Science.gov

Sample records for nise net bringing

  1. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  2. Hydrothermal growth of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assisted by PVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hai; Zhang, Maofeng; Zhang, Xianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2009-10-01

    NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assembled of nanoparticles have been prepared via a hydrothermal method in an ethanolamine and water mixed solution assisted by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The prepared tubular crystals with hexagonal structure are composed of nanoparticles with average diameter of 30 nm. It was found that the phase of the products could be adjusted by the molar ratio of the reactants (Ni/Se), and the morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by the quantity of surfactant PVA. Based on the experimental results, the possible formation mechanism of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals is also discussed.

  3. NETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1993-01-01

    NETS development tool provides environment for simulation and development of neural networks - computer programs that "learn" from experience. Written in ANSI standard C, program allows user to generate C code for implementation of neural network.

  4. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g−1 are 717 and 755 mA h g−1, respectively. However, the respective 100th-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability. PMID:26997350

  5. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g‑1 are 717 and 755 mA h g‑1, respectively. However, the respective 100th-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g‑1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability.

  6. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) are 717 and 755 mA h g(-1), respectively. However, the respective 100(th)-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g(-1). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability. PMID:26997350

  7. First- and Second-Order Phase Transitions between the Uniform and FFLO Excitonic States in the Three-Chain Hubbard Model for Ta2NiSe5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domon, Kaoru; Yamada, Takemi; Ōno, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We examine the free energy and the thermodynamic properties in the three-chain Hubbard model for Ta2NiSe5 to clarify the phase transitions between the uniform and the FFLO excitonic states which are expected to be observed in Ta2NiSe5 under high pressure.

  8. Electrodeposited Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film: a good electrocatalyst for efficient water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2016-02-21

    In this communication, we report that a Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film electrodeposited on a conductive Ti plate (Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti) behaves as a robust electrocatalyst for both HER and OER in strongly basic media, with good activity over a NiSe2/Ti counterpart. This Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti catalytic electrode delivers 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 64 mV for HER and 100 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 320 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH. A voltage of only 1.62 V is required to drive 10 mA cm(-2) for the two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer using Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti as an anode and cathode. PMID:26866797

  9. Electrodeposited Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film: a good electrocatalyst for efficient water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Sun, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    In this communication, we report that a Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film electrodeposited on a conductive Ti plate (Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti) behaves as a robust electrocatalyst for both HER and OER in strongly basic media, with good activity over a NiSe2/Ti counterpart. This Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti catalytic electrode delivers 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 64 mV for HER and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 320 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH. A voltage of only 1.62 V is required to drive 10 mA cm-2 for the two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer using Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti as an anode and cathode.In this communication, we report that a Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film electrodeposited on a conductive Ti plate (Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti) behaves as a robust electrocatalyst for both HER and OER in strongly basic media, with good activity over a NiSe2/Ti counterpart. This Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti catalytic electrode delivers 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 64 mV for HER and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 320 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH. A voltage of only 1.62 V is required to drive 10 mA cm-2 for the two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer using Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti as an anode and cathode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07170d

  10. Raman spectroscopy of NiSe2 and NiS2-xSex (0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de las Heras, C.; Agulló-Rueda, F.

    2000-06-01

    The Raman spectra of NiS2-xSex (0NiSe2. The NiSe2 spectrum is qualitatively similar to the spectrum of NiS2, but all frequencies are shifted to lower energies. The shift has been analysed in terms of the increment of the anion mass and the lattice expansion. Peaks in the Raman spectrum of the NiS2-xSex alloy can be assigned to stretching and rotational modes of the S-S, Se-Se and S-Se pairs. The stretching vibration of the S-Se pairs shifts almost linearly from 400 cm-1 for NiS2 to 330 cm-1 for NiSe2. There is an accidental degeneracy between the S-S stretching and Se-Se libration frequencies. The relative Raman intensities fit well with a random occupation of the anion sites by S and Se atoms, and different scattering cross sections.

  11. FFLO Excitonic State in the Three-Chain Hubbard Model for Ta2NiSe5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takemi; Domon, Kaoru; Ōno, Yoshiaki

    2016-05-01

    The three-chain Hubbard model for Ta2NiSe5, known as a candidate material for an excitonic insulator, is investigated over the wide range of the energy gap D between the twofold degenerate conduction bands and the nondegenerate valence band including both semiconducting (D > 0) and semimetallic (D < 0) cases. In the semimetallic case, the difference in the band degeneracy inevitably causes the imbalance of each Fermi wavenumber, resulting in a remarkable excitonic state characterized by the condensation of excitons with finite center-of-mass momentum q, the so-called Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) excitonic state. With decreasing D corresponding to increasing pressure, the obtained excitonic phase diagram shows a crossover from BEC (D ≳ 0) to BCS (D ≲ 0) regime, and then shows a distinct phase transition at a certain critical value Dc (< 0) from the uniform (q = 0) to the FFLO (q ≠ 0) excitonic state, as expected to be observed in Ta2NiSe5 under high pressure.

  12. Indicators of Success in Postsecondary SMET Education: Shapes of the Future. Synthesis and Proceedings of the Annual NISE Forum (3rd, February 23-24, 1998). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susan B., Ed.

    This document presents the written records of the Third Annual National Institute for Science Education (NISE) Forum on indicators of success in postsecondary science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education. The primary goal of this Forum was to initiate a national dialogue about how assessment and evaluation are and should be…

  13. Highly-active oxygen evolution electrocatalyzed by a Fe-doped NiSe nanoflake array electrode.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2016-03-25

    Alkaline water electrolysis offers a simple method for mass production of hydrogen but suffers from the sluggish kinetics of the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER), calling for the development of low-cost and durable oxygen evolution electrocatalysts with high activity. In this communication, we report a highly-active robust oxygen evolution electrode, developed by in situ hydrothermal growth of an Fe-doped NiSe nanoflake array directly on a macroporous FeNi foam (Fe-NiSe/FeNi foam). This electrode catalyzes the OER with an onset overpotential as low as 200 mV and needs overpotentials of 245 and 264 mV to achieve 50 and 100 mA cm(-2), respectively, in 1.0 M KOH. Remarkably, it is also highly robust to drive 500 and 1000 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 246 and 263 mV, respectively, in 30 wt% KOH. PMID:26935420

  14. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  15. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid suffocation. Chances are much better that you'll bring home a calm, contented baby if you ... by the manufacturer before the second birthday, you'll need to use a convertible seat designed for ...

  16. Bringing cancer care home.

    PubMed

    Treco-Jones, S

    1991-01-01

    Community hospitals in the South are seeing new and more cancer patients. Hospitals aggressively seeking new and faster methods to treat patients in their home towns bring benefits to both. PMID:10115667

  17. NiSe Nanowire Film Supported on Nickel Foam: An Efficient and Stable 3D Bifunctional Electrode for Full Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Cheng, Ningyan; Pu, Zonghua; Xing, Wei; Sun, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    Active and stable electrocatalysts made from earth-abundant elements are key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis. The growth of NiSe nanowire film on nickel foam (NiSe/NF) in situ by hydrothermal treatment of NF using NaHSe as Se source is presented. When used as a 3D oxygen evolution electrode, the NiSe/NF exhibits high activity with an overpotential of 270 mV required to achieve 20 mA cm(-2) and strong durability in 1.0 M KOH, and the NiOOH species formed at the NiSe surface serves as the actual catalytic site. The system is also highly efficient for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction in basic media. This bifunctional electrode enables a high-performance alkaline water electrolyzer with 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 1.63 V. PMID:26136347

  18. Bringing STEM to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been warned…

  19. Bringing Psychology to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of exercises called Bringing Psychology to Life (BPL), which is designed to engage introductory psychology students in learning course and textbook content by having them develop psychological explanations for events in their lives. Maintains that BPL is an excellent icebreaker for graduate teaching assistants and a vehicle for…

  20. Bringing down the trash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The density of junk orbiting the Earth is at or near a critical value beyond which this man-made debris will self-perpetuate, forming many smaller pieces that are even more of a problem. Stephen Ornes reports on the latest ideas about how to bring down the trash.

  1. Bringing Women Into Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Francine E., Ed.; Strober, Myra H., Ed.

    Intended to encourage and assist top management in bringing more women into upper management positions, the document provides an intellectual understanding of the issues and practical information on how to implement change. Nine chapters include: (1) "Institutional Barriers: What Keeps Women Out of the Executive Suite?" Cynthia Fuchs Epstein,…

  2. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  3. Information retrieval in digital libraries: bringing search to the net.

    PubMed

    Schatz, B R

    1997-01-17

    A digital library enables users to interact effectively with information distributed across a network. These network information systems support search and display of items from organized collections. In the historical evolution of digital libraries, the mechanisms for retrieval of scientific literature have been particularly important. Grand visions in 1960 led first to the development of text search, from bibliographic databases to full-text retrieval. Next, research prototypes catalyzed the rise of document search, from multimedia browsing across local-area networks to distributed search on the Internet. By 2010, the visions will be realized, with concept search enabling semantic retrieval across large collections. PMID:8994022

  4. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  5. Catamaran Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    West Coast Netting, Inc.'s net of Hyperester twine, is made of three strands of fiber twisted together by a company-invented sophisticated twisting machine and process that maintain precisely the same tension on each strand. The resulting twine offers higher strength and improved abrasion resistance. The technology that created the Hyperester supertwine has found spinoff applications, first as an extra-efficient seine for tuna fishing, then as a capture net for law enforcement agencies. The newest one is as a deck for racing catamarans. Hyperester twine net has been used on most of the high performance racing catamarans of recent years, including the America's Cup Challenge boats. They are tough and hold up well in the continual exposure to sunlight and saltwater.

  6. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  7. Bringing Students To Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Gilbert

    2013-05-01

    The Telescopes In Education (TIE) Program was the pioneer in robotic astronomy. The first users came online in the spring of 1993. The TIE program was dedicated to K-14 students with the hope of inspiring them to develop a greater appreciation for math, science, and engineering through their participation in astronomy. The program was very successful through 2005 when NASA felt there were enough robotic telescopes in the community to support the students into the future. During the 12 years of supported operations, TIE had over one hundred thousand student operations. TIE then started working with Universities in Australia to help move their students towards careers in the sciences and engineering. We discovered that students in the middle schools were the ones that should be focused on, to successfully bring them into the sciences and engineering. We have crafted a system that should be very successful in this endeavor.

  8. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  9. Bringing Cairo home.

    PubMed

    Clinton, B

    1994-01-01

    US President Bill Clinton as the keynote speaker of a two-day forum addressing population challenges noted how there was less discord among representatives of the 174 countries to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development than among the 535 members of Congress. He addressed the impacts and challenges of a growing population, and emphasized the importance of bringing the spirit of the Cairo conference home to help reduce population pressures in the US. Excerpts from his speech are presented. Innovation, commitment, and determination are needed to reduce population growth and provide economic opportunity, education, and basic health care in this era of regional hunger, lack of sanitation, and lack of trained medical personnel. Clinton stressed the important role of families in creating a better world and our mutual responsibility to each other. The contributions of women to society and the labor force should be acknowledged. Finally, Clinton also heralded participation in the conference as a step toward advancing our vision of sustainable development and stabilized population growth. PMID:12345671

  10. Bringing Gravity to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  11. Bringing physics to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    `I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of

  12. NET Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics – high numbers and toxicity – that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil “containment” processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  13. NET Confusion.

    PubMed

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D; Quinn, Mark T; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics - high numbers and toxicity - that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil "containment" processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  14. Net order optimization in analog net bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambor, Thomas; Schreiner, Lars; Olbrich, Markus; Barke, Erich

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optimize net order in analog busses. It is used for the PARasitic SYmmetric router (PARSY), which routes net bundles, e.g. busses or differential pairs, maintaining parasitic symmetry and limiting differential coupling. The router is mainly devoted to analog signal interconnect but can also be used for critical digital busses. Net bundles have a fixed order, because wire crossing is not allowed in net bundle segments to enforce symmetry. Wires inside net bundle segments are generated by module generators. Connecting cell terminals to the first or the last net bundle segment is complex, because the cell terminals can vary in geometry and placement. Therefore, an assignment between nets and wires (net order) in a segment is required. This assignment does not affect the order in which nets or net bundles are routed sequentially. The optimization objective for the connections from net bundle segments to terminals is to minimize the number of crossings and the length difference, while maintaining symmetry if possible. Therefore, a net order has to be calculated, which globally optimizes these criteria for all terminal connections. Different net orders can be computed from the placement of terminals, which have to be connected to a net bundle segment. An additional order is calculated from these net orders, which contains the most characteristic features of all net orders. For all net orders costs are evaluated, and the one with the lowest cost is chosen.

  15. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data

  16. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  17. Bringing science to the people

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an opinion editorial piece about the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). It describes the active role that the ISHS takes in bringing scientific information to people throughout the world. The society holds periodic symposia on 10 different crops and 14 different cross-co...

  18. Bringing Globalization into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Nancy Carter

    2006-01-01

    Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…

  19. Bringing Reality into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Technology offers ample opportunities to bring reality into the classroom. Students and teachers nowadays have many tools to work in an authentic way with real data in mathematics and science education. However, much research and development are still needed to create a consistent learning trajectory out of the many exciting single activities.…

  20. Bringing Reading Research to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Margaret G., Ed.; Kucan, Linda, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book brings together some of the world's foremost literacy scholars to discuss how research influences what teachers actually do in the classroom. Chapters describe the current state of knowledge about such key topics as decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, digital literacies, reading disabilities, and reading reform. At the same time, the…

  1. Bringing Bart Simpson to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Wigmore, Barbara A.

    Teachers are challenged by contradictory demands on curricular time. The social needs children bring to school sometimes collide with basic literacy instruction priorities. This research addressed concerns about television violence via a project that encouraged children to log their television viewing and write in daily journals their perceptions…

  2. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  3. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  4. Bringing nursing to the public.

    PubMed

    Kazis, Cornelia; Schwendimann, René

    2009-11-01

    For the past 5 years, an unusual program has been evolving in the University of Basel's Institute of Nursing Science master's program in Basel, Switzerland. A special course designed to help nurses master public communication skills requires students to play the roles of journalist, exhibition curator, conference organizer, radio reporter, and news producer. Two faculty members, an experienced radio and newspaper journalist and a nurse scientist, teach and support the students. By developing their competence in media relations, participants prepare themselves to tackle the course's long-term goal of bringing the nursing profession into the public eye. PMID:19731893

  5. NISE Network: Overview of the NISE Network Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Helms, Jenifer V.; Castori, Pam; Hirabayashi, Judy; Lopez, Laurie; Phillips, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The documents enclosed in this report provide a comprehensive and systematic review of the progress made in developing a network organization capable of supporting nanoscience education for the public on a national scale. There is a logic to the studies that were done and to the reports that are included in this notebook. The following are the…

  6. Bringing Technology into Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettlili, Nouredine

    2009-05-01

    Through our outreach initiative at Jacksonville State University, we have been supporting a number of school districts in Northeast Alabama to improve the teaching of physics at the high school level. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. The main aim of project IMPACTSEED is to help teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama Course of Study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of program. In this presentation, we want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to physics classrooms. We have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms, most notably through a series of make-and-take technology workshops that were developed over several years of research. In turn, when the teachers assign these make-an-take projects to their students, the students will be able to see first-hand---by doing, rather than being told---that physics is not a dry, abstract subject. We found this approach to be particularly effective in heightening the students' interest in math and science.

  7. Net Making = Kuvrinialiq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    Presented in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet describes and illustrates the skills necessary for the construction and the hanging of the fishing nets used by Eskimos. Description of net making includes gathering the bark; willow twine making; kinds of implements used in net construction (twine, shuttle, gauge, forked stick,…

  8. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet…

  9. Pull-Up Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenan, Liz

    2008-01-01

    When the author began teaching, she always hit a problem when it came to 3D shapes. She wanted the pupils to get a feel for them, and she would get them to make the shapes from their nets. The pupils would first try to visualize how the 2D nets could become 3D shapes and then they would physically fold the nets into the shapes for themselves.…

  10. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  11. A NET Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thea; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis. PMID:23227026

  12. SpawnNet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  13. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  14. NetState

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  15. NASA's Software Bank (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NETS (A Neural Network Development Tool) is a software system for mimicking the human brain. It is used in a University of Arkansas project in pattern matching of chemical systems. If successful, chemists would be able to identify mixtures of compounds without long and costly separation procedures. Using NETS, the group has trained the computer to recognize pattern relationships in a known compound and associate the results to an unknown compound. The research appears to be promising.

  16. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  17. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing kids to lots of allergens, ... rest of the population -- much lower rates of asthma. "We found Amish children had extremely low levels ...

  18. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Building bone as ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  19. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  20. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  1. TrialNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canada, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand. This network is dedicated to the study, prevention, and early treatment of type 1 diabetes. Learn More > Visit us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter TrialNet YouTube Channel Department ...

