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Sample records for niobium 89

  1. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  2. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1983-11-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  3. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  4. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  5. Melting And Purification Of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Salles Moura, Hernane R.; Moura, Lourenco de

    2007-08-09

    The aspects involved in the purification of niobium in Electron Beam Furnaces will be outlined and correlated with practical experience accumulated over 17 years of continuously producing high purity niobium metal and niobium-zirconium ingots at CBMM, meeting the needs for a wide range of uses. This paper also reports some comments regarding raw material requirements, the experience on cold hearth operation melting niobium and the production of large grains niobium ingots by CBMM with some comments of their main characteristics.

  6. Melting And Purification Of Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Hernane R. Salles; de Moura, Lourenço

    2007-08-01

    The aspects involved in the purification of niobium in Electron Beam Furnaces will be outlined and correlated with practical experience accumulated over 17 years of continuously producing high purity niobium metal and niobium-zirconium ingots at CBMM, meeting the needs for a wide range of uses. This paper also reports some comments regarding raw material requirements, the experience on cold hearth operation melting niobium and the production of large grains niobium ingots by CBMM with some comments of their main characteristics.

  7. Introduction to Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Mynen, Andrew Hutton

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology using niobium accelerating cavities was first applied at large scale in the recirculating electron linear accelerator CEBAF—the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA, at what is now called Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab. Building on the high quality factors and peak magnetic fields found in low residual resistivity ratio (low-RRR) solid niobium in the 1970s, Jefferson Lab has reintroduced ingot niobium technology. High tantalum content in ingot niobium is not expected to negatively impact cavity performance, but will reduce the cost of accelerator structures considerably. Optimized low-cost CW linear accelerators built with ingot niobium will show the way for future R&D and industrial applications. This paper portrays the Jefferson Lab SRF context, reviews the early history of ingot niobium technology from over a third of a century ago, explains the technical advantages of that technology's recent reintroduction, and presents the outlook for further development.

  8. Introduction to Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hutton, Andrew

    2011-03-31

    Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology using niobium accelerating cavities was first applied at large scale in the recirculating electron linear accelerator CEBAF--the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA, at what is now called Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab. Building on the high quality factors and peak magnetic fields found in low residual resistivity ratio (low-RRR) solid niobium in the 1970s, Jefferson Lab has reintroduced ingot niobium technology. High tantalum content in ingot niobium is not expected to negatively impact cavity performance, but will reduce the cost of accelerator structures considerably. Optimized low-cost CW linear accelerators built with ingot niobium will show the way for future R and D and industrial applications. This paper portrays the Jefferson Lab SRF context, reviews the early history of ingot niobium technology from over a third of a century ago, explains the technical advantages of that technology's recent reintroduction, and presents the outlook for further development.

  9. Proton in SRF Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  10. Proton in SRF Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-31

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  11. METHOD OF PRODUCING NIOBIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Stevens, E.R.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given for preparing ductile niobium metal by the reduction of niobium pentoxide with carbon. The invention resides in the addition, to the reaction mass, of from 0.05 to 0.4 atom of titanium (in the form of metallic titanium, titanium carbide, and/or titanium oxide) per one mole of niobium pentoxide. The mixture is heated under subatmospheric pressure to above 1300 deg C but below the melting point of niobium, and the carbon- and oxygen-free niobium sponge obtained is cooled under reduced pressure.

  12. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  13. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOEpatents

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  14. Large grain cavities from pure niobium ingot

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Kneisel, Peter; Cameiro, Tadeu

    2012-03-06

    Niobium cavities are fabricated by the drawing and ironing of as cast niobium ingot slices rather than from cold rolled niobium sheet. This method results in the production of niobium cavities having a minimum of grain boundaries at a significantly reduced cost as compared to the production of such structures from cold rolled sheet.

  15. NIOBIUM-TANTALUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Foos, R.A.

    1959-01-27

    The usual method for the separation of tantalum and niobium consists of a selective solvent extraction from an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution of the metals. A difficulty encountered in this process is the fact that the corrosion problems associated with hydrofluoric acid are serious. It has been found that the corrosion caused by the hydrofluoric acid may be substantially reduced by adding to the acidic solution an amine, such as phenyl diethanolamine or aniline, and adjusting pH value to between 4 and 6.

  16. Niobium Production at Tokyo Denkai

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, Hiroaki

    2011-03-31

    In recent years, single-crystal/large-grain niobium has received much attention. It has the following advantages: rolling-annealing is unnecessary, and superconducting cavities made from large-grain niobium discs may not require electropolishing. However, to obtain a large-grain disc, an ingot must be sliced using a saw and finished smooth by using a lathe. Slicing a disc takes several hours and produces niobium shavings. KEK, Tokyo Denkai, and TKX Corporation have developed a new niobium ingot slicing technique, and Tokyo Denkai has installed the slicing machine. This study describes the new ingot slicing technology, which ensures state-of-the-art productivity for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity material industry.

  17. Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus; Papp, John

    2014-01-01

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals almost always paired together in nature. These “twins” are difficult to separate because of their shared physical and chemical properties. In 1801, English chemist Charles Hatchett uncovered an unknown element in a mineral sample of columbite; John Winthrop found the sample in a Massachusetts mine and sent it to the British Museum in London in 1734. The name columbium, which Hatchet named the new element, came from the poetic name for North America—Columbia—and was used interchangeably for niobium until 1949, when the name niobium became official. Swedish scientist Anders Ekberg discovered tantalum in 1802, but it was confused with niobium, because of their twinned properties, until 1864, when it was recognized as a separate element. Niobium is a lustrous, gray, ductile metal with a high melting point, relatively low density, and superconductor properties. Tantalum is a dark blue-gray, dense, ductile, very hard, and easily fabricated metal. It is highly conductive to heat and electricity and renowned for its resistance to acidic corrosion. These special properties determine their primary uses and make niobium and tantalum indispensable.

  18. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Kane, J.S.; Carpenter, J.H.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1962-01-16

    A method is given for coating graphite with a hard, tenacious layer of niobium carbide up to 30 mils or more thick. The method makes use of the discovery that niobium metal, if degassed and heated rapidly below the carburization temperature in contact with graphite, spreads, wets, and penetrates the graphite without carburization. The method includes the obvious steps of physically contacting niobium powders or other physical forms of niobium with graphite, degassing the assembly below the niobium melting point, e.g., 1400 deg C, heating to about 2200 to 2400 deg C within about 15 minutes while outgassing at a high volume throughput, and thereafter carburizing the niobium. (AEC)

  19. Direct Flotation of Niobium Oxide Minerals from Carbonatite Niobium Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiao

    Currently the recovery of niobium oxide minerals from carbonatite niobium ores relies on the use of non-selective cationic collectors. This leads to complicated process flowsheets involving multiple desliming and multiple reverse flotation stages, and low niobium recovery. In this research, anionic collectors that are capable of strong chemisorption on the niobium minerals were studied with the objective of directly floating the niobium oxide minerals from the carbonatite ores. In the flotation of both high purity minerals and Niobec ores, it was shown that the combination of hydroxamic acid and sodium metaphosphate was an effective reagent scheme for the direct flotation of niobium oxide from its ores. Batch flotation on the Niobec Mill Feed showed that over 95% of niobium oxide was recovered into a rougher concentrate that was less than 47% of the original feed mass. Preliminary cleaning tests showed that the reagent scheme could also be used to upgrade the rougher concentrate, although the depression of iron oxide minerals required further study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurement results confirm that OHA (octyl hydroxamic acid) could chemisorb on pyrochlore surface while only physically adsorb on calcite, judging by the chemical shifts of electron binding energies in the elements in both OHA and the mineral surfaces. When hydroxamic acid was adsorbed on calcite surface, the binding energies of the N 1s electrons, at 400.3 eV, did not shift. However, after adsorption on pyrochlore, the N 1s binding energy peak split into two peaks, one at a binding energy of around 399 eV, representing chemically adsorbed OHA, the other at between 400 and 401 eV. The experimental data suggested a strong chemisorption of the OHA on pyrochlore surface in the form of a vertical head-on orientation of the OHA molecules so that the pyrochlore was strongly hydrophobized even at low OHA concentrations, followed by possibly randomly oriented physisorbed OHA molecules

  20. Niobium - Proceedings of the international symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on niobium. Topics considered at the symposium included niobium mining, ore processing, uses, fabrication, microstructure, mechanical properties, physical properties, corrosion, physical radiation effects, and marketing.

  1. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of niobium and its application to niobium-stabilized stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Dutta, R K; Banerjee, S

    1974-10-01

    A spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of niobium by means of its reaction with tannin and thioglycollic acid. The yellow-orange colour developed with the reagent mixture at pH 4 is measured at 410-420 nm and obeys Beer's law between 0.5 and 10 ppm niobium. The method is suitable for the determination of niobium in niobium-stabilized stainless steel and other types of steels containing niobium, but a prior separation of niobium is necessary. Titanium interferes even in traces. PMID:18961571

  3. Superconductive niobium films coating carbon nanotube fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Behabtu, N.; Young, C. C.; Pasquali, M.; Vecchione, A.; Fittipaldi, R.; Corato, V.

    2014-11-01

    Superconducting niobium (Nb) has been successfully obtained by sputter deposition on carbon nanotube fibers. The transport properties of the niobium coating the fibers are compared to those of niobium thin films deposited on oxidized Si substrates during the same deposition run. For niobium films with thicknesses above 300 nm, the niobium coating the fibers and the thin films show similar normal state and superconducting properties with critical current density, measured at T = 4.2 K, of the order of 105 A cm-2. Thinner niobium layers coating the fibers also show the onset of the superconducting transition in the resistivity versus temperature dependence, but zero resistance is not observed down to T = 1 K. We evidence by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage measurements that the granular structure of the samples is the main reason for the lack of true global superconductivity for thicknesses below 300 nm.

  4. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...

  5. Dissipative hydride precipitates in superconducting niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L.D.; Ciovati, G.; Wu, G.; /Argonne

    2011-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of the microstructural features exhibiting RF losses at high surface magnetic fields of above 100 mT in field emission free superconducting niobium cavities. The lossy areas were identified by advanced thermometry. Surface investigations using different techniques were carried out on cutout samples from lossy areas and showed the presence of dendritic niobium hydrides. This finding has possible implications to the mechanisms of RF losses in superconducting niobium at all field levels.

  6. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.; Masters, David R.; Chapman, Lloyd R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uraniun sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  7. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  8. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E.; Northcutt, W.G.; Masters, D.R.; Chapman, L.R.

    1990-12-31

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uranium sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  9. Seamless/bonded niobium cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.

    2006-07-01

    Technological aspects and performance of seamless cavities produced by hydroforming are presented. Problems related to the fabrication of seamless cavities from bulk niobium are mainly solved thanks to the progress of the last years. The highest achieved accelerating gradients are comparable for both seamless and welded versions (ca. 40 MV/m) Nevertheless further development of seamless cavities is desirable in order to avoid the careful preparation of parts for welding and get reliable statistic. Fabrication of NbCu clad cavities from bimetallic tubes is an interesting option that gives new opportunity to the seamless technique. On the one hand it allows reducing the niobium costs contribution; on the other hand it increases the thermal stability of the cavity. The highest accelerating gradient achieved on seamless NbCu clad single cell cavities (ca. 40 MV/m) is comparable to the one reached on bulk Nb cavities. Fabrication of multi-cell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was recently proven.

  10. SRF MATERIALS OTHER THAN NIOBIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, Anne-Marie

    2008-02-12

    For the past three decades, bulk niobium has been the material of choice for SRF cavity applications. Alternative materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In the recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk niobium. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternative materials to niobium. A few laboratories around the world are now investigating superconductors with higher transition temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. This paper gives an overview of the results obtained and challenges encountered for Nb compounds and A15 compounds, as well as for MgB2, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative has been recently proposed by Alex Gurevich with the Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor multilayer approach. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavity performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.

  11. Purification of Niobium by Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, M.; Mirji, K. V.; Prasad, V. V. Satya; Baligidad, R. G.; Gokhale, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure niobium metal, produced by alumino-thermic reduction of niobium oxide, contains various impurities which need to be reduced to acceptable levels to obtain aerospace grade purity. In the present work, an attempt has been made to refine niobium metals by electron beam drip melting technique to achieve purity confirming to the ASTM standard. Input power to the electron gun and melt rate were varied to observe their combined effect on extend of refining and loss of niobium. Electron beam (EB) melting is shown to reduce alkali metals, trace elements and interstitial impurities well below the specified limits. The reduction in the impurities during EB melting is attributed to evaporation and degassing due to the combined effect of high vacuum and high melt surface temperature. The % removal of interstitial impurities is essentially a function of melt rate and input power. As the melt rate decreases or input power increases, the impurity levels in the solidified niobium ingot decrease. The EB refining process is also accompanied by considerable amount of niobium loss, which is attributed to evaporation of pure niobium and niobium sub-oxide. Like other impurities, Nb loss increases with decreasing melt rate or increase in input power.

  12. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  13. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  14. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Tian, Hui; Corcoran, Sean

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  15. A Terminally Bound Niobium Methylidyne.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Takashi; Carroll, Patrick J; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Complex (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr) (PNP = N[2-P(i)Pr2-4-methylphenyl]2(-), Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3), prepared from treatment of (PNP)NbCl3 with NaOAr followed by 2 equiv of H3CMgCl, can be oxidized with [FeCp2][OTf] to afford (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr)(OTf). While photolysis of the latter resulted in formation of a rare example of a niobium methylidene, (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf), treatment of the dimethyl triflate precursor with the ylide H2CPPh3 produced the mononuclear group 5 methylidyne complex, (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr). Adding a Brønsted base to (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf) also resulted in formation of the methylidyne. Solid-state structural analysis confirms both methylidene and methylidyne moieties to be terminal, having very short Nb-C distances of 1.963(2) and 1.820(2) Å, respectively. It is also shown that methylidyne for nitride cross-metathesis between (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr) and NCR (R = tert-butyl or 1-adamantyl) results in formation of a neutral and mononuclear niobium nitride, (PNP)Nb≡N(OAr), along with the terminal alkyne HC≡CR. PMID:26977892

  16. Method for etching thin films of niobium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOEpatents

    Kampwirth, Robert T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Falco, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate, and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  17. The oxidation behavior and protection of niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Roger A.; Meier, Gerald H.

    1990-08-01

    Despite years of effort, researchers have been unable to develop a high-temperature niobium-base alloy with the ability to form a protective oxide scale. Although some of the alloys tested have potentially useful properties, the alloying elements usually act to the detriment of at least one property. Currently, niobium-base alloys are protected from high-temperature oxidation with a highly reliable silicide coating. This article reviews the efforts to develop oxidation-resistant alloys and summarizes the results of recent research on oxidation-resistant niobium-base intermetallics.

