated that Alternatives B and D would incur the lowest cost and result in a dose less than 1 mrem/yr (except for the trickle filter, the dose for which was estimated at 1.9 mrem/yr) for nonradiological workers. The analysis indicated that the main contributor to the radiological dose would be cobalt-60 contamination in the concrete. A characterization conducted

  9. An investigation of engineering and environmental concerns relating to proposed highway construction in a karst terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. A.; Balfour, W. M.

    1993-12-01

    modifications to this construction proposal based on the engineering and environmental problems at this site.

  10. Metabolic engineering of bacteria for environmental applications: construction of Pseudomonas strains for biodegradation of 2-chlorotoluene.

    PubMed

    Haro, M A; de Lorenzo, V

    2001-02-13

    In this article, we illustrate the challenges and bottlenecks in the metabolic engineering of bacteria destined for environmental bioremediation, by reporting current efforts to construct Pseudomonas strains genetically designed for degradation of the recalcitrant compound 2-chlorotoluene. The assembled pathway includes one catabolic segment encoding the toluene dioxygenase of the TOD system of Pseudomonas putida F1 (todC1C2BA), which affords the bioconversion of 2-chlorotoluene into 2-chlorobenzaldehyde by virtue of its residual methyl-monooxygenase activity on o-substituted substrates. A second catabolic segment encoded the entire upper TOL pathway from pWW0 plasmid of P. putida mt-2. The enzymes, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (encoded by xylB) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (xylC) of this segment accept o-chloro-substituted substrates all the way down to 2-chlorobenzoate. These TOL and TOD segments were assembled in separate mini-Tn5 transposon vectors, such that expression of the encoded genes was dependent on the toluene-responsive Pu promoter of the TOL plasmid and the cognate XylR regulator. Such gene cassettes (mini-Tn5 [UPP2] and mini-Tn5 [TOD2]) were inserted in the chromosome of the 2-chlorobenzoate degraders Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA142 and P. aeruginosa JB2. GC-MS analysis of the metabolic intermediates present in the culture media of the resulting strains verified that these possessed, not only the genetic information, but also the functional ability to mineralise 2-chlorotoluene. However, although these strains did convert the substrate into 2-chlorobenzoate, they failed to grow on 2-chlorotoluene as the only carbon source. These results pinpoint the rate of the metabolic fluxes, the non-productive spill of side-metabolites and the physiological control of degradative pathways as the real bottlenecks for degradation of certain pollutants, rather than the theoretical enzymatic and genetic fitness of the recombinant bacteria to the process. Choices to

  11. Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; McLeod, C; Ma, R; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, F; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Zischka, M; Pettersson, C; Wass, U; Luna, M; Saenz, J C; Santamaría, J

    2002-09-16

    A comparison of platinum-group element (PGE) emission between gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters is reported within this work. Whole raw exhaust fumes from four catalysts of three different types were examined during their useful lifetime, from fresh to 80,000 km. Two were gasoline engine catalysts (Pt-Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh), while the other two were diesel engine catalysts (Pt). Samples were collected following the 91441 EUDC driving cycle for light-duty vehicle testing, and the sample collection device used allowed differentiation between the particulate and soluble fractions, the latter being the most relevant from an environmental point of view. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (quadrupole and high resolution), and special attention was paid to the control of spectral interference, especially in the case of Pd and Rh. The results obtained show that, for fresh catalysts, the release of particulate PGE through car exhaust fumes does not follow any particular trend, with a wide range (one-two orders of magnitude) for the content of noble metals emitted. The samples collected from 30,000-80,000 km present a more homogeneous PGE release for all catalysts studied. A decrease of approximately one order of magnitude is observed with respect to the release from fresh catalysts, except in the case of the diesel engine catalyst, for which PGE emission continued to be higher than in the case of gasoline engines. The fraction of soluble PGE was found to represent less than 10% of the total amount released from fresh catalysts. For aged catalysts, the figures are significantly higher, especially for Pd and Rh. Particulate PGE can be considered as virtually biologically inert, while soluble PGE forms can represent an environmental risk due to their bioavailability, which leads them to accumulate in the environment. PMID:12398337

  12. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  13. Hydropower and Environmental Resource Assessment (HERA): a computational tool for the assessment of the hydropower potential of watersheds considering engineering and socio-environmental aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, T. M.; Kelman, R.; Metello, M.; Ciarlini, A.; Granville, A. C.; Hespanhol, P.; Castro, T. L.; Gottin, V. M.; Pereira, M. V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The hydroelectric potential of a river is proportional to its head and water flows. Selecting the best development alternative for Greenfield projects watersheds is a difficult task, since it must balance demands for infrastructure, especially in the developing world where a large potential remains unexplored, with environmental conservation. Discussions usually diverge into antagonistic views, as in recent projects in the Amazon forest, for example. This motivates the construction of a computational tool that will support a more qualified debate regarding development/conservation options. HERA provides the optimal head division partition of a river considering technical, economic and environmental aspects. HERA has three main components: (i) pre-processing GIS of topographic and hydrologic data; (ii) automatic engineering and equipment design and budget estimation for candidate projects; (iii) translation of division-partition problem into a mathematical programming model. By integrating an automatic calculation with geoprocessing tools, cloud computation and optimization techniques, HERA makes it possible countless head partition division alternatives to be intrinsically compared - a great advantage with respect to traditional field surveys followed by engineering design methods. Based on optimization techniques, HERA determines which hydro plants should be built, including location, design, technical data (e.g. water head, reservoir area and volume, engineering design (dam, spillways, etc.) and costs). The results can be visualized in the HERA interface, exported to GIS software, Google Earth or CAD systems. HERA has a global scope of application since the main input data area a Digital Terrain Model and water inflows at gauging stations. The objective is to contribute to an increased rationality of decisions by presenting to the stakeholders a clear and quantitative view of the alternatives, their opportunities and threats.

  14. Construction of an environmental safe Bacillus thuringiensis engineered strain against Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yajun; Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-05-01

    Cloning of new toxic genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and construction of Bt engineered strains are two key strategies for bio-control of coleopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. In this study, we cloned a new cry3Aa-type gene, cry3Aa8, from wild Bt strain YC-03 against coleopteran, and constructed a Bt engineered strain, ACE-38, containing insecticidal protein-encoding gene cry3Aa8. The engineered strain, with almost four times of Cry3Aa yield compared with strain YC-03, was an antibiotic marker-free strain. Though no selective pressure was presented in the medium, cry3Aa8 in the engineered strain ACE-38 remained stable. The yield of Cry3Aa by strain ACE-38 reached 2.09 mg/ml in the optimized fermentation medium. The activity of strain ACE-38 against Plagiodera versicolora was tested, and the LC50 of ACE-38 cultures in the optimized fermentation medium was 1.13 μl/ml. Strain ACE-38 is a non-antibiotic Bt engineered strain with high Chrysomelidae toxicity and exhibits good fermentation property. The modified indigenous site-specific recombination system constructed in this study might be useful for the construction of Bt engineered strains containing genes that cannot be expressed in the indigenous site-specific recombination system using plasmid pBMB1205R. PMID:26767987

  15. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  16. Geomatics contents: vertical coordination efforts within a new environmental engineering degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino-de-Miguel, Silvia; Solana-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Elena-Rosselló, Ramón; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    We are at the fourth year from starting a new degree in Natural Environmental Engineering (NEED) at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). After three complete years, almost all the essential courses in the degree have been taught and it is time to summarize and check for any inconsistencies, gaps and overlaps. All the analyses are being carried out within a vertical coordination program that is required according to the rules imposed by the Spanish National Agency for Accreditation and Quality Assessment (ANECA) for official studies at University. Besides, in this case, a vertical coordination effort it is needed since this is a 4-year new degree never given in Spain before. Ideally, we will be able to detect any malfunctioning and make the required changes. Up to now, coordination efforts have been done in the frame of all the courses within a semester but never in the frame of the whole degree. The former were mainly horizontal coordination works, which have been carried out by six different commissions (one per semester), with the main objective of temporally coordinate teaching activities (including field trips), exams, and deliveries of essays and practical works. However, few efforts have been done in a thematic or vertical sense. The main objectives of the vertical coordination program are: (i) to make a diagnosis of the degree of thematic, the thematic schedule and temporal reliability of all the courses as a whole within NEED, (ii) to reveal any possible malfunctioning that should be taken into account and solve as soon as possible, and (iii) to monitor during the next two years the way all the proposed changes will be implemented and the expected results. The present work shows some results concerning the first of the given objectives with special focus on all the courses related to geomatics contents. The first objective was to make a diagnosis of the degree of thematic and temporal reliability of all the courses with geomatics contents as a whole

  17. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  18. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O'Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  19. Measurement of Sedimentary Interbed Hydraulic Properties and Their Hydrologic Influence near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2003-01-01

    Disposal of wastewater to unlined infiltration ponds near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the formation of perched water bodies in the unsaturated zone (Cecil and others, 1991). The unsaturated zone at INEEL comprises numerous basalt flows interbedded with thinner layers of coarse- to fine-grained sediments and perched ground-water zones exist at various depths associated with massive basalts, basalt-flow contacts, sedimentary interbeds, and sediment-basalt contacts. Perched ground water is believed to result from large infiltration events such as seasonal flow in the Big Lost River and wastewater discharge to infiltration ponds. Evidence from a large-scale tracer experiment conducted in 1999 near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), approximately 13 km from the INTEC, indicates that rapid lateral flow of perched water in the unsaturated zone may be an important factor in contaminant transport at the INEEL (Nimmo and others, 2002b). Because sedimentary interbeds, and possibly baked-zone alterations at sediment-basalt contacts (Cecil and other, 1991) play an important role in the generation of perched water it is important to assess the hydraulic properties of these units.

  20. Convert Ten Foot Environmental Test Chamber into an Ion Engine Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanVelzer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The 10 Foot Space Simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been used for the last 40 years to test numerous spacecraft, including the Ranger series, several Mariner class, among many others and finally, the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Rovers. The request was made to convert this facility to an Ion Engine test facility, with a possible long term life test. The Ion engine was to propel the Prometheus spacecraft to Jupiter's moons. This paper discusses the challenges that were met, both from a procedural and physical standpoint. The converted facility must operate unattended, support a 30 Kw Ion Engine, operate economically, and be easily converted back to former operation as a spacecraft test facility.

  1. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing: Examples of applications to the study of environmental and engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Marino, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The availability of a new aerial survey capability carried out by the CNR/LARA (National Research Council - Airborne Laboratory for the Environmental Research) by a new spectroradiometer AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) on board a CASA 212/200 aircraft, enable the scientists to obtain innovative data sets, for different approach to the definitions and the understanding of a variety of environmental and engineering problems. The 102 MIVIS channels spectral bandwidths are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. In such configuration MIVIS can offer significant contributions to problem solving in wide sectors such as geologic exploration, agricultural crop studies, forestry, land use mapping, idrogeology, oceanography and others. LARA in 1994-96 has been active over different test-sites in joint-venture with JPL, Pasadena, different European Institutions and Italian University and Research Institutes. These aerial surveys allow the national and international scientific community to approach the use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in environmental problems of very large interest. The sites surveyed in Italy, France and Germany include a variety of targets such as quarries, landfills, karst cavities areas, landslides, coastlines, geothermal areas, etc. The deployments gathered up to now more than 300 GBytes of MIVIS data in more than 30 hours of VLDS data recording. The purpose of this work is to present and to comment the procedures and the results at research and at operational level of the past campaigns with special reference to the study of environmental and engineering problems.

  2. Future Land Use and Concerns About the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: A Survey of Urban Dwellers.

    PubMed

    Burger; Roush; Wartenberg; Gochfeld

    1999-11-01

    / We examined environmental concerns and future land-use preferences of 487 people attending the Boise River Festival in Boise, Idaho, USA, about the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). We were particularly interested in the perceptions of urban dwellers living at some distance from the facility, since attitudes and perceptions are usually examined for people living near such facilities. More than 50% of the people were most worried about contamination and about waste storage and transport, another 23% were concerned about human health and accidents and spills, and the rest listed other concerns such as jobs and the economy or education. When given a list of possible concerns, accidents and spills, storage of current nuclear materials, and storage of additional nuclear materials were rated the highest. Thus both open-ended and structured questions identified nuclear storage and accidents and spills as the most important concerns, even for people living far from a DOE site. The highest rated future land uses were: National Environmental Research Park, recreation (including hiking, camping, fishing and hunting), and returning the land to the Shoshone-Bannock tribes; the lowest rated future land uses were homes and increased nuclear waste storage. These relative rankings are similar to those obtained for other Idahoans living closer to the site and for people living near the Savannah River Site, another DOE facility in South Carolina. The concern expressed about accidents and spills and waste storage translated into a desire not to see additional waste brought to INEEL and a low rating for using INEEL for building homes.KEY WORDS: Future land use; Perceptions; Recreation; Hazardous waste; Department of Energy; Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n4p532.html

  3. Hostile environmental conditions facing candidate alloys for the automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The materials research program in support of the Automotive Stirling Engine Project focuses on the hot heater head of the engine including the heater head tubes, cylinders, and regenerator housings, which are considered to be the most critical components from a materials viewpoint. The specific areas of investigation in the program involve hydrogen permeability testing, doping of the hydrogen working fluid to reduce permeability rates, oxidation/corrosion studies, creep-rupture evaluation, and assessing effects of hydrogen environment on mechanical properties. Emphasis is placed on the materials challenges that result from the use of hydrogen as the working fluid. Previously announced in STAR as N81-26236

  4. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (AEERL) PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides detailed procedures for EPA/AEERL's Level 1 terrestrial bioassays. (Some test methods designated for AEERL's Level 1 environmental assessment biological testing program are sufficiently new that little or no published literature is available describing specifi...

  6. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space.