  2. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  3. April showers bring May flowers…and May rains bring botrytis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the old saying goes “April showers bring May flowers” and to the greenhouse production industry May brings “color” to the greenhouse in the form of flowers which are good for both spring sales and Botrytis. This should not come as anything new to the seasoned grower, but hopefully will serve as ...

  4. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  5. Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hille, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Bringing research into educational practice is necessary but does not happen automatically. The Transfercenter for Neuroscience and Learning, at the University of Ulm in Germany, is set up to transfer (neuro)scientific knowledge into educational practice. In doing so we have learned why this does not happen automatically, and have tried to make…

  6. Bringing the Ocean into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pat; Sullivan, Babs; Whitfield, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a year-long, schoolwide project that brings the ocean environment into the classroom and develops cross-disciplinary understandings for students. Presents details of the physical environment within the school, the history of the project, and the rationale and advantages. (DDR)

  7. Digitizing Brings New Life to Video Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Talk of mass digitization generally brings to mind large-scale projects to scan huge collections of books. The Google Library Print project, the Open Content Alliance, and others have taken on incredibly ambitious projects to digitize enormous numbers of books in some of the world's biggest libraries. Digitization of book collections stands to…

  8. Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts…

  9. Quantum Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Williams, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of classical neurocomputers is limited by the number of classical degrees of freedom which is roughly proportional to the size of the computer. By Contrast, a Hypothetical quantum neurocomputer can implement an exponentially large number of the degrees of freedom within the same size. In this paper an attempt is made to reconcile linear reversible structure of quantum evolution with nonlinear irreversible dynamics for neural nets.

  10. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    PubMed

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses. PMID:11066669

  11. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  12. The Customers' Perspective: The EdNET 98 Survey of Buyers and Managers of Educational Technology. Constructive Input for the Educational Technology Industry from the EdNET 98 Education Executives Advisory Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighead, Donna; Bigham, Vicki Smith; Heller, Nelson B.

    The EdNET 98 Education Executives Advisory Board, also known as Partners in Education Program (PEP), is a featured activity of the EdNET 98 Conference. Its focus is to bring educators and vendors together to share their perspectives about technology in education and discussion technology-related concerns and issues. This report presents results…

  13. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  14. Conditions for Productive Learning in Networked Learning Environments: A Case Study from the VO@NET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Thomas; Koottatep, Suporn; Pengchai, Petch; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2006-01-01

    In this article we bring together experiences from two international research projects: the Kaleidoscope ERT research collaboration and the VO@NET project. We do this by using a shared framework identified for cross-case analyses within the Kaleidoscope ERT to analyse a particular case in the VO@NET project, a training course called "Green…

  15. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  16. OglNet

    SciTech Connect

    Verba, Jared

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as well as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.

  17. OglNet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as wellmore » as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.« less

  18. Bringing the environment down to earth.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, F L

    1999-01-01

    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green. PMID:10539206

  19. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  20. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  1. Bringing a military approach to teaching.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Despite having only established the company nine years ago, the founders of Kidderminster-based Avensys Medical believe the company now offers not only one of the UK's most comprehensive maintenance, repair, consultancy, and equipment audit services for medical and dental equipment, but also one of the most tailored training portfolios for electro-biomedical (EBME) engineers working in healthcare settings to enable them to get the best out of such equipment, improve patient safety, optimise service life, and save both the NHS and private sector money. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, discovered on meeting one of the two co-founders, ex-Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) artificer sergeant-major (ASM) and MoD engineering trainer, Robert Strange, many of the company's key trainers have a strong military background, and it is the rigorous and disciplined approach this enables them to bring to their training that he believes singles the company out. PMID:26268025

  2. SensorNet Node Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  3. Neural nets on the MPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Harold M.; Waner, Stefan

    1987-01-01

    The Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) is an ideal machine for computer experiments with simulated neural nets as well as more general cellular automata. Experiments using the MPP with a formal model neural network are described. The results on problem mapping and computational efficiency apply equally well to the neural nets of Hopfield, Hinton et al., and Geman and Geman.

  4. CAPEOPEN.NET CLASS LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cape-Open for .Net class library is a collection of classes that implement the Cape-Open v.1.0 interfaces in the .Net framework. This is a tool to aid process modeling component (PMC) developers in producing CAPE-OPEN compliant objects using the latest version of the Visual S...

  5. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  6. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  7. TacNet Tracker Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  8. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  9. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  10. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Applications, Benefits, and Barriers of Alberta's SuperNet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Christiansen, Jo-An

    2007-01-01

    The Alberta SuperNet, a very high speed, broadband network, was built to bring high-speed connectivity to every school, library, and municipal office in Alberta. This CDN $294 million investment was made based on the perceived need for high-speed connectivity to stimulate economic and community development and to enhance government services,…

  11. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  12. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  13. Bringing the Unidata IDV to the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. I.; Oxelson Ganter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining software compatibility across new computing environments and the associated underlying hardware is a common problem for software engineers and scientific programmers. While traditional software engineering provides a suite of tools and methodologies which may mitigate this issue, they are typically ignored by developers lacking a background in software engineering. Causing further problems, these methodologies are best applied at the start of project; trying to apply them to an existing, mature project can require an immense effort. Visualization software is particularly vulnerable to this problem, given the inherent dependency on particular graphics hardware and software API's. As a result of these issues, there exists a large body of software which is simultaneously critical to the scientists who are dependent upon it, and yet increasingly difficult to maintain.The solution to this problem was partially provided with the advent of Cloud Computing; Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations, with little-to-no re-engineering required. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily bring the same visualization software to a desktop, a netbook, a smartphone, and the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be.Unidata has been able to harness Application Streaming to provide a tablet-compatible version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  14. Integrated system brings hospital data together.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K F

    1987-10-01

    Healthcare industry changes during the 1980s--increased competition and alterations in the Medicare payment methodology--place new and more complex demands on a hospital's information systems, which often fall short of meeting those demands. These systems were designed for financial reporting, billing, or providing clinical data, and few of them are capable of linking with other unrelated systems. Today's hospital manager needs timely and simultaneous access to data from a variety of sources within the hospital. All the elements to accomplish this are collected somewhere in the hospital, but finding them and bringing them together is difficult. The key to the efficient management and use of data bases is in understanding the fundamental concept of relational data bases, which is the capability of linking or joining separate data files through a common data element in each file. In this way, data files may be integrated into a "related" data base. Any number of separate files, or tables, may exist within a "relational" data base as long as a series of threads links them. A strategic management information data base includes the information necessary to analyze, understand, and manage the hospital's markets, products, resources, and profitability. The major components of this information system are the case mix and cost accounting, budgeting, and modeling systems. The case mix and cost accounting factors involve managing concrete pieces of data, whereas the budgeting and modeling factors manipulate data to create a scenario. The strategic management information data base is the foundation of a hospital's decision support system, which is rapidly moving into the category of a necessary tool of the hospital manager's trade. PMID:10301918

  15. Methods of verifying net carbon

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, M.

    1996-10-01

    Problems currently exist with using net carbon as an industrial standard to gauge smelter performance. First, throughout the industry there are a number of different methods used for determining net carbon. Also, until recently there has not been a viable method to cross check or predict change in net carbon. This inherently leads to differences and most likely inaccuracies when comparing performances of different plants using a net carbon number. Ravenswood uses specific methods when calculating the net carbon balance. The R and D Carbon, Ltd. formula developed by Verner Fisher, et al, to predict and cross check net carbon based on baked carbon core analysis has been successfully used. Another method is used, as a cross check, which is based on the raw materials (cokes and pitch) usage as related to the metal produced. The combination of these methods gives a definitive representation of the carbon performance in the reduction cell. This report details the methods Ravenswood Aluminum uses and the information derived from it.

  16. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net... States § 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T....

  17. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... and Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers... net operating loss deduction the taxpayer must first determine the part of any net operating...

  18. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T....

  19. Smart Technology Brings Power to the People

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Gephart, Julie M.

    2006-12-01

    Imagine you’re at home one Saturday morning on the computer, as your son takes a shower, your daughter is watching TV, and a load of laundry is in your washer and dryer. Meanwhile, the fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee fills the house. You hear a momentary beep from the dryer that tells you that if you were to look, a high-energy price indicator would be displayed on the front panels of some of your favorite appliances. This tells you that you could save money right now by using less energy. (You’ve agreed to this arrangement to help your utility avoid a substation upgrade. In return, you get a lower rate most of the time.) So you turn off some of the unneeded lights in your home and opt to wait until evening to run the dishwasher. Meanwhile, some of your largest appliances have automatically responded to this signal and have already reduced your home’s energy consumption, saving you money. On January 11, 2006, demonstration projects were launched in 200 homes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States to test and speed adoption of new smart grid technologies that can make the power grid more resilient and efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory in Richland, Washington, is managing the yearlong study called the Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration, a project funded primarily by DOE. Through the GridWise™ Demonstration projects, researchers are gaining insight into energy consumers’ behavior while testing new technologies designed to bring the electric transmission system into the information age. Northwest utilities, appliance manufacturers and technology companies are also supporting this effort to demonstrate the devices and assess the resulting consumer response. A combination of devices, software and advanced analytical tools will give homeowners more information about their energy use and cost, and we want to know if this will modify their behavior. Approximately 100

  20. Net zero building energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Rohit

    This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

  1. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    through The Dalles dam. Water also enters the Columbia River via runoff from land. The model runs on a monthly timescale to account for the impact of seasonal variations of climate, streamflows, and water uses. Data for the model prototype were obtained from national databases and ecosystem model results. The WPM can be run from three sources: 1) directly from STELLA, 2) with the isee Player®, or 3) the web version of WPM constructed with NetSim® software. When running any of these three versions, the user is presented a screen with a series of buttons, graphs, and a table. Two of the buttons provide the user with background and instructions on how to run the model. Currently, there are five types of scenarios that can be manipulated alone or in combination using the Sliding Input Devices: 1) interannual variability (e.g., El Niño), 2) climate change, 3) salmon policy, 4) future population, and 5) biodiesel production. Overall, the WPM captured the effects of streamflow conditions on hydropower production. Under La Niña conditions, more hydropower is available during all months of the year, with a substantially higher availability during spring and summer. Under El Niño conditions, hydropower would be reduced, with a total decline of 15% from normal weather conditions over the year. A policy of flow augmentation to facilitate the spring migration of smolts to the ocean would also reduce hydropower supply. Modeled hydropower generation was 23% greater than the 81 TWh reported in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database. The modeling capability presented here contains the essential features to conduct basin-scale analyses of water allocation under current and future climates. Due to its underlying data structure iv and conceptual foundation, the WPM should be appropriate to conduct IA modeling at national and global scales.

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  4. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  5. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  6. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  7. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  8. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  9. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.73 shall be stated in...

  10. 7 CFR 51.489 - Well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well netted. 51.489 Section 51.489 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.489 Well netted. Well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is well covered with fully developed, well raised netting,...

  11. 7 CFR 51.489 - Well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well netted. 51.489 Section 51.489 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.489 Well netted. Well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is well covered with fully developed, well raised netting,...

  12. Teachers Shift Instructional Approaches to Bring "Next Generation" into Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    Well before the Next Generation Science Standards became final last month, teachers in pockets around the country were already exploring the vision for science education espoused by the document and bringing elements of that approach to the classroom. The new standards call for bringing greater depth to K-12 students' understanding of the subject…

  13. Bring Life into Learning: Create a Lasting Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Donald H.

    Aiming to bring a new sense of adventure to teaching and learning by focusing on the lives of historical figures, artists, and scientists, this book is a "how-to" for teaching the most important lesson of all: becoming human. Each chapter includes several "Actions" designed to bring the human aspect of various disciplines center stage while…

  14. Net Bidding District Insurance Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, David H.; LeVan, Donald D.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the insurance market combined with reduction in financial support make it an ideal time for educators to look at alternative approaches to purchasing insurance. The advantages and disadvantages of three approaches are analyzed. Net bidding is the most effective. (MD)

  15. The power of neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. P.; Shah, B. H.

    1987-01-01

    Implementation of the Hopfield net which is used in the image processing type of applications where only partial information about the image may be available is discussed. The image classification type of algorithm of Hopfield and other learning algorithms, such as the Boltzmann machine and the back-propagation training algorithm, have many vital applications in space.

  16. SophiNet Version 12

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-09

    SophiNet Version 12 is part of the code contained in the application ‘oglnet’ and comprises the portions that make ‘oglnet’ receive and display Sophia data from the Sophia Daemon ‘sophiad’. Specifically this encompasses the channel, host and alert receiving and the treeview HUD widget.

  17. Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.

  18. A safety net with holes.

    PubMed

    Glabman, Maureen

    2003-06-01

    Hospital emergency departments are faced with serious overcrowding caused by a host of interconnected factors. As a result, many EDs are going "on diversion" more often, and what was once health care's safety net is beginning to unravel. What can trustees do? PMID:12825418

  19. MASTER-Net optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Lodieu, N.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 17h 35m 09.92s -61d 59m 41.3s on 2016-01-29.06019 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.1m (limit 18.3m).

  20. MASTER-Net: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Vladimirov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 04h 53m 02.87s -49d 21m 28.4s on 2016-02-22.89387 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (the limit is 18.7m).

  1. Stochastic neural nets and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Thomas C.

    1991-03-01

    A stochastic neural net shares with the normally defined neural nets the concept that information is processed by a system consisting of a set of nodes (neurons) connected by weighted links (axons). The normal neural net takes in inputs on an initial layer of neurons which fire appropriately; a neuron of the next layer fires depending on the sum of weights of the axons leading to it from fired neurons of the first layer. The stochastic neural net differs in that the neurons are more complex and that the vision activity is a dynamic process. The first layer (viewing layer) of neurons fires stochastically based on the average brightness of the area it sees and then has a refractory period. The viewing layer looks at the image for several clock cycles. The effect is like those photo sensitive sunglasses that darken in bright light. The neurons over the bright areas are most likely in a refractory period (and this can't fire) and the neurons over the dark areas are not. Now if we move the sensing layer with respect to the image so that a portion of the neurons formerly over the dark are now over the bright, they will likely all fire on that first cycle. Thus, on that cycle, one would see a flash from that portion significantly stronger than surrounding regions. Movement the other direction would produce a patch that is darker, but this effect is not as noticeable. These effects are collected in a collection layer. This paper will discuss the use of the stochastic neural net for edge detection and segmentation of some simple images.

  2. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M.; Sorg, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction. PMID:26904301

  3. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  4. Petri net controllers for distributed robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, George N.

    1992-01-01

    Petri nets are a well established modelling technique for analyzing parallel systems. When coupled with an event-driven operating system, Petri nets can provide an effective means for integrating and controlling the functions of distributed robotic applications. Recent work has shown that Petri net graphs can also serve as remarkably intuitive operator interfaces. In this paper, the advantages of using Petri nets as high-level controllers to coordinate robotic functions are outlined, the considerations for designing Petri net controllers are discussed, and simple Petri net structures for implementing an interface for operator supervision are presented. A detailed example is presented which illustrates these concepts for a sensor-based assembly application.

  5. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  6. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  7. 3. Buoy tender crew mates work to bring a navigational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Buoy tender crew mates work to bring a navigational buoy aboard for servicing. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  10. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  11. Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160300.html Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...

  12. Blooming Trees Can Bring Misery to Allergy Sufferers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157872.html Blooming Trees Can Bring Misery to Allergy Sufferers But expert ... 20, 2016 SUNDAY, March 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Tree pollen season has arrived, but there are a ...

  13. Marine science: Storms bring ocean nutrients to light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palter, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Ships and ocean-observing robots have been used to quantify the amount of nutrients that a storm brings up from the Stygian ocean depths to the sunlit surface -- a first step in assessing how storms affect oceanic biomass production.

  14. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    PubMed

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online. PMID:22167915

  15. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  16. LabNet Project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, G.

    1985-06-24

    LabNet value-added service is a high-speed packet-switched network that ties computers together. From the point-of-view of a single computer, or of a local network of computers within a building or a group of buildings, the LabNet high-speed network is a long-haul network (like Tymnet or ARPANET) for getting to other buildings. This service is provided through channels of the backbone that are shared by everyone at the Laboratory. The focus of the high-speed network is the efficient transfer of data between computers as opposed to the interconnection of people's terminals to these computers. The latter function is best served by the local networks, or by a separate network.

  17. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. II - Theoretical models for Saturn's A- and B-ring inner edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Bode, Paul W.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Cederbloom, Steven E.; Murphy, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    The present numerical simulations and analytic arguments show that many of the common morphological features of the Saturn A- and B-ring inner-edge regions are due to 'ballistic transport', or the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum generated by exchanges of meteoroid impact ejecta. It is suggested that the observed 100-km undulatory structure of the inner B-ring arises from ballistic transport echoing of the inner edge. A strongly prograde ejecta-distribution function is used to fit the edge-region features.