  18. Effect of hydrogen on surface of niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, V.J.; Keim, E.G.

    1998-12-31

    Niobium single crystals are used as substrate material for constructing superconducting quantum interference device of SQUID. The use of niobium is prompted by the fact that it is a low {Tc} metallic superconductor. In order to fabricate the device the surface of the crystal has to be polished flat. This is achieved by combination of mechanical polishing and electrochemical polishing. It has been reported that during electrochemical polishing hydrogen can enter the material forming Niobium hydrides. These can result in surface roughening of a magnitude greater than the thickness of the films subsequently deposited. This leads to failure of the films. The problem can be solved by annealing the material at 300 C to remove any hydrogen that might be present. However it is phenomenologically interesting to study the effect of electrochemical hydrogen charging on the surface of Niobium.

  19. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  20. Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Hamilton, V.T.

    1994-03-22

    A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

  1. Mineral Resource of the Month: Niobium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium, also called columbium, is a transition metal with a very high melting point. It is in greatest demand in industrialized countries, like the United States, because of its defense-related uses in the aerospace, energy and transportation industries. Niobium is used mostly to make high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel and stainless steel. HSLA steels are used in large-diameter pipes for oil and natural gas pipelines and automobile wheels.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  3. Niobium based coatings for dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, G.; Rodil, S. E.; Arzate, H.; Muhl, S.; Olaya, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10602 Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead niobium...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10602 Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead niobium...

  6. Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Hamilton, Virginia T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 89

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2013-01-15

    The evaluated experimental data are presented for 14 known nuclides of mass 89 (Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh). New data on high–spin excitations are available for {sup 89}Kr, {sup 89}Rb, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Ru, including a superdeformed structure in {sup 89}Tc. Fluorescence studies in {sup 89}Y have revealed a large number of new levels in 7–11 MeV range. New two–neutron transfer data are available for {sup 89}Zr. New direct and precise measurement of atomic masses of {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Br, 89{sup K}r, {sup 89}Rb, {sup 89}Mo and {sup 89}Tc have greatly improved the Q value landscape in this mass region. This work supersedes previous A=89 evaluation published in 1998Si31, and also the older ones 1989Si20, 1975Ko21, and M.W. Johns et al., Nuclear Data Tables A 8, 373 (1970). In spite of extensive experimental work on the isobaric nuclei of this mass chain several deficiencies remain. The identification of {sup 89}Rh isotope remains unconfirmed. The half–lives of ground states of {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As and {sup 89}Rh have not been measured, only the lower limits are estimated from time–of–flight in a reaction and experimental arrangement, where produced and identified. The decay schemes of {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As, {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Ru and {sup 89}Rh are not known, and those for {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Mo are incomplete. High–lying (neutron unbound) levels in {sup 89}Kr, expected to be populated in the decay of {sup 89}Br, have not been investigated. The spins and parities for levels in {sup 89}Kr are largely unassigned, while for {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Ru, only few low–spin excitations are established. For {sup 89}Rb, little information is available for high–spin structures. Detailed gamma–ray data are available for {sup 88}Sr(n,γ){sup 89}Sr reaction, but most of these γ rays remain unassigned in a level scheme. Excited state data are nonexistent for {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As, {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Br and {sup

  8. Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bobić, J.D.; Vijatović Petrović, M.M.; Banys, J.; Stojanović, B.D.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Pure and doped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ► The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ► The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ► Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ► The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4–5/4x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 15} (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20–777 °C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences T{sub c} decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits dielectric constant of ∼204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of σ{sub DC} was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

  9. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo

    2011-03-31

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  10. PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-09

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  11. Developing of superconducting niobium cavities for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobol, I. L.; Yurevich, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of a study of structure and mechanical properties of welding joints, superconducting characteristics of the material after joining of welded components of superconducting radio frequency cavities are presented. The paper also describes the results of testing of the RF 1.3 GHz single-cell niobium cavity manufactured in the PTI NAS Belarus.

  12. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  13. A spiraled niobium tin superconductive ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Copper film is vapor-deposited on clean ribbon and sprayed with photosensitive etch-resistant material. Photographic film masks are placed on ribbon and exposed to ultraviolet light. Etchant removes copper and exposure to oxidizing atmosphere forms niobium oxide. Photosensitive material is removed and ribbon is immersed in molten temperatures.

  14. Pure Niobium as a Pressure Vessel Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-01

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  15. Annual Report, 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Instructional Technology.

    This report summarizes the activities of the South Carolina Office of Instructional Technology during the 1988-89 school year. Objectives relating to planning, fiscal management, administration, computers, evaluation, dissemination, and reporting for the office's Annual Management Plan are outlined. An advisory system designed to facilitate…

  16. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  17. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  18. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  19. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  20. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  1. Ingot Niobium RF Cavity Design and Development at BARC

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, K. C.; Mondal, J.; Ghatak, S.; Dhavale, A. S.; Ghodke, S. R.; Vohra, R. S.; Jawale, S. B.; Dutta, D.; Pujari, P. K.; Saha, T. K.; Bapat, A. V.

    2011-03-31

    This article presents the different activity of Ingot niobium in BARC. BARC is developing a technology for the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS) that will be mainly utilized for the transmutation of nuclear waste and enrichment of U{sup 233}. Design and development of superconducting medium velocity cavity has been taken up as a part of the ADSS project. The design and fabrication of f = 1050 MHz, {beta} = 0.49 with Ingot niobium will be presented. Positron annihilation studies are conducted on small samples of ingot niobium to understand the defect depth profile of the niobium surface. The results are presented here.

  2. PROCESS OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM-TITANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Halden, F.A.; Smiley, W.D.; Hruz, F.M.

    1961-07-01

    A process of coating graphite with niobium - titanium carbide is described. It is found that the addition of more than ten percent by weight of titanium to niobium results in much greater wetting of the graphite by the niobium and a much more adherent coating. The preferred embodiment comprises contacting the graphite with a powdered alloy or mixture, degassing simultaneously the powder and the graphite, and then heating them to a high temperature to cause melting, wetting, spreading, and carburization of the niobium-titanium powder.

  3. Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

    2011-03-01

    Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

  4. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  5. Microstructures in rapidly solidified niobium aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Locci, Ivan E.

    1988-01-01

    The microstructures of niobium aluminides produced by chill block melt spinning were compared to those of niobium aluminides produced by conventional casting. The rapidly solidified alloys were rapidly solidified by melt spinning in an argon atmosphere, and the melt-spun ribbons were examined by optical, X-ray, and TEM techniques. Microstructures were found to range from single-phase for Nb-75 at. pct Al (NbAl3) to two phase for Nb-46 at. pct Al (NbAl3 + Nb2Al). It was found that the melt spinning of Nb-aluminides produced finer grained microstructures than those produced in induction-melted ingots or in powders produced by the rotating electrode process. Ternary additions such as Cr, Ti, and Si tended to form intermetallic phases along the grain boundaries.

  6. Microwave mixing with niobium variable thickness bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.-K.; Callegari, A.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Niobium thin-film bridges 300-A thick, 1-micron wide, and 0.5-micron long joining two bulk films 5000-A thick and having normal resistance of the order of 1 ohm have been fabricated and used for microwave mixing at 10 GHz. They exhibit Josephson, bolometric, and multiple-flux-flow mixing and have useful response at 100-200 GHz. The data show in a direct way limitations imposed by flux flow and heating.

  7. Creep behavior of tungsten/niobium and tungsten/niobium-1 percent zirconium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Titran, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using tungsten fiber reinforced niobium or niobium-1 percent zirconium matrix composites to meet the anticipated increased temperature and creep resistance requirements imposed by advanced space power systems. The results obtained on the short time tensile properties indicated that W/Nb composites showed significant improvements in high temperature strength and offer significant mass reductions for high temperature space power systems. The prime material requirement for space power systems applications is long time creep resistance. A study was conducted to determine the effect of high temperature exposure on the properties of these composites, with emphasis upon their creep behavior at elevated temperatures.

  8. Production of 89Sr in solution reactor.

    PubMed

    Chuvilin, D Yu; Khvostionov, V E; Markovskij, D V; Pavshook, V A; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N N; Udovenko, A N; Shatrov, A V; Vereschagin, Yu I; Rice, J; Tome, L A

    2007-10-01

    The new method for medical (89)Sr production in a reactor with solution fuel is proposed which is characterized by simplicity, high production efficiency and low buildup of radioactive waste. The main advantages of the new technology were validated by numerous experiments. The proposed new technology selectively extracts (89)Sr from a fuel of solution reactor and precludes penetration of (90)Sr into the final product. This method is based on the presence of gaseous radionuclide (89)Kr (T(1/2)=190.7s) in the decay chain (89)Se-->(89)Br-->(89)Kr-->(89)Rb-->(89)Sr. The performed experiments on taking the gas probes from internal volume of the solution 20 kW mini-reactor "Argus" have confirmed that the mechanism for (89)Sr delivery to the sorption volume of the reactor experimental loop is based on transport of gaseous (89)Sr predecessor-radionuclide (89)Kr. According to the measurements of radioactive impurities in a final (89)SrCl(2) solution, the filtration of the gas flow with cermet filters followed by cleaning of (89)Sr chloride solution in chromatographic columns with DOWEX-50 x 8 or Sr-Resin ensures reception of (89)Sr fully meeting the requirements for medical application. The experimental estimations have shown that the proposed new technology is multiply more productive than the traditional industrial methods of (89)Sr reception. PMID:17611114

  9. Liquid-film assisted formation of alumina/niobium interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Marks, Robert A.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2002-06-16

    Alumina has been joined at 1400 degrees C using niobium-based interlayers. Two different joining approaches were compared: solid-state diffusion bonding using a niobium foil as an interlayer, and liquid-film assisted bonding using a multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayer. In both cases, a 127-(mu)m thick niobium foil was used; =1.4-(mu)m or =3-(mu)m thick copper films flanked the niobium. Room-temperature four-point bend tests showed that the introduction of a copper film had a significant beneficial effect on the average strength and the strength distribution. Experiments using sapphire substrates indicated that during bonding the initially continuous copper film evolved into isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. Film breakup appeared to initiate at either niobium grain boundary ridges, or at asperities or irregularities on the niobium surface that caused localized contact with the sapphire.

  10. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of niobium in rocks with sulfochlorophenol S

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, A.E.; Greenland, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    After acid decomposition and potassium pyrosulfate fusion, niobium (1-26 ppm) is separated from interfering elements by extraction into methyl isobutyl ketone from 6 M H2SO4-2 M HF and back-extracted into water. The niobium-sulfochloro-phenol S complex is extracted into amyl alcohol. ?? 1980.

  11. Niobium oxide compositions and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Goodenough, John B; Han, Jian-Tao

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates a niobium oxide useful in anodes of secondary lithium ion batteries. Such niobium oxide has formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and M represents Ti or Zr. The niobium oxide may be in the form of particles, which may be carbon coated. The disclosure also relates to an electrode composition containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. The disclosure further relates to electrodes, such as anodes, and batteries containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. Furthermore, the disclosure relates to methods of forming the above.

  12. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  13. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  14. Niobium matrix composites for high temperature turbine blades, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Laferla, Raffaele; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating fiber-reinforced MMC (niobium matrix) turbine blades to net shape by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). A controllable, repeatable niobium infiltration process was developed, and the kinetics of both deposition and infiltration were studied. Several continuous refractory fibers (Nicalon, Nextel 440, FP-Al2O3, HPZ, and tungsten mesh) were investigated as potential reinforcements for strengthening niobium. Thermodynamic and experimental evaluation indicated FP-Al2O3 and tungsten to be the most chemically compatible with niobium, while Nicalon, FP-Al2O3, and tungsten were found to be best with regard to reinforcing capability. Finally, a protective coating for iridium was found to provide substantial oxidation protection to the niobium blade matrix.

  15. The Manufacturing of Niobium Powder by Hunter Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Sik

    Niobium powder was fabricated by metallothermic reduction process using K2NbF7 as the raw material, KCl and KF as the diluents and Na as the reducing agent. The apparatus for the experiment was designed and built specifically for the present study. Varying properties of niobium powder depending on reaction temperature and excess of reducing agent were analyzed. The niobium particle size increased significantly as the reduction temperature increased from 993 to 1093 K. The particle size was fairly uniform at a given reaction temperature, varying from 0.2 μ m to 50 nm depending on the reaction temperature. The yield of niobium powder increased from 58 to 83% with an increase in reaction temperature. The average particle size of niobium powder was improved from 70 nm to 0.2 μ m with the increase in the amount of Na excess. In addition, the yield rate of Nb powder was 82% in the 5% excess sodium.

  16. Laser polishing of niobium for SRF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Smooth interior surfaces are desired for niobium SRF cavities, now obtained by buffered chemical polish (BCP) and/or electropolish (EP). Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from chemistry and in-process inspection. Here we show that laser polishing can produce smooth topography with Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements similar to that obtained by EP. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damaging it. Computational modeling was used to simulate the surface temperature and explain the mechanism of laser polishing.

  17. Germanium-overcoated niobium Dayem bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Peters, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Overcoating constriction microbridges with semiconducting germanium provides additional thermal conductivity at liquid-helium temperatures to reduce the effects of self-heating in these Josephson junctions. Microwave-induced steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of an overcoated Dayem bridge fabricated in a 15-nm-thick niobium film; at least 20 steps could be counted at 4.2 K. No steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the bridge prior to overcoating. In addition, the germanium overcoat can protect against electrical disturbances at room temperature.

  18. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A...

  19. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  20. STS-89 Endeavour in Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Endeavour awaits further processing in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It had been undergoing preparations for the STS-89 mission in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay rocket booster stack slated for use on the STS-89 mission. The STS-89 launch is targeted for Jan. 20, 1998.

  1. 25 CFR 700.89 - Relocation contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relocation contract. 700.89 Section 700.89 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.89 Relocation contract. The Relocation Contract is that contract signed by the head of household in which he/she agrees to purchase an existing house or...

  2. 25 CFR 700.89 - Relocation contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relocation contract. 700.89 Section 700.89 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.89 Relocation contract. The Relocation Contract is that contract signed by the head of household in which he/she agrees to purchase an existing house or...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.89 - Mergers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Mergers. 1779.89 Section 1779.89 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.89 Mergers. (a) General. The Agency may... in specific loan note agreements; and (3) All property can be legally transferred to the...

  4. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recorded information. 89.405 Section 89.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.405 Recorded information. (a)...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.89 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organization. 1960.89 Section 1960.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.89 Organization. (a) Field council officers...

  6. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  7. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  8. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  9. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  10. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  11. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  12. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  13. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  14. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  15. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  16. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  17. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section 632.89... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.89 Performance standards. The Department of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section...

  18. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  19. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  20. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  1. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  2. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  3. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  4. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  5. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89.507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 160.89 - Medicinal preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medicinal preparations. 160.89 Section 160.89... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Sales and Shipments § 160.89 Medicinal preparations. A compound or mixture containing spirits of turpentine or rosin, or both, with other drugs, when sold for medicinal purposes,...

  7. 7 CFR 160.89 - Medicinal preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medicinal preparations. 160.89 Section 160.89... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Sales and Shipments § 160.89 Medicinal preparations. A compound or mixture containing spirits of turpentine or rosin, or both, with other drugs, when sold for medicinal purposes,...