  7. Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (TiO(2), ZnO, Ag, CNT, Fullerenes) for different regions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sonderer, Tobias; Scholz, Roland W; Nowack, Bernd

    2009-12-15

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are already used in many products and consequently released into environmental compartments. In this study, we calculated predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) based on a probabilistic material flow analysis from a life-cycle perspective of ENM-containing products. We modeled nano-TiO(2), nano-ZnO, nano-Ag, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and fullerenes for the U.S., Europe and Switzerland. The environmental concentrations were calculated as probabilistic density functions and were compared to data from ecotoxicological studies. The simulated modes (most frequent values) range from 0.003 ng L(-1) (fullerenes) to 21 ng L(-1) (nano-TiO(2)) for surface waters and from 4 ng L(-1) (fullerenes) to 4 microg L(-1) (nano-TiO(2)) for sewage treatment effluents. For Europe and the U.S., the annual increase of ENMs on sludge-treated soil ranges from 1 ng kg(-1) for fullerenes to 89 microg kg(-1) for nano-TiO(2). The results of this study indicate that risks to aquatic organisms may currently emanate from nano-Ag, nano-TiO(2), and nano-ZnO in sewage treatment effluents for all considered regions and for nano-Ag in surface waters. For the other environmental compartments for which ecotoxicological data were available, no risks to organisms are presently expected. PMID:20000512

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  9. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  10. A Preliminary Thesaurus of Environmental Engineering Terms for an Individual Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Joni K.

    Wastewater treatment, microbiology, biochemistry, and engineering are the major subject areas covered in this preliminary thesaurus designed for use in a private information retrieval system. The thesaurus was developed through meetings where each descriptor was discussed, necessary scope notes were written, definition and cross references were…

  11. Postgraduate Programmes on Environmental Water Resources Engineering and Management in Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latinopoulos, Pericles; Angelidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The management of complex water problems is nowadays being practised through new ways and approaches. Therefore, water engineers, planners and managers should be appropriately educated through modern undergraduate curricula and by well-designed postgraduate specialisation programmes. Within this framework, a study of the specific characteristics…

  12. The Role of Environmental Engineering Education in Sustainable Development in Iran: AUT Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, M. R. Alavi; Taher-shamsi, A.; Maknoun, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explain the strategies and activities of a main technical University in Iran (Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT)) toward sustainable development goals. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, three main strategies of AUT to achieve sustainable developments goals in engineering education are explained.…

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 15-day continuous emission monitoring for a 1,500 kW (2000 hp) gas-fired, four-stroke turbocharged reciprocating engine equipped with an ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 15-day continuous emission monitoring for a 1,500 kW (2000 hp) gas-fired, four-stroke turbocharged reciprocating engine equipped with an ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH NONSELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes results from testing a rich-burn reciprocating internal combustion engine retrofitted with a nonselective catalytic reduction system for NOx reduction. A comprehensive test program was performed to characterize catalyst inlet and outlet organic and...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH NONSELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes results from testing a rich-burn reciprocating internal combustion engine retrofitted with a nonselective catalytic reduction system for NOx reduction. A comprehensive test program was performed to characterize catalyst inlet and outlet organic and...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  18. COMPARATIVE IN VITRO PULMONARY TOXICITY OF ENGINEERED, MANUFACTURED, AND ENVIRONMENTAL NANOPARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials display many unique physicochemical properties for a variety of applications and due to their novel propertiesapplications may have unique routes of exposure and toxicity. This study examines the: 1) ability of the MTT assay to generate false positives or...

  19. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  20. Using the National Environmental Policy Act to Fight Wildland Fires on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-06-01

    -makers can manage wildland fires and evaluate the trade-offs between management activities such as pre-fire, suppression, and post-fire activities. In addition, the paper compares the potential impact of each fire management activity on air, water, wildlife/habitat, and cultural resources. Finally, we describe the choices facing the decision-makers, how to implement the decisions, and the role the environmental assessment played in those decisions.

  1. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  2. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A.

    2002-01-16

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  3. Impact of environmental inputs on reverse-engineering approach to network structures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Uncovering complex network structures from a biological system is one of the main topic in system biology. The network structures can be inferred by the dynamical Bayesian network or Granger causality, but neither techniques have seriously taken into account the impact of environmental inputs. Results With considerations of natural rhythmic dynamics of biological data, we propose a system biology approach to reveal the impact of environmental inputs on network structures. We first represent the environmental inputs by a harmonic oscillator and combine them with Granger causality to identify environmental inputs and then uncover the causal network structures. We also generalize it to multiple harmonic oscillators to represent various exogenous influences. This system approach is extensively tested with toy models and successfully applied to a real biological network of microarray data of the flowering genes of the model plant Arabidopsis Thaliana. The aim is to identify those genes that are directly affected by the presence of the sunlight and uncover the interactive network structures associating with flowering metabolism. Conclusion We demonstrate that environmental inputs are crucial for correctly inferring network structures. Harmonic causal method is proved to be a powerful technique to detect environment inputs and uncover network structures, especially when the biological data exhibit periodic oscillations. PMID:19961587

  4. Waste Characterization Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) on the proposed construction and operation of a Waste Characterization Facility (WCF) at INEL. This facility is needed to examine and characterize containers of transuranic (TRU) waste to certify compliance with transport and disposal criteria; to obtain information on waste constituents to support proper packaging, labeling, and storage; and to support development of treatment and disposal plans for waste that cannot be certified. The proposed WCF would be constructed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) requirements in 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, the EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed WCF and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  6. Environmental cues to guide stem cell fate decision for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Alsberg, Eben; von Recum, Horst A; Mahoney, Melissa J

    2006-09-01

    The human body contains a variety of stem cells capable of both repeated self-renewal and production of specialised, differentiated progeny. Critical to the implementation of these cells in tissue engineering strategies is a thorough understanding of which external signals in the stem cell microenvironment provide cues to control their fate decision in terms of proliferation or differentiation into a desired, specific phenotype. These signals must then be incorporated into tissue regeneration approaches for regulated exposure to stem cells. The precise spatial and temporal presentation of factors directing stem cell behaviour is extremely important during embryogenesis, development and natural healing events, and it is possible that this level of control will be vital to the success of many regenerative therapies. This review covers existing tissue engineering approaches to guide the differentiation of three disparate stem cell populations: mesenchymal, neural and endothelial. These progenitor cells will be of central importance in many future connective, neural and vascular tissue regeneration technologies. PMID:16918253

  7. Risk perception, future land use and stewardship: comparison of attitudes about Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Sanchez, J; Roush, D; Gochfeld, M

    2001-04-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating mission, future land use and stewardship of departmental facilities. This paper compares the environmental concerns and future use preferences of 351 people interviewed at Lewiston, Idaho, about the Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), two of DOE's largest sites. Although most subjects lived closer to Hanford than INEEL, most resided in the same state as INEEL. Therefore their economic interests might be more closely allied with INEEL, while their health concerns might be more related to Hanford. Few lived close enough to either site to be directly affected economically. We test the null hypotheses that there are no differences in environmental concerns and future land-use preferences as a function of DOE site, sex, age and education. When asked to list their major concerns about the sites, more people listed human health and safety, and environmental concerns about Hanford compared to INEEL. When asked to list their preferred future land uses, 49% of subjects did not have any for INEEL, whereas only 35% did not know for Hanford. The highest preferred land uses for both sites were as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP), and for camping, hunting, hiking, and fishing. Except for returning the land to the tribes and increased nuclear storage, subjects rated all future uses as more preferred at INEEL than Hanford. Taken together, these data suggest that the people interviewed know more about Hanford, are more concerned about Hanford, rate recreational uses and NERP as their highest preferred land use, and feel that INEEL is more suited for most land uses than Handford. Overall rankings for future land uses were remarkably similar between the sites, indicating that for these stakeholders, DOE lands should be preserved for research and recreation. These preferences should be taken into account when planning for long-term stewardship at

  8. Environmental (Saprozoic) Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Major waterborne (enteric) pathogens are relatively well understood and treatment controls are effective when well managed. However, water-based, saprozoic pathogens that grow within engineered water systems (primarily within biofilms/sediments) cannot be controlled by water treatment alone prior to entry into water distribution and other engineered water systems. Growth within biofilms or as in the case of Legionella pneumophila, primarily within free-living protozoa feeding on biofilms, results from competitive advantage. Meaning, to understand how to manage water-based pathogen diseases (a sub-set of saprozoses) we need to understand the microbial ecology of biofilms; with key factors including biofilm bacterial diversity that influence amoebae hosts and members antagonistic to water-based pathogens, along with impacts from biofilm substratum, water temperature, flow conditions and disinfectant residual—all control variables. Major saprozoic pathogens covering viruses, bacteria, fungi and free-living protozoa are listed, yet today most of the recognized health burden from drinking waters is driven by legionellae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and, to a lesser extent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In developing best management practices for engineered water systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) or water safety plan (WSP) approaches, multi-factor control strategies, based on quantitative microbial risk assessments need to be developed, to reduce disease from largely opportunistic, water-based pathogens. PMID:26102291

  9. Environmental (Saprozoic) Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management.

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Major waterborne (enteric) pathogens are relatively well understood and treatment controls are effective when well managed. However, water-based, saprozoic pathogens that grow within engineered water systems (primarily within biofilms/sediments) cannot be controlled by water treatment alone prior to entry into water distribution and other engineered water systems. Growth within biofilms or as in the case of Legionella pneumophila, primarily within free-living protozoa feeding on biofilms, results from competitive advantage. Meaning, to understand how to manage water-based pathogen diseases (a sub-set of saprozoses) we need to understand the microbial ecology of biofilms; with key factors including biofilm bacterial diversity that influence amoebae hosts and members antagonistic to water-based pathogens, along with impacts from biofilm substratum, water temperature, flow conditions and disinfectant residual-all control variables. Major saprozoic pathogens covering viruses, bacteria, fungi and free-living protozoa are listed, yet today most of the recognized health burden from drinking waters is driven by legionellae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and, to a lesser extent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In developing best management practices for engineered water systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) or water safety plan (WSP) approaches, multi-factor control strategies, based on quantitative microbial risk assessments need to be developed, to reduce disease from largely opportunistic, water-based pathogens. PMID:26102291

  10. Environmental parameters influence non-viral transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    King, William J; Kouris, Nicholas A; Choi, Siyoung; Ogle, Brenda M; Murphy, William L

    2012-03-01

    Non-viral transfection is a promising technique that could be used to increase the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The purpose of this study was to explore practical culture parameters of relevance in potential human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) clinical and tissue engineering applications, including type of polycationic transfection reagent, N/P ratio and dose of polycation/pDNA polyplexes, cell passage number, cell density and cell proliferation. The non-viral transfection efficiency was significantly influenced by N/P ratio, polyplex dose, cell density and cell passage number. hMSC culture conditions that inhibited cell division also decreased transfection efficiency, suggesting that strategies to promote hMSC proliferation may be useful to enhance transfection efficiency in future tissue engineering studies. Non-viral transfection treatments influenced hMSC phenotype, including the expression level of the hMSC marker CD105 and the ability of hMSCs to differentiate down the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The parameters found here to promote hMSC transfection efficiency, minimize toxicity and influence hMSC phenotype may be instructive in future non-viral transfection studies and tissue engineering applications. PMID:22277991

  11. Environmental parameters influence non-viral transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    King, William J.; Kouris, Nicholas A.; Choi, Siyoung; Ogle, Brenda M.; Murphy, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-viral transfection is a promising technique which could be used to increase the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The purpose of this study was to explore practical culture parameters of relevance in potential human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) clinical and tissue engineering applications, including type of polycationic transfection reagent, N/P ratio and dose of polycation/pDNA polyplexes, cell passage number, cell density, and cell proliferation. The non-viral transfection efficiency was significantly influenced by N/P ratio, polyplex dose, cell density, and cell passage number. hMSC culture conditions that inhibited cell division also decreased transfection efficiency, suggesting that strategies to promote hMSC proliferation may be useful to enhance transfection efficiency in future tissue engineering studies. Non-viral transfection treatments influenced hMSC phenotype, including the expression level of the hMSC marker CD105, and the ability of hMSCs to differentiate down the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The parameters found here to promote hMSC transfection efficiency, minimize toxicity, and influence hMSC phenotype may be instructive in future non-viral transfection studies and tissue engineering applications. PMID:22277991

  12. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general theory known as the Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. The theory defines indexes that characterize the generation and the output of potential environm...

  13. Bringing Environmental Sustainability to Undergraduate Engineering Education: Experiences in an Inter-Disciplinary Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurandt, Jennifer; Borchers, Andrew Scott; Lynch-Caris, Terri; El-Sayed, Jacqueline; Hoff, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This paper chronicles the development of an interdisciplinary course in environmentally conscious design at Kettering University, a technologically focused Midwestern university. Funded by the National Science Foundation, a team of six faculty members at Kettering University adapted work done by Ford Motor Company to educate undergraduate STEM…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: POLLUTION PREVENTION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMBUSTION ENGINE PISTON RINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  15. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  17. MODEL ENGINEERING CONCEPTS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS IN AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models 3 is an extensible environmental modeling system designed to meet the research and regulatory needs of the EPA and other users into the twenty-first century. s such, it must deal with a number of problems. hese problems include (1) the scientific correctness, flexibility, ...

  18. Surface Engineering of Mo-Base Alloys for Elevated-Temperature Environmental Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepezko, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of robust coatings that provide protection against environmental attack at ultrahigh temperatures is a difficult challenge. To achieve this goal for Mo-base alloys, the fundamental concepts of reactive diffusion pathway analysis and kinetic biasing are used to design a multilayer Mo-Si-B-base coating with a phase sequencing that allows for structural and thermodynamic compatibility and an underlying diffusion barrier to maintain coating integrity. The coating design concepts have a general applicability. The coating structure evolution during high-temperature exposure facilitates a prolonged lifetime as well as self-healing capability. The borosilicide coatings that can be synthesized by a pack cementation process yield superior environmental resistance for Mo-base systems at temperatures up to at least 1,700°C and can be adapted to apply to other refractory metal and ceramic systems.