  18. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  19. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  20. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  1. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  2. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  3. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  4. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  5. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  6. Measurement of relative density of tissue using wavelet analysis and neural nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyatinov, Sergey I.; Kolentev, Sergey V.; Buldakova, Tatyana I.

    2001-01-01

    Development of methods for indirect measurement of substance's consistence and characteristics is highly actual problem of medical diagnostics. Many diseases bring about changes of tissue density or appearances of alien bodies (e.g. stones in kidneys or gallbladders). Propose to use wavelet-analysis and neural nets for indirect measurement of relative density of tissue by images of internal organs. It shall allow to reveal a disease on early stage.

  7. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  8. Introduction to USDA VetNet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet was established in 2003 and was modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for food borne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the Nat...

  9. 27 CFR 19.644 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.644 Net contents. The net contents of liquor bottles shall be shown on the label, unless the statement of the net contents is permanently marked on the side, front, or back of the bottle. (Sec....

  10. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980, in bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill,...

  11. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980, in bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill,...

  12. 46 CFR 69.63 - Net tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net tonnage. 69.63 Section 69.63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.63 Net tonnage. Net tonnage (NT) is determined by the formula:...

  13. 46 CFR 69.63 - Net tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net tonnage. 69.63 Section 69.63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.63 Net tonnage. Net tonnage (NT) is determined by the formula:...

  14. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less—...

  15. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less—...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment § 1926.105 Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  19. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  20. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  1. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  2. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  3. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  4. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  5. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  6. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  7. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    2014-12-01

    An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF) structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  8. Artificial nets from superconducting nanogranules

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.; Kresin, V. Z.

    2012-06-15

    We show that a large transport current can flow through superconducting nets composed of nano-clusters. Although thermal and quantum fluctuations lead to a finite value of dissipation, this value can be very small in one- and two-dimensional systems for realistic parameters of the nanoclusters and distances between them. The value of the action for vortex tunneling at zero temperature can be made sufficiently large to make the dissipation negligibly small. We estimate the temperature T{sub 0} of the transition from the thermal activation to quantum tunneling.

  9. The North Norwegian Health Net.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, S; Uldal, S B; Baardsgard, A; Amundsen, M; Myrvang, R; Nordvåg, D; Stenmarkl, H

    1999-01-01

    The North Norwegian Health Net is a comprehensive scheme to connect all health-care institutions in the area to a national computer network. Services available include telemedicine, e-mail and Web access. A general practitioner has responsibility for ensuring that the clinical information is correct. Medical departments are responsible for the content of their own Web pages. All institutions require authorization before connection to ensure data protection and security. Changes in communication between primary- and secondary-care sectors are being monitored. To date the implementation of the network programme has gone smoothly. PMID:10534834

  10. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. 4062... CORPORATION LIABILITY LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.4 Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. (a) General rules. When a contributing sponsor, or member(s) of...

  11. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. 4062... CORPORATION LIABILITY LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.4 Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. (a) General rules. When a contributing sponsor, or member(s) of...

  12. Isomorphisms between petri nets and dataflow graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Kavi, K.M.; Buckles, B.P.; Bhat, U.N.

    1987-10-01

    Dataflow graphs are a generalized model of computation. Uninterpreted dataflow graphs with nondeterminism resolved via probabilities are shown to be isomorphic to a class of Petri nets known as free choice nets. Petri net analysis methods are readily available in the literature and this result makes those methods accessible to dataflow research. Nevertheless, combinatorial explosion can render Petri net analysis inoperative. Using a previously known technique for decomposing free choice nets into smaller components, it is demonstrated that, in principle, it is possible to determine aspects of the overall behavior from the particular behavior of components.

  13. Isomorphisms between Petri nets and dataflow graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavi, Krishna M.; Buckles, Billy P.; Bhat, U. Narayan

    1987-01-01

    Dataflow graphs are a generalized model of computation. Uninterpreted dataflow graphs with nondeterminism resolved via probabilities are shown to be isomorphic to a class of Petri nets known as free choice nets. Petri net analysis methods are readily available in the literature and this result makes those methods accessible to dataflow research. Nevertheless, combinatorial explosion can render Petri net analysis inoperative. Using a previously known technique for decomposing free choice nets into smaller components, it is demonstrated that, in principle, it is possible to determine aspects of the overall behavior from the particular behavior of components.

  14. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  15. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  16. HeliNet system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbio Pallavicini, M.; Venditti, F.

    2002-07-01

    HeliNet is a research project studying a network based on High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned airplanes, intended for providing services in the field of traffic monitoring, environmental surveillance and broadband communications. The project is funded by the European Union for the period 2000-2002 as a multidisciplinary feasibility study within the Fifth Framework Programme R&D (IST-1999-11214). Objective of the research project is to investigate the feasibility of such network and to identify its viability, possible configuration and risk areas. The present paper shows the highlights of system analysis of network innovative elements and an extract of concepts and problems being investigated to integrate the fleet management of this kind of airplanes with network configuration.

  17. Refractory neural nets and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Thomas C.

    2014-02-01

    Biological understandings have served as the basis for new computational approaches. A prime example is artificial neural nets which are based on the biological understanding of the trainability of neural synapses. In this paper, we will investigate features of the biological vision system to see if they can also be exploited. These features are 1) the neuron's refractory period - the period of time after the neuron fires before it can fire again and 2) the ocular microtremor which moves the retinal neural array relative to the image. The short term memory due to the refractory period allows the before and after movement views to be compared. This paper will discuss the investigation of the implications of these two features.

  18. Revamped NPS Brings More Focus to CTE Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In March, attendees at the annual ACTE National Policy Seminar (NPS) got more than they bargained for. With a new hotel and a completely reorganized agenda, career and technical educators were more than energized to bring the career and technical education (CTE) message to Capitol Hill. This year marked the first time ACTE held a special briefing…

  19. Bringing up Harry Penrith: Injustice and Becoming Burnum Burnum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsland, John

    2004-01-01

    "The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations" recognizes Harry Penrith's ironic public declaration as Burnum Burnum on 26 January 1988, the official Bicentenary celebration day of the white invasion, settlement and occupation of Australia: "We wish no harm to England's native people, We are here to bring you good manners, refinement and an…

  20. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  1. Bringing Assisted Living Services into Congregate Housing: Residents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Nancy W.; Oakes, Claudia E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Bringing state-subsidized assisted living services (ALS) into congregate housing (CH) is a strategy for reducing rates of nursing home placement. This article discusses CH residents' reactions as a new ALS program was introduced in their housing, and it provides recommendations for others who are considering the implementation of similar…

  2. Professing in the Contact Zone: Bringing Theory and Practice Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Janice M., Ed.

    This collection of essays brings together Mary Louise Pratt's original essay, the 10-year-old "Professing in the Contact Zone," with 14 responses that interpret, extend, and challenge Pratt's work. The essays examine how contact zone dynamics play out in various pedagogical spaces. Following an introduction by the editor, essays in Section I,…

  3. Bring Your Own Digital Device in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, C. Paul; Cooper, Martin; Pagram, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to advise a teacher education institution on the feasibility of having a "Bring Your Own Digital Device" policy for students. The investigation built on components of two research projects while adding the comprehensive testing of representative potential hardware and software platforms. The…

  4. Bringing the Outside World into an Intensive English Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Lindsey; Reppen, Randi; Vasquez, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of an intensive English programme to design a class that addressed the challenges of bringing authentic English into the curriculum. This class exposed students to a variety of authentic English language input, while providing support. Through this class, students volunteered with various community organizations.…

  5. Driven: Bringing German Auto Concepts to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adney, Cara

    2012-01-01

    A world away from the red dirt of Oklahoma, David Shields and Shelly Smith felt right at home. A national grant took the Meridian Technology Center automotive teachers on a trip to Germany that car lovers only dream about. The tour to the major automakers last summer has them geared up and bringing fresh ideas to the classroom. They spent four…

  6. Bring Your Own Device: Parental Guidance (PG) Suggested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiger, Derick; Herro, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Educators are incorporating students' mobile devices into the schooling experience via Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives. This is advantageous for many reasons, most notably, improving access to Internet resources and digital tools in support of teaching and learning. Obtaining parental support is key to BYOD success. Therefore, this study…

  7. Bringing Out Head Start Talents (BOHST). Talent Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundsen, Jane; And Others

    Designed for preschoolers identified as talented by the Bringing Out Head Start Talents (BOHST) project, the small-group lessons contained in this manual focus on nine areas of talent programming and are presented in color-coded sections: creative, intellectual, leadership, art, music, reading, math, science, and psychomotor talent development.…

  8. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…

  9. Self-Development: What Older Adults Bring to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    Although educators know that older persons bring experience, curiosity, and motivation into the educational setting, they often do not consider the aged to be engaged in development, especially in the development of trust. Education can provide for older persons a means for focusing on society and self. The classroom can serve as a stimulus to…

  10. Social Studies: Bringing the World Closer to Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Helen W., Ed.

    This yearbook provides teaching strategy topics of general interest to social studies teachers of all grade levels. This first annual yearbook focuses on using social studies to bring the world closer to home. There are 17 papers, including: (1) "Getting Ready for the World" (Angene H. Wilson); (2) "Making Cultural Connections: A Cultural Resource…

  11. The Chemedian Brings Laughter to the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitkamp, Emma; Burnet, Frank

    2007-01-01

    "The Chemedian and the Crazy Football Match" is a comic strip developed by the authors to bring humor to aspects of the UK primary science curriculum. The comic strip was tested in six English primary school classes (years 3-5; ages 7-10); over 150 children participated in the project, together with six teachers. Children found the comic strip fun…

  12. Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2016-01-01

    Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…

  13. Bringing in a New Era in Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the book, "Bringing in a New Era in Character Education," a collection of essays by prominent social critics and social scientists. Suggests that the book shows that the character education movement is a reaction to the moral vacuum created by the transformations of the middle and late 20th century. Notes that most of the essays appear…

  14. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan), but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price) and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years), LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price without the cheaper net

  15. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  16. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  17. Parallelizing Timed Petri Net simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using parallel processing to accelerate the simulation of Timed Petri Nets (TPN's) was studied. It was recognized that complex system development tools often transform system descriptions into TPN's or TPN-like models, which are then simulated to obtain information about system behavior. Viewed this way, it was important that the parallelization of TPN's be as automatic as possible, to admit the possibility of the parallelization being embedded in the system design tool. Later years of the grant were devoted to examining the problem of joint performance and reliability analysis, to explore whether both types of analysis could be accomplished within a single framework. In this final report, the results of our studies are summarized. We believe that the problem of parallelizing TPN's automatically for MIMD architectures has been almost completely solved for a large and important class of problems. Our initial investigations into joint performance/reliability analysis are two-fold; it was shown that Monte Carlo simulation, with importance sampling, offers promise of joint analysis in the context of a single tool, and methods for the parallel simulation of general Continuous Time Markov Chains, a model framework within which joint performance/reliability models can be cast, were developed. However, very much more work is needed to determine the scope and generality of these approaches. The results obtained in our two studies, future directions for this type of work, and a list of publications are included.

  18. Price smarter on the Net.

    PubMed

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success. PMID:11213686

  19. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any…

  20. VruiNet Version 12(SOPHIA)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-09

    VruiNet Version 12 is the code used exclusively by the executable ‘vruinet’. VruiNet Version 12 provides a wrapper around the code for ‘oglnet’ that makes it compatible for VRUI systems such as the CAVE at CAES.

  1. Application of neural nets in structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, Laszlo; Hajela, Prabhat

    1993-01-01

    The biological motivation for Artificial Neural Net developments is briefly discussed, and the most popular paradigm, the feedforward supervised learning net with error back propagation training algorithm, is introduced. Possible approaches for utilization in structural optimization is illustrated through simple examples. Other currently ongoing developments for application in structural mechanics are also mentioned.

  2. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a)...

  3. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a)...

  4. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  5. How is ERBE net radiation defined?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... at top of the atmosphere (TOA) as the following: Net (TOA) = Solar_down (TOA) - SW_up (TOA) - LW_up (TOA) where Solar_down (TOA) ... a net radiative energy surplus/deficit of the Earth system, respectively. ERBE: General Questions ...

  6. Workshop: Promoting Sustainability Through Net Zero Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) signed an MOU with the U.S. Army to support the Army’s Net Zero initiative. The 17 Net Zero pilot installations aim to produce as much energy as used; limit freshwater use and increase water reuse; and reduce the generation ...

  7. Net Energy of Cellulosic Ethanol from Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass was managed as a biomass energy crop in field trials on marginal cropland on ten farms in three states to determine net energy based on inputs and yields. Net energy averaged 43.5 GJ ha-1 y-1. Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable energy than nonrenewable energy consumed. Greenhouse...

  8. Towards Bringing EEG Research and Diagnostics out of the Lab.

    PubMed

    Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Ramos, Roann; Severijns, Cassandra; Wehrle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bringing brain research tools like EEG devices out of the lab into the pockets of practitioners and researchers may fundamentally change the way we perform diagnostics and research. While most of the current techniques are limited to research clinics and require excessive set-up, new consumer EEG devices connected to standard, off-the-shelf mobile devices allow us to lift these limitations. This allows neuropsychological assessment and research in mobile settings, possibly even in remote areas with limited accessibility and infrastructure, thus bringing the equipment to the patient, instead of bringing the patient to the equipment. We are developing an Android based mobile framework to perform EEG studies. By connecting a mobile consumer EEG headset directly to an unmodified mobile device, presenting auditory and visual stimuli, as well as user interaction, we create a self-contained experimental platform. We complement this platform by a toolkit for immediate evaluation of the recorded data directly on the device, even without Internet connectivity. Initial results from the replication of two Event Related Potentials studies indicate the feasibility of the approach. PMID:25980867

  9. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. 1.172-4 Section 1.172-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net...

  10. Description of SchoolNet, SchoolNet Plus, and the Ameritech Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.

    This informational memorandum is the first in a series of reports focusing on the SchoolNet initiatives. It describes SchoolNet, SchoolNet Plus, and the Ameritech Agreement, presenting background information on their funding authorities, purposes, key players, organizational structures, and statutory timeframes. The report also describes how…

  11. EuroPlaNet: European Planetology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, M.; Europlanet Coordinating Team

    2006-12-01

    Funded by the European Commission under the FP6, Euro-PlaNet's goal is munity for maximizing the science produced by the international planetary missions with European involvement. Formed by an initial consortium composed of about sixty laboratories throughout 17 different European member and candidate countries, EuroPlaNet started in January 2005 for a period of four years. The main objective of EuroPlaNet is to achieve a long-term integration of Planetary Sciences in Europe through the networking of the European research groups involved in this field. EuroPlaNet will develop and coordinate synergies between space observations, Earth-based observations, laboratory research, numerical simulations and databases development through six networking activities. EuroPlaNet will also develop, through specific outreach activities, including a multi-lingual approach, science communication on planetary observation and exploration programmes for the benefit of European citizens, especially children and young people.

  12. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Del Valle, Sara Y; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-12-21

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  13. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  14. GEP- NETS UPDATE: Genetics of neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Crona, Joakim; Skogseid, Britt

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, arising from neuroendocrine cells that are dispersed throughout the body. Around 20% of NETs occur in the context of a genetic syndrome. Today there are at least ten recognized NET syndromes. This includes the classical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasias types 1 and 2, and von Hippel-Lindau and neurofibromatosis type 1. Additional susceptibility genes associated with a smaller fraction of NETs have also been identified. Recognizing genetic susceptibility has proved essential both to provide genetic counseling and to give the best preventive care. In this review we will also discuss the knowledge of somatic genetic alterations in NETs. At least 24 genes have been implicated as drivers of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis, and the overall rates of genomic instability are relatively low. Genetic intra-tumoral, as well as inter-tumoral heterogeneity in the same patient, have also been identified. Together these data point towards the common pathways in NET evolution, separating early from late disease drivers. Although knowledge of specific mutations in NETs has limited impact on actual patient management, we predict that in the near future genomic profiling of tumors will be included in the clinical arsenal for diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutic decisions. PMID:27165966

  15. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  16. 7 CFR 1423.7 - Net worth alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth alternatives. 1423.7 Section 1423.7... WAREHOUSES § 1423.7 Net worth alternatives. Warehouse operators with net worth equal to or greater than the minimum net worth required, but less than the total net worth for the commodity involved in the...

  17. 7 CFR 1423.7 - Net worth alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth alternatives. 1423.7 Section 1423.7... WAREHOUSES § 1423.7 Net worth alternatives. Warehouse operators with net worth equal to or greater than the minimum net worth required, but less than the total net worth for the commodity involved in the...

  18. 12 CFR 702.102 - Statutory net worth categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statutory net worth categories. 702.102 Section... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.102 Statutory net worth categories. (a) Net worth... credit union shall be classified (Table 1)— (1) Well capitalized if it has a net worth ratio of...