  8. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  9. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  10. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  11. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  12. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  13. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.89 Firm certification. (a)...

  14. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... pens are located. (b) Care should be taken to protect livestock unloaded en route at a point...

  15. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiations. 101.89 Section 101.89 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89... Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location... cannot be selected in the manner specified in the test order, an alternative selection procedure may...

  17. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  18. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  19. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  20. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Negotiations. 101.89 Section 101.89 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  2. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  3. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  4. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  5. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  6. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  7. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  8. 40 CFR 89.601 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.601 Section 89.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.601 Applicability....

  9. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  10. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The...

  11. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  12. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  13. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  14. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  15. 40 CFR 89.902 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.902 Section 89.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.902...

  16. 40 CFR 89.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 89.4 Section 89.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.4...

  17. 40 CFR 89.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 89.4 Section 89.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.4...

  18. 36 CFR 9.89 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeals. 9.89 Section 9.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.89 Appeals. Written appeals made within 30 days...

  19. 36 CFR 9.89 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals. 9.89 Section 9.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.89 Appeals. Written appeals made within 30 days...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  1. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  2. 40 CFR 89.207 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 89.207 Section 89... Trading Provisions § 89.207 Credit calculation. (a) Requirements for calculating NO X credits from Tier 1... be used in the credit generation calculation described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section. If...

  3. 31 CFR 306.89 - Public officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public officers. 306.89 Section 306.89..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.89 Public officers. Securities registered...

  4. 40 CFR 89.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.1 Section 89.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.1 Applicability. (a) This part applies for all...

  5. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  6. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  7. 42 CFR 84.89 - Weight requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight requirement. 84.89 Section 84.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.89 Weight requirement. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 146.89 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 146.89 Section 146.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class VI Wells § 146.89 Mechanical integrity....

  9. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  10. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  11. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service accumulation, the manufacturer must test each test engine using the specified test procedures, except as provided...

  12. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  13. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  14. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  15. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  16. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  17. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  18. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  19. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  20. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  1. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  2. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  3. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  4. 40 CFR 89.107 - Defeat devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defeat devices. 89.107 Section 89.107... Provisions § 89.107 Defeat devices. (a) An engine may not be equipped with a defeat device. (b) For purposes of this section, “defeat device” means any device, system, or element of design which...

  5. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  6. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  7. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  8. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  9. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  10. 29 CFR 1960.89 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 1960.89 Section 1960.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.89 Organization. (a) Field council officers...

  11. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  12. Niobium alloy heat pipes for use in oxidizing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig Wojcik, C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys have been used for many years in rocket propulsion systems and afterburner sections of gas turbine engines. In these applications, adequate oxidation resistance is provided by protective silicide coatings. By utilizing these coatings and niobium powder metallurgy to produce porous wicks, it has been demonstrated that niobium alloy heat pipes can comfortably operate in flame temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Results of lithium corrosion tests on C-103 (Nb-10%Hf-1%Ti) up to 1477 K will be presented along with thermal performance data for specific heat pipe designs.

  13. Research & Development on Superconducting Niobium Materials via Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Roy, V. C. Sahni, and G. R. Myneni

    2011-03-01

    We present a study of superconducting properties of both large grain (1 mm average grain size) and small grain (50 micron average grain size) Niobium materials containing varying amounts of Tantalum impurities that have been used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient superconducting radio frequency cavities. We found that a buffered chemical polishing of these Niobium samples causes a distinct reduction in the superconducting parameters like TC, wt- ppm to 1300 wt-ppm. Implications of these results on the performance of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities are discussed, especially the anomalous high field RF losses that have been reported in the literature.

  14. Creep behavior of tungsten/niobium and tungsten/niobium-1 percent zirconium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Titran, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    The creep behavior and microstructural stability of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium and niobium 1 percent zirconium was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in order to assess the potential of this material for use in advanced space power systems. The creep behavior of the composite materials could be described by a power law creep equation. A linear relationship was found to exist between the minimum creep rate of the composite and the inverse of the composite creep rupture life. The composite materials had an order of magnitude increase in stress to achieve 1 percent creep strain and in rupture strength at test temperatures of 1400 and 1500 K compared to unreinforced material. The composite materials were also stronger than the unreinforced materials by an order of magnitude when density was taken into consideration. Results obtained on the creep behavior and microstructural stability of the composites show significant potential improvement in high temperature properties and mass reduction for space power system components.

  15. Crystallography and Morphology of Niobium Carbide in As-Cast HP-Niobium Reformer Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Karl G.; Kral, Milo V.

    2012-06-01

    The microstructures of two as-cast heats of niobium-modified HP stainless steels were characterized. Particular attention was paid to the interdendritic niobium-rich carbides formed during solidification of these alloys. At low magnifications, these precipitates are grouped in colonies of similar lamellae. Higher magnifications revealed that the lamellae actually obtain two distinct morphologies. The type I morphology exhibits broad planar interfaces with a smooth platelike shape. Type II lamellae have undulating interfaces and an overall reticulated shape. To provide further insight into the origin of these two different morphologies, the microstructure and crystallography of each have been studied in detail using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, various electron diffraction methods (electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), selected area diffraction (SAD), and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  16. Synthesis of piezoelectric and bioactive NaNbO3 from metallic niobium and niobium oxide.

    PubMed

    Prado da Silva, Marcelo Henrique; da Rocha, Daniel Navarro; de Andrade Gobbo, Luciano; Dos Santos Azevedo, Luciana Maria; Louro, Luís Henrique Leme; Machado Costa, Andréa; Brant de Campos, José

    2016-07-01

    NaNbO3 was synthesized by two different routes, one using metallic niobium powder, and another using niobium oxide (Nb2 O5 ) powder. In both routes an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to hydrothermally treating the powders. In the first approach, the solution concentrations were 3M, 1M, and 0.5M. The second route used solution concentrations of 10M and 12.5M. After the hydrothermal treatments, the powders were heat treated in order to synthesize NaNbO3 . The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refinement. The phases were identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refinement. It was observed that the molar concentrations of the solutions had opposing effects for each route. An antiferroelectric phase was found in both routes. In the niobium metallic route, a ferroelectric phase was also synthesized. This study proves that piezoelectric NaNbO3 can be obtained after alkali treatment of both Nb and Nb2 O5. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 979-985, 2016. PMID:25980635

  17. Manufacture of superconducting niobium cavity parts by hydropercussion punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaryan, N. S.; Shirkov, G. D.; Zhurauski, A. Yu.; Petrakovski, V. S.; Batouritski, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    A complete cycle of manufacturing all parts of superconducting niobium cavities which comprise two half-cells, two drift tubes, and two flanges each has been developed. The cavity half-cells are manufactured by hydropercussion punching, which has a number of advantages over the instrumental stamping technique. For the first time, the diagram of formability of ultrapure niobium has been experimentally obtained for hydropercussion punching and the key parameters of the process have been determined that ensure complete deep-drawing of workpieces, viz., the value of the limit drawing ratio of ultrapure niobium that is 1.92 at a specific impact energy of 0.42 MJ/m2. The deviations of the half-cell dimensions from the rated values do not exceed 0.1 mm. Production tools required for all manufacturing steps have been created. The parameters of machining of the niobium cavity parts prior to welding have been experimentally established.

  18. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips; Haipeng Wang; Andy Wu; T. J. Renk; P Provencio

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV. The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.

  19. Electrochemical Synthesis of Niobium-Hafnium Coatings in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey A.; Kuznetsova, Svetlana V.

    2007-08-01

    Graphite is widely used in technology because of its unique properties. A drawback of graphite is its low heat resistance in oxidizing atmospheres. To increase its heat resistance, Nb-Hf protective coatings were synthesized. Electrodeposition of niobium coatings on graphite with subsequent precise surface alloying of niobium with hafnium was studied. Electrochemical synthesis of Nb-Hf coatings from molten salt systems containing compounds of niobium and hafnium was used too. It was shown that Nb-Hf coatings with a planar growing front can be obtained if the concentration and therefore the limiting current density of the more electropositive component Nb is kept low. Nb-Hf coatings with a thickness of 20 - 30 μm have been obtained in this way from an NaCl-KCl-K2NbF7 (1 wt%)-K2HfF6 (10 wt%)-NaF (5 wt%) melt, above the limiting current density of niobium deposition.

  20. Effects of Impurities on Alumina-Niobium InterfacialMicrostructures

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Sugar, Joshua D.; Gronsky, Ronald; Glaeser,Andreas M.

    2005-06-20

    Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the interfacial microstructural effects of impurities in alumina substrates used to fabricate alumina-niobium interfaces via liquid-film-assisted joining. Three types of alumina were used: undoped high-purity single-crystal sapphire; a high-purity, high-strength polycrystalline alumina; and a lower-purity, lower-strength polycrystalline alumina. Interfaces formed between niobium and both the sapphire and high-purity polycrystalline alumina were free of detectable levels of impurities. In the lower-purity alumina, niobium silicides were observed at the alumina-niobium interface and on alumina grain boundaries near the interface. These silicides formed in small-grained regions of the alumina and were found to grow from the interface into the alumina along grain boundaries. Smaller silicide precipitates found on grain boundaries are believed to form upon cooling from the bonding temperature.

  1. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  2. A bulk niobium superconducting quarter wave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. ); Chiaveri, E. ); Elkonin, B.V. ); Facco, A.; Sokolowski, J.S. . Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro)

    1990-01-01

    A bath-cooled all-niobium 160 MHz quarter wave resonator prototype was constructed and tested. The objective of this research has been the development of a high performance accelerating element with {beta}{sub opt} {approx equal} 0.11 for the ALPI linac at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The design of this resonator was based upon a previous 150 MHz model, with minor changes due to the different frequency and to modified welding procedure. An accelerating field of 5 MV/m was achieved at a power dissipation of 10 W and the low power Q was 2.4 {times} 10{sup 8}. The resonator could dissipate 70 W of power without thermal breakdown. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Niobium Silicon Alloys for Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; D'Addabbo, A.; Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Goupy, J.; Le Sueur, H.; Marnieros, S.

    2014-08-01

    We are studying the properties of Niobium Silicon amorphous alloys as a candidate material for the fabrication of highly sensitive kinetic inductance detectors (KID), optimized for very low optical loads. As in the case of other composite materials, the NbSi properties can be changed by varying the relative amounts of its components. Using a NbSi film with T = 1 K we have been able to obtain the first NbSi resonators, observe an optical response and acquire a spectrum in the band 50-300 GHz. The data taken show that this material has very high kinetic inductance and normal state surface resistivity . These properties are ideal for the development of KID. More measurements are planned to further characterize the NbSi alloy and fully investigate its potential.

  4. Vacuum plasma spraying of tantalum and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Eschnauer, H.; Haeuser, B.; Jaeger, D.

    1985-11-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying is a suitable process for producing high quality coatings of reactive metals such as tantalum and niobium. Ta and Nb coatings used for corrosion protection must be extremely dense, homogeneous, and of high purity and adhesion. Hence, the process parameters have to be carefully optimized even with regard to the spraying powder, its grain size and morphology. Spraying equipment with vacuum systems which allow for a final pressure of 10/sup -3/ mbar, which have heated and evacuated powder feeder units, and heated substrates, as well as the use of powders with high purity and low gas content, are required for producing high quality Ta and Nb coatings. Corrosion tests in sulfuric acid and aqua regia at different concentrations show that Ta and Nb coatings sprayed under optimized conditions have high resistance to both general and localized corrosion.

  5. Enhanced characterization of niobium surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are under way to both improve surface topography and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, power spectral density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how the process modifies topography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, niobium surfaces with different process histories are sampled with atomic force microscopy and stylus profilometry and analyzed to trace topography evolution at different scales. An optimized PSD analysis protocol to serve SRF needs is presented.

  6. Parameter Optimization for Laser Polishing of Niobium for SRF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, John Michael; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    Surface smoothness is critical to the performance of SRF cavities. As laser technology has been widely applied to metal machining and surface treatment, we are encouraged to use it on niobium as an alternative to the traditional wet polishing process where aggressive chemicals are involved. In this study, we describe progress toward smoothing by optimizing laser parameters on BCP treated niobium surfaces. Results shows that microsmoothing of the surface without ablation is achievable.

  7. Characterization of electron beam melted uranium - 6% niobium ingots

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-10-31

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6{percent} niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting,hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt /VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium, trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Ingot samples were also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  8. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; niobium (columbium) and tantalum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crockett, R.N.; Sutphin, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Major world resources of niobium and tantalum are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of niobium and tantalum based on inventory information; Part II contains tables of both geologic and mineral-resource information and includes production data collected by ISMI participants. Niobium is used principally as an alloying element in special steels and superalloys, and tantalum is used mainly in electronics. Minerals in the columbite-tantalite series are principal ore minerals of niobium and tantalum. Pyrochlore is a principal source of niobium. These minerals are found in carbonatite, certain rocks in alkaline igneous complexes, pegmatite, and placer deposits. ISMI estimates show that there are over 7 million metric tons of niobium and almost 0.5 million metric tons of tantalum in known deposits, outside of China and the former Soviet Union, for which reliable estimates have been made. Brazilian deposits, followed by Canadian deposits, contain by far the largest source of niobium. Tantalum production is spread widely among several countries, and Brazil and Canada are the most significant of these producers. Brazil's position is further strengthened by potential byproduct columbite from tin mining. Present economically exploitable resources of niobium appear to be sufficient for the near future, but Brazil will continue to be the predominant world supplier of ferrocolumbium. Tantalum, a byproduct of tin production, has been captive to the fluctuations of that market, but resources in pegmatite in Canada and Australia make it likely that future increases in the present modest demand will be met.

  9. Grain boundary niobium carbides in Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.

    1997-12-15

    A coordinated, multidisciplinary investigation was conducted to determine the mechanisms and rate controlling processes for environmentally assisted crack growth under sustained (static) loading in Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures. The results showed that oxygen had a significant influence on crack growth, increasing the crack growth rate, for example, by nearly four orders of magnitude at 973 K. Based on results from the companion surface chemical and metallurgical studies, it was suggested that the mechanism for crack growth enhancement by oxygen was the formation and fracture of a brittle niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-type) film on the grain boundary surfaces. The Nb came principally from the oxidation and decomposition of NbC (or Nb-rich carbides) at the grain boundaries, and crack growth was controlled by the rate of oxidation and decomposition of these carbides. Because there was extensive oxidation of the primary NbC, these carbides were implicitly considered to be the primary source of Nb. Although these carbides were large and contained substantial amounts of Nb, they were too few and spaced too far apart to be of concern (averaging one NbC for two grain boundary facets and spaced about 25 {micro}m apart). To wit, whether the freed Nb could diffuse over such a large distance and be oxidized to support the postulated mechanism for crack growth? The presence of other Nb-rich carbides elsewhere on the grain boundaries, or other sources for Nb, therefore, needs to be re-examined and is the focus of this study. In this paper, the results of a study of grain boundary niobium carbides and their distribution in Inconel 718 are reported, and are discussed in terms of their contribution to crack growth.

  10. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  11. Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy.