  19. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1994 for routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around INEL. EG&G conducted the onsite surveillance program January-- September; Lockheed Idaho conducted the program October--December. The offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Ground water monitoring (both on and off site) was performed by USGS. This report presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. It includes collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations and offsite boundary and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results to federal regulations and standards.

  20. Review of the progress in preparing nano TiO2: an important environmental engineering material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; He, Yiming; Lai, Qinghua; Fan, Maohong

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial is promising with its high potential and outstanding performance in photocatalytic environmental applications, such as CO2 conversion, water treatment, and air quality control. For many of these applications, the particle size, crystal structure and phase, porosity, and surface area influence the activity of TiO2 dramatically. TiO2 nanomaterials with special structures and morphologies, such as nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoflowers are thus synthesized due to their desired characteristics. With an emphasis on the different morphologies of TiO2 and the influence factors in the synthesis, this review summarizes fourteen TiO2 preparation methods, such as the sol-gel method, solvothermal method, and reverse micelle method. The TiO2 formation mechanisms, the advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods, and the photocatalytic environmental application examples are proposed as well. PMID:25458670

  1. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  2. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  3. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  4. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay; J. J. Rosentreter

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  5. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  6. Bioactive and metal uptake studies of carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid membranes for tissue engineering and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Rajkumar, M; Freitas, H; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Nair, S V; Furuike, T; Tamura, H

    2009-08-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid (CMCS-g-D-GA) was prepared by grafting D-GA onto CMCS in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and then the membranes were made from it. In this work, the bioactivity studies of CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were carried out and then characterized by SEM, CLSM, XRD and FT-IR. The CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were found to be bioactive. The adsorption of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions onto CMCS-g-D-GA membranes has also been investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of CMCS-g-D-GA for Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ was found to be 57, 56.4 and 70.2 mg/g, respectively. Hence, these membranes were useful for tissue engineering, environmental and water purification applications. PMID:19409415

  7. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  8. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for management of defense transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The DOE is formulating a program for the long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results of environmental and other evaluations are presented for three decisions that the DOE is considering: (1) the selection of a general method for the long-term management of the buried TRU waste; (2) the selection of a method for processing the stored waste and for processing the buried waste, if it is retrieved; (3) the selection of a location for the waste-processing facility. Only contact-handled TRU waste buried in pits and trenches and the contact-handled TRU waste held in aboveground storage at the INEL are involved.

  9. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  10. Thermal-environmental testing of a 30-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental test program was carried out to document all 30-cm electron bombardment Hg ion bombardment thruster functions and characteristics over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. An engineering model thruster was placed in a thermal test facility equipped with -196 C walls and solar simulation. The thruster was cold soaked and exposed to simulated eclipses lasting in duration from 17 to 72 minutes. The thruster was operated at quarter, to full beam power in various thermal configurations which simulated multiple thruster operation, and was also exposed to 1 and 2 suns solar simulation. Thruster control characteristics and constraints; performance, including thrust magnitude and direction; and structural integrity were evaluated over the range of thermal environments tested.

  11. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  12. Minimizing the potential for nosocomial pneumonia: architectural, engineering, and environmental considerations for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    du Moulin, G

    1989-01-01

    The development of pneumonia in seriously ill patients remains an important concern of intensive care medicine. The design of the intensive care unit will have a direct effect upon the potential for infection. Persons involved in this design should consider engineering and architectural elements that will ultimately contribute to lower rates of infection. These include components to regulate the atmosphere, such as ventilation systems and temperature and humidity controls. Sources of contaminated water and the amplification mechanisms need to be addressed and minimized in the final designs. Architectural elements such as treatment space and lighting encourage optimal patient management and workable staffing patterns. Personnel who treat seriously ill patients should be part of the planning and design process in the construction and renovation of intensive care facilities. PMID:2495954

  13. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: its environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Wang, Zhenhong; Wei, Qunshan; Yan, Changzhou; Liu, Feng

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO(2) (Enano-TiO(2)) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO(2). In this study, Enano-TiO(2) was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO(2) particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S(max)). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO(2) particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO(2). Enano-TiO(2) would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO(2) and/or similar ENPs. PMID:21794978

  14. Engineering of air-stable Fe/C/Pd composite nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haham, Hai; Grinblat, Judith; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Stievano, Lorenzo; Margel, Shlomo

    2015-09-01

    The present manuscript presents a convenient method for the synthesis of iron/carbon (Fe/C) nanoparticles (NPs) coated with much smaller Pd NPs for the removal of halogenated organic pollutants. For this purpose, iron oxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone (IO/PVP) NPs were first prepared by the thermal decomposition of ferrocene mixed with PVP at 350 °C under an inert atmosphere. IO,Fe/C and Fe/C NPs coated with graphitic and amorphous carbon layers were then produced by annealing the IO/PVP NPs at 500 and 600 °C, respectively, under an inert atmosphere. The effect of the annealing temperature on the chemical composition, shape, crystallinity, surface area and magnetic properties of the IO/PVP, IO,Fe/C and Fe/C NPs has been elucidated. Air-stable Fe/C/Pd NPs were produced by mixing the precursor palladium acetate with the air-stable Fe/C NPs in ethanol. The obtained Fe/C/Pd NPs demonstrated significantly higher environmental activity than the Fe/C NPs on eosin Y, a model halogenated organic pollutant. The environmental activity of the Fe/C/Pd NPs also increased with their increasing Pd content.

  15. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Moore, R.; Bingham, L.

    1993-06-01

    The results of the various monitoring programs for 1992 indicate that most radioactivity from the INEL operations could not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEL Site. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during Site operations, concentrations and doses to the surrounding population were of no health consequence and were far less than State of Idaho and Federal health protection guidelines. The first section of the report summarizes INEL activities related to compliance with environmental regulations and laws for Calendar Year 1992 and January 1 through April 1, 1993. The major portion of the report summarizes results of the RESL environmental surveillance program, which includes the collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations, offsite boundary, and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results to appropriate Federal regulations and standards and discusses implications, if any. The USGS ground-water monitoring program is briefly summarized, and data from USGS reports are included in maps showing the spread of contaminants. Effluent monitoring and nonradiological drinking water monitoring performed by INEL contractors are discussed briefly, and data are summarized in tables.

  16. Workshop proceedings: Developing the scientific basis for long-term land management of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, T.D.; Reynolds, T.D.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1998-03-01

    Responses to a survey on the INEEL Comprehensive Facility and Land Use Plan (US DOE 1996a) indicated the need for additional discussion on environmental resources, disturbance, and land use issues on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result, in September 1997, a workshop evaluated the existing scientific basis and determined future data needs for long-term land management on the INEEL. This INEEL Long-Term Land Management Workshop examined existing data on biotic, abiotic, and heritage resources and how these resources have been impacted by disturbance activities of the INEEL. Information gained from this workshop will help guide land and facility use decisions, identify data gaps, and focus future research efforts. This report summarizes background information on the INEEL and its long-term land use planning efforts, presentations and discussions at the workshop, and the existing data available at the INEEL. In this document, recommendations for future INEEL land use planning, research efforts, and future workshops are presented. The authors emphasize these are not policy statements, but comments and suggestions made by scientists and others participating in the workshop. Several appendices covering land use disturbance, legal drivers, land use assumptions and workshop participant comments, workshop participants and contributors, and the workshop agenda are also included.

  17. Transportability of confined field trial data for environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered plants: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Hendley, Paul; Bigler, Franz; Mayeregger, Edgar; Parker, Ronald; Rubinstein, Clara; Satorre, Emilio; Solari, Fernando; McLean, Morven A

    2014-12-01

    It is commonly held that confined field trials (CFTs) used to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts of a genetically engineered (GE) plant should be conducted in each country where cultivation is intended, even when relevant and potentially sufficient data are already available from studies conducted elsewhere. The acceptance of data generated in CFTs "out of country" can only be realized in practice if the agro-climatic zone where a CFT is conducted is demonstrably representative of the agro-climatic zones in those geographies to which the data will be transported. In an attempt to elaborate this idea, a multi-disciplinary Working Group of scientists collaborated to develop a conceptual framework and associated process that can be used by the regulated and regulatory communities to support transportability of CFT data for environmental risk assessment (ERA). As proposed here, application of the conceptual framework provides a scientifically defensible process for evaluating if existing CFT data from remote sites are relevant and/or sufficient for local ERAs. Additionally, it promotes a strategic approach to identifying CFT site locations so that field data will be transportable from one regulatory jurisdiction to another. Application of the framework and process should be particularly beneficial to public sector product developers and small enterprises that develop innovative GE events but cannot afford to replicate redundant CFTs, and to regulatory authorities seeking to improve the deployment of limited institutional resources. PMID:24733670

  18. In situ depth profiling of 137Cs contamination in soils at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Christopher P; Giles, John R; Thompson, Kenneth C; Wells, Richard P

    2004-12-01

    Preremediation characterization of Cs contamination in soils was conducted at the Auxiliary Reactor Area (ARA)-23 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act site, located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Characterization activities included verification of the lateral extent of the contaminated area using the INEEL vehicle-mounted Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner. The vertical extent of the contamination in select areas of the site was evaluated with an in situ gamma-ray spectrometer, and depth discrete samples were collected at 5-cm depth intervals down to a depth of 20.3 cm. A comparison was made between the depth distribution data from the in situ spectrometric measurements and the physical, depth discrete samples. The results of the study and of the aforementioned comparison indicate that use of in situ high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors during the remediation of the ARA-23 site will aid in directing the depth of excavation, thereby helping to (a) minimize the amount of soils excavated and removed for disposal, and (b) reduce overall project costs. PMID:15545774

  19. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use. PMID:22783888

  20. Engineering light: advances in wavelength conversion materials for energy and environmental technologies.

    PubMed

    Cates, Ezra L; Chinnapongse, Stephanie L; Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-11-20

    Upconversion photoluminescence (UC) occurs in optical materials that are capable of absorbing low energy photons and emitting photons of higher energy and shorter wavelength, while downconversion (DC) materials may absorb one high energy photon and emit two of lower energy for quantum yields exceeding unity. These wavelength conversion processes allow us to transform electromagnetic radiation so it may be more effectively utilized by light-capturing devices and materials. Progress in designing more efficient organic and inorganic photochemical conversion systems has initiated a recent surge in attempts to apply these processes for practical uses, including enhancement of many energy and environmental technologies. In this review, we introduce important concepts in UC and DC materials and discuss the current status and challenges toward the application of wavelength conversion to solar cells, photocatalysis, and antimicrobial surfaces. PMID:23113803

  1. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  2. Future land use and concerns about the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: A survey of urban dwellers

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Roush, D.; Wartenberg, D.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-11-01

    The authors examined environmental concerns and future land-use preferences of 487 people attending the Boise River Festival in Boise, Idaho, USA, about the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (NEEL), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). They were particularly interested in the perceptions of urban dwellers living at some distance from the facility, since attitudes and perceptions are usually examined for people living near such facilities. More than 50% of the people were most worried about contamination and about waste storage and transport, another 23% were concerned about human health and accidents and spills, and the rest listed other concerns such as jobs and the economy of education. When given a list of possible concerns, accidents and spills, storage of current nuclear materials, and storage of additional nuclear materials were rated the highest. Thus both open-ended and structured questions identified nuclear storage and accidents and spills as the most important concerns, even for people living far from a DOE site. The highest rated future land used were National Environmental Research Park, recreation, and returning the land to the Shoshone-Bannock tribes; the lowest rated future land uses were homes and increased nuclear waste storage. These relative rankings are similar to those obtained for other Idahoans living closer to the site and for the people living near the Savannah River Site. The concern expressed about accidents and spills and waste storage translated into a desire not to see additional waste brought to INEEL and a low rating for using INEEL for building homes.

  3. Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Enrique; Baun, Anders; Behra, Renata; Hartmann, Nanna B; Filser, Juliane; Miao, Ai-Jun; Quigg, Antonietta; Santschi, Peter H; Sigg, Laura

    2008-07-01

    Developments in nanotechnology are leading to a rapid proliferation of new materials that are likely to become a source of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to the environment, where their possible ecotoxicological impacts remain unknown. The surface properties of ENPs are of essential importance for their aggregation behavior, and thus for their mobility in aquatic and terrestrial systems and for their interactions with algae, plants and, fungi. Interactions of ENPs with natural organic matter have to be considered as well, as those will alter the ENPs aggregation behavior in surface waters or in soils. Cells of plants, algae, and fungi possess cell walls that constitute a primary site for interaction and a barrier for the entrance of ENPs. Mechanisms allowing ENPs to pass through cell walls and membranes are as yet poorly understood. Inside cells, ENPs might directly provoke alterations of membranes and other cell structures and molecules, as well as protective mechanisms. Indirect effects of ENPs depend on their chemical and physical properties and may include physical restraints (clogging effects), solubilization of toxic ENP compounds, or production of reactive oxygen species. Many questions regarding the bioavailability of ENPs, their uptake by algae, plants, and fungi and the toxicity mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID:18461442

  4. Environmental and engineering effects of sinkholes - the processes behind the problems

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B.F. )

    1988-10-01

    Karstic erosion of the land surface is controlled by processes occurring in the epikarstic zone-the upper portion of the limestone which is most intensely dissolved. Sinkholes developing today are generally the effects of downward movement of mantling sediment into the major karren shafts which drain the epikarstic zone deeper into the true karstic aquifer. Dissolution of the limestone itself does not cause significant changes in man's time frame. The downward erosion of mantling sediment is termed ravelling. Only in uniform sediment will an arched cavity occur. In unconsolidated sediment which is stratified, lateral tunneling may even occur. Only the major karren can transmit sediment downward, the majority are ineffective. In mantled karst the location of surficial depressions and photo-linears does not necessarily correlate to areas of new collapse. The irregular and highly dissolved character of the epikarstic zone complicates foundation engineering. Downward drainage through this zone may be limited and cause flooding. An understanding of processes in the epikarstic zone is essential in developing on karst.