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  20. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  1. New ways to bring solar energy to communities

    SciTech Connect

    Mastaitis, V.; Thomas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    Efforts to educate decision-makers, planners and the public about the availability and benefits of solar energy use often have appeared disjointed and piecemeal. Recognizing that a more holistic approach was needed to bring solar energy into communities, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council devised an approach that assists government and community officials in bringing renewables into every aspect of community building--housing, recreation facilities, open spaces and businesses. This effort utilizes the Workshop in a Box (WIAB), a collection of informational tools packaged to make it easy to approach a community about using these technologies: climate-responsive buildings, solar electricity, solar water and pool heating and community energy systems (including wind and biomass systems). More important than the tools, however is the training, education, creation of a network of trainers and on-going communications among the group of trainers. The objectives of the WIAB program are: to continue efforts to provide a comprehensive approach in educating builders, planners, community officials and the public in order to bring renewable energy to communities; to continue outreach and building of a network of trainers in cities and communities who are then a resource for renewable energy information; to provide the most up-to-date information on renewables to cites and communities; and, to support the network of renewable energy educators in the states and communities. The intended audience is city, community and neighborhood officials willing to become trainers and educators for renewable energy. However, the Neighborhood Power Workshop in a Box has value and applicability for a wide range of people interested in fostering renewable energy use such as public and civic organizations, environmental groups, chapters of national renewable energy organizations, state energy officials and many others.

  2. Life science research in space brings health on Earth.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, A J; DeBakey, M E; Gerzer, R; Hansen, R; Sutton, J; Neiman, S N

    2004-06-01

    Leading scientists and physicians review groundbreaking research that is leading the way to better health care for astronauts and new treatments for medical problems on Earth. This research includes the development and testing of a new Ventricular Assist Device for patients with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation; advancements in telemedicine that bring medical care to remote areas on Earth and aid in the diagnosis and treatment of illness during space flight; advanced technologies, such as a miniature mass spectrometer, cardiac ultrasound equipment, bone imaging, non-invasive High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, non-invasive techniques for blood and tissue chemistry measurements; and advances in the treatment of spinal cord injuries. PMID:15793934

  3. Informed Decisions: Bringing Assessments into the Policy Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannegan, B.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid and widespread changes in the biogeochemical cycles that support and sustain human societies. In the U.S., policy makers in both the Legislative and Executive Branches are faced with the challenge of using the results from assessment models to develop policy instruments to mitigate the problems that can result. Drawing on the author's experience with both the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the White House Council on Environmental Quality, as well as his present work with energy systems at EPRI, the talk will explore the challenges and opportunities for effectively bringing these assessments into the policy process.

  4. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  5. What are Up, Down and Net Fluxes?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    Given the vertical layered structure of Earth atmosphere above underlying surfaces, the vertical variability of these ... for the net energy loss or gain within any two such layers. This concept is important in defining the radiative heating or cooling ...

  6. Localization in Nets of Standard Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Gandalf; Longo, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Starting from a real standard subspace of a Hilbert space and a representation of the translation group with natural properties, we construct and analyze for each endomorphism of this pair a local, translationally covariant net of standard subspaces, on the lightray and on two-dimensional Minkowski space. These nets share many features with low-dimensional quantum field theory, described by corresponding nets of von Neumann algebras. Generalizing a result of Longo and Witten to two dimensions and massive multiplicity free representations, we characterize these endomorphisms in terms of specific analytic functions. Such a characterization then allows us to analyze the corresponding nets of standard spaces, and in particular to compute their minimal localization length. The analogies and differences to the von Neumann algebraic situation are discussed.

  7. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  9. COF-Net on CNT-Net as a Molecularly Designed, Hierarchical Porous Chemical Trap for Polysulfides in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, JongTae; Cho, Sung-Ju; Jung, Gwan Yeong; Kim, Su Hwan; Choi, Keun-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Lee, Sang-Young

    2016-05-11

    The hierarchical porous structure has garnered considerable attention as a multiscale engineering strategy to bring unforeseen synergistic effects in a vast variety of functional materials. Here, we demonstrate a "microporous covalent organic framework (COF) net on mesoporous carbon nanotube (CNT) net" hybrid architecture as a new class of molecularly designed, hierarchical porous chemical trap for lithium polysulfides (Li2Sx) in Li-S batteries. As a proof of concept for the hybrid architecture, self-standing COF-net on CNT-net interlayers (called "NN interlayers") are fabricated through CNT-templated in situ COF synthesis and then inserted between sulfur cathodes and separators. Two COFs with different micropore sizes (COF-1 (0.7 nm) and COF-5 (2.7 nm)) are chosen as model systems. The effects of the pore size and (boron-mediated) chemical affinity of microporous COF nets on Li2Sx adsorption phenomena are theoretically investigated through density functional theory calculations. Benefiting from the chemical/structural uniqueness, the NN interlayers effectively capture Li2Sx without impairing their ion/electron conduction. Notably, the COF-1 NN interlayer, driven by the well-designed microporous structure, allows for the selective deposition/dissolution (i.e., facile solid-liquid conversion) of electrically inert Li2S. As a consequence, the COF-1 NN interlayer provides a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells (capacity retention after 300 cycles (at charge/discharge rate = 2.0 C/2.0 C) = 84% versus 15% for a control cell with no interlayer) that lies far beyond those accessible with conventional Li-S technologies. PMID:27104986

  10. Bringing Technology into college and High School Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2007-04-01

    We want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to college and high school physics classrooms. We focus in particular on our outreach initiative in supporting a number of school districts with ways to improve high school physics education. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. IMPACTSEED aims at helping high school teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama course of study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of programs: a two-week long summer institute, a series of five technology workshops, and onsite year-round support. Through our hands-on approach, we have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms. A number of technology projects were assigned to the teachers so as to show their students how physics connects to the technological devices around us. IMPACTSEED aims at providing our students with a physics education that enjoys continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  11. Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, K.

    2012-04-01

    Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community Prior to 2008, 5th grade students at two schools of the New Haven Unified School District consistently scored in the bottom 20% of the California State Standards Test for science. Teachers in the upper grades reported not spending enough time teaching science, which is attributed to lack of time, resources or knowledge of science. A proposal was written to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Bay Watershed Education Grant program and funding was received for Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community to address these concerns and instill a sense of stewardship in our students. This program engages and energizes students in learning science and the protection of the SF Bay Watershed, provides staff development for teachers, and educates the community about conservation of our local watershed. The project includes a preparation phase, outdoor phase, an analysis and reporting phase, and teacher training and consists of two complete units: 1) The San Francisco Bay Watershed Unit and 2) the Marine Environment Unit. At the end of year 5, our teachers were teaching more science, the community was engaged in conservation of the San Francisco Bay Watershed and most importantly, student scores increased on the California Science Test at one site by over 121% and another site by 152%.

  12. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  13. Ultra-low percolation threshold in ferrite-metal cofired ceramics brings both high permeability and high permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Bai, Yang; Lu, Xuefei; Cao, Jiang-Li; Qiao, Li-Jie

    2015-01-01

    High permeability and high permittivity are hard to be achieved simultaneously, either in single-phased materials or in composite materials, such as ferrite-ferroelectric ceramic composites and ferrite-metal percolative composites. In this work, ultra-low percolation threshold is achieved in NiZnCu ferrite-Ag cofired ceramics, which endows the composite with both high permeability and high permittivity by minimizing the negative effect of nonmagnetic conductive fillers on magnetic properties. The percolation threshold is controlled by the temperature matching between ferrite densification and Ag melting. A thin and long percolative net forms between large ferrite grains under a proper cofiring process, which brings a low percolation threshold of 1.21vol%, more than one order of magnitude lower than the theoretical value of 16vol%. Near the ultra-low threshold, the composite exhibits a high permeability of 585 and a high permittivity of 78. PMID:25557935

  14. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  15. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  16. ALINET: neural net automatic alignment of high-energy laser resonator optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, George A.; Bailey, Adam W.; Palumbo, Louis J.; Kuperstein, Michael

    1993-10-01

    A novel neural net approach has successfully solved the time consuming practical problem of aligning the many optical elements used in the resonator of high power chemical lasers. Moreover, because the neural net can achieve optimal performance in only 2 - 4 steps, as compared with 50 for other techniques, the important ability to effect real time control is gained. This represents a significant experimental breakthrough because of the difficulty previously associated with this alignment process. Use of either near or far field image information produces excellent performance. The method is very robust in the presence of noise. For cases where the initial misalignment falls outside the regime encompassed by the training set, a hybrid approach utilizing an advanced conventional method can bring the optical system within the capture range of the neural net. This reported use of a neural net to rapidly convert imagery information into high precision control information is of broad applicability to optical, acoustic, or electromagnetic alignment, positioning, and control problems.

  17. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits expected to reduce future taxes... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits previously recorded in this...

  18. Summary of the first network-centric sensing community workshop, 'netted sensors: a government, industry, and academia dialogue'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, Laurens D.; Jacyna, Garry M.; Allen, David P.

    2006-05-01

    The MITRE Corporation recently hosted the first Netted Sensors Community Workshop in McLean, Virginia, on 24 October - 26 October 2005. The Workshop was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal was to establish and sustain an annual Netted Sensors workshop that brings together Government, Industry and Academia to accelerate the development and transition of appropriate Netted Sensor technologies to solve real world problems. The workshop provided a forum focused on the application of netted sensing research and development (R&D) activities to solve existing and future Department of Defense (DoD), Intelligence Community (IC), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and Environmental sensing problems. The Netted Sensors workshop brought together the Science and Technology (S&T) community, Industry, and Government / Military organizations to (1) share, discuss and disseminate new R&D results, (2) highlight new commercial products and technologies, and (3) identify and discuss nationally important sensing problems suitable for Netted Sensing solutions. This paper provides a summary of the presentations that were made at the workshop as well as recommendations for future workshops.

  19. The Supernova Club: Bringing Space Science to Urban Youths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Pettit, R.; Balsara, D.; Garnavich, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Supernova Club is an experiment aimed at bringing space science to youths, almost all African Americans, from the most severely disadvantaged areas of the South Bend, Indiana, region. It leverages the National Youth Sports Program (NYSP) that, in Summer 2007, brought 100 children, ages 10-16 and living at or below the poverty level, to the Notre Dame campus for a 4-week non-residential summer program. Six contact hours of space science instruction were added to the core curriculum of nutrition, physical fitness, and academic study. At summer's end, 13 high interest/high potential youths were selected to form ``The Supernova Club''-a year-round, after-school, weekly follow-up program.

  20. Bringing the professional challenges for nursing in Jordan to light.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Arwa I

    2005-12-01

    The definition of a profession consists of contributing characteristics. Nursing must achieve these characteristics in order to confirm its professional status. These characteristics include: a standard of education; professional organizations; commitment; autonomy; continuing education; body of knowledge and competencies; social value; and a code of ethics. Nursing in Jordan faces a unique set of challenges to meet these criteria. The purpose of this discussion is to bring the professional challenges of nursing in Jordan to light, to motivate collaborative efforts to remediate them and to discuss the value of evidence-based practice in this process. The key to confirming Jordanian nurses' professional status is for nurses to seek every opportunity to prove themselves, earn respect, take control over their work, support their colleagues and to make informed decisions. In addition, a more active and effective role for the nursing organizations is necessary to change the public's view of nursing. Efforts to reform regulation also should be intensified. PMID:16255735

  1. Bringing hope and healing to grieving patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Wess, Millicent

    2007-12-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases in the world. The fear of this disease contributes to the grief experienced after the diagnosis. The patient, family members, caregivers, and physicians experience this grief, which has many dimensions and can be extremely complicated. Grief is expressed differently by different cultures, and faith can help in dealing with grief, but no one can escape the emotional, psychological, and spiritual pain associated with the grief individuals feel when they suffer a loss. For this reason, it is best to have a holistic approach when caring for those who are grieving to more effectively meet their needs and to bring hope and healing into a very painful experience. Two case presentations illustrate the application of the hospice approach to grieving patients and the complexity of their grief. PMID:18165378

  2. Bringing Breakthroughs in Science to the Public Through Webcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.

    2004-06-01

    In the rapidly changing milieu of space science, keeping the public informed and engaged in the progress of science is challenging. Beautiful images, scientific artifacts, and exciting space launches can be a compelling hook but the challenge for scientists and educators is to provide context and basic information that is equally exciting. For the past 5 years, the use of Internet video streaming (webcast) technology has grown in popularity. We have used this technology to bring together scientists, educators and the public to provide virtual access to the research environment for the audience. The growth of new technologies will provide new opportunities for the public to ``get behind the scenes'' of observatories and laboratories to better appreciate the texture of scientific research as well as the scientists and technical personnel engaged in investigative endeavors.

  3. Bringing New PET drugs to clinical practice - a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Hung, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory framework for radioactive drugs, in particular those used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, has been gradually established since the release of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act in 1997. Various guidances specially tailored to accommodate special properties of PET drugs have been issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in order to ensure this valuable technology (i.e., PET molecular imaging) will continue to be available to patients and yet the safety and efficacy of PET drugs are well regulated so that public health will be protected. This article presents several key elements of this regulatory framework for PET drugs. New regulatory avenues proposed by the FDA to facilitate the research and development process to bring more new PET drugs to clinical practice, as well as to foster the opportunity of using "orphan" PET drugs in clinical practice are also discussed in this paper. PMID:24312157

  4. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2011-01-25

    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  5. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    PubMed

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied. PMID:17152604

  6. Bringing Planetary Data into Learning Environments: A Community Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S.; Higbie, M.; Lowes, L.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing the need to communicate scientific findings, and the power of using real planetary data in educational settings to engage students in Earth and space science in meaningful ways, the South Central Organization of Researchers and Educators and the Solar System Exploration Education Forum, part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate's Support Network, have established the Planetary Data in Education (PDE) Initiative. The Initiative strives to: 1) Establish a collaborative community of educators, education specialists, curriculum developers, tool developers, learning technologists, scientists, and data providers to design and develop educationally appropriate products; 2) Build awareness in the broader educational and scientific community of existing programs, products, and resources; 3) Address issues hindering the effective use of planetary data in formal and informal educational settings; and 4) Encourage partnerships that leverage the community's expertise The PDE community has hosted two conferences exploring issues in using data in educational settings. The community recognizes that data are available through venues such as the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), but not in a format that the end-user in a formal or informal educational setting can digest; these data are intended for the scientific audience. Development of meaningful educational programs using planetary data requires design of appropriate learner interfaces and involvement of data providers, product developers, learning technologists, scientists, and educators. The PDE community will participate in the development of Earth Exploration Toolbooks during the DLESE Data Services Workshop and will host a workshop in the summer of 2006 to bring together small groups of educators, data providers, and learning technologists, and scientists to design and develop products that bring planetary data into educational settings. In addition, the PDE community hosts a Web site that presents elements

  7. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  8. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  9. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  10. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  11. The net charge at interfaces between insulators.

    PubMed

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO(3) over SrTiO(3) in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. PMID:21411891

  12. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  13. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  14. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Amanda S; Slade, Daniel J; Thompson, Paul R; Mowen, Kerri A

    2012-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis. PMID:23264775

  15. UltraNet Target Parameters. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kislitzin, Katherine T.; Blaylock, Bruce T. (Technical Monitor)

    1992-01-01

    The UltraNet is a high speed network capable of rates up to one gigabit per second. It is a hub based network with four optical fiber links connecting each hub. Each link can carry up to 256 megabits of data, and the hub backplane is capable of one gigabit aggregate throughput. Host connections to the hub may be fiber, coax, or channel based. Bus based machines have adapter boards that connect to transceivers in the hub, while channel based machines use a personality module in the hub. One way that the UltraNet achieves its high transfer rates is by off-loading the protocol processing from the hosts to special purpose protocol engines in the UltraNet hubs. In addition, every hub has a PC connected to it by StarLAN for network management purposes. Although there is hub resident and PC resident UltraNet software, this document treats only the host resident UltraNet software.

  16. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  17. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  18. Recapture Heterogeneity in Cliff Swallows: Increased Exposure to Mist Nets Leads to Net Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Lear, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often use mark-recapture to estimate demographic variables such as abundance, growth rate, or survival for samples of wild animal populations. A common assumption underlying mark-recapture is that all animals have an equal probability of detection, and failure to meet or correct for this assumption–as when certain members of the population are either easier or more difficult to capture than other animals–can lead to biased and inaccurate demographic estimates. We built within-year and among-years Cormack-Jolly-Seber recaptures-only models to identify causes of capture heterogeneity for a population of colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) caught using mist-netting as a part of a 20-year mark-recapture study in southwestern Nebraska, U.S.A. Daily detection of cliff swallows caught in stationary mist nets at their colony sites declined as the birds got older and as the frequency of netting at a site within a season increased. Experienced birds’ avoidance of the net could be countered by sudden disturbances that startled them into a net, such as when we dropped a net over the side of a bridge or flushed nesting cliff swallows into a stationary net positioned at a colony entrance. Our results support the widely held, but seldom tested, belief that birds learn to avoid stationary mist nets over time, but also show that modifications of traditional field methods can reduce this source of recapture heterogeneity. PMID:23472138

  19. Fine mapping of the barley chromosome 6H net form net blotch susceptibility locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net form net blotch (NFNB) caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) is a destructive foliar disease of barley with the potential to cause significant yield loss in major production regions throughout the world. Characterization of diverse genetic resistances to thi...