    PubMed

    Dalstra, M; Denes, G; Melsen, B

    2000-02-01

    The mechanical properties of the newly introduced titanium-niobium finishing wires were investigated. Both in bending and torsional loading mode, the stiffness, yield point, post-yield behavior, and springback of titanium-niobium wires were experimentally determined and compared to those of equally sized stainless steel wires. The experimentally obtained values were also validated with theoretical values from engineering formulas of cantilever deformations. The ratios for these parameters for the two materials proved to be different in bending and torsion. The stiffness of titanium-niobium in bending is roughly half of that of stainless steel, whereas in torsion it is roughly one-third. These characteristics enable the clinician to use titanium-niobium for creative bends without the excessive force levels of steel wires. The springback of titanium-niobium in bending is 14% lower than that of steel, whereas in torsion it is about the same or even slightly higher than that of steel, thus making it possible to utilize the wire for even major third-order corrections. Finally, the weldability of titanium-niobium wires was found to be good, so it is possible to weld wires of different dimensions together for the generation of differentiated force systems. PMID:11168279

  12. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria Guimarães, Rogério Contato Ribas, Rogério Marques Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins Menezes, Andréia Duarte Fridman, Daniel Pallos Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-04

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  13. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  14. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM's position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM's ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency - SRF - cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world's largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  15. Determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1960-01-01

    A modified niobium thiocyanate spectrophotometric procedure relatively insensitive to titanium interference is presented. Elements such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and rhenium, which seriously interfere in the spectrophotometric determination of niobium, are separated by simple sodium hydroxide fusion and leach; iron and magnesium are used as carriers for the niobium. Tolerance limits are given for 28 elements in the spectrophotometric method. Specific application is made to the determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks. The granite G-1 contains 0.0022% niobium and the diabase W-1 0.00096% niobium.

  16. Thermal transport properties of niobium and some niobium base alloys from 80 to 1600/sup 0/K

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.; Graves, R.S.; Williams, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The electrical resistivities and absolute Seebeck coefficients of 99.8 at. % niobium with a RRR of 36, Nb-4.8 at. % W, Nb-5 at. % Mo, Nb-10 at. % Mo, and Nb-2.4 at. % Mo-2.4 at. % Zr were measured from 80 to 1600/sup 0/K, and the thermal conductivities of the niobium and Nb-5 at. % W were measured from 80 to 1300/sup 0/K. A technique is described for measuring the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of a specimen during radial heat flow measurements of the thermal conductivity. The transport property results, which had uncertainties of +-0.4%for electrical resistivity and +-1.4% for thermal conductivity, showed the influence of tungsten and molybdenum solutes on the transport properties of niobium and were used to obtain the electronic Lorenz function of pure niobium, which was found to approach the Sommerfeld value at high temperatures.

  17. 7 CFR 966.89 - Derogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derogation. 966.89 Section 966.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  18. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  19. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  20. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89.507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  1. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  2. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  3. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  4. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  5. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  6. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  7. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  8. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... 136 of this title. This need only be accomplished if the laboratory will be processing source...

  9. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  10. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  11. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  12. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  13. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  14. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  15. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  16. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  17. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  18. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  19. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  20. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  1. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.89 Performance standards. The Department of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section 401(h)(1... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section...

  2. 44 CFR 5.89 - Waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver. 5.89 Section 5.89 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas or Other Legal Demands for Testimony or...

  3. 40 CFR 89.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.202 Section 89.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and...

  4. 40 CFR 89.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... part, the definitions in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A, D, I, and N, apply to this subpart. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.402 Section 89.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  5. 40 CFR 89.1002 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.1002 Section 89.1002 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 89.802 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.802 Section 89.802 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Defect Reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 89.103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.103 Section 89.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...

  8. 40 CFR 89.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in this part, the definitions in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A, D, I, and N, apply to this subpart. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.302 Section 89.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  9. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section 632.89 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section...

  10. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  12. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  13. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  14. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  15. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  16. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER...

  17. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged..., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. New nonroad engines exported to such countries...

  18. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  20. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  1. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  2. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  3. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section 89.327....327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... and the temperature of the charge air shall be monitored and recorded....

  4. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section 89.327....327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... and the temperature of the charge air shall be monitored and recorded....

  5. 49 CFR 89.39 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.39 Administrative charges. In accordance with 4 CFR 102.13, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of the debt to the IRS shall... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative charges. 89.39 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 89.39 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.39 Administrative charges. In accordance with 4 CFR 102.13, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of the debt to the IRS shall... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative charges. 89.39 Section...

  7. 40 CFR 89.901 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.901 Section 89.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  8. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  9. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  10. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  11. 40 CFR 89.905 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 89.905 Section 89.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  12. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  13. 40 CFR 89.901 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.901 Section 89.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  14. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  15. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  16. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  17. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  18. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  19. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  20. 40 CFR 89.902 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... piece of equipment employed from year to year in the ordinary course of business for product development... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.902 Definitions... an exemption granted under § 89.1004(b) for the purpose of exporting new nonroad engines....

  1. 31 CFR 306.89 - Public officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public officers. 306.89 Section 306..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.89 Public officers. Securities registered...

  2. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  3. 40 CFR 89.508 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 89.508 Section 89.508... Test procedures. (a)(1) For nonroad engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are the nonroad engine 8-mode test procedure as described in subpart E of this...

  4. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.89 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... shall be conducted with the methods in § 141.23(k)(1). (1) Analyses for alkalinity,...

  5. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  7. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  8. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  9. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  10. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  11. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  12. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Niobium for SRF Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2006-10-31

    Optimized mechanical and physical properties of high purity niobium are crucial for obtaining high performance SRF particle beam accelerator structures consistently. This paper summarizes these important material properties for both high purity polycrystalline and single crystal niobium.

  13. Niobium-based superconducting nano-device fabrication using all-metal suspended masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaddar, S.; van Zanten, D.; Fay, A.; Sacépé, B.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2013-09-01

    We report a novel method for the fabrication of superconducting nano-devices based on niobium. The well-known difficulties of lithographic patterning of high-quality niobium are overcome by replacing the usual organic resist mask by a metallic one. The quality of the fabrication procedure is demonstrated by the realization and characterization of long and narrow superconducting lines and niobium-gold-niobium proximity SQUIDs.

  14. Structure and texture of electrolytic superconducting coatings of high-purity niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, V. N.; Shevyrev, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Modes of epitaxial growth of electrolytic superconducting coatings of high-purity niobium on substrates of niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten have been investigated. The dynamics of changes in the structure and texture of the coatings depending on the method of treatment of substrates, cathode current density, and thickness of the deposited niobium layer has been studied.

  15. Elucidating the Band Gap of Niobium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Andrew; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-03-01

    Like VO2, niobium dioxide (NbO2) belongs to the family of transition metal oxides with a temperature-driven metal-to-insulator transition. However, NbO2 has received considerably less attention, and several open questions about the material remain. One such question, of both practical and fundamental importance, is the nature and size of the band gap in the low-temperature, distorted rutile phase with a range reported for the gap of 0.5 eV to 1.2 eV. In this work, we investigate the low-temperature phase, utilizing several methodologies - density functional theory within the standard local density approximation (LDA), LDA +U, hybrid functional, and the GW approximation, to better understand the physics of the band gap in NbO2. Comparisons of the calculations are made to recent experimental work on NbO2 utilizing photoemission spectroscopy and ellipsometry. This work is supported by DOE under the SciDAC program, the NSF, and SRC.

  16. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  17. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  18. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  19. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  20. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  2. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  3. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  4. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.503... Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) test orders than an annual limit determined to be the larger of...

  5. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  7. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.503... Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) test orders than an annual limit determined to be the larger of...

  8. SRF niobium characterization using SIMS and FIB-TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevie, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities has been improved by elemental analysis at high depth resolution and by high magnification microscopy. This paper summarizes the technique development and the results obtained on poly-crystalline, large grain, and single crystal SRF niobium. Focused ion beam made possible sample preparation using transmission electron microscopy and the images obtained showed a very uniform oxide layer for all samples analyzed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen and the hydrogen content exhibited a relationship with improvement in performance. Depth profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen did not show major differences with heat treatment. Niobium oxide less than 10 nm thick was shown to be an effective hydrogen barrier. Niobium with titanium contamination showed unexpected performance improvement.

  9. Precipitation of hydrides in high purity niobium after different treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Barkov, F.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Grassellino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation of lossy non-superconducting niobium hydrides represents a known problem for high purity niobium in superconducting applications. Using cryogenic optical and laser confocal scanning microscopy we have directly observed surface precipitation and evolution of niobium hydrides in samples after different treatments used for superconducting RF cavities for particle acceleration. Precipitation is shown to occur throughout the sample volume, and the growth of hydrides is well described by the fast diffusion-controlled process in which almost all hydrogen is precipitated at $T=140$~K within $\\sim30$~min. 120$^{\\circ}$C baking and mechanical deformation are found to affect hydride precipitation through their influence on the number of nucleation and trapping centers.

  10. Superconducting DC and RF Properties of Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2011-07-01

    The thermal conductivity, DC magnetization and penetration depth of large-grain niobium hollow cylindrical rods fabricated from ingots, manufactured by CBMM subjected to chemical and heat treatment were measured. The results confirm the influence of chemical and heat-treatment processes on the superconducting properties, with no significant dependence on the impurity concentrations in the original ingots. Furthermore, RF properties, such as the surface resistance and quench field of the niobium rods were measured using a TE{sub 011} cavity. The hollow niobium rod is the center conductor of this cavity, converting it to a coaxial cavity. The quench field is limited by the critical heat flux through the rods' cooling channel.

  11. SRF niobium characterization using SIMS and FIB-TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Stevie, F. A.

    2015-12-04

    Our understanding of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities has been improved by elemental analysis at high depth resolution and by high magnification microscopy. This paper summarizes the technique development and the results obtained on poly-crystalline, large grain, and single crystal SRF niobium. Focused ion beam made possible sample preparation using transmission electron microscopy and the images obtained showed a very uniform oxide layer for all samples analyzed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen and the hydrogen content exhibited a relationship with improvement in performance. Depth profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen did not show major differences with heat treatment. Niobium oxide less than 10 nm thick was shown to be an effective hydrogen barrier. Niobium with titanium contamination showed unexpected performance improvement.

  12. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  13. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  14. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  15. Interfacial fracture toughness of alumina/niobium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.G. ); O'Dowd, N.P.; Shih, C.F. . Div. of Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The interfacial fracture toughness of an alumina/niobium composite has been measured as a function of phase angle. The interface was formed by solid-state bonding bulk Coor's AD-999 fine-grain alumina with a commercial purity niobium at 1600{degrees}C for 0.5 hr under a pressure of 10.5 MPa. The alumina/niobium system has a number of features which makes it ideal for an investigation of interfacial fracture toughness. From HREM data we estimate that the width of the interface is no more than 10 atomic planes. Furthermore the thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials differ by less than 5% so residual stresses due to the bonding process are small. Using symmetric and asymmetric four point bend specimens we have measured the fracture toughness of homogenous alumina and that of the alumina/niobium bimaterial in combinations of in-plane shear and tension. The fracture toughness of the homogenous alumina is relatively insensitive to the loading phase. The measured fracture toughness K{sub c} of the interface, however, depended strongly on phase angle. We were unable to obtain valid alumina/niobium interfacial toughness data at negative phase angles as the fracture initiates in the alumina and not at the interface. In symmetric bending at a phase angle {approx}5{degrees}, we measured a nominal interface toughness of 4.0 MPa{radical}m, comparable to the homogeneous alumina. We found that the toughness increased with loading phase angle to a value of K{sub c} {approx} 9 MPa{radical}m at a phase between 25{degrees} and 40{degrees}. Preliminary calculations and experiments suggest that this effect is due to an asymmetric stress distribution, with respect to the interface, and plastic deformation in the niobium. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of Surface Flow on Topography in Niobium Electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Kelley, C.E. Reece, L. Zhao

    2011-03-01

    Electropolishing (EP) is reliably delivering improved performance of multi-celled niobium SRF accelerator cavities, attributed to the smoother surface obtained. This superior leveling is a consequence of an etchant concentration gradient layer that arises in the HF-H2SO4 electrolyte adjacent to the niobium surface during polishing. Electrolyte circulation raises the prospect that fluid flow adjacent to the surface might affect the diffusion layer and impair EP performance. In this study, preliminary bench-top experiments with a moving electrode apparatus were conducted. We find that flow conditions approximating cavity EP show no effects attributable to depletion layer disruption.

  17. Study of AC/RF properties of SRF ingot niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Tsindlekht, Menachem I; Genkin, Valery M; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to correlate the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities made of niobium with the superconducting properties, we present the results of the magnetization and ac susceptibility of the niobium used in the superconducting radiofrequency cavity fabrication. The samples were subjected to buffer chemical polishing (BCP) surface and high temperature heat treatments, typically applied to the cavities fabrications. The analysis of the results show the different surface and bulk ac conductivity for the samples subjected to BCP and heat treatment. Furthermore, the RF surface impedance is measured on the sample using a TE011 microwave cavity for a comparison to the low frequency measurements.

  18. PROCESS OF PRODUCING A NIOBIUM-TIN COMPOUND

    DOEpatents

    Zegler, S.T.; Darby, J.B. Jr.

    1963-04-01

    This patent deals with a process of preparing pure Nb/sub 3/Sn. The process comprises heating powders of niobium and excess tin to 900 to 1000 deg C, whereby niobium reacts with the molten tin under the formation of Nb/sub 3/Sn; cooling and powdering the product and immersing the powder in concentrated hydrochloric acid for removal of excessive tin; separating the Nb/sub 3/Sn, rinsing and drying it and sintering it in an inert atmosphere at 900 to 1300 deg C. (AEC)

  19. America's Overview of Superconducting Science and Technology of Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Ganapati Myneni

    2011-03-01

    This contribution will present an overview of the results from R&D programs in the USA over the past four years towards the development of ingot Niobium as a viable alternative material to fabricate SRF cavities for particle accelerators. Activities at several laboratories and universities include fabrication, surface treatment and RF testing of single- and multi-cell cavities and studies of the thermal, mechanical and superconducting properties of samples from ingots of different purity. Possible advantages of ingot niobium over standard fine-grain (ASTM 6) are discussed and a streamlined treatment procedure to fully exploit those advantages is proposed.

  20. Niobium-Matrix-Composite High-Temperature Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Heng, Sangvavann; Harding, John T.

    1995-01-01

    High-temperture composite-material turbine blades comprising mainly niobium matrices reinforced with refractory-material fibers being developed. Of refractory fibrous materials investigated, FP-AL(2)0(3), tungsten, and polymer-based SiC fibers most promising. Blade of this type hollow and formed in nearly net shape by wrapping mesh of reinforcing refractory fibers around molybdenum mandrel, then using thermal-gradient chemical-vapor infiltration (CVI) to fill interstices with niobium. CVI process controllable and repeatable, and kinetics of both deposition and infiltration well understood.

  1. Niobium enrichment and environmental enhancement of creep crack growth in nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.; Dwyer, D.J.