  5. Environmental assessment: Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to close the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). The WCF is a surplus DOE facility located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six facility components in the WCF have been identified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Ace (RCRA)-units in the INEL RCRA Part A application. The WCF is an interim status facility. Consequently, the proposed WCF closure must comply with Idaho Rules and Standards for Hazardous Waste contained in the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA) Section 16.01.05. These state regulations, in addition to prescribing other requirements, incorporate by reference the federal regulations, found at 40 CFR Part 265, that prescribe the requirements for facilities granted interim status pursuant to the RCRA. The purpose of the proposed action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment, and to comply with the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act (HWMA) requirements.

  6. Determination of enzyme thermal parameters for rational enzyme engineering and environmental/evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Monk, Colin R; Daniel, Roy M

    2013-01-01

    Of the two independent processes by which enzymes lose activity with increasing temperature, irreversible thermal inactivation and rapid reversible equilibration with an inactive form, the latter is only describable by the Equilibrium Model. Any investigation of the effect of temperature upon enzymes, a mandatory step in rational enzyme engineering and study of enzyme temperature adaptation, thus requires determining the enzymes' thermodynamic parameters as defined by the Equilibrium Model. The necessary data for this procedure can be collected by carrying out multiple isothermal enzyme assays at 3-5°C intervals over a suitable temperature range. If the collected data meet requirements for V max determination (i.e., if the enzyme kinetics are "ideal"), then the enzyme's Equilibrium Model parameters (ΔH eq, T eq, ΔG (‡) cat, and ΔG (‡) inact) can be determined using a freely available iterative model-fitting software package designed for this purpose.Although "ideal" enzyme reactions are required for determination of all four Equilibrium Model parameters, ΔH eq, T eq, and ΔG (‡) cat can be determined from initial (zero-time) rates for most nonideal enzyme reactions, with substrate saturation being the only requirement. PMID:23504427

  7. Reverse-engineering the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptional network under changing environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Javier; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular mechanisms plants have evolved to adapt their biological activities to a constantly changing environment is an intriguing question and one that requires a systems biology approach. Here we present a network analysis of genome-wide expression data combined with reverse-engineering network modeling to dissect the transcriptional control of Arabidopsis thaliana. The regulatory network is inferred by using an assembly of microarray data containing steady-state RNA expression levels from several growth conditions, developmental stages, biotic and abiotic stresses, and a variety of mutant genotypes. Results We show that the A. thaliana regulatory network has the characteristic properties of hierarchical networks. We successfully applied our quantitative network model to predict the full transcriptome of the plant for a set of microarray experiments not included in the training dataset. We also used our model to analyze the robustness in expression levels conferred by network motifs such as the coherent feed-forward loop. In addition, the meta-analysis presented here has allowed us to identify regulatory and robust genetic structures. Conclusions These data suggest that A. thaliana has evolved high connectivity in terms of transcriptional regulation among cellular functions involved in response and adaptation to changing environments, while gene networks constitutively expressed or less related to stress response are characterized by a lower connectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest conserved regulatory strategies that have been selected during the evolutionary history of this eukaryote. PMID:19754933

  8. Strategy for assessing the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of subseabed disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Talbert, D.M.; Reese, D.; Boyer, D.G.; Herrmann, H.; Kelly, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the strategy and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for possible disposal of both high-level waste and spent fuel. These have been developed through joint efforts of the Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Waste Isolation, the Sandia Technical Program Manager, the Technical Program Coordinators, the Advisory Group, and the Principal Investigators. Three subsections of this paper address the various components which make up the SDP strategy and management techniques. The first section summarizes the US DOE high-level waste and spent-fuel disposal program and the position that the SDP occupies within that program. The second section, the Subseabed Program Plan, addresses the technical and administrative tools which are employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP. The third section addresses the current studies and future plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be resolved before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases.

  9. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and demolish all of the remaining

  10. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Atmosphere Through Engineered Chemical Sinkage: Enabling Energy and Environmental Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Smith, W. S.; Colman, J.; Elliott, S.; Lackner, K.; Johnston, N. A.

    2002-05-01

    We present the case for carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction from air using engineered chemical sinks as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Existing carbon sequestration strategies such as CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean and mineral carbonation, require a pure stream of concentrated CO2 to be viable. Furthermore, current emphasis on reducing the global CO2 emissions is on large centralized power plants. However, more than half of all emissions are from the transportation sector and small, distributed sources such as home heating, etc. Most solutions for dealing with these sources explicitly or implicitly entail completely overhauling the existing infrastructure. To solve these problems, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conceived a novel approach for directly extracting CO2 from the atmosphere. Direct extraction converts the dilute CO2 (370 parts per million) in the atmosphere into a pure CO2 stream ready for permanent sequestration. It provides the following advantages: (1) Preserves our existing energy use and fuel distribution systems, which represent a large investment, (2) Indirectly captures CO2 from the myriad of small, distributed, and mobile sources that otherwise are not accessible to sequestration, (3) Allows atmospheric CO2 levels to be restored to their pre-industrial age value, (4) Provides free transport of CO2 to suitable sequestration sites by using natural atmospheric circulation, and (5) Is relatively compact and therefore inexpensive when compared to renewable concepts. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO2 to sites where the CO2 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. The bound CO2 is then recovered as pure gas by heating together with the solid adsorbent that is recycled. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts CO2 to a CaCO3 solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO2 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs

  11. Biomechanical effects of environmental and engineered particles on human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, P.; Park, C. Y.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Tsuda, A.; Sager, T. M.; Molina, R. M.; Donaghey, T. C.; Alencar, A. M.; Kasahara, D. I.; Ericsson, T.; Millet, E. J.; Swenson, J.; Tschumperlin, D. J.; Butler, J. P.; Brain, J. D.; Fredberg, J. J.; Gehr, P.; Zhou, E. H.

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant increases in combustion-generated ambient particles, which contain a nanosized fraction (less than 100 nm), and even greater increases have occurred in engineered nanoparticles (NPs) propelled by the booming nanotechnology industry. Although inhalation of these particulates has become a public health concern, human health effects and mechanisms of action for NPs are not well understood. Focusing on the human airway smooth muscle cell, here we show that the cellular mechanical function is altered by particulate exposure in a manner that is dependent upon particle material, size and dose. We used Alamar Blue assay to measure cell viability and optical magnetic twisting cytometry to measure cell stiffness and agonist-induced contractility. The eight particle species fell into four categories, based on their respective effect on cell viability and on mechanical function. Cell viability was impaired and cell contractility was decreased by (i) zinc oxide (40–100 nm and less than 44 μm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 50 nm); cell contractility was decreased by (ii) fluorescent polystyrene spheres (40 nm), increased by (iii) welding fumes and unchanged by (iv) diesel exhaust particles, titanium dioxide (25 nm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 5 μm), although in none of these cases was cell viability impaired. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide up to 500 μM did not alter viability or cell mechanics, suggesting that the particle effects are unlikely to be mediated by particle-generated reactive oxygen species. Our results highlight the susceptibility of cellular mechanical function to particulate exposures and suggest that direct exposure of the airway smooth muscle cells to particulates may initiate or aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:20356875

  12. Biomechanical effects of environmental and engineered particles on human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, P; Park, C Y; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Tsuda, A; Sager, T M; Molina, R M; Donaghey, T C; Alencar, A M; Kasahara, D I; Ericsson, T; Millet, E J; Swenson, J; Tschumperlin, D J; Butler, J P; Brain, J D; Fredberg, J J; Gehr, P; Zhou, E H

    2010-06-01

    The past decade has seen significant increases in combustion-generated ambient particles, which contain a nanosized fraction (less than 100 nm), and even greater increases have occurred in engineered nanoparticles (NPs) propelled by the booming nanotechnology industry. Although inhalation of these particulates has become a public health concern, human health effects and mechanisms of action for NPs are not well understood. Focusing on the human airway smooth muscle cell, here we show that the cellular mechanical function is altered by particulate exposure in a manner that is dependent upon particle material, size and dose. We used Alamar Blue assay to measure cell viability and optical magnetic twisting cytometry to measure cell stiffness and agonist-induced contractility. The eight particle species fell into four categories, based on their respective effect on cell viability and on mechanical function. Cell viability was impaired and cell contractility was decreased by (i) zinc oxide (40-100 nm and less than 44 microm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 50 nm); cell contractility was decreased by (ii) fluorescent polystyrene spheres (40 nm), increased by (iii) welding fumes and unchanged by (iv) diesel exhaust particles, titanium dioxide (25 nm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 5 microm), although in none of these cases was cell viability impaired. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide up to 500 microM did not alter viability or cell mechanics, suggesting that the particle effects are unlikely to be mediated by particle-generated reactive oxygen species. Our results highlight the susceptibility of cellular mechanical function to particulate exposures and suggest that direct exposure of the airway smooth muscle cells to particulates may initiate or aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:20356875

  13. Synthesis and surface engineering of magnetic nanoparticles for environmental cleanup and pesticide residue analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ranjeet; Hasan, Abshar; Iqbal, Nusrat; Alam, Samsul; Saini, Mahesh Kr; Raza, Syed Kalbe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, water pollution and pesticide accumulation in the food chain have become a serious environmental and health hazard problem. Direct determination of these contaminants is a difficult task due to their low concentration level and the matrix interferences. Therefore, an efficient separation and preconcentration procedure is often required prior to the analysis. With the advancement in nanotechnology, various types of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles have successfully been synthesized and received considerable attention as sorbents for decontamination of diverse matrices. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles with surface modifications have the advantages of large surface-area-to-volume ratio, high number of surface active sites, no secondary pollutant, and high magnetic properties. Due to their physicochemical properties, surface-modified magnetic core-shell nanoparticles exhibit high adsorption efficiency, high rate of removal of contaminants, and easy as well as rapid separation of adsorbent from solution via external magnetic field. Such facile separation is essential to improve the operation efficiency. In addition, reuse of nanoparticles would substantially reduce the treatment cost. In this review article, we have attempted to summarize recent studies that address the preconcentration methods of pesticide residue analysis and removal of toxic contaminants from aquatic systems using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles as adsorbents. PMID:24777942

  14. Engineering and Characterization of Collagen Networks Using Wet Atomic Force Microscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Jenna; Coffey, Tonya; Conrad, Brad; Burris, Jennifer; Hester, Brooke

    2014-03-01

    Collagen is an abundant protein and its monomers covalently crosslink to form fibrils which form fibers which contribute to forming macrostructures like tendon or bone. While the contribution is well understood at the macroscopic level, it is not well known at the fibril level. We wish to study the mechanical properties of collagen for networks of collagen fibers that vary in size and density. We present here a method to synthesize collagen networks from monomers and that allows us to vary the density of the networks. By using biotynilated collagen and a surface that is functionalized with avidin, we generate two-dimensional collagen networks across the surface of a silicon wafer. During network synthesis, the incubation time is varied from 30 minutes to 3 hours or temperature is varied from 25°C to 45°C. The two-dimensional collagen network created in the process is characterized using environmental atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The network density is measured by the number of strands in one frame using SPIP software. We expect that at body temperature (37°C) and with longer incubation times, the network density should increase.

  15. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    . Extensive reuse of treatment materials (>60 cycles), and utilization of less-purified starting materials (>90% cost reduction) highlight possible ways to reduce the cost of nanomaterial photocatalysis. By reducing financial implementation barriers, defining niches where photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.

  16. Development and application of human cell lines engineered to metabolically activate structurally diverse environmental mutagens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, C. I.; Langenbach, Robert; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.; Penman, B. W.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 are responsible for the mutagenic/carcinogenic activation of many environmental promutagens/procarcinogens. These enzymes are present at highest concentrations in liver in vivo but are markedly absent in tester organisms for most in vitro mutagenicity test systems. Two approaches have been used to supply needed metabolic activation, incorporation of an extracellular activating system, usually derived from a rodent liver and introduction of activating enzymes into the target cell. The latter approach appears to result in a more sensitive testing system because of the close proximity of the activating enzymes and the target DNA. Human cell lines have been developed which stably express human cytochromes P450 and other cDNAs which have been introduced individually or in combination. The resulting cell lines are exquisitely sensitive to exposure to promutagens and procarcinogens. Mutagenicity is measured at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and thymidine kinase (tk) gene loci. The most versatile cell line, designated MCL-5, stably express five cDNAs encoding all of the human hepatic P450s known to be principally responsible for known human procarcinogen activation. The induction of mutation is observed in MCL-5 cells upon exposure to ng/ml levels of model compounds such as nitrosamines, aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene. A lower volume mutagenicity assay has been developed for use with samples available in limited amounts. Human lymphoblast mutation assays have been used to screen for mutagenic activity sediment samples from a polluted watershed. Two sediment samples were found to have mutagenic activity to human lymphoblasts.