  20. Telecommunications Systems and Evaluation Research. Using SocNet and PoliNet as Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the role of microcomputers as communication devices in evaluation research. The capabilities of two new international computer networks, SocNet and PoliNet, are described to illustrate how the evaluation research community can begin to adapt to this alternative mode of professional communication. (BS)

  1. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  2. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  3. Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, James P.

    2006-01-01

    The FEWS NET mission is to identify potentially food-insecure conditions early through the provision of timely and analytical hazard and vulnerability information. U.S. Government decision-makers act on this information to authorize mitigation and response activities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) FEWS NET provides tools and data for monitoring and forecasting the incidence of drought and flooding to identify shocks to the food supply system that could lead to famine. Historically focused on Africa, the scope of the network has expanded to be global coverage. FEWS NET implementing partners include the USGS, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Chemonics International.

  4. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  5. Bringing Society to a Changing Polar Ocean: Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, O.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic and Antarctic appear to be accelerating and scientists are trying to understand both the patterns and the impacts of change. These changes will have profound impact on humanity and create a need for public education about these critical habitats. We have focused on a two-pronged strategy to increase public awareness as well as enable educators to discuss comfortably the implications of climate change. Our first focus is on entraining public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has been released in May 2015 and has garnered interest in movie theatres and on social media stores (NetFlix, ITunes). This broad outreach is coupled with our group's interest assisting educators formally. The majority of current polar education is focused on direct educator engagement through personal research experiences that have impact on the participating educators' classrooms. Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) proposes to improve educator and student engagement in polar sciences through exposure to scientists and polar data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, Polar ICE will reduce the logistical costs of bringing polar science to students in grades 6-16. We will provide opportunities to: 1) build capacity of polar scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with polar scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia; and 3) evaluate the outcomes of Polar ICE and contribute to our understanding of science education practices. We will use a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. This combined multi-pronged approach

  6. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  7. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  8. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  9. Update on USDA VetNet Salmonella Database, 2004 - Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in March 2004. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), to compare USDA VetNet and PulseNet PFGE patterns, and to use the comparative data for surveillance ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as determined...

  11. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  12. 12 CFR 308.177 - Statement of net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 308.177 Section 308.177... § 308.177 Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth must be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and...

  13. 29 CFR 4062.5 - Net worth record date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth record date. 4062.5 Section 4062.5 Labor... TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.5 Net worth record date. (a) General. Unless the PBGC establishes an earlier net worth record date pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the net worth record...

  14. 11 CFR 9034.5 - Net outstanding campaign obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net outstanding campaign obligations. 9034.5...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.5 Net outstanding campaign obligations. (a) Within 15... shall submit a statement of net outstanding campaign obligations. The candidate's net...

  15. 46 CFR 69.71 - Change of net tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Change of net tonnage. 69.71 Section 69.71 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.71 Change of net tonnage. (a) When a vessel is altered so that the net tonnage is increased, the new net tonnage must be applied immediately. (b)...

  16. 12 CFR 308.177 - Statement of net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 308.177 Section 308.177... § 308.177 Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth must be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and...

  17. 29 CFR 4062.5 - Net worth record date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth record date. 4062.5 Section 4062.5 Labor... TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.5 Net worth record date. (a) General. Unless the PBGC establishes an earlier net worth record date pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the net worth record...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1085 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 404.1085... Income § 404.1085 Net operating loss deduction. When determining your net earnings from self-employment, you disregard the deduction provided by section 172 of the Code that relates to net operating...

  19. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1085 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 404.1085... Income § 404.1085 Net operating loss deduction. When determining your net earnings from self-employment, you disregard the deduction provided by section 172 of the Code that relates to net operating...

  1. 46 CFR 69.71 - Change of net tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Change of net tonnage. 69.71 Section 69.71 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.71 Change of net tonnage. (a) When a vessel is altered so that the net tonnage is increased, the new net tonnage must be applied immediately. (b)...

  2. 11 CFR 9034.5 - Net outstanding campaign obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net outstanding campaign obligations. 9034.5...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.5 Net outstanding campaign obligations. (a) Within 15... shall submit a statement of net outstanding campaign obligations. The candidate's net...

  3. 7 CFR 3555.353 - Net recovery value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net recovery value. 3555.353 Section 3555.353... value. The net recovery value of the property is determined differently for properties that have been...) Actual net recovery value. For a property that has been sold when a loss claim is filed, net...

  4. 12 CFR 263.105 - Statement of net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 263.105 Section 263.105... Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth shall be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and all affiliates...

  5. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  6. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  7. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  8. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  9. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  10. User's guide for NETS/PROSSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1991-01-01

    Expensive analysis programs are often combined with optimization procedures to solve engineering problems. To obtain an optimal solution requires numerous iterations between the analysis program and the optimizer. This often becomes prohibitive due to the cost and amount of computer time needed to converge to an optimal solution. NETS/PROSSS was developed to address this problem. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a user's guide for NETS/PROSSS. The key features include the neural network, determining the training pairs for the neural network, and the approximated analysis/optimization process. A small problem is given to serve as an example of how to apply the system.

  11. Fibonacci topological order from quantum nets.

    PubMed

    Fendley, Paul; Isakov, Sergei V; Troyer, Matthias

    2013-06-28

    We analyze a model of quantum nets and show it has a non-Abelian topological order of doubled-Fibonacci type. The ground state has the same topological behavior as that of the corresponding string-net model, but our Hamiltonian can be defined on any lattice, has less complicated interactions, and its excitations are dynamical, not fixed. This Hamiltonian includes terms acting on the spins around a face, around a vertex, and special "Jones-Wenzl" terms that serve to couple long loops together. We provide strong evidence for a gap by exact diagonalization, completing the list of ingredients necessary for topological order. PMID:23848854

  12. Environmental Radiation Studies Utilizing RadNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Steven

    2010-03-01

    RadNet is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) managed environmental radiation and air quality monitoring station that has been recently installed on the Angelo State University campus. RadNet cycles air through a filter which collects particulate matter for an examination of alpha and beta activities of contained material. This project includes defining dominant alpha and beta emitters in the local environment, conducting a correlation study involving the effect of weather and wind direction on filter activity, physical interpretation of air quality index (AQI), and the use of X-ray fluorescence to verify radon decay progeny in the local environment.

  13. EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.

    2011-12-01

    EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT; http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt/), also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for

  14. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  16. Blueshift: Bringing the Universe Closer to the Public Through Podcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Sara E.; Krishnamurthi, A.

    2008-05-01

    Each day, millions of people tune into podcasts, internet-based broadcasts of audio content generated by individuals and organizations around the world. NASA has created a variety of podcasts to share its rich science, technology, and exploration accomplishments. The Astrophysics Science Division at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center produces a podcast, Blueshift, to provide listeners with a "backstage pass” to what's happening within the division. Content includes interviews, audio scrapbooks, and other stories that give the public access to groundbreaking discoveries, innovative technology, new missions, and what it's like to work at NASA. Podcasting engages a diverse audience that includes all ages and equal numbers of male and female listeners. Currently a rising technology, studies show more people are creating and listening to podcasts each year. Audio provides an experience that websites and visual imagery alone cannot, and Blueshift seeks to engage its listeners with the sounds of NASA. Each episode is 15-20 minutes in length, covering a variety of topics, and supported by an episode guide and supplementary content available on the podcast's website. The average episode is downloaded by almost 4,000 listeners in the United States and abroad. During the International Year of Astronomy, podcasts can engage the public with audio content about astronomical history, STEM content, and current events and activities for IYA. Blueshift is looking forward to bringing the Universe closer to its listeners with unique "behind-the-scenes” NASA content as we approach this monumental anniversary in astronomy.

  17. Frontier Fields: Bringing the Distant Universe into View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Lawton, Brandon L.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly

    2014-06-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program centers on observations from NASA’s Great Observatories, who will team up to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically see. Because of the unprecedented views of the universe that will be achieved, the Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. For example, the program provides an opportunity to look back on the history of deep field observations and how they changed (and continue to change) astronomy, while exploring the ways astronomers approach big science problems. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach has initiated an education and public outreach (E/PO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields program - providing a behind-the-scenes perspective of this observing initiative. This poster will highlight the goals of the Frontier Fields E/PO project and the cost-effective approach being used to bring the program’s results to both the public and educational audiences.

  18. Disulfide Bridges: Bringing Together Frustrated Structure in a Bioactive Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin; Bansal, Paramjit S; Wilson, David; Daly, Norelle L

    2016-04-26

    Disulfide bridges are commonly found covalent bonds that are usually believed to maintain structural stability of proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of disulfide bridges on protein dynamics through molecular dynamics simulations on the cysteine-rich trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II with three disulfide bridges. Correlation analysis of the reduced cyclic peptide shows that two of the three disulfide distances (Cys(11)-Cys(23) and Cys(17)-Cys(29)) are anticorrelated within ∼1 μs of bridge formation or dissolution: when the peptide is in nativelike structures and one of the distances shortens to allow bond formation, the other tends to lengthen. Simulations over longer timescales, when the denatured state is less structured, do not show the anticorrelation. We propose that the native state contains structural elements that frustrate one another's folding, and that the two bridges are critical for snapping the frustrated native structure into place. In contrast, the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge is predicted to form together with either of the other two bridges. Indeed, experimental chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance data show that an engineered peptide with the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge deleted can still fold into its near-native structure even in its noncyclic form, confirming the lesser role of the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge. The results highlight the importance of disulfide bridges in a small bioactive peptide to bring together frustrated structure in addition to maintaining protein structural stability. PMID:27119635

  19. Geodesy Brings the Geoscience Community Together as Geophysicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittross, S.; Rowan, L. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Morris, A. R.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geodesy, the science of determining Earth's shape, gravity field and rotation, has been in existence for millennia. Today, few geoscientists identify with the pure science of geodesy, though many use geodetic tools and data for their research. In 2014, we interviewed members of the UNAVCO community and asked, "Do you call yourself a geodesist?" Most replied that they used geodesy, but would call themselves "geophysicists". This "use of geodesy" for other fields of study, particularly for geophysics-related fields, is consistent with an analysis of AGU's sections and focus groups. Additional analysis of geoscience departments at U.S. universities would suggest a similar trend. The expanding use of geodetic tools and geodetic data for many fields of research such as geophysics, tectonophysics, geodynamics, space physics, geology, geomorphology, seismology, hydrology, volcanology, glaciology, paleontology, paleoseismology, structural geology, meteorology, ecology, archaeology, oceanography, geography, soil science, atmospheric science, and snow science, may provide an approach to bringing diverse fields together under the moniker of geoscience and geoscientists. Scientists using a shared approach to research and education might be able to see themselves under the broader identity of geoscientist. The hurdle to making this transformation towards a larger shared voice in public discourse, is the more common use of "geophysicist" among the geodesy community, which is tied to the strong foundation of physics and mathematics needed to work with geodetic data and tools.

  20. Using Multimedia to Bring Science News to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, C.; Stein, B.; Lorditch, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Creative partnerships between scientists and journalists open new opportunities to bring the excitement of scientific discoveries to wider audiences. Research tells us that the majority of the general public now gets more science and technology news from the Internet than from TV sources (2014 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators). In order to reach these audiences news organizations must embrace multiple forms of multimedia. We will review recent research on how the new multimedia landscape is changing the way that science news is consumed and how news organizations are changing the way they deliver news. News programs like Inside Science, and other examples of new partnerships that deliver research news to journalists, teachers, students, and the general public will be examined. We will describe examples of successful collaborations including an article by a former Newsweek science reporter entitled "My 1975 'Cooling World' Story Doesn't Make Today's Climate Scientists Wrong," which got reprinted in Slate, RealClearScience, and mentioned in Factcheck.org and USA Today.

  1. Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Prior to 2008, 5th grade students at two schools of the New Haven Unified School District consistently scored in the bottom 20% of the California State Standards Test for science. Teachers in the upper grades reported not spending enough time teaching science, which is attributed to lack of time, resources or knowledge of science. A proposal was written to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Bay Watershed Education Grant program and funding was received for Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community to address these concerns and instill a sense of stewardship in our students. This program engages and energizes students in learning science and the protection of the SF Bay Watershed, provides staff development for teachers, and educates the community about conservation of our local watershed. The project includes a preparation phase, outdoor phase, an analysis and reporting phase, and teacher training and consists of two complete units: 1) The San Francisco Bay Watershed Unit and 2) the Marine Environment Unit. At the end of the three-year program, teachers were teaching more science, the community was engaged in conservation of the San Francisco Bay Watershed and most importantly, student scores increased on the California Science Test at one site by over 70% and another site by 120%.

  2. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  3. Discovery of non-volcanic tremor and contribution to earth science by NIED Hi-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    Progress of seismic observation network brings breakthroughs in the earth science at each era. High sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) was constructed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) as a national project in order to improve the detection capability of microearthquake after disastrous 1995 Kobe earthquake. Hi-net has been contributing to not only monitoring of seismicity but also producing many research results like as discoveries of non-volcanic tremor and other slow earthquakes. More important thing is that we have continued to make efforts to monitor all of data visually and effectively. The discovery of tremor in southwest Japan stimulated PGC researchers to search similar seismic signature in Cascadia because of a couple of common features in the tremor in Japan and slow slip event (SSE) they already discovered in Cascadia. At last, episodic tremor and slip (ETS) was discovered, then the SSE associated with tremor was also detected in Japan by using the tilting data measured by high-sensitivity accelerometer attached with the Hi-net. This coupling phenomena strengthened the connection between seismology and geodesy. Widely separated spectrum of tremor and SSE motivated us to search intervened phenomena, then we found very low frequency earthquake during ETS episode. These slow earthquakes obey a scaling law different from ordinary earthquake. This difference is very important to resolve the earthquake physics. Hi-net is quite useful for not only three-dimensional imaging of underground structure beneath the Japan Islands, but also resolving deep Earth interior by using teleseismic events or ambient noises and source rupture process of large earthquakes by using back-projection analysis as a remote array. Hi-net will continue to supply unexpected new discoveries. I expect that multiple installation of similar dense seismic array in the world will give us great opportunity to discover more important and

  4. Discrete Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zijal, Robert; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    1996-01-01

    Petri nets augmented with timing specifications gained a wide acceptance in the area of performance and reliability evaluation of complex systems exhibiting concurrency, synchronization, and conflicts. The state space of time-extended Petri nets is mapped onto its basic underlying stochastic process, which can be shown to be Markovian under the assumption of exponentially distributed firing times. The integration of exponentially and non-exponentially distributed timing is still one of the major problems for the analysis and was first attacked for continuous time Petri nets at the cost of structural or analytical restrictions. We propose a discrete deterministic and stochastic Petri net (DDSPN) formalism with no imposed structural or analytical restrictions where transitions can fire either in zero time or according to arbitrary firing times that can be represented as the time to absorption in a finite absorbing discrete time Markov chain (DTMC). Exponentially distributed firing times are then approximated arbitrarily well by geometric distributions. Deterministic firing times are a special case of the geometric distribution. The underlying stochastic process of a DDSPN is then also a DTMC, from which the transient and stationary solution can be obtained by standard techniques. A comprehensive algorithm and some state space reduction techniques for the analysis of DDSPNs are presented comprising the automatic detection of conflicts and confusions, which removes a major obstacle for the analysis of discrete time models.

  5. Switchgrass: Production, Economics, and Net Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The critical questions for a biomass bioenergy production system are: • What are the economics? • Is energy from biomass net energy positive? • Is production system information available and verified? • Is the system sustainable? To address these questions, ten farmers in the mid-continental USA w...

  6. Net Worth as an Aspect of Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.; Campbell, Richard T.

    1978-01-01

    Examines wealth as a measure of economic status, using data from the National Longitudinal Studies of Labor Force Participation. Effects of family background and socioeconomic attainment on net worth suggest that expanded definition of status may yield more understanding of the stratification system. (Author/DB)

  7. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  8. Bragg Experimental SensorNet Testbed (BEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan

    2010-01-25

    The principal causative objectives of BEST were to consolidate the 9-1-1 and emergency response services into an Integrated Incident Management Center (I2MC) and to establish an 'Interoperability framework' based on SensorNet protocols to allow additional components to be added to the I2MC over time.