    1995-04-15

    In this paper, the possible role of niobium in the environmental enhancement of creep crack growth in nickel-base superalloys is further examined. The examination included (1) surface enrichment of Nb in a commercial Inconel 718; (2) a source of niobium and its interaction with oxygen; (3) preferential oxidation of Nb at the crack tip, and (4) correlations between environmental sensitivity and niobium concentration of nickel-base superalloys from the literature. The role of niobium was suggested by recent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies. The XPS studies show a significant increase in the concentration of niobium on the (001) surface of an Inconel 718 single crystal after heating at temperatures above 775 K. Considerable segregation of niobium was also found on the grain boundaries of a thermally aged commercial (polycrystalline) Inconel 718. The CCGR data showed significant enhancement by oxygen and water vapor at temperatures of 800--975 K where niobium enrichment occurred.

  2. Variation of Mechanical Properties of High RRR And Reactor Grade Niobium With Heat Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Myneni; H. Umezawa

    2003-06-01

    Superconducting rf cavities used as accelerating structures in particle accelerators are made from high purity niobium with residual resistance ratios greater than 250. Reactor grade niobium is also used to make wave-guide and/or end group components for these accelerating structures. The major impurities in this type of niobium are interstitially dissolved gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to carbon. After fabricating the niobium accelerating structures, they are subjected to heat treatments for several hours in vacuum at temperatures of up to 900 C for degassing hydrogen or up to 1400 C for improving the thermal conductivity of niobium considerably. These heat treatments are affecting the mechanical properties of niobium drastically. In this paper the variation of the mechanical properties of high purity and reactor grade niobium with heat treatments in a vacuum of {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr and temperatures from 600 C to 1250 C for periods of 10 to 6 hours are presented.

  3. Enrichment of Rare Earth and Niobium from a REE-Nb-Fe Associated Ore via Reductive Roasting Followed by Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mudan; You, Zhixiong; Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Xiang; Li, Guanghui

    2016-02-01

    REE-Nb-Fe ore is a typical refractory resource rich in valuable elements. In this article, coal-based reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation is proposed to recover rare earth element (REE), niobium (Nb), and powdered metallic iron (Fe) concentrate from a REE-Nb-Fe raw concentrate containing 31.9% total iron grade (TFe), 3.2% rare earth oxides (REO), and 2.9% Nb2O5. Sodium sulfate is employed to enhance the reduction of iron oxide and to facilitate the growth of metallic iron grains. A magnetic fraction with TFe of 89.3%, iron metallization of 95.8% and iron recovery of 91.5% is obtained by magnetic separation after the raw concentrate is reduced to 1100°C for 120 min in the presence of 15 wt.% sodium sulfate. The contents of rare earth and niobium in the nonmagnetic fraction are enriched to 5.4% (REO) and 4.6% (Nb2O5) with recoveries of 96.1% and 95.8%, respectively. The TFe in the nonmagnetic fraction obtained after the separation is decreased to 4.8% accordingly. The reactions between sodium sulfate and SiO2/Al2O3 enhance the reduction by destroying the mineral structure. The separation of iron from rare earth and niobium is highly improved as metallic iron grains grow markedly when roasted in the presence of sodium sulfate.

  4. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Schmidt, A.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Singer, W.

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysis of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.

  5. High-Q superconducting niobium cavities for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, L. A. N.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.; Castro, P. J.; Barroso, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to optimize the electric Q-factor of superconducting niobium klystron cavities to be used in parametric transducers of the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave detector. Many cavities were manufactured from niobium with relatively high tantalum impurities (1420 ppm) and they were cryogenically tested to determine their resonance frequencies, unloaded electrical quality factors (Q0) and electromagnetic couplings. These cavities were closed with a flat niobium plate with tantalum impurities below 1000 ppm and an unloaded electrical quality factors of the order of 105 have been obtained. AC conductivity of the order of 1012 S/m has been found for niobium cavities when matching experimental results with computational simulations. These values for the Q-factor would allow the detector to reach the quantum limit of sensitivity of ~ 10-22 Hz-1/2 in the near future, making it possible to search for gravitational waves around 3.2 kHz. The experimental tests were performed at the laboratories of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and at the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv - CTA).

  6. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150 mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400 MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10 nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4 K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  7. Cu-Nb-Si (Copper-Niobium-Silicon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Copper-Niobium-Silicon.

  8. Ordering in non-stoichiometric carbides of niobium and tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Pilipovskii, Yu. L.; Shamatov, Yu. M.; Svintsova, S.E.

    1986-03-01

    Ordering processes were studied in the nonstoichiometric carbides of Nb and Ta. A mechanism of slip transition was proposed for the ordering of NbC/sub 2/, accompanied by precipitation of niobium metal. A diagram of the restructuring of the fcc lattice of NbC to the bcc lattice of Nb is presented.

  9. Carbon-supported and alumina-supported niobium sulfide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Allali, N.; Marie, A.M.; Danot, M.

    1995-10-01

    Few studies deal with the properties of niobium sulfide as a hydrodesulfurization catalyst. In this paper, the preparation of carbon-supported niobium sulfide catalysts was optimized concerning (i) the nature of the soluble precursor, (ii) the drying process, and (iii) the sulfurizing treatment, which was always performed under atmospheric pressure but for different H{sub 2}S-based flows and reaction temperatures. The activities of the best samples prepared with niobium oxalate as the impregnation salt, drying at room temperature, and presulfurization with N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S at 400{degrees}C are superior to that of a supported MoS{sub 2} reference catalyst. Alumina-supported systems can be sulfurized only under more severe conditions (CS{sub 2} under pressure). After optimization of the sulfurization treatment (400{degrees}C, 10 h) the maximum activity obtained is significantly higher than that of a molybdenum sulfide reference catalyst. The catalytic activities of the various catalysts studied are related to their morphological and chemical characteristics using TPR and EXAFS measurements. The work illustrates the importance of the support and the sulfurization method on the genesis of a niobium sulfide active phase. 37 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Schmidt, A.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Singer, W.

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysismore » of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.« less

  11. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Henry, M.; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-01

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, Tc. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150 mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400 MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb2O5, consumed the top 6-10 nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. Tc measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a Tc approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4 K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  12. High-Temperature Creep Behavior Of Fiber-Reinforced Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Titran, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Study conducted to determine feasibility of using composite materials in advanced space power systems, described in 22-page report. Tungsten fibers reduce creep and mass in advanced power systems. Reinforcing niobium alloys with tungsten fibers increases their resistances to creep by factors of as much as 10.

  13. Superconducting niobium thin film slow-wave structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Petty, S. M.; Allen, L. H.; Beasley, M. R.; Hammond, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A superconducting comb structure as a slow-wave element in a traveling-wave maser will significantly improve maser noise temperature and gain by reducing the insertion loss. The results of the insertion loss measurements of superconducting niobium slow-wave structures subjected to maser operating conditions at X-Band frequencies are presented.

  14. Oxidation Behavior of Binary Niobium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.; Corey, James L.

    1960-01-01

    This investigation concludes a study to determine the effects of up to 25 atomic percent of 55 alloying additions on the oxidation characteristics of niobium. The alloys were evaluated by oxidizing in an air atmosphere for 4 hours at 1000 C and 2 hours at 1200 C. Titanium and chromium improved oxidation resistance at both evaluation conditions. Vanadium and aluminum improved oxidation resistance at 1000 C, even though the V scale tended to liquefy and the Al specimens became brittle and the scale powdery. Copper, cobalt, iron, and iridium improved oxidation resistance at 1200 C. Other investigations report tungsten and molybdenum are protective up to about 1000 C, and tantalum at 1100 C. The most important factor influencing the rate of oxidation was the ion size of the alloy additions. Ions slightly smaller than the Nb(5+) ion are soluble in the oxide lattice and tend to lower the compressive stresses in the bulk scale that lead to cracking. The solubility of the alloying addition also depends on the valence to some extent. All of the elements mentioned that improve the oxidation resistance of Nb fit this size criterion with the possible exception of Al, whose extremely small size in large concentrations would probably lead to the formation of a powdery scale. Maintenance of a crack-free bulk scale for as long as possible may contribute to the formation of a dark subscale that ultimately is rate- controlling in the oxidation process. The platinum-group metals, especially Ir, appear to protect by entrapment of the finely dispersed alloying element by the incoming Nb2O5 metal-oxide interface. This inert metallic Ir when alloyed in a sufficient amount with Yb appears to give a ductile phase dispersed in the brittle oxide. This scale would then flow more easily to relieve the large compressive stresses to delay cracking. Complex oxide formation (which both Ti and Zr tend to initiate) and valence effects, which probably change the vacancy concentration in the scale

  15. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  16. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator: THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA NONROAD EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINES UNDER 40 CFR 89.1003... of design installed on or in a nonroad engine, vehicle or equipment in compliance with regulations... remove or render inoperative such a device or element of design after the sale and delivery to...

  17. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  18. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  19. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  20. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 89.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... at maximum power and torque. (10) Maximum air flow. (11) Air inlet restriction. (12) Exhaust pipe... span traces for each range used. (5) Air temperature after and pressure drop across the charge...

  1. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  2. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  3. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  4. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  5. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  6. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator: THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA NONROAD EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINES UNDER 40 CFR 89.1003..., into commerce, of any new nonroad engine manufactured after the applicable effective date under this part, or any nonroad vehicle or equipment containing such engine, unless such engine is covered by...

  7. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  8. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  9. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a) The negotiation is triggered by the fixed-satellite service...

  10. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a) The negotiation is triggered by the fixed-satellite service...

  11. 9 CFR 89.4 - Watering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LAW § 89.4 Watering. Livestock should be furnished an ample supply of potable water. Water treated... other objectionable matter should not be used. Troughs and other receptacles should be clean. In cold weather, the water should be free from ice....

  12. 9 CFR 89.4 - Watering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LAW § 89.4 Watering. Livestock should be furnished an ample supply of potable water. Water treated... other objectionable matter should not be used. Troughs and other receptacles should be clean. In cold weather, the water should be free from ice....

  13. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  14. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  15. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  16. AGU: 89 Years of Dynamic Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In its 89 years, AGU has matured and expanded through the dedicated administrative direction of three able leaders-John A. Fleming, Waldo E. Smith, and A. F. Spilhaus, Jr.-each with a vision of a strong scientific organization that serves individuals as they extend the knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the planets, and their space environments.

  17. City FLEX 89: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Kathy

    Information is provided on San Diego City College's Flex 89 Program, a 3-day staff development effort offered for the college's administrators, full-time and adjunct faculty, and classified staff. The packet includes the flyer sent to all participants, the Flex Catalog and registration form, an example of an enrollment confirmation, the program…

  18. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  19. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  20. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  3. Niobium tetrahalide complexes with neutral diphosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Chang, Yao-Pang; Hector, Andrew L; Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Stenning, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    The reactions of NbCl4 with diphosphine ligands o-C6H4(PMe2)2, Me2PCH2CH2PMe2 or Et2PCH2CH2PEt2 in a 1 : 2 molar ratio in MeCN solution produced eight-coordinate [NbCl4(diphosphine)2]. [NbBr4(diphosphine)2] (diphosphine = o-C6H4(PMe2)2 or Me2PCH2CH2PMe2) were made similarly from NbBr4. X-ray crystal structures show that [NbCl4{o-C6H4(PMe2)2}2] has a dodecahedral geometry, but the complexes with dimethylene-backboned diphosphines are distorted square antiprisms. The Nb-P distances and niobium tetrabromide, conveniently made from NbCl4 and BBr3, is a chain polymer with edge-linked NbBr6 octahedra and alternating long and short Nb-Nb distances, the latter ascribed to Nb-Nb bonds. PMID:27094082

  4. Corrosion behavior of niobium coated 304 stainless steel in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    The niobium coating is fabricated on the surface of AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) by using a high energy micro arc alloying technique in order to improvecorrosion resistance of the steel against acidic environments. The electrochemical corrosion resistance of the niobium coating in 0.7 M sulfuric acid solutions is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and the open circuit potential versus time. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the niobium coating increases the free corrosion potential of the substrate by 110 mV and a reduction in the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude compared to the substrate alone. The niobium coating maintains large impedance and effectively offers good protection for the substrate during the long-term exposure tests, which is mainly ascribed to the niobium coating acting inhibiting permeation of corrosive species. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical impedance models are proposed to elucidate the corrosion resistance behavior of the niobium coating in acid solutions.

  5. Method for etching thin films of niboium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOEpatents

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-11-23

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds is provided in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  6. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  7. Long-time creep behavior of the niobium alloy C-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Klopp, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The creep behavior of C-103 was studied as a function of stress, temperature, and grain size for test times to 19000 hr. Over the temperature range 827 to 1204 C and the stress range 6.89 to 138 MPa, only tertiary (accelerating) creep was observed. The creep strain epsilon can be related to time t by an exponential relation epsilon = epsilon(0) + K e raised to power (st) - 1), where epsilon (0) is initial creep strain, K is the tertiary creep strain parameter, and s is the tertiary creep rate parameter. The observed stress exponent 2.87 is similar to the three power law generally observed for secondary (linear) creep of Class I solid solutions. The apparent activation energy 374 kj/g mol is close to that observed for self diffusion of pure niobium. The initial tertiary creep rate was slightly faster for fine grained than for coarse-grained material. The strain parameter K can be expressed as a combination of power functions of stress and grain size and an exponential function of temperature. Strain time curves generated by using calculated values for K and s showed reasonable agreement with observed curves to strains of at least 4 percent. The time to 1 percent strain was related to stress, temperature, and grain size in a similar manner as the initial tertiary creep rate.

  8. Microstructure, oxidation behavior and mechanical behavior of lens deposited niobium-titanium-silicon and niobium-titanium-silicon based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoff, Ryan Richard

    With current high temperature structural materials such as nickel based superalloys being pushed to the limits of suitable operating conditions, there comes a need for replacement materials with even higher temperature capabilities. Niobium silicon based systems have been shown to have superior density normalized strength at elevated temperatures when compared to currently used alloys. The drawbacks associated with the niobium silicon system are due to catastrophic oxidation behavior at elevated temperatures. Alloying addition have been shown to increase the oxidation resistance near suitable levels, but also decrease the high temperature strength and increases creep rates when compared to the binary alloy system. The microstructure of the material is similar to metal matrix composites in which high melting temperature silicides are dispersed in a niobium based matrix phase. The silicides produce high temperature strength while the niobium based matrix increases the room temperature properties such as fracture toughness. The bulk of the research has been conducted on directionally solidified material which has a coarse microstructure due to the slow cooling rates associated with the processing condition. The current research uses a powder metallurgy process termed Laser Engineered Net Shaping, or LENS, to produce material with a significantly refined microstructure due to fast cooling rates associated with the laser process. Several compositions of alloys were examined and the ideal processing parameters were determined for each alloy. The resulting microstructures show a refinement of the microstructure as expected with a fine scale distribution of Nb5Si3 and Nb3Si dispersed in a niobium based matrix phase. The high temperature oxidation behavior of the LENS deposited alloys was comparable to alloys produced using other techniques. A non protective oxide scale formed on samples exposed for only 0.5 hours but was not protective and showed large amounts of

  9. Thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium and tantalum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.