  17. Using Environmental Isotopes, Geochemistry, and Aquifer Temperature to Address Flow Regimes Within the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLing, T. L.; Smith, R. P.; Roback, R. C.; Elizabeth, J. G.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2002-12-01

    Beginning in 1997 a series of studies utilizing uranium and strontium isotopes were undertaken to characterize the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies identified fast flow and slow flow zones within the ESRP aquifer at the INEEL. The work presented here is the result of continued study to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. Especially the implications and origins of large-scale (10's of kilometers) slow flow zones located beneath the 2300 km2 site. Coupling strontium and uranium isotope data from water samples with regional temperature, geophysical, and geologic data has proven to be a robust way to investigate large-scale flow characteristics in the aquifer. Depth-temperature profiles show that effective aquifer thickness varies dramatically across the INEEL from less than 100-m to over 350-m. Isotopic ratios support the conclusion that the thinner portions of the aquifer are "slow flow" zones in which the residence time of groundwater in the rock matrix is sufficient to allow significant water rock interactions to take place. The "slow flow" zones may be zones of increased diagenesis and pore filling mineralization caused by large volumes of upwelling geothermal waters penetrating into the upper, conductive portion of the aquifer. Our current compilation of the large database of isotope, chemical, temperature, hydrologic, and geophysical data in a GIS format enables us to use 50 years of data collected from observation wells and regional surveys to increase our understanding of a complex fractured-rock aquifer

  18. Spatial variability of sedimentary interbed properties near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winfield, Kari A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is complex, comprised primarily of thick, fractured basalt flows interbedded with thinner sedimentary intervals. The unsaturated zone can be as thick as 200 m in the southwestern part of the INEEL. The Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP), located approximately 10 km southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), was established in 2001 to study the subsurface of a relatively undisturbed part of the INEEL. Waste percolation ponds for the INTEC were relocated to the VZRP due to concerns that perched water within the vadose zone under the original infiltration ponds (located immediately south of the INTEC) could contribute to migration of contaminants to the Snake River Plain aquifer. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of texture and hydraulic properties is important for developing a better understanding of subsurface flow processes within the interbeds, for example, by identifying low permeability layers that could lead to the formation of perched ground-water zones. Because particle-size distributions are easier to measure than hydraulic properties, particle size serves as an analog for determining how the unsaturated hydraulic properties vary both vertically within particular interbeds and laterally within the VZRP. As part of the characterization program for the subsurface at the VZRP, unsaturated and saturated hydraulic properties were measured on 10 core samples from six boreholes. Bulk properties, including particle size, bulk density, particle density, and specific surface area, were determined on material from the same depth intervals as the core samples, with an additional 66 particle- size distributions measured on bulk samples from the same boreholes. From lithologic logs of the 32 boreholes at the VZRP, three relatively thick interbeds (in places up to 10 m thick) were identified at depths of 35, 45, and 55 m below land surface. The 35-m

  19. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site: An Overview of History and Soil and Groundwater Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Lenhard; A. K. Yonk; P. M. Wright; J. Herzog

    2004-02-01

    In a remote site in eastern Idaho, now known as the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Site, the U.S. Government established a facility to test-fire naval gunnery during World War II. The mission after the war switched to development and demonstration of nuclear technology. For more than 50 yr, the site has been devoted to nuclear energy research. Because of the remote location of the site west of Idaho Falls, ID, wastes containing radioactive and hazardous materials were disposed to the subsurface. It was felt that any disposed materials would not travel downward through the vadose zone, which is 100 to 300 m thick, to the underlying Snake River Aquifer. However, some materials have traveled through the thick vadose zone and contaminated the aquifer. Other wastes were injected directly into the aquifer. To provide a general background for papers in this special issue of Vadose Zone Journal on research at the INEEL, we give a brief historical perspective of work conducted at the INEEL Site west of Idaho Falls and associated subsurface contamination issues. We furthermore give an overview of the research papers presented in this special issue.

  20. Mercury accumulation in snow on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and surrounding region, southeast Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.; Abbott, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Snow was sampled and analyzed for total mercury (THg) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and surrounding region prior to the start-up of a large (9-11 g/h) gaseous mercury emission source. The objective was to determine the effects of the source on local and regional atmospheric deposition of mercury. Snow samples collected from 48 points on a polar grid near the source had THg concentrations that ranged from 4.71 to 27.26 ng/L; snow collected from regional background sites had THg concentrations that ranged from 0.89 to 16.61 ng/L. Grid samples had higher concentrations than the regional background sites, which was unexpected because the source was not operating yet. Emission of Hg from soils is a possible source of Hg in snow on the INEEL. Evidence from Hg profiles in snow and from unfiltered/filtered split samples supports this hypothesis. Ongoing work on the INEEL is investigating Hg fluxes from soils and snow.

  1. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

  2. An approach for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference rules.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-01-01

    The usage of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products is relatively new and there is a need to conduct environmental risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate their impacts on the environment. However, alternative approaches are required for ERA of ENPs because of the huge gap in data and knowledge compared to conventional pollutants and their unique properties that make it difficult to apply existing approaches. This study aims to propose an ERA approach for ENPs by integrating Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference models which provide a systematic evaluation of risk factors and reducing uncertainty about the data and information, respectively. Risk is assumed to be the combination of occurrence likelihood, exposure potential and toxic effects in the environment. A hierarchy was established to evaluate the sub factors of these components. Evaluation was made with fuzzy numbers to reduce uncertainty and incorporate the expert judgements. Overall score of each component was combined with fuzzy inference rules by using expert judgements. Proposed approach reports the risk class and its membership degree such as Minor (0.7). Therefore, results are precise and helpful to determine the risk management strategies. Moreover, priority weights calculated by comparing the risk factors based on their importance for the risk enable users to understand which factor is effective on the risk. Proposed approach was applied for Ag (two nanoparticles with different coating) and TiO2 nanoparticles for different case studies. Results verified the proposed benefits of the approach. PMID:27131016

  3. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  4. Environmental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  6. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  7. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  8. Applications of neural networks in environmental and energy sciences and engineering. Proceedings of the 1995 workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings contain edited versions of the technical presentations of the Workshop on Environmental and Energy Applications of Neural Networks, held on March 30--31, 1995, in Richland, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for discussing environmental, energy, and biomedical applications of neural networks. Panels were held to discuss various research and development issues relating to real-world applications in each of the three areas. The applications covered in the workshop were: Environmental applications -- modeling and predicting soil, air and water pollution, environmental sensing, spectroscopy, hazardous waste handling and cleanup; Energy applications -- process monitoring and optimization of power systems, modeling and control of power plants, environmental monitoring for power systems, power load forecasting, fault location and diagnosis of power systems; and Biomedical applications -- medical image and signal analysis, medical diagnosis, analysis of environmental health effects, and modeling biological systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. [Microbiological quality of indoor air at the School of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology].

    PubMed

    Butarewicz, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of microbiological rate of indoor air pollution on Faculty of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology were made by sedimentation method in accordance with Polish standards (PN-89/Z-04111/01,02,03). Six series of measurements were carried out from autumn 2002 to spring 2003. The results show bad microbiological quality of indoor air on Faculty of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology. It was found that the number of Staphylococcus, Actinomycetales as well as the total count of bacteria were too high and broke the Polish regulations of the clear air. Because of the students' and other workers' safety, monitoring of microbiological pollution of the indoor air must be done and existing emergency to improve the quality of the air must be lead. PMID:16252812

  10. Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundholm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  12. The Use of Engineering Design Scenarios to Assess Student Knowledge of Global, Societal, Economic, and Environmental Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on…

  13. SURVIVAL AND ENUMERATION OF AEROSOLIZED AND FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED E. COLI, UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. p to 77% of a freeze-dried and air-exposed genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be res...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A SPARK-IGNITED LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume II of the report is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a large-bore, spark-ignited reciprocating engine and laboratory analyses of collected samples. The engine was tested in two operating modes: a baseline (normal) operation, and with incr...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A COMPRESSION IGNITION LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I of the report gives emission results from field tests of the exhaust gas from a large-bore, compression-ignition reciprocating engine burning diesel fuel. An objective of the tests was to evaluate the operating efficiency of the engine with combustion modification NOx co...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A COMPRESSION IGNITION LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume II of the report is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a large-bore, compression-ignition reciprocating engine burning diesel fuel. The engine was tested during two operating modes: at baseline (normal operation), and with fuel injection re...

  17. Assessing the Value-Added by the Environmental Testing Process with the Aide of Physics/Engineering of Failure Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S.; Gibbel, M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Code QT Test Effectiveness Program is funding a series of applied research activities focused on utilizing the principles of physics and engineering of failure and those of engineering economics to assess and improve the value-added by the various validation and verification activities to organizations.

  18. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  19. Characterizing Engineered Nanomaterials: From Environmental, Health and Safety Research to the Development of Shaped Nanosphere Lithography for Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.

    In this thesis two issues in nanotechnology have been addressed. The first is the comprehensive characterization of engineered nanomaterials prior to their examination in toxicology and environmental studies. The second is the development of a method to produce nanostructure arrays over large areas and for low cost. A major challenge when assessing nanomaterial’s risks is the robust characterization of their physicochemical properties, particularly in commercial products. Such data allows the critical features for biological outcomes to be determined. This work focused on the inorganic oxides that were studied in powdered and dispersed forms as well as directly in consumer sunscreen products. The most important finding was that the commercial sunscreens that listed titania or zinc oxide as ingredients contained nanoscale materials. Cell free photochemical tests revealed that ZnO particles without any surface coating were more active at generating ROS than surface coated TiO2 nanoparticles. These studies make clear the importance of exposure studies that examine the native form of nanomaterials directly in commercial products. The second part of this thesis presents the development of a new method to fabricate gold nanoring and nanocrescent arrays over large areas; such materials have unique optical properties consonant with those described as metamaterials. A new shaped nanosphere lithography approach was used to manipulate the form of silica nanospheres packed onto a surface; the resulting array of mushroom structures provided a mask that after gold evaporation and etching left either golden rings or crescents over the surface. The structures had tunable features, with outer diameters ranging from 200 to 350 nm for rings and crescent gap angles of ten to more than a hundred degrees. The use of a double mask method ensured the uniform coverage of these structured over 1 cm² areas. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the optical properties of the

  20. Vascular and micro-environmental influences on MSC-coral hydroxyapatite construct-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Wang, Qian; Gu, Congmin; Wu, Jingguo; Wang, Jian; Kang, Ning; Hu, Jiewei; Xie, Fang; Yan, Li; Liu, Xia; Cao, Yilin; Xiao, Ran

    2011-11-01

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has been demonstrated an effective approach to generate bone tissue and repair bone defect in ectopic and orthotopic sites. The strategy of using a prevascularized tissue-engineered bone grafts (TEBG) fabricated ectopically to repair bone defects, which is called live bone graft surgery, has not been reported. And the quantitative advantages of vascularization and osteogenic environment in promoting engineered bone formation have not been defined yet. In the current study we generated a tissue engineered bone flap with a vascular pedicle of saphenous arteriovenous in which an organized vascular network was observed after 4 weeks implantation, and followed by a successful repaire of fibular defect in beagle dogs. Besides, after a 9 months long term observation of engineered bone formation in ectopic and orthotopic sites, four CHA (coral hydroxyapatite) scaffold groups were evaluated by CT (computed tomography) analysis. By the comparison of bone formation and scaffold degradation between different groups, the influences of vascularization and micro-environment on tissue engineered bone were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that in the first 3 months vascularization improved engineered bone formation by 2 times of non-vascular group and bone defect micro-environment improved it by 3 times of ectopic group, and the CHA-scaffold degradation was accelerated as well. PMID:21855129

  1. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  2. Source-to-sink sediment transfers, environmental engineering and hazard mitigation in the steep Var River catchment, French Riviera, southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Julian, Maurice

    1999-12-01

    Steep coastal margins are potentially subject to mass wasting processes involving notable landslide activity and sediment evacuation downstream by steep-gradient streams. Sediment transfer from short source-to-sink segments, coupled with mountain hydrological regimes, regulate patterns of river channel aggradation and coastal sediment supply in such geomorphic settings. On the steep French Riviera margin, sediment transfers from existing landslides or from various minor mass wasting processes to stream channels may result following bursts of heavy, concentrated rainfall. High-magnitude flooding and massive sediment transport downstream are generally related to unpredictable extreme rainfalls. Both mass movements and channel sediment storage pose serious hazards to downvalley settlements and infrastructure. A consideration of channel sediment storage patterns in the Var River catchment, the most important catchment in this area, highlights two important shortcomings relative to environmental engineering and hazard mitigation practices. In the first place, the appreciation of geomorphic processes is rather poor. This is illustrated by the undersized nature of engineering works constructed to mitigate hazards in the upstream bedload-dominated channels, and by the unforeseen effects that ten rock dams, constructed in the early 1970s, have had on downstream and coastal sediment storage and on sediment dispersal patterns and, consequently, valley flooding. Secondly, planners and environmental engineers have lacked foresight in valley and coastal management issues on this steep setting, notably as regards the reclaimed areas of the lower Var channel and delta liable to flooding. Urbanization and transport and environmental engineering works have progressively affected patterns of storage and transport of fine-grained sediments in the lower Var channel and delta. Meanwhile the problems raised by these changes have not been adequately addressed in terms of scientific

  3. CO-EXISTING WITH ASBESTOS: A LOOK AT THE ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the strategy, accomplishments and current direction of a highly experienced engineering-control effort incorporating diversified monitoring and advanced analytical instrumentation directed primarily towards eliminating airborne asbestos emissions in buildings...

  4. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel. PMID:25704338

  5. Systems engineering approach to environmental risk management: A case study of depleted uranium at test area C-64, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, C.M.; Fortmann, K.M.; Hill, S.W.; Latin, R.M.; Masterson, E.J.

    1994-12-01

    Environmental restoration is an area of concern in an environmentally conscious world. Much effort is required to clean up the environment and promote environmentally sound methods for managing current land use. In light of the public consciousness with the latter topic, the United States Air Force must also take an active role in addressing these environmental issues with respect to current and future USAF base land use. This thesis uses the systems engineering technique to assess human health risks and to evaluate risk management options with respect to depleted uranium contamination in the sampled region of Test Area (TA) C-64 at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB). The research combines the disciplines of environmental data collection, DU soil concentration distribution modeling, ground water modeling, particle resuspension modeling, exposure assessment, health hazard assessment, and uncertainty analysis to characterize the test area. These disciplines are required to quantify current and future health risks, as well as to recommend cost effective ways to increase confidence in health risk assessment and remediation options.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES: MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA‘s Environmental Technology Verification program is designed to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost effective technologies. This is done by providing high-quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those in...

  7. Process Description and Operating History for the CPP-601/-640/-627 Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    E. P. Wagner

    1999-06-01

    The Fuel Reprocessing Complex (FRC) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the early 1950's until 1992. The reprocessing facilities are now scheduled to be deactivated. As part of the deactivation process, three Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units located in the complex must be closed. This document gathers the historical information necessary to provide a rational basis for the preparation of a comprehensive closure plan. Included are descriptions of process operations and the operating history of the FRC. A set of detailed tables record the service history and present status of the process vessels and transfer lines.