  9. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Register ] (REG-130507-11; 77 FR 72612) relating to the Net Investment Income Tax. On January 31, 2013, corrections to the proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register (78 FR 6781... published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is withdrawn as of December 2, 2013. Comments on this...

  10. Comparing net survival estimators of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Karri; Hakulinen, Timo; Läärä, Esa; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2016-05-20

    The net survival of a patient diagnosed with a given disease is a quantity often interpreted as the hypothetical survival probability in the absence of causes of death other than the disease. In a relative survival framework, net survival summarises the excess mortality that patients experience compared with their relevant reference population. Based on follow-up data from the Finnish Cancer Registry, we derived simulation scenarios that describe survival of patients in eight cancer sites reflecting different excess mortality patterns in order to compare the performance of the classical Ederer II estimator and the new estimator proposed by Pohar Perme et al. At 5 years, the age-standardised Ederer II estimator performed equally well as the Pohar Perme estimator with the exception of melanoma in which the Pohar Perme estimator had a smaller mean squared error (MSE). At 10 and 15 years, the age-standardised Ederer II performed most often better than the Pohar Perme estimator. The unstandardised Ederer II estimator had the largest MSE at 5 years. However, its MSE was often superior to those of the other estimators at 10 and 15 years, especially in sparse data. Both the Pohar Perme and the age-standardised Ederer II estimator are valid for 5-year net survival of cancer patients. For longer-term net survival, our simulation results support the use of the age-standardised Ederer II estimator. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26707551

  11. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  12. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  17. Drift Nets on the High Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided on the use and misuse of drift nets used internationally in the Pacific Ocean. An activity in which students acquire some understanding of the history of fishing and the effects of modern technologies on fish populations is included. (KR)

  18. Networking offshore with HiSeasNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J.; Vernon, F.

    2008-12-01

    After more than 6 years of operations, the HiSeasNet satellite communications network continues to provide continuous internet connectivity for oceanographic research ships and platforms throughout the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. With additional bandwidth and ships brought online in 2008, HiSeasNet now supports 15 ships at sea as well as a seismic observatory on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. Employing a variety of networking technologies, HiSeasNet has allowed scientists to conduct videoconference outreach programs, maintain limited long-term real-time data collection, connect campus phones to shipboard phones through the ship's PBX using Voice over IP (VoIP) protocols, and direct multi-ship research from shore and other ships. Standard Internet protocols available include FTP, HTTPS, and SSH. As there are few UNOLS ships that are not HiSeasNet capable, network operations now focus on providing bandwidth flexibility (including short-term increases), operator training, and increased science and operations community resources. With still plenty of unused ship-to-shore bandwidth, online information, and trained technicians, there are many opportunities for science programs to send near-real-time data to shore for both single- cruise and more permanent deployments of equipment. Current real-time data feeds are collected on some ships and transported through NSF Real-time Observatory and Data management Network (ROADNet) Points-of-Presence units.

  19. QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTY IN NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net primary production (NPP, e.g., g m-2 yr-1), a key ecosystem attribute, is estimated from a combination of other variables, e.g. standing crop biomass at several points in time, each of which is subject to errors in their measurement. These errors propagate as the variables a...

  20. Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

  1. Educating College Students of the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and administrators of higher education today face a challenge with their student populations, many of whom are part of what is known as the net generation. As students become more technologically advanced, faculty must be technologically ready to meet the needs of students. Many college faculty and administrators are from earlier…

  2. African American Women Instructors: In a Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elaine B.

    1997-01-01

    Offers insights into the electronic net as it is encountered by professional women English instructors of color. Suggests new directions for research on the influence of socioeconomic class and culture on composition instructors. Demonstrates that although recognition and acceptance of class and cultural difference is fundamental to literacy…

  3. Teaching Petri Nets Using P3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Petri net software tool P3 that is developed for training purposes of the Architecture and organization of computers (AOC) course. The P3 has the following features: graphical modeling interface, interactive simulation by single and parallel (with previous conflict resolution) transition firing, two well-known Petri net…

  4. Patterns of net primary production across sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net primary production (NPP) is a fundamentally important and commonly measured ecosystem process that provides an integrative estimate of energy capture and flow into systems, and consequently the energy available for use by other trophic levels. A wide range of productivity levels occurs globally ...

  5. Thermal adaptation of net ecosystem exchange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal adaptation of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration has been well documented over broad thermal gradients. However, no study has examined their interaction as a function of temperature, i.e. the thermal responses of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE). In this study, we const...

  6. MASTER-Net: PSN and 3 OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Ricart, M. Serra; Buckley, D.; Israelian, G.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 33m 55.46s +86d 08m 30.4s on 2016-02-13.88456 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 18.6m).

  7. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  8. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130507-11; 77 FR 72612) relating to the Net Investment Income Tax. On January 31, 2013, corrections to the proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register (78 FR...(c)(2). Section 1411(c)(3) provides that income on the investment of working capital is not...

  9. Decision net, directed graph, and neural net processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki; Barnard, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    A decision-net solution involving a novel hierarchical classifier and a set of multiple directed graphs, as well as a neural-net solution, are respectively presented for large-class problem and mixture problem treatments of imaging spectrometer data. The clustering method for hierarchical classifier design, when used with multiple directed graphs, yields an efficient decision net. New directed-graph rules for reducing local maxima as well as the number of perturbations required, and the new starting-node rules for extending the reachability and reducing the search time of the graphs, are noted to yield superior results, as indicated by an illustrative 500-class imaging spectrometer problem.

  10. Interactive Model Visualization for NET-VISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arora, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    NET-VISA is a probabilistic system developed for seismic network processing of data measured on the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). NET-VISA is composed of a Generative Model (GM) and an Inference Algorithm (IA). The GM is an explicit mathematical description of the relationships between various factors in seismic network analysis. Some of the relationships inside the GM are deterministic and some are statistical. Statistical relationships are described by probability distributions, the exact parameters of which (such as mean and standard deviation) are found by training NET-VISA using recent data. The IA uses the GM to evaluate the probability of various events and associations, searching for the seismic bulletin which has the highest overall probability and is consistent with a given set of measured arrivals. An Interactive Model Visualization tool (IMV) has been developed which makes 'peeking into' the GM simple and intuitive through a web-based interfaced. For example, it is now possible to access the probability distributions for attributes of events and arrivals such as the detection rate for each station for each of 14 phases. It also clarifies the assumptions and prior knowledge that are incorporated into NET-VISA's event determination. When NET-VISA is retrained, the IMV will be a visual tool for quality control both as a means of testing that the training has been accomplished correctly and that the IMS network has not changed unexpectedly. A preview of the IMV will be shown at this poster presentation. Homepage for the IMV IMV shows current model file and reference image.

  11. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  12. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity. PMID:20595351

  13. Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James

    2003-02-01

    There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely. PMID:12577653

  14. MarsQuest Online: Bringing exploration to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, J.; Dusenbery, P.

    2004-12-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented number of missions to Mars. From orbiters to landers, we have been treated to an extraordinary series of views of the red planet. In 1997, the MarsQuest traveling exhibit was launched to help bring those views to the public. Three years later NSF funded MarsQuest Online (www.marsquestonline.org), a web project designed to extend the reach and scope of the MarsQuest exhibit. A partnership between TERC, the Space Science Institute, and JPL, MarsQuest Online provides visitors with a wide range of activities that incorporate imagery and data from Mars spacecraft. Activities challenge visitors to recognize which planet a picture is from, or identify features in high resolution imagery. Topographic and image data from Mars Global Surveyor are combined in 3D globes of Earth and Mars, allowing visitors to vertically stretch the planets while locating highest and lowest points, volcanoes, etc. While not designed specifically as a "citizen science" program, two parts of the site - the MER image archive, and the global 3D system -- could hold great potential for such activities. The MER image archive incorporates a real-time feed of raw images from the rover missions. Images are sortable by Mars day and camera, while a combination of panoramas and overhead views allow visitors to view the images in context and explore Mars along with the rovers. The global 3D system, still in development, is an expansion of the 3D activities currently on the site. This system will tap a global set of high resolution image and topographic tiles produced by JPL. This will allow visitors to fly seamlessly over Mars in 3D at the full resolution of these datasets. In addition, the system will include an annotation system to allow for the authoring of "tours" of the planet. We will discuss both of the site components, their capabilities, and potential for the future.

  15. CASSINI CIRS: Composition Studies of Saturn B-Ring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, S. G.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S. H.; Wallis, B. D.; Carlson, R.; Pearl, J. C.; Flasar, F. M.; Brooks, S. M.; Showalter, M. R.; Ferrari, C.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; CIRS Investigation

    2004-11-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained thermal spectra of the rings during the approach to Saturn. CIRS is a Fourier-transform spectrometer that measures radiation in the thermal infrared from 7 microns to 1 millimeter (1400 to 10 cm-1). For 7.5 hours on June 22, 2004, CIRS obtained a sit-and-stare observation of the lit afternoon ansa of the B ring (centered at 105568.0 km) using its Focal Plane 1 (FP1) detector with a spectral resolution of 1.0 cm-1. At this time, the spacecraft was at a ring range of 118 Rs, resulting in a 27800 km diameter footprint filling the entire B-ring ansa, with a phase angle of 67 degrees. The resulting FP1 spectrum, covering 10 cm-1 to 600 cm-1, appears relatively featureless and is characteristic of a Planck curve peaking near 180 cm-1 (corresponding to an effective temperature of 89 K) scaled by a function of ring optical depth, ring inclination, and particle phase function. One exception is the presence of a roll-off in the intensity shortward of 50-60 cm-1 relative to the 89K blackbody curve. This is thought to be indicative of material properties of the ring particles. We explore the implications of this characteristic in conjunction with the absorption and reflective properties of several ices, e.g. water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide, along with those of silicates and carbonaceous materials. In this analysis, we will examine lower limits on particle sizes observable at these wavelengths. In addition, we will assess the degree to which Saturn's own thermal emission appears in the FP1 spectrum. This work was performed at JPL under contract with NASA.

  16. Moving Carbon, Changing Earth: Bringing the Carbon Cycle to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, I.; Duggan-Haas, D.; Ross, R. M.; Stricker, B.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon cycle presents challenges to researchers - in how to understand the complex interactions of fluxes, reservoirs, and systems - and to outreach professionals - in how to get across the complexity of the carbon cycle and still make it accessible to the public. At Cornell University and the Museum of the Earth in Ithaca, NY, researchers and outreach staff tackled these challenges together through a 2013 temporary museum exhibition: Moving Carbon, Changing Earth. Moving Carbon, Changing Earth introduced visitors to the world of carbon and its effect on every part of our lives. The exhibit was the result of the broader impacts portion of an NSF grant awarded to Natalie Mahowald, Professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University, who has been working with a team to improve simulations of regional and decadal variability in the carbon cycle. Within the exhibition, visitors used systems thinking to understand the distribution of carbon in and among Earth's systems, learning how (and how quickly or slowly) carbon moves between and within these systems, the relative scale of different reservoirs, and how carbon's movement changes climate and other environmental dynamics. Five interactive stations represented the oceans, lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and a mystery reservoir. Puzzles, videos, real specimens, and an interview with Mahowald clarified and communicated the complexities of the carbon cycle. In this talk we'll present background information on Mahowald's research as well as photos of the exhibition and discussion of the components and motivations behind them, showing examples of innovative ways to bring a complex topic to life for museum visitors.

  17. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  18. Bringing an Effective Solar Sail Design Toward TRL 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichodziejewski, David; West, John; Reinert, Rich; Belvin, Keith; Pappa, Richard; Derbes, Billy

    2003-01-01

    Solar sails reflect photons streaming from the sun and convert some of the energy into thrust. This thrust, though small, is continuous and acts for the life of the mission without the need for propellant ( I ) . Recent advances in sail materials and ultra-low mass structures have enabled a host of useful missions utilizing solar sail propulsion. The team of L Garde, Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Ball Aerospace, and Langley Research Center, under the direction of NASA, has been developing a solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Utilizing inflatably deployed and Sub Tg rigidized boom components, this 10,000 sq m sailcraft achieves an areal density of 14.1 g/sq m and a characteristic acceleration of 0.58 mm/s . The entire configuration released by the upper stage has a mass of 232.9 kg and requires just 1.7 d of volume in the booster. After deployment, 92.2 kg of non-flight required equipment is jettisoned resulting in a sailcraft mass, including payload and control system, of 140.7 kg. This document outlines the accomplishments of a Phase 1 effort to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the concept from 3 toward a TRL of 6. The Phase 1 effort, the first of three proposed phases, addressed the design of the solar sail, its application to several missions currently under review at NASA, and developed a ground tes plan to bring the technology toward a TRL of 6.

  19. Modelling of current loads on aquaculture net cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we propose and discuss a screen type of force model for the viscous hydrodynamic load on nets. The screen model assumes that the net is divided into a number of flat net panels, or screens. It may thus be applied to any kind of net geometry. In this paper we focus on circular net cages for fish farms. The net structure itself is modelled by an existing truss model. The net shape is solved for in a time-stepping procedure that involves solving a linear system of equations for the unknown tensions at each time step. We present comparisons to experiments with circular net cages in steady current, and discuss the sensitivity of the numerical results to a set of chosen parameters. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical prediction of drag and lift as function of the solidity ratio of the net and the current velocity is documented.

  20. One-step electro-spinning/netting technique for controllably preparing polyurethane nano-fiber/net.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juanping; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Lin, Jinyou; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Electro-spinning/netting (ESN) as a cutting-edge technique evokes much interest because of its ability in the one-step preparation of versatile nano-fiber/net (NFN) membranes. Here, a controllable fabrication of polyurethane (PU) NFN membranes with attractive structures, consisting of common electrospun nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) soap bubble-like structured nano-nets via an ESN process is reported. The unique nanoscaled NFN architecture can be finely controlled by regulating the solution properties and several ESN process parameters. The versatile PU nano-nets comprising interlinked nanowires with ultrathin diameters (5-40 nm) mean that the NFN structured membranes possess several excellent characteristics, such as an extremely large specific surface area, high porosity and large stacking density, which would be particularly useful for applications in ultrafiltration, special protective clothing, ultrasensitive sensors, catalyst support and so on. PMID:21858891

  1. Multifunctional hybrid optical/digital neural net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-08-01

    A multi-functional hybrid neural net is described. It is hybrid since it uses a digital hardware Hecht-Nielsen Corporation (HNC) neural net for adaptive learning and an optical neural net for on-line processing/classification. It is also hybrid in its combination of pattern recognition and neural net techniques. The system is multi-functional. It can function as an optimization and adaptive pattern recognition neural net as well as an auto and heteroassociative processor. I . W. JTRODUCTION Neural nets (NNs) have recently received enormous attention [1 -2] with increasing attention to the use of optical processors and a variety of new learning algorithms. Section 2 describes our hybrid NN with attention to Its fabrication and the role for optical and digital processors. Section 3 details Its use as an associative processor. Section 4 highlights is use in 3 optimization NN problems (a mixture NN a multitarget tracker (MTT) NN and a matrix inversion NN). Section 5 briefly notes it use as a production NN system and symbolic NN. Section 6 describes its use as an adaptive pattern recognition (PR) NN (that marries PR and NN techniques). 2. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE Figure 1 shows our basic hybrid NN [3]. The optical portion of the system is a matrix-vector (M-V) processor whose vector output P3 is the product of the vector at P1 and the matrix at P2. An HNC digital hardware NN is used during learning determine the interconnection weights forP2. If P2 is a spatial light modulator (SLM) its contents can be updated (using gated learning) from thedigital NN. The operations in most adaptive PR NN learning algorithms are sufficiently complex thatthey are best implemented digitally. In addition the learning operations required are often not well suited for optical realization for optimization NNs the weights are fixed and in adaptive learning learning is off-line and once completed the weights can often be fixed. Four gates are shown that determine the final output or the new P1

  2. ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    traditional education system, ISSLive! provides a single, interactive, and engaging experience to learn about the ISS and its role in space exploration, international collaboration, and science. While traditional students are using ISSLive! in the classroom, their parents, grandparents, and friends are using it at home. ISSLive! truly brings the daily operations of the ISS into the daily lives of the public from every generation.

  3. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  4. EuroPlaNet VO architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Le Sidaner, P.; Berthier, J.; Cecconi, B.; Jacquey, C.; André, N.; Gangloff, M.; Schmitt, B.

    2012-09-01

    An objective of Europlanet-IDIS activity is to set the basis for a European Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science (JRA4 in EuroPlaNet-RI). The objective in this first step is to facilitate searches in big archives and sparse databases, as well as data access and visualization. Databases produced in the EuroPlaNet- RI framework are expected to become available in this context (task 4 of JRA4, TNAs). In the long run, this system should be extensible to all fields of Planetary Science, and open to external data providers. An overall design has been studied and is described here. It makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVAO), Solar Science (HELIO), and space-borne archive services (IPDA). In particular, it remains consistent with extensions of IVOA standards. Use cases and potential applications are described in several posters in this conference.