    1981-10-01

    Heats of transport have been determined for thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in pure vanadium, niobium and tantalum; in vanadium alloyed with either niobium, titanium or chromium; and in niobium-tantalum alloys. In all cases, thermotransport was toward colder regions and was significantly greater for deuterium than for hydrogen. A mass spectrometric technique was used to simultaneously measure heats of transport for hydrogen and deuterium in a single specimen containing both isotopes. This technique greatly increased the precision with which isotope effects in the heat of transport could be measured. The predominant effect of alloying was to dramatically increase thermotransport; however, thermotransport decreased as niobium was added to tantalum.

  10. Determination of niobium in rocks by an isotope dilution spectrophotometric method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1970-01-01

    Rocks and minerals are fused with sodium peroxide in the presence of carrierfree 95Nb. The fusion cake is leached with water and the precipitate dissolved in hydrofluoric-sulfuric acid mixture. Niobium is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone and further purified by ion exchange. The amount of niobium is determined spectrophotometrically with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol, and the chemical yield of the separations determined by counting 95Nb. This procedure is faster and less sensitive to interferences than previously proposed methods for determining niobium in rocks.The high purity of the separated niobium makes the method applicable to nearly all matrices. ?? 1970.

  11. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Kneisel, P.

    2007-08-09

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was build. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 {mu}m of Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120 deg. C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  12. Magnetic Property in Large Array Niobium Antidot Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinghui, Chen; Hsiang-Hsi, Kung; Wei-Li, Lee; Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan Team

    2014-03-01

    In a superconducting ring, the total flux inside the ring is required to be an integer number of the flux quanta. Therefore, a supercurrent current can appear within the ring in order to satisfy this quantization rule, which gives rise to certain magnetic response. By using a special monolayer polymer/nanosphere hybrid we developed previously, we fabricated a series of superconducting niobium antidot thin films with different antidot diameters. The antidots form well-ordered triangular lattice with a lattice spacing about 200 nm and extend over an area larger than 1 cm2, which enables magnetic detections simply by a SQUID magnetometer. We observed magnetization oscillation with external magnetic field due to the supercurrent screening effect, where different features for large and small antidot thin films were found. Detailed size and temperature dependencies of the magnetization in niobium antidot nanostructures will be presented.

  13. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

    2007-09-01

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  14. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared on a strength to density basis. The effect of fiber orientation on the creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending on the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  15. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni L.

    1992-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  16. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanbo; Harvey, Ian; Campopiano, Dominic; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps) transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III) is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues) together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed. PMID:20445753

  17. Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 μm. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

  18. Tensile tests of niobium material for SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Dhanaraj, N.; Cooley, L.; Hicks, D.; Hahn, E.; Burk, D.; Muranyi, W.; Foley, N.; Edwards, H.; Harms, E.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab /Michigan State U.

    2009-06-01

    Mechanical tests of cavity-grade niobium samples were conducted to provide engineering information for the certification of 3rd-harmonic superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryomodules. Large changes of mechanical properties occur throughout the cavity fabrication process due to the cold work introduced by forming, the heating introduced by electron beam welding, and the recovery of cold work during the anneal used to degas hydrogen after chemical processing. Data is provided here to show the different properties at various stages of fabrication, including both weld regions and samples from the bulk niobium far away from the weld. Measurements of RRR were used to assure that any contamination during annealing was negligible.

  19. Formation and Redox Interconversion of Niobium Methylidene and Methylidyne Complexes.

    PubMed

    Searles, Keith; Smith, Kyle T; Kurogi, Takashi; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Carroll, Patrick J; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    The niobium methylidene [{(Ar'O)2 Nb}2 (μ2 -Cl)2 (μ2 -CH2 )] (2) can be cleanly prepared via thermolysis or photolysis of [(Ar'O)2 Nb(CH3 )2 Cl] (1) (OAr'=2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-tert-butylphenoxide). Reduction of 2 with two equivalents of KC8 results in formation of the first niobium methylidyne [K][{(Ar'O)2 Nb}2 (μ2 -CH)(μ2 -H)(μ2 -Cl)] (3) via a binuclear α-hydrogen elimination. Oxidation of 3 with two equiv of ClCPh3 reforms 2. In addition to solid state X-ray analysis, all these complexes were elucidated via multinuclear NMR experiments and isotopic labelling studies, including a crossover experiment, support the notion for a radical mechanism as well as a binuclear α-hydrogen abstraction pathway being operative in the formation of 2 from 1. PMID:27110689

  20. Temperature dependence of penetration depth in thin film niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, N.; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which should allow precise determination of the temperature dependence of the inductance, and hence of the penetration depth, of superconducting niobium thin-film structures. Four niobium thin-film stripline inductors are arranged in a bridge configuration, and inductance differences are measured using a potentiometric technique with a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) as the null detector. Numerical simulations of the stripline inductances are presented which allow the performance of the measurement technique to be evaluated. The prediction of the two-fluid model for the penetration-depth temperature dependence is given for reduced temperatures of 0.3 to 0.9. The experimental apparatus and its resolution and accuracy are discussed.

  1. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Golkovski, M. G.; Glukhov, I. A.; Eroshenko, A. Yu.; Bataev, V. A.; Fortuna, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  2. Development of high purity niobium used in SRF accelerating cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Xie, Wei-Ping; Li, Ming-Yang; He, Ji-Lin; Fan, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; He, Fei-Si; Zhao, Kui; Chen, Jia-Er; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    Niobium is widely used in SRF (Superconducting Radio Frequency) cavities due to its excellent superconductivity and workability. With the continuous development of technology, higher demands of material are raised. One of the key issues is that RRR (Residual Resistance Ratio) of the Nb material should be more than 300, which requires that the Nb ingot have even higher RRR. This article introduces the development and the experimental results of high purity niobium in OTIC in Ningxia (Ningxia Orient Tantalum Industry Co. Ltd.), and the test results of the single cell TESLA (Tera Electron volt energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) shaped cavity manufactured by Peking University using Nb material from OTIC. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China (2002CB713600)

  3. Tensile Tests of Niobium Material for Srf Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Dhanaraj, N.; Cooley, L.; Hicks, D.; Hahn, E.; Burk, D.; Muranyi, W.; Foley, M.; Edwards, H.; Harms, E.; Champion, M.; Baars, D.; Compton, C.

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical tests of cavity-grade niobium samples were conducted to provide engineering information for the certification of 3rd-harmonic superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryomodules. Large changes of mechanical properties occur throughout the cavity fabrication process due to the cold work introduced by forming, the heating introduced by electron beam welding, and the recovery of cold work during the anneal used to degas hydrogen after chemical processing. Data is provided here to show the different properties at various stages of fabrication, including both weld regions and samples from the bulk niobium far away from the weld. Measurements of RRR were used to assure that any contamination during annealing was negligible.

  4. 25 CFR 89.41 - Exceptions to policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to policy. 89.41 Section 89.41 Indians BUREAU... Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.41 Exceptions to policy. The Assistant... § 89.43 may, in his/her discretion, authorize the direct or indirect expenditure of appropriated...

  5. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ∼18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of electrospun niobium oxide nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Shishun; Zuo, Ruzhong; Liu, Yi; Wang, Yu

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Different morphologies are obtained for the electrospun niobium oxide nanofibers with different phase structures. The nanofibers of the two phase structures present different band gap value and the light absorption. Hexagonal phase nanofibers show better photocatalytic activity compared with the orthorhombic nanofibers. Highlights: ► Niobium oxide nanofibers of two phase structures were fabricated by electrospinning. ► Photocatalytic properties of the niobium oxide nanofibers were first explored. ► Nanofibers of different phase structures showed different photocatalytic activities. ► Reasons for the differences in the photocatalysis were carefully discussed. - Abstract: Niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanofibers have been synthesized by sol–gel based electrospinning technique. Pure hexagonal phase (H-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and orthorhombic phase (O-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanofibers were obtained by thermally annealing the electrospun Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/polyvinylpyrrolidone composite fibers in air at 500 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The fibers were characterized using the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analyzer and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of the obtained nanofibers were evaluated depending on the degradation of methyl orange. The results indicate that the heat-treatment temperature, the crystalline structure and the morphology affected the physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers. The H-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers obtained at lower temperature showed better potential for the application as a promising photocatalyst.

  7. Development of a Niobium Bellow for Beamline Connections

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Turlington; John Brawley; Robert Manus; Stephen Manning; Samuel Morgan; Gary Slack; Peter Kneisel

    2003-09-01

    Superconducting cavities in an accelerator assembly are usually connected at the beampipes by stainless steel bellows. They operate at an intermediate temperature, compensating for alignment tolerances on the cavity beamlines and for thermal contraction during cooldown to cryogenic temperatures. This transition from one cavity to the next in a cavity string is typically of the order of 3/2 wavelength along with approximately half a wavelength taken up by the bellows. If one could incorporate a niobium bellows in the beam pipe, this distance could be reduced by half a wave length. In the case of a big accelerator such as TESLA the overall cavity length for the accelerator could be reduced by roughly 10% or 2000 m. In terms of cost savings this would amount to several million dollars. Based on this estimate we have begun to develop a niobium bellows to be used on a 2.75 inch diameter beamline. It is made from 0.3 mm thick niobium sheet, rolled into a tube and secured by a longitudinal full penetration electron beam weld; the weld is made with a high speed a narrow, focused beam reducing the heat affected zone, thus limiting the grain growth, which could affect the formability. Subsequently, two convolutions have been pressed into this tube in a 2-stage process, using an external die and a polyurethane internal expander. Niobium cuffs and flanges were electron beam welded to the formed bellows, which facilitated leak testing and allowed some measurements of compression/expansion and bending. In this contribution the fabrication process and the subsequent mechanical and vacuum tests with the bellows will be described.

  8. Surface fractal dimension of sintered porous solid niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatkov, L. I.; Konotop, V. V.; Cheremskoy, P. G.; Gomozov, V. P.; Bayrachny, B. I.

    1994-12-01

    The surface fractal dimension of porous solid niobium obtained by vacuum sintering Nb powder is experimentally investigated. The surface fractal dimension D is the main object of our study. Results of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) agree very closely with those of Hg porosimetry. The surface dimensions are stated to be of the order of 2.8 which is a stipulation of a highly developed porous structure. Our results provide experimental support to the SAXS theory developed earlier.

  9. Prototype 350 MHz niobium spoke-loaded cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J. R.; Kedzie, M.; Mammosser, J.; Piller, C.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-05-10

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz superconducting cavities of a spoke-loaded geometry, intended for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Two prototype single-cell cavities have been designed, one optimized for velocity v/c = 0.4, and the other for v/c = 0.29. Construction of the prototype niobium cavities is nearly complete. Details of the design and construction are discussed, along with the results of cold tests.

  10. Mechanical Properties of High Purity Niobium - Novel Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Myneni

    2003-09-01

    One of the procedures to improve the performance of superconducting niobium cavities is a heat treatment for several hours in an ultrahigh vacuum at temperatures between 800C and 1400C for hydrogen degassing or post-purification, respectively. However, it was recently observed with Spallation Neutron Source Project (SNS) prototype cavities, that a heat treatment at 800 C for even 1 hour degraded the mechanical properties of RRR niobium, in particular the yield strength. This lower strength resulted in cavity deformations during handling thus affecting both their resonant frequency and field profile. In addition to lowering the yield strength, it was observed in some lots of material that the Young's modulus was also apparently reduced by a factor of 2 as a result of the hydrogen outgassing at 800 C. Surprisingly, material received at other national laboratories exhibited similar anomalous behavior even without any heat treatments in vacuum. Based on these observations a multi-institutional collaborative basic research activity on high RRR niobium (determination of Nb yield strength as a function of grain size, work hardening, chemical composition, and heat treatment temperature) has been initiated by JLAB to gain a better understanding of the material properties affecting the mechanical behavior In this contribution, a brief review of the measurements at JLAB, at the Materials Science and Engineering Department of the University of Virginia, at the Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy Divisions of the National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg and in the Department of Physics, SUNY, Albany are presented. The measurements include yield strength, hardness, ultrasonic velocity, crystallographic structure, microstructure, determination of interstitial contents using internal friction; particular emphasis is placed on determining the hydrogen concentration in the niobium via Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis and Neutron Incoherent

  11. Effect of low temperature baking on niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Myneni; William Lanford; Gianluigi Ciovati

    2003-09-01

    A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor and a recovery from the so-called ''Q-drop'' without field emission at high field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37K-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6K-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity using a modified version of the computer code originally written by J. Halbritter [1] . Small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation were analyzed with respect to their hydrogen content with a Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results from these experiments and comments on the existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

  12. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, T.

    2015-07-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher RS. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when RS increases with Eacc by 100 n Ω . This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered RS.

  13. Semimicrodetermination of combined tantalum and niobium with selenous acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Schnepfe, M.

    1959-01-01

    Tantalum and niobium are separated and determined gravimetrically by precipitation with selenous acid from highly acidic solutions in the absence of complexing agents. Hydrogen peroxide is used in the preparation of the solution and later catalytically destroyed during digestion of the precipitate. From 0.2 to 30 mg., separately or in mixtures, of niobium or tantalum pentoxide can be separated from mixtures containing 100 mg. each of the oxides of scandium, yttrium, cerium, vanadium, molybdenum, iron, aluminum, tin, lead, and bismuth with a single precipitation; and from 30 mg. of titanium dioxide, and 50 mg. each of the oxides of antimony and thorium, when present separately, with three precipitations. At least 50 mg. of uranium(VI) oxide can be separated with a single precipitation when present alone; otherwise, three precipitations may be needed. Zirconium does not interfere when the tantalum and niobium contents of the sample are small, but in general, zirconium as well as tungsten interfere. The method is applied to the determination of the earth acids in tantaloniobate ores.

  14. Catalytically active single-atom niobium in graphitic layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Liu, Chunjing; Huang, Hao; Xue, Fanghong; Dong, Xinglong; Pennycook, Stephen J; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2013-01-01

    Carbides of groups IV through VI (Ti, V and Cr groups) have long been proposed as substitutes for noble metal-based electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, their catalytic activity has been extremely limited because of the low density and stability of catalytically active sites. Here we report the excellent performance of a niobium-carbon structure for catalysing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. A large number of single niobium atoms and ultra small clusters trapped in graphitic layers are directly identified using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. This structure not only enhances the overall conductivity for accelerating the exchange of ions and electrons, but it suppresses the chemical/thermal coarsening of the active particles. Experimental results coupled with theory calculations reveal that the single niobium atoms incorporated within the graphitic layers produce a redistribution of d-band electrons and become surprisingly active for O2 adsorption and dissociation, and also exhibit high stability. PMID:23715283

  15. Deposition of aluminide and silicide based protective coatings on niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S.; Arya, A.; Sharma, I. G.; Suri, A. K.; Banerjee, S.