  8. Educating More Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Indicates that there will be a substantially increased demand for environmental engineers during the next few years, especially in the areas of water pollution control and sanitary engineering. Educators see the need for additional engineering graduates and for improved environmental training programs in schools. (JR)

  9. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-10-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed.

  10. Application of real-time radioscopy and digital imaging to the examination of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kurt L.; Stanley, Clifford J.

    1999-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex, located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), contains facilities and equipment to manage and characterize transuranic radioactive waste generated primarily at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Laboratory and currently stored at the INEEL. The facility, referred to as the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant, provides space for the systems that characterize and certify the various waste forms for shipping and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. This paper describes the processes and instrumentation used in the nondestructive examination of the TRU waste 55-gal drums.

  11. Appreciating the role of carbon nanotube composites in preventing biofouling and promoting biofilms on material surfaces in environmental engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2010-01-01

    The ability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to undergo surface modification allows them to form nanocomposites (NCs) with materials such as polymers, metal nanoparticles, biomolecules, and metal oxides. The biocidal nature, protein fouling resistance, and fouling release properties of CNT-NCs render them the perfect material for biofouling prevention. At the same time, the cytotoxicity of CNT-NCs can be reduced before applying them as substrates to promote biofilm formation in environmental biotechnology applications. This paper reviews the potential prospects of CNT-NCs to accomplish two widely varying objectives in environmental engineering applications: (i) preventing biofouling, and (ii) promoting the formation of desirable biofilms on materials surface. This paper addresses practical issues such as costs, risks to human health, and ecological impacts that are associated with the application, development and commercialization of CNT-NC technology. PMID:20599491

  12. The use of engineering design scenarios to assess student knowledge of global, societal, economic, and environmental contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-07-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on student attitudes and perceptions about engineering and abilities to extend and refine knowledge about broader contexts. Two design scenarios were created: one related to dental hygiene and one related to vaccination delivery. Design scenarios were used to (1) assess knowledge of broader contexts, and (2) test variability of student responses across different contextual situations. Results from pre- to post-surveying revealed improved student perceptions of knowledge of broader contexts. Significant differences were observed between the two design scenarios. The findings support the assumption that different design scenarios elicit consideration of different contexts and design scenarios can be constructed to target specific contextual considerations.

  13. Environmental microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues ranging from global climate changes to biocontrol of plant diseases. Many of its contributions stress how new technologies in areas such as molecular biology and environmental engineering expand understanding and applications of basic concepts in environmental microbiology. Articles in the book are in three basic subject areas: effects of environmental contamination on the role of microbes in geochemical cycling of the major elements, pathogens in the environment, and microbial activities in environmental management.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED TOXICITY TEST METHODS AND COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENGINEERED\\MANUFACTURED NANOPARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology represents a very enabling technology that has the potential of representing the next industrial revolution since it will provide technology that will impact commercial, environmental, security, consumer, and medical sectors. However, there is a high level of risk ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: AISIN SEIKI 6.0 KW NATURAL-GAS-FIRED ENGINE COGENERATION UNIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  16. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Goryunova, E; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2016-03-01

    Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material. PMID:26546704

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  18. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO{sub 2}; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  19. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A SPARK-IGNITED LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I of the report gives emission results for a spark-ignited, largebore, reciprocating, internal-combustion engine operating both under baseline (normal) conditions, and with combustion modification controls to reduce NOx emissions to levels below the proposed new source per...

  1. Placing Engineering and Other Professions under Public Oversight: A First Step toward Dealing with Our Economic, Social, and Environmental Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of the discipline-based organization of our professions can help us understand both the enormous successes of our civilization and its equally spectacular failures. Placing engineering and other professions under greater public scrutiny is recommended as a first step toward addressing our deep structural economic,…

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  3. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants. PMID:24637519

  4. Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows

  5. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SWINE WASTE ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT PRODUCTION--MARTIN MACHINERY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system designed by Martin Machinery was evaluated. This paper provides test result...

  7. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  8. Development of property-transfer models for estimating the hydraulic properties of deep sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winfield, Kari A.

    2005-01-01

    Because characterizing the unsaturated hydraulic properties of sediments over large areas or depths is costly and time consuming, development of models that predict these properties from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is desirable. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the unsaturated zone is composed of thick basalt flow sequences interbedded with thinner sedimentary layers. Determining the unsaturated hydraulic properties of sedimentary layers is one step in understanding water flow and solute transport processes through this complex unsaturated system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct simple property-transfer models for estimating the water-retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity of deep sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The regression models were developed from 109 core sample subsets with laboratory measurements of hydraulic and bulk-physical properties. The core samples were collected at depths of 9 to 175 meters at two facilities within the southwestern portion of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory-the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and the Vadose Zone Research Park southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Four regression models were developed using bulk-physical property measurements (bulk density, particle density, and particle size) as the potential explanatory variables. Three representations of the particle-size distribution were compared: (1) textural-class percentages (gravel, sand, silt, and clay), (2) geometric statistics (mean and standard deviation), and (3) graphical statistics (median and uniformity coefficient). The four response variables, estimated from linear combinations of the bulk-physical properties, included saturated hydraulic conductivity and three parameters that define the water-retention curve. For each core sample,values of each water-retention parameter were

  9. Paleomagnetism of Basaltic Lava Flows in Coreholes ICPP 213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128 Near the Vadose Zone Research Park, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Champion, Duane E.; Herman, Theodore C.

    2003-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study was conducted on basalt from 41 lava flows represented in about 2,300 ft of core from coreholes ICPP-213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128. These wells are in the area of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Vadose Zone Research Park within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 508 samples from the four coreholes, which are compared to each other, and to surface outcrop paleomagnetic data. In general, subhorizontal lines of correlation exist between sediment layers and between basalt layers in the area of the new percolation ponds. Some of the basalt flows and flow sequences are strongly correlative at different depth intervals and represent important stratigraphic unifying elements. Some units pinch out, or thicken or thin even over short separation distances of about 1,500 ft. A more distant correlation of more than 1 mile to corehole USGS 128 is possible for several of the basalt flows, but at greater depth. This is probably due to the broad subsidence of the eastern Snake River Plain centered along its topographic axis located to the south of INEEL. This study shows this most clearly in the oldest portions of the cored sections that have differentially subsided the greatest amount.

  10. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

  11. Risk concerns, land use, stewardship, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: attitudes of the Shoshone-Bannock and other American Indians.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Roush, D E; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of 277 American Indians about hunting and fishing, risk, and future land use of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho. Nearly half of our sample were Shoshone-Bannock tribal members living on the nearby Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. We also interviewed an additional 44 White people. We examine the hypothesis that there are differences in environmental concerns and attitudes toward future land use at IN-EEL as a function of tribal affiliation (ethnicity), educational level, gender, and age. Such perceptions are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock. Returning INEEL to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, and a National Environmental Research Park ranked as the highest preferred future land uses, whereas continuing nuclear materials reprocessing and increasing the storage of nuclear wastes ranked as the lowest. There were tribal differences in land use preferences, with those of the Fort Hall Indians being more similar to those of the local Whites than to other American Indians. All groups ranked storage of nuclear material, storage of additional nuclear material, and spills and accidents as the most serious of a list of concerns provided about the site. Fort Hall Indians answered an open-ended question with concerns for population levels and migration routes of game animals and other wildlife, more than hunting and human health. The Shoshone-Bannock from Fort Hall showed an environmental sensitivity for the well-being of wildlife and the health of the ecosystem and were interested in long-term stewardship, in addition to 29 concern for human health. PMID:10944074

  12. Roadmapping Process Improvements by Experience at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High Level Waste Program and Synergistic Interfaces with Decision-Making

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James Anthony; Olson, Arlin Leland

    2001-02-01

    Six technology roadmaps were developed for various technologies under consideration for the treatment of sodium bearing liquid and calcine wastes. In the process of creating these roadmaps, a number of process improvements were identified for each of the formal roadmapping phases as described in the Department of Energy’s draft roadmapping guidance. The lessons learned, presented as beneficial improvements to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) High Level Waste Program, are proposed to be added to the draft guidance. Additionally, synergistic interfaces between the roadmapping and decision-making processes were observed and reported on. With these improvements, technology roadmapping has become an effective integration tool at the INEEL for planning technology development.

  13. Geophysical Measurements for Real-time Monitoring of Biogeochemical Processes for Improvement of Soil Engineering Properties and Subsurface Environmental Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of biogeochemical processes, from inorganic mineral precipitation, to bio-film formation, to bio-gas generation, are being investigated as alternative methods to improve soil engineering properties and subsurface environmental conditions. Every process applied in a geotechnical or geoenvironmental application requires the ability to monitor the progression of treatment non-destructively and in real-time. Geophysical methods have been shown effective to monitor temporally and map spatially soil improvement. Results from seismic velocity (compression and shear wave) and resistivity measurements obtained on 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D experiments at scales ranging from bench-top to field scale will be presented. Shear wave velocity will be demonstrated to be most effective in monitoring microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in sands while compression wave velocity will be used to monitor desaturation through bio-gas formation. Finally, the implications of these results for real-time monitoring during field-scale applications will be discussed.

  14. Historical development of the U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic monitoring and investigative programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1949 to 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, LeRoy L.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    This report is a summary of the historical development, from 1949 to 2001, of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) hydrologic monitoring and investigative programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The report covers the USGS's water-level monitoring program, water-quality sampling program, geophysical program, geologic framework program, drilling program, modeling program, surface-water program, and unsaturated-zone program. The report provides physical information about the wells and information about the frequencies of sampling and measurement. Summaries of USGS published reports with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) report numbers also are provided in an appendix. This report was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the DOE.

  15. Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

  16. Gene engineering of yeasts for the degradation of hazardous waste. Environmental research brief, July 1983-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce major P-450 enzymes. These enzymes were purified, and antibodies produced in rabbits were then used in the isolation or characterization of clones containing a P-450 gene from each organism. DNA sequence was determined for the gene isolated from S. cerevisiae and for several hundred bases of chromosomal DNA on each side of the gene, and deletion experiments in the promoter region were conducted. The deduced protein sequence from this gene was compared to those of the other known subfamilies of eukaryotic P-450 genes; the several features identified included a new homology region for these protein sequences. The C. tropicalis gene and its promoter region have been partially sequenced.

  17. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  18. Environmental problems of fossil fuels and suggested solution: Hydrogen energy system; a one-semester multi-disciplinary course for upper division science and engineering students

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The impending crisis of fossil fuel exhaustion, the devastating acid rain, the greenhouse effect have made the search for an alternate fuel imperative to the survival of man. This course is designed to inform all upper division science and engineering students about the nature of the crisis and to suggest a viable solution. The hydrogen energy system has not had the media coverage necessary for an implementation to ever occur. There is a need for the dissemination of this knowledge and information to the leaders of tomorrow. This project provides the vehicle by which this information can be extended to all scientific and engineering disciplines. This project covers, in enough detail, the essence of the subject in order to inform the scientific community of tomorrow of the alternative energy systems which are not only economically feasible, but environmentally benign. It is the intention of this project to emphasize that alternatives exist that could save the destruction of the forests, the agriculture of the world, and still supply the necessary energy for survival of the species. The bottom line is always of interest to the entrepreneurs of the world, so an attempt to derive a viable bottom line is made with the knowledge that it is only results that impress those in key positions in the world's economy. The complete overview of the hydrogen energy system is given so that the reader will have a basis to either seek further answers or to enlist support for its implementation.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  20. Considerations on Educating Engineers in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of sustainability to engineers will follow similar paths to that of environmental engineering. There is a strong feeling that environmental engineering is a discipline unto itself, requiring knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, hydrology, toxicology, modelling and law. However, environmental engineering can also be encompassed…

  1. Office of Inspector General audit report on vehicle fleet management at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    In a prior report, Audit of Light Vehicle Fleet Management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, WR-B-93-7, September 29, 1993, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) concluded that vehicle fleet operations might be done more cost effectively by the General Services Administration (GSA) than by Idaho Operations Office (Idaho) and its contractor. The report also concluded that a significant number of vehicles were underused and the fleet was too large. Accordingly, the report contained recommendations that a cost comparison study be conducted to ascertain the most economical and efficient method of managing fleet operations and that vehicle usage data be reviewed periodically by the contractor, with prompt reassignment or disposal of significantly underused vehicles. Thus, the purpose of this audit was to determine if action has been taken to implement recommendations in the prior report. Specifically, the objectives of the current audit were to determine whether a cost comparison had been performed and whether the fleet was still too large. In this report, the authors recommend that Idaho annually review individual vehicle use against mileage standards and promptly dispose of or reassign vehicles not meeting the standards. The authors also recommend that the Idaho Deputy Manager be provided a vehicle assignment report for review and approval.

  2. Environmental education.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, D R; Hutchinson, C E

    1992-01-01

    The need for a new profession devoted to environmental matters is asserted. The qualities of such a profession are sketched, and it is argued that new initiatives in environmental education are needed in the form of graduate, professional programs with primary emphasis on practice. An example 2-year program is presented. A fundamental requirement is scientific competence; undergraduate preparation in the sciences or engineering is mandatory. The graduate curriculum itself is built on three primary cores: environmental science and engineering, business and management, and public policy. Additionally, an environmental round table is proposed as a focal point for academic, industrial, governmental, and public discussion on environmental matters. The round table would provide oversight for the professional educational program and an affiliated research institute. PMID:11607268

  3. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  4. Environmental pH-controlled loading and release of protein on mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Tianlin; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the controlled delivery of protein drugs in micro-environment established by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, the loading/release properties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) depending on pH environment were assessed. The adsorption amounts over mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) or hydroxyapatite (HA) decreased as the pH increased, negatively correlating with zeta-potential values. The adsorption behavior over MHA fits well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models at different pHs. The results suggest that the adsorbed amount of protein on MHA or HA depended on the pH of protein solution. MHA adsorbed BSA at basic pH (MHApH 8.4) exhibited a different release kinetics compared with those in acid and neutral environments (MHApH 4.7 and MHApH 7.4), indicating that the release of protein could be regulated by environmental pH at which MHAs adsorb protein. MHApH 8.4 showed a sustained release for 6h before a gradual release when immersing in acidic environment, which is 2h longer than that in neutral environment. This suggests that MHApH 8.4 showed a more sustained release in acidic environment, which can be established by osteoclasts. The variation of adsorption strength between protein and MHA may be responsible for these behaviors. Our findings may be very useful for the development of MHA applications on both bone repair and protein delivery. PMID:25491972

  5. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  6. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturdated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Perkins, J. R. Nimmo, J. R. Pittman

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space.