  5. CancerNet redistribution via WWW.

    PubMed Central

    Quade, G.; Püschel, N.; Far, F.

    1996-01-01

    CancerNet from the National Cancer Institute contains nearly 500 ASCII-files, updated monthly, with up-to-date information about cancer and the "Golden Standard" in tumor therapy. Perl scripts are used to convert these files to HTML-documents. A complex algorithm, using regular expression matching and extensive exception handling, detects headlines, listings and other constructs of the original ASCII-text and converts them into their HTML-counterparts. A table of contents is also created during the process. The resulting files are indexed for full-text search via WAIS. Building the complete CancerNet WWW redistribution takes less than two hours with a minimum of manual work. For 26,000 requests of information from our service per month the average costs for the worldwide delivery of one document is about 19 cents. PMID:8947697

  6. Discrete-time Markovian stochastic Petri nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    1995-01-01

    We revisit and extend the original definition of discrete-time stochastic Petri nets, by allowing the firing times to have a 'defective discrete phase distribution'. We show that this formalism still corresponds to an underlying discrete-time Markov chain. The structure of the state for this process describes both the marking of the Petri net and the phase of the firing time for each transition, resulting in a large state space. We then modify the well-known power method to perform a transient analysis even when the state space is infinite, subject to the condition that only a finite number of states can be reached in a finite amount of time. Since the memory requirements might still be excessive, we suggest a bounding technique based on truncation.

  7. Rainbow net analysis of VAXcluster system availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Allen M., Jr.; Schoenfelder, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    A system modeling technique, Rainbow Nets, is used to evaluate the availability and mean-time-to-interrupt of the VAXcluster. These results are compared to the exact analytic results showing that reasonable accuracy is achieved through simulation. The complexity of the Rainbow Net does not increase as the number of processors increases, but remains constant, unlike a Markov model which expands exponentially. The constancy is achieved by using tokens with identity attributes (items) that can have additional attributes associated with them (features) which can exist in multiple states. The time to perform the simulation increases, but this is a polynomial increase rather than exponential. There is no restriction on distributions used for transition firing times, allowing real situations to be modeled more accurately by choosing the distribution which best fits the system performance and eliminating the need for simplifying assumptions.

  8. A model of global net ecosystem production

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.S.; Matson, P.A. ); Field, C.B.; Randerson, J. ); Vitousek, P.M.; Mooney, H.A. )

    1993-06-01

    We present an ecosystem modeling approach to resolve global climate and edaphic controls on seasonal NEP patterns. Global remote sensing, climate and land surface data sets are used as inputs to drive a terrestrial carbon cycle model at 1[degrees]lat/lon resolution. monthly net primary productivity (NPP) is calculated using surface radiation and NDVI to determine photosynthesis, which is subsequently adjusted by temperature, water and nitrogen stress factors. Total nitrogen availability is coupled to net mineralization rates from litter soil carbon pools. Soil respiration and NPP balance one another globally at around 60 Gt C yr[sup [minus]1]. The seasonal amplitude of global NEP is 1.2 Gt C. Although substantial month-to-month variation is observed for tropical forest areas, seasonal amplitude is driven globally by boreal and temperate forest ecosystems between 650 and 30[degrees] N latitude.

  9. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Schmer, M. R.; Vogel, K. P.; Mitchell, R. B.; Perrin, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3–9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2 -11.1 Mg·ha−1 with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ·ha−1·y−1. Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass. PMID:18180449

  10. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  11. Neural net forecasting for geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, J. V.; Tajima, T.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    We use neural nets to construct nonlinear models to forecast the AL index given solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data. We follow two approaches: (1) the state space reconstruction approach, which is a nonlinear generalization of autoregressive-moving average models (ARMA) and (2) the nonlinear filter approach, which reduces to a moving average model (MA) in the linear limit. The database used here is that of Bargatze et al. (1985).

  12. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  13. Galileo Net Flux Radiometer Report 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomasko, Martin G.

    1997-01-01

    On 7 December 1995, the Galileo probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere. The Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) on board the probe, measured upward and downward fluxes in the visible and infrared. At the University of Arizona, we have analyzed the data from the two visible-light channels, as well as the solar contributions to the thermal channels. The results are being prepared for submission to JGR in early September.

  14. Net ecosystem production in a subarctic peatland

    SciTech Connect

    Luken, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to determine the rates of carbon storage in three areas of a subarctic bog near Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 64/sup 0/52'N). Aboveground net primary production was 20.3, 74.2, and 77.4 gm/sup -2/yr/sup -1/ for nonvascular plants, the shrub and herb layer, and the tree layer of the bog forest, respectively. Aboveground net primary production was 83.7 and 58.2 g m/sup -2/yr/sup -1/ for nonvascular plants and the shrub and herb layer of the Andromeda bog, respectively, in the Carex lawns, aboveground net primary production was 194.9 and 111.7 g m/sup -2/yr/sup -1/ for nonvascular and vascular plants, respectively. Sphagnum mosses are important components of this peatbog ecosystem due to their high rates of net primary production and slow rates of decomposition. Experimental manipulations of light level, water table level, and nutrient availability indicated that terminal extension rates and volumetric density of the Sphagnum stands are controlled primarily by light and water table levels. An explanation of Sphagnum zonation in hummock-hollow complexes is presented which incorporates aspects of growth rate, stand morphology, and reproductive mode. Soil carbon dioxide efflux rates were measured in a number of different hummock-hollow microhabitats. Approximately 75% of the variance associated with soil respiration could be explained by regression equations with soil moisture and soil temperature as independent variables. Carbohydrate limitation of soil microbial populations was demonstrated in both laboratory and field experiments.

  15. Protein crystallization image classification with elastic net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jeffrey; Collins, John; Weldetsion, Mehari; Newland, Oliver; Chiang, Eric; Guerrero, Steve; Okada, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    Protein crystallization plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research by supporting the investigation of a protein's molecular structure through X-ray diffraction of its crystal. Due to the rare occurrence of crystals, images must be manually inspected, a laborious process. We develop a solution incorporating a regularized, logistic regression model for automatically evaluating these images. Standard image features, such as shape context, Gabor filters and Fourier transforms, are first extracted to represent the heterogeneous appearance of our images. Then the proposed solution utilizes Elastic Net to select relevant features. Its L1-regularization mitigates the effects of our large dataset, and its L2- regularization ensures proper operation when the feature number exceeds the sample number. A two-tier cascade classifier based on naïve Bayes and random forest algorithms categorized the images. In order to validate the proposed method, we experimentally compare it with naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, and their two-tier cascade classifiers, by 10-fold cross validation. Our experimental results demonstrate a 3-category accuracy of 74%, outperforming other models. In addition, Elastic Net better reduces the false negatives responsible for a high, domain specific risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply Elastic Net to classifying protein crystallization images. Performance measured on a large pharmaceutical dataset also fared well in comparison with those presented in the previous studies, while the reduction of the high-risk false negatives is promising.

  16. Readmissions at a Public Safety Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Mallory D.; Poon, Kimble; Black, Susan; Schwartz, Shelley; Bholat, Tasneem; Diaz, Norma; Kuo, Allen; Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine factors related to avoidability of 30-day readmissions at our public, safety net hospital in the United States (US). Methods We prospectively reviewed medical records of adult internal medicine patients with scheduled and unscheduled 30-day readmissions. We also interviewed patients if they were available. An independent panel used pre-specified, objective criteria to adjudicate potential avoidability. Results Of 153 readmissions evaluated, 68% were unscheduled. Among these, 67% were unavoidable, primarily due to disease progression and development of new diagnoses. Scheduled readmissions accounted for 32% of readmissions and most (69%) were clinically appropriate and unavoidable. The scheduled but avoidable readmissions (31%) were attributed largely to limited resources in our healthcare system. Conclusions Most readmissions at our public, safety net hospital were unavoidable, even among our unscheduled readmissions. Surprisingly, one-third of our overall readmissions were scheduled, the majority reflecting appropriate management strategies designed to reduce unnecessary hospital days. The scheduled but avoidable readmissions were due to constrained access to non-emergent, expensive procedures that are typically not reimbursed given our system’s payor mix, a problem which likely plague other safety net systems. These findings suggest that readmissions do not necessarily reflect inadequate medical care, may reflect resource constraints that are unlikely to be addressable in systems caring for a large burden of uninsured patients, and merit individualized review. PMID:24618829

  17. Cnidarian Nerve Nets and Neuromuscular Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are considered "nerve net animals" even though their nervous systems include various forms of condensation and centralization. Yet, their broad, two-dimensional muscle sheets are innervated by diffuse nerve nets. Do the motor nerve nets represent a primitive organization of multicellular nervous systems, do they represent a consequence of radial symmetry, or do they offer an efficient way to innervate a broad, two-dimensional muscle sheet, in which excitation of the muscle sheet can come from multiple sites of initiation? Regarding the primitive nature of cnidarian nervous systems, distinct neuronal systems exhibit some adaptations that are well known in higher animals, such as the use of oversized neurons with increased speed of conduction, and condensation of neurites into nerve-like tracts. A comparison of neural control of two-dimensional muscle sheets in a mollusc and jellyfish suggests that a possible primitive feature of cnidarian neurons may be a lack of regional specialization into conducting and transmitting regions. PMID:26105595

  18. Method for net-shaping using aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashey, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.; Sriram, Chunangad S.; Harris, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A method of net-shaping using aerogel materials is provided by first forming a sol, aging the sol to form a gel, with the gel having a fluid component and having been formed into a medium selected from the group consisting of a powder, bulk material, or granular aerobeads, derivatizing the surface of the gel to render the surface unreactive toward further condensation, removing a portion of the fluid component of the final shaped gel to form a partially dried medium, placing the medium into a cavity, wherein the volume of said medium is less that the volume of the cavity, and removing a portion of the fluid component of the medium. The removal, such as by heating at a temperature of approximately less than 50.degree. C., applying a vacuum, or both, causes the volume of the medium to increase and to form a solid aerogel. The material can be easily removed by exposing the material to a solvent, thereby reducing the volume of the material. In another embodiment, the gel is derivatized and then formed into a shaped medium, where subsequent drying reduces the volume of the shaped medium, forming a net-shaping material. Upon further drying, the material increases in volume to fill a cavity. The present invention is both a method of net-shaping and the material produced by the method.

  19. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  20. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  1. NetCDF-U - Uncertainty conventions for netCDF datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Domenico, Ben

    2013-04-01

    To facilitate the automated processing of uncertain data (e.g. uncertainty propagation in modeling applications), we have proposed a set of conventions for expressing uncertainty information within the netCDF data model and format: the NetCDF Uncertainty Conventions (NetCDF-U). From a theoretical perspective, it can be said that no dataset is a perfect representation of the reality it purports to represent. Inevitably, errors arise from the observation process, including the sensor system and subsequent processing, differences in scales of phenomena and the spatial support of the observation mechanism, lack of knowledge about the detailed conversion between the measured quantity and the target variable. This means that, in principle, all data should be treated as uncertain. The most natural representation of an uncertain quantity is in terms of random variables, with a probabilistic approach. However, it must be acknowledged that almost all existing data resources are not treated in this way. Most datasets come simply as a series of values, often without any uncertainty information. If uncertainty information is present, then it is typically within the metadata, as a data quality element. This is typically a global (dataset wide) representation of uncertainty, often derived through some form of validation process. Typically, it is a statistical measure of spread, for example the standard deviation of the residuals. The introduction of a mechanism by which such descriptions of uncertainty can be integrated into existing geospatial applications is considered a practical step towards a more accurate modeling of our uncertain understanding of any natural process. Given the generality and flexibility of the netCDF data model, conventions on naming, syntax, and semantics have been adopted by several communities of practice, as a means of improving data interoperability. Some of the existing conventions include provisions on uncertain elements and concepts, but, to our

  2. From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two

  3. A mixture neural net for multispectral imaging spectrometer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Slagle, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Each spatial region viewed by an imaging spectrometer contains various elements in a mixture. The elements present and the amount of each are to be determined. A neural net solution is considered. Initial optical neural net hardware is described. The first simulations on the component requirements of a neural net are considered. The pseudoinverse solution is shown to not suffice, i.e. a neural net solution is required.

  4. Current Status and Future Prospect of K-NET and KiK-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2014-12-01

    During 18 years since the deployment of K-NET following the Kobe earthquake, our attention has mainly focused on rapidity of the data collection and an unfailing and reliable observation. In this presentation, we review three generations of the instruments employed by K-NET and KiK-net from these two points of view.At beginning of the 2000's, we newly developed the second generation instruments (K-NET02, K-NET02A, KiK-net06) to replace the first generation instruments (K-NET95, SMAC-MDK) employed when the networks were constructed in the 1990's. These instruments have an automatic dial-out function. It takes typically 2-5 s to establish communication and a few seconds to send the pre-trigger data. After that, data is available typically within a 1.5 s delay. Not only waveform data but also strong motion indexes such as real-time intensity, PGA, PGV, PGD, and response spectra are continuously sent once a second.After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have developed the third generation instruments (K-NET11, KiK-net11) and have replaced almost half of the all stations country wide. Main improvement of this instrument is more unfailing and reliable observation. Because we have often experienced very large ground motions (e.g. 45 records exceeding gravity), the maximum measureable range was expanded from 2000 gal to 4000 gal for the second generation instrument, and to 8000 gal for the third. For the third generation instrument, in case of power failure, observation (including transmission of data) works for seven days thanks to the backup battery, while for the second generation instruments it works only for one day. By adding an oblique component to the three-component accelerometers, we could automatically distinguish shaking data from noise such as electric pulses which may cause a false alarm in EEW. Implementation to guarantee the continuity of observation under severe conditions such as during the Tohoku earthquake is very important, as well as a highly efficient

  5. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  6. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  7. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  8. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  9. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  13. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  15. Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.

  16. NovaNET User Manual for "Crouter" Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Monica B.; Davis, Dennis M.

    Intended to teach instructors how to use the NovaNET computer system or the PLATO system to deliver instruction, this manual provides instructions for using both NovaNET, which supercedes PLATO, and the crouter software package, which is a general purpose tool for managing instruction on the NovaNET computer. This self-instructional manual is…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the P group's return in Year 2. The $600 amount of the CNOL attributable to T is a net operating loss... forms T, and T sustains a $100 net operating loss that is carried forward. P acquires all the stock of T..., Individual A forms P, and P sustains a $40 net operating loss that is carried forward. P has no income...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the P group's return in Year 2. The $600 amount of the CNOL attributable to T is a net operating loss... SRLY limitation. (i) Individual A owns P. In Year 1, Individual A forms T, and T sustains a $100 net... positive amount. Example 2. Net operating loss carryovers. (i) In Year 1, Individual A forms P, and...

  19. 38 CFR 3.275 - Criteria for evaluating net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... net worth. 3.275 Section 3.275 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Improved Pension Program Which Became Effective January 1, 1979 § 3.275 Criteria for evaluating net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate or net...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the P group's return in Year 2. The $600 amount of the CNOL attributable to T is a net operating loss... forms T, and T sustains a $100 net operating loss that is carried forward. P acquires all the stock of T..., Individual A forms P, and P sustains a $40 net operating loss that is carried forward. P has no income...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net operating losses. 1.1502-21 Section 1.1502-21 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Computation of Consolidated Items § 1.1502-21 Net operating losses. (a) Consolidated net operating loss...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the P group's return in Year 2. The $600 amount of the CNOL attributable to T is a net operating loss... forms T, and T sustains a $100 net operating loss that is carried forward. P acquires all the stock of T..., Individual A forms P, and P sustains a $40 net operating loss that is carried forward. P has no income...

  3. 78 FR 48789 - Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA... component of this is the ``net value'' of the property to the Government, as defined in 38 CFR 36.4301. Essentially ``net value'' is the fair market value of the property, minus the total costs the...

  4. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net....263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... return premiums (see paragraph (e) of this section); and (B) The net negative consideration for a... (f) and (g) of this section for rules relating to the determination of net negative consideration. (2... on the amount of the net negative consideration for any reinsurance agreement that may be taken...

  6. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... return premiums (see paragraph (e) of this section); and (B) The net negative consideration for a... (f) and (g) of this section for rules relating to the determination of net negative consideration. (2... on the amount of the net negative consideration for any reinsurance agreement that may be taken...

  7. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... return premiums (see paragraph (e) of this section); and (B) The net negative consideration for a... (f) and (g) of this section for rules relating to the determination of net negative consideration. (2... on the amount of the net negative consideration for any reinsurance agreement that may be taken...

  8. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of net premiums. 1.848-2 Section 1.848-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.848-2 Determination of net premiums. (a) Net premiums—(1) In general. An...