    2010-11-01

    We compare aluminide and alumino-silicide composite coatings on niobium using halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique for improving its oxidation resistance. The coated samples are characterized by SEM, EDS, EPMA and hardness measurements. We observe formation of NbAl3 in aluminide coating of Nb, though the alumino-silicide coating leads to formation primarily of NbSi2 in the inner layer and a ternary compound of Nb-Si-Al in the outer layer, as reported earlier (Majumdar et al. [11]). Formation of niobium silicide is preferred over niobium aluminide during alumino-silicide coating experiments, indicating Si is more strongly bonded to Nb than Al, although equivalent quantities of aluminium and silicon powders were used in the pack chemistry. We also employ first-principles density functional pseudopotential-based calculations to calculate the relative stability of these intermediate phases and the adhesion strength of the Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces. NbSi2 exhibits much stronger covalent character as compared to NbAl3. The ideal work of adhesion for the relaxed Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces are calculated to be 3226 mJ/m2 and 3545 mJ/m2, respectively, indicating stronger Nb-Si bonding across the interface.

  16. Measuring and modeling oxygen diffusion in niobium-vanadium and niobium-palladium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Theresa P.

    Niobium alloys are under consideration for high-temperature aerospace applications, but they have poor oxidation resistance and need high-temperature coatings for protection in severe environments. Our approach to creating an oxidation-resistant Nb alloy is to identify substitutional solute elements that lower the diffusivity of oxygen in Nb. In theory, this will induce a transition from internal to external oxidation and promote the formation of a desirable, protective oxide scale. The objective of this particular project is to compare the oxygen diffusivity in Nb alloys that contain either trap or repulsive sites. In Nb, oxygen atoms diffuse via an interstitial mechanism, and they can interact with substitutional solute atoms in different ways. The interstitial sites adjacent to a substitutional atom constitute a "zone of influence". If the sites in this zone have a lower energy than the normal sites, they are called "trap" sites. If these sites have a higher energy, they are called "repulsive" sites. Oxygen diffusion is inhibited in both cases: trap sites hold the oxygen and keep it from diffusing further, while repulsive sites block the path of the oxygen. Two new mathematical models for interstitial diffusion in these systems were derived from probability and statistical thermodynamic theory. The models were verified using a new random-walk computer simulation of oxygen diffusion through Nb alloys. These models were also tested experimentally by measuring oxygen diffusivity in Nb-V and Nb-Pd alloys. These results showed that V atoms create trap sites for oxygen atoms, confirming previous work. However, there was not enough data to prove definitively that Pd atoms create repulsive sites, as expected by theory.

  17. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Spivey, James Jerome; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  18. IN VIVO BIODISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF 89Zr IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D.S.; Ku, T.; Smith-Jones, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present investigation focuses on the chemical and biological fate of 89Zr in mice. Electrophoreses of 89Zr solvated or chelated in different conditions are here presented. The biological fate of mice injected with [89Zr]Zr-oxalate, [89Zr]Zr-chloride, [89Zr]Zr-phosphate, [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine and [89Zr]Zr-citrate is studied with the biodistribution, the clearances and PET images. A special focus is also given regarding the quality of 89Zr bone accumulation. Methods Electrophoreses were carried out on chromatography paper and read by gamma counting. Then, the solutions were intravenously injected in mice, imaged at different time points and sacrificed. The bones, the epiphysis and the marrow substance were separated and evaluated with gamma counts. Results The clearances of [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate reached 20% of ID after 6 days whereas [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was only 5% of ID. [89Zr]Zr-citrate and [89Zr]Zr-DFO were noticeably excreted after the first day p.i.. [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate resulted in a respective bone uptake of ~15% ID/g and~20% ID/g at 8 h p.i. with minor losses after 6 days. [89Zr]Zr-citrate bone uptake was also observed, but [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was absorbed in high amounts in the liver and the spleen. The marrow cells were insignificantly radioactive in comparison to the calcified tissues. Conclusion Despite the complexity of Zr coordination, the electrophoretic analyses provided detailed evidences of Zr charges either as salts or as complexes. This study also shows that weakly chelated, 89Zr is a bone seeker and has a strong affinity for phosphate. PMID:21718943

  19. Niobium thin films are superconductive in strong magnetic fields at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, P. J.; Fowler, P.

    1966-01-01

    Niobium film superconductor carries high currents in strong magnetic fields. The thin niobium film is formed on an inert substrate through evaporation in a vacuum environment. Control of temperature and vacuum results in rejection of gaseous impurities so that the film is of a very high purity.

  20. Influence of Niobium on the Beginning of the Plastic Flow of Material during Cold Deformation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on low-carbon steel and the steel with same chemical composition with addition of microalloying element niobium. While tensile testing was carried out, the thermographic measurement was tacking place simultaneously. A specific behavior of niobium microalloyed steel was noticed. Test results have shown that, in the elastic deformation region, thermoelastic effect occurs, which is more pronounced in niobium microalloyed steel. Start of plastic flow in steel which is not microalloyed with niobium begins later in comparison to the microalloyed steel, and it is conducted so that, at the point of maximum stress, deformation zone is formed within which stresses grow. In steel microalloyed with niobium after proportionality limit, comes the occurrence of the localized increase in temperature and the occurrence of Lüders band, which propagate along the sample forming a deformation zone. PMID:24453896

  1. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  2. Influence of niobium on the beginning of the plastic flow of material during cold deformation.

    PubMed

    Rešković, Stoja; Jandrlić, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on low-carbon steel and the steel with same chemical composition with addition of microalloying element niobium. While tensile testing was carried out, the thermographic measurement was tacking place simultaneously. A specific behavior of niobium microalloyed steel was noticed. Test results have shown that, in the elastic deformation region, thermoelastic effect occurs, which is more pronounced in niobium microalloyed steel. Start of plastic flow in steel which is not microalloyed with niobium begins later in comparison to the microalloyed steel, and it is conducted so that, at the point of maximum stress, deformation zone is formed within which stresses grow. In steel microalloyed with niobium after proportionality limit, comes the occurrence of the localized increase in temperature and the occurrence of Lüders band, which propagate along the sample forming a deformation zone. PMID:24453896

  3. Ferroelectric properties of niobium-doped strontium bismuth tantalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosov, D. A.; Zavadski, S. M.; Kolos, V. V.; Turtsevich, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of ferroelectric thin films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) and niobium-doped strontium bismuth tantalate (SBTN) deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates were investigated. For the formation of the structure of the ferroelectric material, the deposited films were subjected to a subsequent annealing at temperatures of 970-1070 K in an O2 atmosphere. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that, in contrast to SBT films, in which the Aurivillius phase is formed only at annealing temperatures of 1050-1070 K, the formation of this phase in SBTN films is observed already at a temperature of 970 K. The dependences of the dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and coercive force of the SBT and SBTN films on the subsequent annealing conditions were determined. It was found that, upon doping of the SBT films with niobium, the remanent polarization increases by a factor of approximately three, the Curie temperature increases by 50 K, and the dielectric permittivity also increases. It was revealed that, in contrast to the SBT films, the polarization of the SBTN films is observed already at an annealing temperature of approximately 970 K. It was shown that the replacement of SBT films by SBTN films in the manufacture of high-density nonvolatile ferroelectric randomaccess memory (FeRAM) capacitor modules makes it possible to decrease the synthesis temperature from 1070 to 990-1000 K, which improves the compatibility with the planar technology of semiconductor devices. However, it turned out that an increase in the coercive field makes niobium-doped SBT films less attractive for the use in FeRAM.

  4. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  5. Cathodic arc grown niobium films for RF superconducting cavity applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Lorkiewicz, J.; Tazzari, S.; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; Sadowski, M.; Andreone, A.; Cifariello, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Lamura, G.; Russo, R.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of the linear and non-linear microwave properties of niobium film produced by UHV cathodic arc deposition are presented. Surface impedance Zs as a function of RF field and intermodulation distortion (IMD) measurement have been carried out by using a dielectrically loaded resonant cavity operating at 7 GHz. The experimental data show that these samples have a lower level of intrinsic non-linearities at low temperature and low circulating power in comparison with Nb samples grown by sputtering. These results make UHV cathodic arc deposition a promising technique for the improvement of RF superconducting cavities for particle accelerators.

  6. Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

  7. Niobium direct detectors for fast and sensitive terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reese, M O; Santavicca, D F; Prober, D E; True, A B; Schmuttenmaer, C A

    2007-08-01

    We report the performance of a niobium hot-electron bolometer designed for laboratory terahertz spectroscopy. The antenna-coupled detector can operate above 4.2 K and has fast (subnanosecond) response. Detailed microwave measurements of performance over a wide range of operating conditions were correlated with quantitative terahertz measurements. The maximum responsivity is 4 x 10(4) VW with a noise equivalent power at the detector of 2 x 10(-14) W/Hz(12), approaching the intrinsic thermal fluctuation limit for the device. This detector enables a variety of novel laboratory spectroscopy measurements. PMID:17764371

  8. Electrochemical behavior of niobium triselenide cathode in lithium secondary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    Niobium triselenide cathodes in Li ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries for space applications undergo a topotactic reaction, with three equivalents of Li at high positive potential furnishing high energy density. It also yields good electronic conductivity, a long life cycle, and high diffusivity for Li. An attempt is presently made to characterize the intercalation mechanism between Li and NbSe3 by means of an ac impedance study conducted at various charge stages in the process of SbSe3 reduction. An effort is also made to predict the charge state of NbSe3 nondestructively, on the basis of the impedance parameters.

  9. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  10. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  11. 40 CFR 89.315 - Analyzer bench checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analyzer bench checks. 89.315 Section 89.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.315 Analyzer bench checks....

  12. 18 CFR 401.89 - Action by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by the Commission. 401.89 Section 401.89 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings § 401.89 Action by...

  13. 40 CFR 89.210 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of records. 89.210 Section 89.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.210 Maintenance...

  14. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  15. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  16. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  17. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  18. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  19. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity...

  20. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity...

  1. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.89-4 - Compliance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance reviews. 1040.89-4 Section 1040.89-4 Energy... Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-4 Compliance reviews. (a) DOE may conduct preaward and postaward compliance reviews of recipients as prescribed in this part or use other similar procedures that will permit it...

  3. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  4. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  5. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  6. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  7. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  8. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  9. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  10. 29 CFR 102.89 - Initiation of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of proceedings. 102.89 Section 102.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.89 Initiation of proceedings. Whenever...

  11. 29 CFR 102.89 - Initiation of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation of proceedings. 102.89 Section 102.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.89 Initiation of proceedings. Whenever...

  12. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  13. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  14. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  15. 25 CFR 89.34 - Tentative form of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tentative form of contract. 89.34 Section 89.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.34 Tentative form of contract. The principal officer of any one of...

  16. 49 CFR 8.9 - Information Security Review Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information Security Review Committee. 8.9 Section 8.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.9 Information Security Review Committee. (a) There is hereby established...

  17. 40 CFR 89.910 - Granting of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting of exemptions. 89.910 Section 89.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.910 Granting of exemptions. (a) If...

  18. 40 CFR 89.910 - Granting of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Granting of exemptions. 89.910 Section 89.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.910 Granting of exemptions. (a) If...

  19. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  20. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3...

  3. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.89 Jumpers; cable connections....

  4. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false OECD waste lists. 262.89 Section 262.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for Recovery Within the OECD § 262.89 OECD waste...

  5. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calibration weights. 89.306 Section 89.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a...) Dynamometer calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range used are required....

  6. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration weights. 89.306 Section 89.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a...) Dynamometer calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range used are required....

  7. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  8. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  9. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  10. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  11. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  12. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  13. 47 CFR 8.9 - Other laws and considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other laws and considerations. 8.9 Section 8.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.9 Other laws and... Internet access service may have to address the needs of emergency communications or law...

  14. 47 CFR 8.9 - Other laws and considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other laws and considerations. 8.9 Section 8.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.9 Other laws and... Internet access service may have to address the needs of emergency communications or law...

  15. 40 CFR 89.915 - Staged-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staged-assembly exemption. 89.915 Section 89.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Provisions § 89.915 Staged-assembly exemption. You may ask us to provide a temporary exemption to allow...

  16. 40 CFR 89.315 - Analyzer bench checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analyzer bench checks. 89.315 Section 89.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.315 Analyzer bench checks....

  17. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles:...

  18. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  19. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89... Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter... of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to...

  20. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89... Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter... of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to...

  1. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of feed. 89.1 Section 89.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER THE TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed....

  2. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  3. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  4. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  5. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  6. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  7. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  8. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  9. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  10. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  11. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  12. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  13. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  14. 36 CFR 223.89 - Relation to other bidders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation to other bidders. 223.89 Section 223.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....89 Relation to other bidders. Any bidder or applicant for a sale may be required to furnish...

  15. 49 CFR 89.43 - Review within the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review within the Department. 89.43 Section 89.43... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.43 Review within the Department. (a) Notification by... of the information to the address provided in the notice. (2) State in the request the...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  17. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  18. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  19. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  20. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  1. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  2. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  3. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  4. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  5. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  6. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  7. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly...

  8. 10 CFR 1040.89-9 - Compliance procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-9 Compliance procedure. (a) DOE may enforce the Act and these regulations through procedures precribed in subpart H of DOE regulation 10 CFR part 1040—Nondiscrimination in... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance procedure. 1040.89-9 Section 1040.89-9...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  10. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  11. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  12. 40 CFR 89.912 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 89.912 Section 89.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Exemption Provisions § 89.912 Treatment of confidential information. The provisions for treatment...

  13. 40 CFR 89.516 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 89.516 Section 89.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.516 Treatment of confidential information. The provisions for...

  14. 40 CFR 89.908 - National security exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National security exemption. 89.908 Section 89.908 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.908 National security exemption....

  15. 40 CFR 89.908 - National security exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... further information. (4) The statement “THIS ENGINE HAS AN EXEMPTION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY UNDER 40 CFR 89... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National security exemption. 89.908... Provisions § 89.908 National security exemption. (a)(1) Any nonroad engine, otherwise subject to this...

  16. 16 CFR 1.89 - Effect on prior actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect on prior actions. 1.89 Section 1.89 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.89 Effect...

  17. 16 CFR 1.89 - Effect on prior actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect on prior actions. 1.89 Section 1.89 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.89 Effect...

  18. 7 CFR 301.89-3 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated areas. 301.89-3 Section 301.89-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-3 Regulated areas. (a) The Administrator will regulate each State or...

  19. 7 CFR 301.89-12 - Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. 301.89-12 Section 301.89-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-12 Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal....

  20. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer...