  7. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas

  8. Chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved permanent gases in ground water from selected sites in and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Wayland, Julian E.

    1998-01-01

    From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho N ationa1 Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The samples for halocarbon analysis were collected in 62-milliliter flame sealed borosilicate glass ampoules in the field. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

  9. Chlorofluorocarbons, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and Dissolved Permanent Gases in Ground Water from Selected Sites In and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Wayland, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperations with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

  10. Assessment of environmental and engineering geological problems for the possible re-use of an abandoned rock-hewn settlement in Urgüp (Cappadocia), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan; Topal, Tamer; Sonmez, Harun; Tuncay, Ergün; Erguler, Zeynal Abiddin; Kasmer, Ozgu

    2006-07-01

    The Cappadocia Region of Central Anatolia having a very distinct culture is one of the attractive touristic sites of Turkey due to its spectacular and unique landforms and historical heritages. In this region, the structures carved into thick to massive tuffs survived and kept their original integrity for a number of centuries. Environmental and anthropological factors at the Cappadocia Region have been the main reasons for extensive subsurface and multi-purpose use in the past and present. In addition, thermal insulation properties of the tuffs make these rocks suitable for use in underground openings. The Kayakapi Neighborhood, located in the town of Urgüp, is one of the famous historical sites. This site is situated within the “Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia” which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1985. In order to develop the tourism potential of this abandoned site while preserving its cultural and natural values, a natural environmental conservation and revitalization project was initiated. As an integral part of this project, in this study, environmental and engineering geological problems, including rock fall potential and stability of about 1,200 rock-hewn structures, were investigated and an inventory was prepared for the possible re-use of the underground openings and other structures at the site, and remedial measures were recommended. The assessments based on observations and experimental studies indicated that the tuffs do not show significant changes both perpendicular and parallel to layering, and discontinuities and rock weathering seem to be more important factors controlling the stability of rock-hewn structures. The major stability problems threatening the re-use of the openings are structurally-controlled block instabilities, overbreaks, and erosion and shearing of the pillars made of tuff. On the other hand, the area at the entrance of the site requires some protection measures such as the construction

  11. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  12. A Transient Numerical Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Orr

    1999-11-01

    Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, numerical modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient numerical simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).

  13. Validation Work to Support the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Calculational Burnup Methodology Using Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Spent Fuel Assay Data

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz

    1999-08-01

    Six uranium isotopes and fourteen fission product isotopes were calculated on a mass basis at end-of-life (EOL) conditions for three fuel rods from different Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) measurements. The three fuel rods evaluated here were taken from an LWBR seed module, a standard blanket module, and a reflector (Type IV) module. The calculated results were derived using a depletion methodology previously employed to evaluate many of the radionuclide inventories for spent nuclear fuels at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The primary goal of the calculational task was to further support the validation of this particular calculational methodology and its application to diverse reactor types and fuels. Result comparisons between the calculated and measured mass concentrations in the three rods indicate good agreement for the three major uranium isotopes (U-233, U-234, U-235) with differences of less than 20%. For the seed and standard blanket rod, the U-233 and U-234 differences were within 5% of the measured values (these two isotopes alone represent greater than 97% of the EOL total uranium mass). For the major krypton and xenon fission product isotopes, differences of less than 20% and less than 30% were observed, respectively. In general, good agreement was obtained for nearly all the measured isotopes. For these isotopes exhibiting significant differences, possible explanations are discussed in terms of measurement uncertainty, complex transmutations, etc.

  14. The Use of Chemical and Physical Properties for Characterization of Strontium Distribution Coefficients at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Rosentreter; R. Nieves; J. Kalivas; J. P. Rousseau; R. C. Bartholomay

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study to determine strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of surficial sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Batch experimental techniques were used to determine experimental Kds of 20 surficial-sediment samples from the INEEL. The Kds describe the distribution of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A best-fit model was obtained using a four-variable data set consisting of surface area, manganese oxide concentration, specific conductance, and pH. Application of the model to an independent split of the data resulted in an average relative error of prediction of 20 percent and a correlation coefficient of 0.921 between predicted and observed strontium Kds. Chemical and physical characteristics of the solution and sediment that could successfully predict the Kd values were identified. Prediction variable select ion was limited to variables which are either easily determined or have available tabulated characteristics. The selection criterion could circumvent the need for time- and labor-intensive laboratory experiments and provide an alternate faster method for estimating strontium Kds.

  15. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  16. Priorities for a 21st-century defense: aligning u.s. Army environmental science and engineering officer resources with the department of defense strategic guidance.

    PubMed

    Licina, Derek; Rufolo, Dennis; Story, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The recently published Department of Defense (DoD) strategic guidance highlights the need to ?shape a joint force for the future.? Supporting requirements to shape the joint force while the overall DoD force structure is reduced will be challenging. Fortunately, based on its unique training and experience, the Army Environmental Science and Engineering Officer (ESEO) profession is positioned today to fill anticipated joint public health requirements. Obtaining the U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) approval to meet these requirements will have near-term consequences for the ESEO profession as some existing (albeit antiquated) authorizations may go unfilled. However, long-term dividends for the Medical Service Corps (MSC), AMEDD, Army, and DoD will be achieved by realigning critical resources to future joint and interagency requirements. Assigning ESEOs now to organizations such as the Theater Special Operations Commands (TSOCs), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with perceived and real joint force health protection/public health requirements through unique means will ensure our profession remains relevant today and supports the joint force of tomorrow. PMID:23817877

  17. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. L. Knobel; B. J. Tucker; B. V. Twining

    2000-06-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997-98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A total of 91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen quality-assurance samples were also collected and analyzed; seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  18. Manpower Needs in Environmental Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, E. J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Outlines manpower needs in both the public and private sectors in the areas of air pollution control, solid waste management, radiological hazard control, pesticide hazard control, and water pollution control. (GS)

  19. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G. G.; Jessmore, J. J.; Sehn, A. L.; Miller, C. M.

    2002-02-27

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  20. Activation of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells and Th2-Type Inflammatory Responses on Instillation of Engineered, Environmental Diesel Emission Source or Ambient Air Pollutant Particles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bezemer, Gillina F.G.; Bauer, Stephen M.; Oberdörster, Günter; Breysse, Patrick N.; Pieters, Raymond H.H.; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The biological effects of acute particulate air pollution exposure in host innate immunity remain obscure and have relied largely on in vitro models. We hypothesized that single acute exposure to ambient or engineered particulate matter (PM) in the absence of other secondary stimuli would activate lung dendritic cells (DC) in vivo and provide information on the early immunological events of PM exposure and DC activation in a mouse model naïve to prior PM exposure. Activation of purified lung DC was studied following oropharyngeal instillation of ambient particulate matter (APM). We compared the effects of APM exposure with that of diesel-enriched PM (DEP), carbon black particles (CBP) and silver nanoparticles (AgP). We found that PM species induced variable cellular infiltration in the lungs and only APM exposure induced eosinophilic infiltration. Both APM and DEP activated pulmonary DC and promoted a Th2-type cytokine response from naïve CD4+ T cells ex vivo. Cultures of primary peribronchial lymph node cells from mice exposed to APM and DEP also displayed a Th2-type immune response ex vivo. We conclude that exposure of the lower airway to various PM species induces differential immunological responses and immunomodulation of DC subsets. Environmental APM and DEP activated DC in vivo and provoked a Th2 response ex vivo. By contrast, CBP and AgP induced altered lung tissue barrier integrity but failed to stimulate CD4+ T cells as effectively. Our work suggests that respirable pollutants activate the innate immune response with enhanced DC activation, pulmonary inflammation and Th2-immune responsiveness. PMID:21099199

  1. Determination of Background Uranium Concentration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer under the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Molly K. Leecaster; L. Don Koeppen; Gail L. Olson

    2003-06-01

    Uranium occurs naturally in the environment and is also a contaminant that is disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To determine whether uranium concentrations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer, which underlies the laboratory, are elevated as a result of migration of anthropogenic uranium from the Subsurface Disposal Area in the RWMC, uranium background concentrations are necessary. Guideline values are calculated for total uranium, 234U, 235U, and 238U from analytical results from up to five datasets. Three of the datasets include results of samples analyzed using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and two of the datasets include results obtained using alpha spectrometry. All samples included in the statistical testing were collected from aquifer monitoring wells located within 10 miles of the RWMC. Results from ID-TIMS and alpha spectrometry are combined when the data are not statistically different. Guideline values for total uranium were calculated using four of the datasets, while guideline values for 234U were calculated using only the alpha spectrometry results (2 datasets). Data from all five datasets were used to calculate 238U guideline values. No limit is calculated for 235U because the ID-TIMS results are not useful for comparison with routine monitoring data, and the alpha spectrometry results are too close to the detection limit to be deemed accurate or reliable for calculating a 235U guideline value. All guideline values presented represent the upper 95% coverage 95% confidence tolerance limits for background concentration. If a future monitoring result is above this guideline, then the exceedance will be noted in the quarterly monitoring report and assessed with respect to other aquifer information. The guidelines (tolerance limits) for total U, 234U, and 238U are 2.75 pCi/L, 1.92 pCi/L, and 0.90 pCi/L, respectively.

  2. Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

  3. Geologic Controls of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Snake River Plain Aquifer At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Anderson; M. A. Kuntz; L. C. Davis

    1999-02-01

    The effective hydraulic conductivity of basalt and interbedded sediment that compose the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) ranges from about 1.0x10 -2 to 3.2x10 4 feet per day (ft/d). This six-order-of-magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity was estimated from single-well aquifer tests in 114 wells, and is attributed mainly to the physical characteristics and distribution of basalt flows and dikes. Hydraulic conductivity is greatest in thin pahoehoe flows and near-vent volcanic deposits. Hydraulic conductivity is least in flows and deposits cut by dikes. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity at and near the INEEL are similar to those measured in similar volcanic settings in Hawaii. The largest variety of rock types and the greatest range of hydraulic conductivity are in volcanic rift zones, which are characterized by numerous aligned volcanic vents and fissures related to underlying dikes. Three broad categories of hydraulic conductivity corresponding to six general types of geologic controls can be inferred from the distribution of wells and vent corridors. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows probably is increased by localized fissures and coarse mixtures of interbedded sediment, scoria, and basalt rubble. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows is decreased locally by abundant alteration minerals of probable hydrothermal origin. Hydraulic conductivity varies as much as six orders of magnitude in a single vent corridor and varies from three to five orders of magnitude within distances of 500 to 1,000 feet. Abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivity over short distances suggest the presence of preferential pathways and local barriers that may greatly affect the movement of ground water and the dispersion of radioactive and chemical wastes downgradient from points of waste disposal.

  4. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  5. Improvements, Evaluation, and Application of 1D Vetem Inversion and Development and Application of 3D Vetem Inversion to Waste Pits at The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Cho Chew

    2004-10-27

    The project aim was the improvement, evaluation, and application of one dimensional (1D) inversion and development and application of three dimensional (3D) inversion to processing of data collected at waste pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inversion methods were intended mainly for the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system which was designed to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5m) subsurface through electrically conductive soils.

  6. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Steven L.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use gas inertia and compressibility to eliminate many of the mechanical contrivances required by traditional engines and refrigerators while providing potentially attractive options that might reduce environmental impacts. The operation of both standing-wave and traveling-wave devices will be described and illustrated with thermoacoustic devices that have been used outside the laboratory.

  7. Caterpillar 3406 spark-ignited natural-gas-engine emissions on EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) heavy-duty transient test cycle. Topical report, March-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.J.; Gladden, J.R.; Endicott, D.L.; Cull, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The emissions of a lean-burn natural-gas-fueled 3406 spark-ignited engine were determined on the EPA transient emission cycle for heavy-duty vehicle engines. The engine was rated at 350 hp at 1800 rpm. The engine was a minimally modified generator-set engine developed under the same GRI contract and was not optimized for truck applications or transient emissions. Transient emissions in g/hp-hr were 4.1 NOx, 9.2 total hydrocarbons, 0.84 non-methane hydrocarbons, 3.2 CO, 0.42 aldehydes, and 0.60 particulates. Steady-state emissions were also measured. The results indicate lean-burn spark-ignited engine technology is a promising approach to meeting 1994 EPA truck-engine-emission standards. NOx and CO standards can be readily met. Hydrocarbon emissions exceed the standard in the engine as presently configured but are believed to be controllable by improved air/fuel ratio control, combustion-system modification and/or an oxidation catalyst. The particulates were primarily from the lubricating oil and should be controllable with piston ring and valve-seal improvements and/or an oxidation catalyst.

  8. Chemical and physical properties affecting strontium distribution coefficients of surficial-sediment samples at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Miller, Karl E.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)s) of surficial sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Batch experiments using synthesized aqueous solutions were used to determine K(d)s, which describe the distribution of a solute between the solution and solid phase, of 20 surficial-sediment samples from the INEEL. The K(d)s for the 20 surficial-sediment samples ranged from 36 to 275 ml/g. Many properties of both the synthesized aqueous solutions and sediments used in the experiments also were determined. Solution properties determined were initial and equilibrium concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and strontium, pH and specific conductance, and initial concentrations of potassium and sodium. Sediment properties determined were grain-size distribution, bulk mineralogy, whole-rock major-oxide and strontium and barium concentrations, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Solution and sediment properties were correlated with strontium K(d)s of the 20 surficial sediments using Pearson correlation coefficients. Solution properties with the strongest correlations with strontium K(d)s were equilibrium pH and equilibrium calcium concentration correlation coefficients, 0.6598 and -0.6518, respectively. Sediment properties with the strongest correlations with strontium K(d)s were manganese oxide (MnO), BET surface area, and the >4.75-mm-grain-size fraction correlation coefficients, 0.7054, 0.7022, and -0.6660, respectively. Effects of solution properties on strontium K(d)s were interpreted as being due to competition among similarly charged and sized cations in solution for strontium-sorption sites; effects of sediment properties on strontium K(d)s were interpreted as being surface-area related. Multivariate analyses of these solution and sediment properties resulted in r2 values of 0

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  10. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines. 1042.310 Section 1042.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1...