  1. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  2. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  3. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  4. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-22

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  5. Localized magnetism on the surface of niobium: experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proslier, Thomas; Zasadzinski, John; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Pellin, Mike

    2011-03-01

    The presence of magnetic impurities in native niobium oxides have been confirmed by Point contact spectroscopy (PCT), SQUID magnetometry and Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). All niobium (Nb) samples displayed a small impurity contribution to the magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures which exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior, indicative of weakly coupled localized paramagnetic moments. By examining Nb samples with widely varying surface-to-volume ratios it was found that the impurity contribution is correlated with surface area. Tunneling measurements which use the native oxide layers as barriers exhibit a zero-bias conductance peak which splits in a magnetic field > 4 T , consistentwiththeAppelbaummodelforspinfliptunneling . ViewedtogethertheexperimentsstronglysuggestthatthenativeoxidesofNbareintrinsicallydefective , andconsistentlyexhibitlocalizedparamagneticmomentscausedbyoxygenvacanciesinNb 2 O 5 . Thecomputationofthesurfaceimpedance (R S) in presence of magnetic impurities in the Shiba approximation reveals the saturation at low temperature of Rs, suggesting that magnetic impurities are responsible for the so-called residual resistance. Work supported by DOE-HEP office, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Preliminary Experience with ''In-Site'' Baking of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments several single cell and multi-cell niobium cavities made from reactor grade and high RRR niobium (frequencies were 700 MHz, 1300 MHz and 1497 MHz) have been baked--after initial testing--in-situ around 145 C for up to 90 hours prior to being recooled. Surprisingly, all cavities showed significant improvements in Q-values between 4.2 and 1.6K. The BCS surface resistance was lowered by nearly a factor of two. This cannot be explained by solely a reduction of dielectric losses caused by adsorbates at the surface or by a decrease of the mean free path due to possibly diffusion of oxygen into the surface layer. In several experiments also the high field behavior of the cavity improved after the in-situ baking procedure. The observed effect opens the possibility for the CEBAF upgrade cavities, which in turn will permit to run the cavities at higher gradients if field emission loading can be prevented. Utilizing this effect can possibly translate into sizeable cost savings since fewer modules are needed for the upgrade program.

  7. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  8. Development of a superconducting connection for niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; Gianluigi Ciovati; Jacek Sekutowicz; Waldemar Singer; Xenia Singer; Axel Matheisen

    2007-06-18

    Several, partially successful attempts have been made in the past to develop a superconducting connection between adjacent niobium cavities with the capability to carry up to 30 mT of the magnetic flux. Such a connection would be particularly of great benefit to layouts of long accelerators like ILC because it would shorten the distances between structures and therefore the total length of an accelerator with the associated cost reductions. In addition the superconducting connection would be ideal for a super-structure – two multi-cell cavities connected through a half wavelength long beam pipe providing the coupling. Two welded prototypes of super-structure have been successfully tested with the beam at DESY. The chemical treatment and water rinsing was rather complicated for these prototypes because of the length of the assembly. We have engaged in a program to develop such a connection, initially based on the Nb55Ti material. Several options are pursued such as e.g. a two-cell cavity is being used to explore the reachable magnetic flux for the TESLA like connection with a squeezed niobium gasket between the flanges. Other materials, such as NbZr or NbN are also being considered. In this contribution, we will report about the progress of our investigations.

  9. Development of a superconducting connection for niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; Gianluigi Ciovati; Jacek Sekutowicz; Waldemar Singer; Xenia Singer; Axel Matheisen

    2007-06-22

    Several, partially successful attempts have been made in the past to develop a superconducting connection between adjacent niobium cavities with the capability to carry up to 30 mT of the magnetic flux. Such a connection would be particularly of great benefit to layouts of long accelerators like ILC because it would shorten the distances between structures and therefore the total length of an accelerator with the associated cost reductions. In addition the superconducting connection would be ideal for a super-structure – two multi-cell cavities connected through a half wavelength long beam pipe providing the coupling. Two welded prototypes of super-structure have been successfully tested with the beam at DESY. The chemical treatment and water rinsing was rather complicated for these prototypes because of the length of the assembly. We have engaged in a program to develop such a connection, initially based on the Nb55Ti material. Several options are pursued such as e.g. a two-cell cavity is being used to explore the reachable magnetic flux for the TESLA like connection with a squeezed niobium gasket between the flanges. Other materials, such as NbZr or NbN are also being considered. In this contribution, we will report about the progress of our investigations.

  10. Silicidation of Niobium Deposited on Silicon by Physical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Coumba Ndoye, Kandabara Tapily, Marius Orlowski, Helmut Baumgart, Diefeng Gu

    2011-07-01

    Niobium was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) using e-beam evaporation on bare (100) silicon substrates and SiO2 surfaces. The formation of niobium silicide was investigated by annealing PVD Nb films in the temperatures range 400–1000°C. At all elevated annealing temperatures the resistivity of Nb silicide is substantially higher than that of Nb. The Nb silicidation as a function of temperature has been investigated and different NbXSiy compounds have been characterized. It has been observed that the annealing of the Nb film on Si is accompanied by a strong volume expansion of about 2.5 of the resulting reacted film. The films' structural properties were studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which was not previously presented in the context of the extant NbSi literature. The X-Ray diffraction characterization of the Nb on Si sample annealed at 1000°C, showed the presence of hexagonal Nb5Si3 phases, with a dominant peak at the (200) plane, and NbSi2 phases. Fractal dimension calculations indicate a distinct transition from Stranski-Krastanov to Volmer-Weber film growth for NbSi formation at the annealing temperature of 600°C and above.

  11. Plasma Treatment of Single-Cell Niobium SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Upadhyay, M. Nikolić, S. Popović, L. Vušković, H.L. Phillips, A-M. Valente-Feliciano

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities of bulk Niobium are integral components of particle accelerators based on superconducting technology. Wet chemical processing is the commonly used procedure for impurities and surface defects removal and surface roughness improvement , both required to improve the RF performance of the cavity. We are studying plasma etching as an alternate technique to process these cavities. The uniformity of the plasma sheath at the inner wall of the cavity is one prerequisite for its uniform etching. We are developing electro-optic diagnostic techniques to assess the plasma uniformity. Multiple electro-optical probes are placed at different locations of the single cell cavity to diagnose the electrical and optical properties of the plasma. The electrical parameters are required to understand the kinetic nature of the plasma and the optical emission spectroscopy provides the spatial distribution of radicals in the plasma. The spatial variation of the plasma parameters inside the cavity and their effect on the etching of niobium samples placed at different locations in the cavity will be presented.

  12. Eddy current scanning of niobium for SRF cavities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Antoine, C.; Cooper, C.; Brinkmann, A.; /DESY

    2006-08-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for subsurface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic, the ILC, and the Proton Driver cavities. After optical inspection, more than 400 squares and disks have been scanned and when necessary checked at the optical and electron microscopes, anodized, or measured with profilometers looking for surface imperfections that might limit the performance of the cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the classification of signals being detected.

  13. Ultrasonic Velocity and Texture of High RRR Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Agnew; F. Zeng; G.R. Myneni

    2003-06-01

    Conventional assessments of the mechanical properties of rolled high RRR niobium plate material via tensile testing have revealed an unusually low apparent Young's moduli and yield strength in some annealed samples. These observations motivated a series of measurements of ultrasonic velocity, a dynamic assessment of the elastic moduli. In fact, the dynamic modulus is within the range of normal for all samples tested. However, there is a trend of increasing shear velocities for shear waves propagating through the sheet thickness and polarized in the sheet transverse direction. Careful analyses of the crystallographic texture using SEM-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) have revealed a subtle, but systematic change in the texture, which can explain the trend. It is further important to note that the change in texture is not observable from surface measurements using x-ray diffraction, but requires sectioning of the samples. Thus, measurements of ultrasonic velocity represent a non-destructive evaluation tool which is extremely sensitive to subtle changes in the texture of high RRR niobium. Finally, there are material lot variations, which are currently attributed to the effects of impurities, such as Ta and H.

  14. Joining of alumina via copper/niobium/copper interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Robert A.; Chapman, Daniel R.; Danielson, David T.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2000-03-15

    Alumina has been joined at 1150 degrees C and 1400 degrees C using multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayers. Four-point bend strengths are sensitive to processing temperature, bonding pressure, and furnace environment (ambient oxygen partial pressure). Under optimum conditions, joints with reproducibly high room temperature strengths (approximately equal 240 plus/minus 20 MPa) can be produced; most failures occur within the ceramic. Joints made with sapphire show that during bonding an initially continuous copper film undergoes a morphological instability, resulting in the formation of isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. For optimized alumina bonds, bend tests at 800 degrees C-1100 degrees C indicate significant strength is retained; even at the highest test temperature, ceramic failure is observed. Post-bonding anneals at 1000 degrees C in vacuum or in gettered argon were used to assess joint stability and to probe the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on joint characteristics. Annealing in vacuum for up to 200 h causes no significant decrease in room temperature bend strength or change in fracture path. With increasing anneal time in a lower oxygen partial pressure environment, the fracture strength decreases only slightly, but the fracture path shifts from the ceramic to the interface.

  15. Materials for Accelerator Technologies Beyond the Niobium Family

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Lance; Larbalestier, David; Ghosh, Arup; Tollestrup, Alvin; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Three niobium-based materials make up the entire present portfolio of superconducting technology for accelerators: Nb-Ti and Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet wires and pure niobium for RF cavities. Because these materials are at a high level of maturity, limits imposed by the boundaries of their superconductivity constrain the energy reach of accelerators to several TeV. We sketch here a plan for targeted development of emerging higher field and higher temperature superconductors that could enable accelerators at significantly higher energies. Niobium-based superconductors are the crucial enablers of present accelerators. The Nb-Ti LHC dipole and quadrupole wires, with transition temperature T{sub c} of 9 K and upper critical field H{sub c2} of 15 T, represent the highest form of superconductor strand art: massive, quarter-ton conductor billets are drawn from 300 mm diameter to {approx}1 mm as a single, multi-kilometer-long piece, while retaining uniformity of the several thousand Nb-Ti filaments to within 5% at the scale of a few micrometers. Strands are twisted into fully transposed cables with virtually no loss, preserving a carefully tuned nanostructure that generates the high flux-pinning forces and high current densities to enable high magnetic fields. Nb{sub 3}Sn, with twice the T{sub c} and H{sub c2}, is now approaching this level of conductor art, where over the last 5 years the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the Next European Dipole (NED) program have demonstrated that Nb{sub 3}Sn can be made into 4 meter long quadrupoles with 12 T fields and 250 T/m gradients. Linear accelerators at TJNAF, ORNL (SNS), and under construction for the European XFEL exploit niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) technology, with gradients at {approx}20 MV/m. Tremendous research and development is underway to realize high-power goals for Project X at FNAL and for a possible ILC at 35 MV/m gradients. Despite these impressive achievements, the very maturity of these

  16. Influence of electropolishing and anodic oxidation on morphology, chemical composition and corrosion resistance of niobium.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Maciej; Greń, Katarzyna; Kukharenko, Andrey I; Korotin, Danila M; Michalska, Joanna; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Mosiałek, Michał; Zak, Jerzy; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Kurmaev, Ernst Z; Cholakh, Seif O; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    The work presents results of the studies performed on electropolishing of pure niobium in a bath that contained: sulphuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, ethylene glycol and acetanilide. After the electropolishing, the specimens were subjected to anodic passivation in a 1moldm(-3) phosphoric acid solution at various voltages. The surface morphology, thickness, roughness and chemical composition of the resulting oxide layers were analysed. Thusly prepared niobium samples were additionally investigated in terms of their corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution. The electropolished niobium surface was determined to be smooth and lustrous. The anodisation led to the growth of barrier-like oxide layers, which were enriched in phosphorus species. PMID:25063150

  17. Acidic properties of supported niobium oxide catalysts: An infrared spectroscopy investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Datka, J.; Turek, A.M.; Jehng, J.M.; Wachs, I.E. )

    1992-05-01

    Chemisorption of pyridine was applied as a method for studying the acidic properties of niobium pentoxide supported on silica, magnesia, alumina, titania, and zirconia. The infrared spectra of adsorbed pyridine were used to evaluate the concentration and the relative strength of Broensted and Lewis acid sites. Lewis acidity was found in all the supported niobium oxide systems, while Broensted acid sites were only detected for niobia supported on the alumina and silica supports. The origin and characteristics of the surface acid sites present in supported niobium oxide catalysts are discussed in the present study.

  18. Redistribution of components in the niobium-silicon system under high-temperature proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, N. N.; Logacheva, V. A. Khoviv, A. M.

    2011-12-15

    The redistribution of components in the niobium-silicon system during magnetron-assisted sputtering of niobium, vacuum annealing, and high-temperature proton irradiation is studied. It is established that, during magnetron-assisted sputtering followed by vacuum annealing, silicon penetrates through the metal film to the outer boundary of the film. Under high-temperature proton irradiation, the suppression of the diffusion of niobium into silicon is observed. This effect is attributed to the high concentration of radiation vacancies in the region of the Nb/Si interphase boundary.

  19. High-Performance Supercapacitors from Niobium Nanowire Yarns.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Englezos, Peter; Madden, John D W; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-07-01

    The large-ion-accessible surface area of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene sheets formed as yarns, forests, and films enables miniature high-performance supercapacitors with power densities exceeding those of electrolytics while achieving energy densities equaling those of batteries. Capacitance and energy density can be enhanced by depositing highly pseudocapacitive materials such as conductive polymers on them. Yarns formed from carbon nanotubes are proposed for use in wearable supercapacitors. In this work, we show that high power, energy density, and capacitance in yarn form are not unique to carbon materials, and we introduce niobium nanowires as an alternative. These yarns show higher capacitance and energy per volume and are stronger and 100 times more conductive than similarly spun carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) and graphene yarns. The long niobium nanowires, formed by repeated extrusion and drawing, achieve device volumetric peak power and energy densities of 55 MW·m(-3) (55 W·cm(-3)) and 25 MJ·m(-3) (7 mWh·cm(-3)), 2 and 5 times higher than that for state-of-the-art CNT yarns, respectively. The capacitance per volume of Nb nanowire yarn is lower than the 158 MF·m(-3) (158 F·cm(-3)) reported for carbon-based materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and CNT wet-spun yarns, but the peak power and energy densities are 200 and 2 times higher, respectively. Achieving high power in long yarns is made possible by the high conductivity of the metal, and achievement of high energy density is possible thanks to the high internal surface area. No additional metal backing is needed, unlike for CNT yarns and supercapacitors in general, saving substantial space. As the yarn is infiltrated with pseudocapacitive materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the energy density is further increased to 10 MJ·m(-3) (2.8 mWh·cm(-3)). Similar to CNT yarns, niobium nanowire yarns are highly flexible and show potential for weaving into textiles

  20. Grain boundary {gamma}{double_prime} precipitation and niobium segregation in Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.

    1995-04-01

    In a previous study, the surface enrichment and grain boundary segregation of niobium in the Inconel 718 single crystal and polycrystals were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Considerable segregation of niobium, about three to four times higher than that in bulk, was observed at the grain boundaries of the polycrystalline alloy. The observed niobium segregation was thought to be associated with the preferential formation of {gamma}{double_prime}-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitates at the boundaries during aging. In this paper, the results of a transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study of grain boundary {gamma}{double_prime} precipitates and their relation to niobium segregation in the Inconel 718 are reported.