  11. Biocommodity Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  12. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  13. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  14. Standard environmental testing practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Gregory, E.; Stoker, J.; Vanbiene, F.; Woodbury, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Manual on procedural requirements for performing certain environmental tests on space flight equipment provides information for test equipment designers, quality control and production engineers. Contents of manual are summarized.

  15. Chlorine-36 in Water, Snow, and Mid-Latitude Glacial Ice of North America: Meteoric and Weapons-Tests Production in the Vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    L. DeWayne; J. R. Green; S. Vogt, P. Sharma; S. K. Frape; S. N. Davis; G. L. Cottrell

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl) were made for 64 water, snow, and glacial-ice and -runoff samples to determine the meteoric and weapons-tests-produced concentrations and fluxes of this radionuclide at mid-latitudes in North America. The results will facilitate the use of 36Cl as a hydrogeologic tracer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This information was used to estimate meteoric and weapons-tests contributions of this nuclide to environmental inventories at and near the INEEL. The data presented in this report suggest a meteoric source 36Cl for environmental samples collected in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming if the concentration is less than 1 x 10 7 atoms/L. Additionally, concentrations in water, snow, or glacial ice between 1 x 10 7 and 1 x 10 8 atoms/L may be indicative of a weapons-tests component from peak 36Cl production in the late 1950s. Chlorine-36 concentrations between 1 x 10 8 and 1 x 10 9 atoms/L may be representative of re-suspension of weapons-tests fallout airborne disposal of 36Cl from the INTEC, or evapotranspiration. It was concluded from the water, snow, and glacial data presented here that concentrations of 36Cl measured in environmental samples at the INEEL larger than 1 x 10 9 atoms/L can be attributed to waste-disposal practices.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  17. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered ...

  18. Example of International Co-Operation in the Frame of the Project Phare (TEMPUS) in Innovations in Teaching of Environmental Hydrogeology in Engineering Education in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grmela, Arnost; Rapantova, Nadia

    The international TEMPUS (Trans-European Co-operating and Mobility Scheme for Higher Education between Central/Eastern Europe and European Union) project lasted from 1995-1997. In the framework of TEMPUS, a material and knowledge background was developed in order to ensure the education of the branch Geological Engineering with specialization in…

  19. LABORATORY AND FIELD AUDITS AS PART OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (HWERL) QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Audits are an important and integral part of the EPA Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) Quality Assurance (QA) Program. As part of the overall QA program, audits are used to determine contractor compliance with quality assurance plans and to assess the overal...

  20. A Powerful New Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Glenn Research Center, Moller International created a new coating for rotary engines, which significantly improves the fuel consumption of a vehicle while reducing emissions. The new coatings are offered in the new Rotapower(R) engine, which is produced and distributed by Moller subsidiary, Freedom Motors, Inc. The coating allows the Rotapower engine to function smoother than other models, reducing wear and protecting the engine. The Rotapower engine has the ability to operate on a variety of fuels, including gasoline, natural gas, diesel, alcohol, and kerosene. A small and lightweight engine, it is projected to replace many of today's bulkier versions. The 10 horsepower model fits in the palm of one's hand, while the 160 horsepower model fits into a 5-gallon bucket. The clean running Rotapower engine is environmentally appealing, because it eliminates over 98 percent of the total emissions given off by traditional piston engines. Fewer pollutants are spewed into the air, making it especially attractive in areas where air pollution is a major problem. Due to the clean-burning nature of the engine, it meets the stringent standards set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine also has numerous commercial benefits in several types of recreational, industrial, and transportation applications, including personal watercraft, snowmobiles, portable generators. and pumps.

  1. 40 CFR 1042.230 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine families. 1042.230 Section 1042.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1042.230 Engine families. (a)...

  2. Modification of Undergraduate Engineering Curricula in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Soon Haing

    1987-01-01

    Surveys the current status of environmental engineering education at the undergraduate level in Korea. Proposes guidelines for modifying and strengthening the curricula, along with recommendations for improving the environmental engineering educational system in Korea and other countries. (TW)

  3. Inter-noise 89 - Engineering for environmental noise control; Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Newport Beach, CA, Dec. 4-6, 1989. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maling, George C., Jr.

    Recent advances in noise analysis and control theory and technology are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include noise generation; sound-wave propagation; noise control by external treatments; vibration and shock generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction; multiple sources and paths of environmental noise; noise perception and the physiological and psychological effects of noise; instrumentation, signal processing, and analysis techniques; and noise standards and legal aspects. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  4. EPA/AEERL (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY/AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY) SOURCE TESTING PROGRAM FOR COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES (KOSOVO TEST SITE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes EPA's environmental assessment testing program for synthetic fuels technology, with emphasis on the Kosovo source test and evaluation program. The Kosovo program included: (a) field tests to characterize process waste streams that would be input to control te...

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF THE JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. VOLUME IV: NOX CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS EQUIPMENT, ENGINES, AND SMALL STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the approximately 50 presentations made during the symposium, October 6-9, 1980, in Denver, CO. The symposium was sponsored by the Combustion Research Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, and the Electr...

  6. Examining the efficiency of muffle furnance-induced alkaline hydrolysis in determining the titanium content of environmental samples containing engineered titanium dioxide particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium hydroxide (KOH) fusion digestion technique was developed and its comparative digestion and dissolution efficacy for different titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs)/environmental matrices was evaluated. Digestion of different enviro...

  7. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Frazee, Brad; Hay, Scott; Wondolleck, John; Sorrels, Earl; Rutherford, Phil; Dassler, David; Jones, John

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  8. Adaptive Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  9. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment. PMID:27472104

  10. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  11. Engineering and Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  12. An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warhaft, Zellman

    1998-01-01

    This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste products. The book also discusses the greenhouse effect and atmospheric inversions, and the social implications of engineering in a crowded world with increasing energy demands. Students in mechanical, civil, agricultural, environmental, aerospace, and chemical engineering will welcome this engaging, well-illustrated introduction to thermal-fluid engineering.

  13. Experience gained from using water and steam for bringing the operation of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas-turbine engines in compliance with environmental standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Practical experience gained from using water and steam admission into the combustion chambers of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas turbines for bringing their operation in compliance with the requirements of environmental standards is described. The design and schematic modifications of combustion chambers and fuel system through which this goal is achieved are considered. The results obtained from industrial and rig tests of combustion chambers fitted with water or steam admission systems are presented.

  14. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  16. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  18. Facilities Engineering in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagluiso, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    An overview of NASA facilities is given outlining some of the more interesting and unique aspects of engineering and facilities associated with the space program. Outlined are some of the policies under which the Office of Facilities conducts its business. Included are environmental quality control measures.

  19. Careers in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet briefly describes occupational opportunities in engineering in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Section headings are: "Preserving Our Future Today"; "Introduction to EPA..."; "Setting Standards"; "Enforcement and Monitoring"; "Trends for the Future"; "Job Requirements"; "A Day in the Life of..."; "Geographic Locations";…

  20. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University--a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-02-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and

  1. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University – A New Resource and Research Tool for Environmental Scientists, Engineers, and Epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic-carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a ‘sink’ for recalcitrant, hydrophobic and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize new future opportunities and invite collaborative use the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants; (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants; (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy

  2. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  3. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  4. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  5. [Evaluation on the impacts of environmental changes and Three-Gorge engineering on the population of Yangtze voles (Microtus forits) in the Dongting Lake region].

    PubMed

    Zou, Shaolin; Guo, Cong; Liu, Xinping

    2002-05-01

    The relationships between the population of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and the evolvement of the Dongting Lake beaches were analyzed based on historical data, and the impacts of the Three-Gorge Engineering on beach environment and water level of the lake were assessed according to the regulation scheme on downward discharge flux of the Three-Gorge dam. The results indicated that the population of the voles has been increasing since 1950's, owing to the continuous enlargement of the lake beach and prolonging successional emergence of the beach. The emergence date of the beach in Autumn would be earlier, its emergence area would be going up, the population of the voles would be also expanded at the initial post-construction stage, which would still increase with the continuous expansion of beach area in a middle and long period after the establishment of the dam. More voles would thus move to the farmland, and heavily harm crops. PMID:12181902

  6. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  7. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…

  8. Sustainable Development in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taoussanidis, Nikolaos N.; Antoniadou, Myrofora A.

    2006-01-01

    The principles and practice of environmentally and socially sustainable engineering are in line with growing community expectations and the strengthening voice of civil society in engineering interventions. Pressures towards internationalization and globalization are reflected in new course accreditation criteria and higher education structures.…

  9. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  10. Optical biosensors for environmental monitoring based on computational and biotechnological tools for engineering the photosynthetic D1 protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rea, Giuseppina; Rodio, Giuseppe; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya; Pezzotti, Gianni; Johanningmeier, Udo

    2009-10-15

    Homology-based protein modelling and computational screening followed by virtual mutagenesis analyses were used to identify functional amino acids in the D1 protein of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain interacting with herbicides. A library of functional mutations in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for preparing biomediators was built and their interactions with herbicides were calculated. D1 proteins giving the lowest and highest binding energy with herbicides were considered as suitable for preparing the environmental biosensors for detecting specific herbicide classes. Arising from the results of theoretical calculations, three mutants were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and characterized by fluorescence analysis. Their adsorption and selective recognition ability were studied by an equilibrium-adsorption method. The S268C and S264K biomediators showed high sensitivity and resistance, respectively, to both triazine and urea classes of herbicides. When immobilized on a silicon septum, the biomediators were found to be highly stable, remaining so for at least 1-month at room temperature. The fluorescence properties were exploited and a reusable and portable multiarray optical biosensor for environmental monitoring was developed with limits of detection between 0.8 x 10(-11) and 3.0 x 10(-9), depending on the target analyte. In addition, biomediator regeneration without obvious deterioration in performance was demonstrated. PMID:19674888

  11. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.401 - Test engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test engine selection. 1065.401 Section 1065.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Selection, Preparation, and Maintenance § 1065.401 Test engine selection. While all engine configurations...

  13. Environmental Impact Research Program and Defense Natural Resources Program: Section 7. 5. 7, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management manual. Final report. [ELAEAGNUS UMBELLATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dittberner, P.L.; Dietz, D.R.; Wasser, C.H.; Martin, C.O.; Mitchell, W.A.

    1992-02-01

    A plant materials report on autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is provided as Section 7.5.7 of the US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources management Manual. The report was prepared as a guide to assist project/installation natural resources personnel with the selection, establishment, and management of appropriate plant materials for wildlife and habitat development programs. Major topics covered are description, distribution, habitat requirements, wildlife and land management value, establishment, maintenance, and cautions and limitations. Autumn olive is a hardy shrub or small tree introduced into the United States from Asia. It is widely used in the East in habitat improvement projects designed to attract wildlife, provide barriers, beautify existing landscapes, and reclaim disturbed sites. Autumn olive is tolerant of a wide range of soils and climatic conditions. Plants grow best on well-drained soils that are deep, sandy, loamy, or moderately fine-textured. Establishment of autumn olive is often recommended for borders, hedgerows, windbreaks, and disturbed sites. Planting stock of autumn olive is readily available, and some commercial nurseries produce propagules in quantity. Four cultivars (Cardinal, Ellagood, Elsberry, and Redwing) have been developed and are adapted to geographically specific regions. This report provides information on management objectives, site selection and preparation, propagule selection, planting methods, and maintenance requirements for autumn olive throughout its area of potential use. Management cautions and limitations are discussed, and guidelines are provided on the appropriate use of autumn olive in wildlife and habitat management programs.

  14. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies. PMID:26922585

  15. Expression of a fused fpg gene in E. coli and engineering a strain Comamonas testosteroni ZD4-1-fpg for environmental application.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan; Liu, He; Wang, Shi G; Xu, Xiao Y

    2008-10-01

    A fused fpg gene composed of phe B and gfp gene, which encoded catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) and green fluorescence protein (GFP), respectively, was expressed in E. coli to investigate its functional intactness. The expression results showed that C23O activity was detected in the induced bacterial cells and the E. coli cells containing the fusion protein emitted green fluorescence under epifluorescence microscopy, indicating that the fused fpg gene expressed correctly in E. coli. After expressed in E. coli, the fpg gene was transferred into the chromosome of a wild-type strain Comamonas testosteroni ZD4-1 by a pUT mini-Tn5 type vector pUT-Hg-fpg. The constructed genetically engineered bacterium strain C. testosteroni ZD4-1-fpg was also able to emit green fluorescence under epifluorescence microscopy. The stability assay showed that fpg gene could be detected in the host strain after 10 times of transfer inoculation, indicating the fpg gene is very stable. These results revealed that the Comamona testosteroni ZD4-1-fpg maybe used as not only an aromatic compound-biodegrading strain but also as an indicator strain to monitor the fate of the bacterial strains in the bioremediation. PMID:18780218

  16. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  17. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  18. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.

    1980-01-01

    Stirling engines exist in a bewildering array of mechanical arrangements. This book attempts to describe and classify the systems in a rational way, to explain the intricacies of the cycle, and to present a large amount of detailed information related to Stirling engines such as design, heat exchangers, working fluids, operation and performance, control equipment, recently developed engines, and current and proposed uses. (LCL)

  19. 40 CFR 1065.510 - Engine mapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine mapping. 1065.510 Section 1065.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.510 Engine mapping. (a) Applicability, scope, and frequency....

  20. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325