  9. 7 CFR 1423.7 - Net worth alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net worth alternatives. 1423.7 Section 1423.7... WAREHOUSES § 1423.7 Net worth alternatives. Warehouse operators with net worth equal to or greater than the... alternative bond: (i) Provides adequate protection to CCC; (ii) Has been executed by a surety approved by...

  10. 7 CFR 1423.7 - Net worth alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net worth alternatives. 1423.7 Section 1423.7... WAREHOUSES § 1423.7 Net worth alternatives. Warehouse operators with net worth equal to or greater than the... alternative bond: (i) Provides adequate protection to CCC; (ii) Has been executed by a surety approved by...

  11. Applications of artificial neural nets in structural mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, L.; Hajela, P.

    1992-01-01

    A brief introduction to the fundamental of Neural Nets is given, followed by two applications in structural optimization. In the first case, the feasibility of simulating with neural nets the many structural analyses performed during optimization iterations was studied. In the second case, the concept of using neural nets to capture design expertise was studied.

  12. Applications of artificial neural nets in structural mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, Laszlo; Hajela, Prabhat

    1990-01-01

    A brief introduction to the fundamental of Neural Nets is given, followed by two applications in structural optimization. In the first case, the feasibility of simulating with neural nets the many structural analyses performed during optimization iterations was studied. In the second case, the concept of using neural nets to capture design expertise was studied.

  13. The Best of LM_Net Select, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbury, Peter; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Walker, Michelle

    LM_NET, the most successful educational listserv in the world has approximately 15,000 subscribed members from every state in the United States and from over 65 countries. LM_NET covers a wide range of interests, all related to library and information work in education, and interactions on LM_NET result in in-depth treatments of the major…

  14. 47 CFR 1.1512 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.1512 Section 1.1512... Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Information Required from Applicants § 1.1512 Net... must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and...

  15. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by...

  16. 12 CFR 1203.11 - Confidentiality of net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidentiality of net worth exhibit. 1203.11... INFORMATION ACT Information Required From Applicants § 1203.11 Confidentiality of net worth exhibit. Unless otherwise ordered by the Director, or required by law, the statement of net worth will be for...

  17. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  18. 12 CFR 747.607 - Statement of net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 747.607 Section 747.607... Justice Act in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.607 Statement of net worth. (a) Each applicant (other than a... net worth of the applicant and any affiliates, as defined in § 747.602(a), when the proceeding...

  19. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by...

  20. 22 CFR 134.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 134.12 Section 134.12... Information Required From Applicants § 134.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualifed tax... showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 960.4(f)) when the...

  1. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net deferred tax liability adjustments. 32.4341....4341 Net deferred tax liability adjustments. (a) This account shall include the portion of deferred income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net....

  2. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262.202... PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defiined in § 1262.104(f) when...

  3. 26 CFR 1.172-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.172-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.172-1 Net... taxable income for any taxable year subject to the Code the aggregate of the net operating loss...

  4. 17 CFR 210.6-05 - Statements of net assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statements of net assets. 210... Statements of net assets. In lieu of the balance sheet otherwise required by § 210.6-04 of this part, persons may substitute a statement of net assets if at least 95 percent of the amount of the person's...

  5. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  6. 17 CFR 210.6-05 - Statements of net assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements of net assets. 210... Statements of net assets. In lieu of the balance sheet otherwise required by § 210.6-04 of this part, persons may substitute a statement of net assets if at least 95 percent of the amount of the person's...

  7. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  8. 28 CFR 24.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 24.202 Section 24.202... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 24.202 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  9. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  10. 22 CFR 134.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 134.12 Section 134.12... Information Required From Applicants § 134.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualifed tax... showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 960.4(f)) when the...

  11. 24 CFR 14.205 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 14.205 Section... Required From Applicants § 14.205 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt... the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 14.120(f) of this part) when...

  12. 29 CFR 4062.6 - Net worth notification and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth notification and information. 4062.6 Section 4062... LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.6 Net worth notification and information. (a... section 4062(b) liability exceeds 30 percent of the collective net worth of persons subject to...

  13. 28 CFR 24.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 24.202 Section 24.202... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 24.202 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  14. 24 CFR 14.205 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 14.205 Section... Required From Applicants § 14.205 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt... the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 14.120(f) of this part) when...

  15. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total...

  16. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 960.10 Section 960.10 Postal... JUSTICE ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 960.10 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  17. 29 CFR 16.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 16.202 Section 16.202 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 16.202 Net... must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and...

  18. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  19. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.172-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.172-1 Section 1...-1 Net operating loss deduction. (a) Allowance of deduction. Section 172(a) allows as a deduction in computing taxable income for any taxable year subject to the Code the aggregate of the net operating...

  1. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1512 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.1512 Section 1.1512... Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Information Required from Applicants § 1.1512 Net... must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and...

  3. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  4. 29 CFR 16.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Net worth exhibit. 16.202 Section 16.202 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 16.202 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  5. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  6. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  7. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262... AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defiined in §...

  8. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  9. 14 CFR 14.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 14.11 Section 14.11... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Information Required From Applicants § 14.11 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  10. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  11. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2610.202 Section 2610... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  12. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total...

  13. 12 CFR 747.607 - Statement of net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 747.607 Section 747.607... Justice Act in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.607 Statement of net worth. (a) Each applicant (other than a... net worth of the applicant and any affiliates, as defined in § 747.602(a), when the proceeding...

  14. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  15. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  16. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  17. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  18. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  19. 29 CFR 4062.6 - Net worth notification and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth notification and information. 4062.6 Section 4062... LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.6 Net worth notification and information. (a... section 4062(b) liability exceeds 30 percent of the collective net worth of persons subject to...

  20. Status of USDA VetNet: 2003-present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet was established in 2003 and modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for food borne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the Nationa...

  1. BreadNet: An On-Line Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Describes BreadNet, a computer network linking Middlebury College English teachers, their associates, and students. Network extends to rural English teachers and their K-8 students. BreadNet used for student pen pal program, teacher teleconferencing, information access. Also describes BreadNet's problems and future possibilities. (TES)

  2. 47 CFR 69.610 - Other hypothetical net balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other hypothetical net balances. 69.610 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.610 Other hypothetical net balances. (a) The hypothetical net balance for an access element other than a Common Line element shall be computed as...

  3. 47 CFR 69.610 - Other hypothetical net balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other hypothetical net balances. 69.610 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.610 Other hypothetical net balances. (a) The hypothetical net balance for an access element other than a Common Line element shall be computed as...

  4. 47 CFR 69.610 - Other hypothetical net balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other hypothetical net balances. 69.610 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.610 Other hypothetical net balances. (a) The hypothetical net balance for an access element other than a Common Line element shall be computed as...

  5. 47 CFR 69.610 - Other hypothetical net balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other hypothetical net balances. 69.610 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.610 Other hypothetical net balances. (a) The hypothetical net balance for an access element other than a Common Line element shall be computed as...

  6. 47 CFR 69.610 - Other hypothetical net balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other hypothetical net balances. 69.610 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.610 Other hypothetical net balances. (a) The hypothetical net balance for an access element other than a Common Line element shall be computed as...

  7. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount...

  8. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-11 Net premiums. The term “net premiums”, defined in section 822(f)(1), includes...

  9. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount...

  10. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount...

  11. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-1 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with interest,...

  12. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-11 Net premiums. The term “net premiums”, defined in section 822(f)(1), includes...

  13. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-11 Net premiums. The term “net premiums”, defined in section 822(f)(1), includes...

  14. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-1 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with interest,...

  15. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-1 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with interest,...

  16. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-1 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with interest,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount...

  18. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal... Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-11 Net premiums. The term “net premiums”, defined in section 822(f)(1), includes...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.17 - Net market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net market value. 1221.17 Section 1221.17 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.17 Net market value. Net market value means: (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)and (c) of this section, the...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.17 - Net market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net market value. 1221.17 Section 1221.17 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.17 Net market value. Net market value means: (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)and (c) of this section, the...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.17 - Net market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net market value. 1221.17 Section 1221.17 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.17 Net market value. Net market value means: (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)and (c) of this section, the...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  5. 7 CFR 51.494b - Fairly well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well netted. 51.494b Section 51.494b... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.494b Fairly well netted. Fairly well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is fairly...

  6. 7 CFR 51.494b - Fairly well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well netted. 51.494b Section 51.494b... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.494b Fairly well netted. Fairly well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is fairly...

  7. Campylobacter Database Update: USDA VetNet (2004-2009)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2004, USDA VetNet was launched with the intention of providing Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) on Salmonella isolates originating from animals as a complement to the CDC PulseNet program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter i...

  8. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of net premiums. 1.848-2 Section 1.848-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.848-2 Determination of net premiums. (a) Net premiums—(1) In general. An insurance company...

  9. NO netting, health and stress - studying wellness from a net perspective.

    PubMed

    Ralt, Dina

    2008-01-01

    On the nature of wellness, stress, netting and the radical gas nitric oxide (NO). The multi-complex role of NO resulted in its discoverers receiving a Nobel award, its presence everywhere and volatility makes it a suitable candidate to be a main signal in an instantaneous communication network. Such network, with the capacity of tight physiological monitoring, enables assets distributions in the body. A model is presented suggesting that an inter-cellular communication network coordinates the various bodily functions. Radical gases like nitric oxide (NO) are signals in this net and its usability affects health and indicates wellness. From this netting point of view, stress is the sense of flow interruption or blockage of the information stream. Such flow interruption affects also physiological functions and can explain the association between stress and many ailments. It is suggested that netting is a prerequisite route of wellness, enabling bodily unconscious managerial decisions. This vital diffusive network is extremely labile and potentially could contain the interplay of consciousness and unconsciousness effected by activities such as yoga or guided imagery. Vast data from studies on NO signals, health and the relaxation/stress processes have already been accumulated. Integration of these data supports this novel look of an NO network as a coordinator. Interactions between stress and health are discussed in net perspective and include basic concepts of some integrative health approaches. Studying the nature of such communication network and of NO may suggest new ways to reduce stress and approach wellness. PMID:17573200

  10. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C# and F#

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F# (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  11. Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pens, Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pens, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gene

    2003-11-01

    The completion of Grand Coulee Dam for power production, flood control, and irrigation resulted in the creation of a blocked area above the dam and in the loss of anadromous fish. Because of lake level fluctuations required to meet the demands for water release or storage, native or indigenous fish were often threatened. For many years very little effort was given to stocking the waters above the dam. However, studies by fish biologists showed that there was a good food base capable of supporting rainbow and kokanee (Gangmark and Fulton 1949, Jagielo 1984, Scholz etal 1986, Peone etal 1990). Further studies indicated that artificial production might be a way of restoring or enhancing the fishery. In the 1980's volunteers experimented with net pens. The method involved putting fingerlings in net pens in the fall and rearing them into early summer before release. The result was an excellent harvest of healthy fish. The use of net pens to hold the fingerlings for approximately nine months appears to reduce predation and the possibility of entrainment during draw down and to relieve the hatcheries to open up available raceways for future production. The volunteer net pen program grew for a few years but raising funds to maintain the pens and purchase food became more and more difficult. In 1995 the volunteer net pen project (LRDA) was awarded a grant through the Northwest Power Planning Council's artificial production provisions.

  12. 21 CFR 1005.24 - Costs of bringing product into compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Costs of bringing product into compliance. 1005.24 Section 1005.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH IMPORTATION OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Bonding and Compliance Procedures § 1005.24 Costs of bringing product...

  13. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is a joyful…

  14. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  19. 20 CFR 1002.308 - Who has legal standing to bring an action under USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has legal standing to bring an action under USERRA? 1002.308 Section 1002.308 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... Rights and Benefits Against A State Or Private Employer § 1002.308 Who has legal standing to bring...

  20. A Science Cloud: OneSpaceNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Y.; Murata, K. T.; Watari, S.; Kato, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Inoue, S.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fukazawa, K.; Kimura, E.; Tatebe, O.; Shimojo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Main methodologies of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (STP) so far are theoretical, experimental and observational, and computer simulation approaches. Recently "informatics" is expected as a new (fourth) approach to the STP studies. Informatics is a methodology to analyze large-scale data (observation data and computer simulation data) to obtain new findings using a variety of data processing techniques. At NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) we are now developing a new research environment named "OneSpaceNet". The OneSpaceNet is a cloud-computing environment specialized for science works, which connects many researchers with high-speed network (JGN: Japan Gigabit Network). The JGN is a wide-area back-born network operated by NICT; it provides 10G network and many access points (AP) over Japan. The OneSpaceNet also provides with rich computer resources for research studies, such as super-computers, large-scale data storage area, licensed applications, visualization devices (like tiled display wall: TDW), database/DBMS, cluster computers (4-8 nodes) for data processing and communication devices. What is amazing in use of the science cloud is that a user simply prepares a terminal (low-cost PC). Once connecting the PC to JGN2plus, the user can make full use of the rich resources of the science cloud. Using communication devices, such as video-conference system, streaming and reflector servers, and media-players, the users on the OneSpaceNet can make research communications as if they belong to a same (one) laboratory: they are members of a virtual laboratory. The specification of the computer resources on the OneSpaceNet is as follows: The size of data storage we have developed so far is almost 1PB. The number of the data files managed on the cloud storage is getting larger and now more than 40,000,000. What is notable is that the disks forming the large-scale storage are distributed to 5 data centers over Japan (but the storage

  1. Metastatic potential of NET in neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Homa-Mlak, Iwona; Majdan, Aleksandra; Mlak, Radosław; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In response to various stimuli, neutrophils and eosinophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) consisting of proteolytic enzymes, DNA and other components of the cell nucleus. The NETosis process has been characterized as a mechanism of programmed cell death, which leads to chromatin decondensation and disintegration of organelles, followed by lysis of the cell membrane. In recent years the significant role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted. The presence of two subpopulations of TAN with different phenotypes and functions - acting antitumor "N1" and the pro-cancerous "N2" - has been discovered. By the release of cytokines and chemokines neutrophils may affect angiogenesis and contribute to escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. Interactions between cells and the microenvironment are of vital importance both for the preservation of homeostasis in normal tissue and tumor growth. They affect the initiation of disease progression and prognosis. The impact of NETosis on the process of metastasis is evaluated in the context of the functions of the individual components of the NET (MMP-9, CG, NE). Furthermore, presumably the pro- or anti-tumor effect of NETosis depends on many factors including the status of the immune system or tumor microenvironment. Probably the cancer cells can be captured by the NET microenvironment in the same manner as microorganisms. However, the high concentration of proteins released during NETosis can induce their proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thus promoting tumor growth. A better understanding of NETosis function in tumor progression may lead to the emergence of new prognostic factors and targets for therapy in many types of cancer. PMID:27594564

  2. VOEventNet: Event Messaging for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, G.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Bloom, J.; Vastrand, T.; White, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.

    2006-12-01

    The time domain remains one of the the least explored areas in modern astronomy. In the near future the next generation of large synoptic sky surveys (Pan-STARRs, Skymapper, LSST) will probe the time dependent nature of the sky by detecting hundreds of thousands of astronomical transients (variable stars, asteroids, GRBs, lensing events). A global event distribution and follow-up network is required to characterize the nature of these transients. For over a year the VOEventNet project has been in the process of implementing a transient event follow-up network which distributes crafted structured data packets called VOEvents. These packets have been designed to be general enough to contain metadata for transients seen at all wavelengths, yet interpretable by robotic telescope systems (which are already automatically responding with follow-up observations). The VOEventNet project currently has transient event follow-up with the Palomar 60 and 200in (Caltech), RAPTOR (LANL), PARITEL and KAIT (UCB) as well as UK telescopes. VOEventNet transient event streams are publicly available. The subscription, publication and reception of VOEvents is implimented with a number of open source software clients. The software and details of how to receive streams of events are available from http://www.voeventnet.org. Current event streams include OGLE microlensing events, SDSS Supernovae, GCN GRBs, Raptor and Palomar-Quest optical transients. In the near future, many additional streams of VOEvents will be available, including optical transients from the ESSENCE, Planet and MOA projects, as well as those from UKIRT and JCMT telescopes. We also expect that transient event alerts will be available from Solar, X-ray and Radio telescopes.

  3. Net-2 models of cavities and diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogtlin, G. E.

    1984-08-01

    The network analysis program, Net-2, was used to model microwave cavities and wave guides. Techniques using both lumped lines and distributed transmission lines were used with good agreement compared to measured values. This technique is applicable to pill box and rectangular cavities as well as rectangular and circular wave guides. Higher order modes can be modeled in addition to the fundamental mode. Pulse driven diodes were modeled using Child-Langmuir limited current. These models use six to nine sections to represent the various radial currents and ection parameters. Complex rise-times and resonances were evaluated and measured to several giga hertz.

  4. Net Generation's Learning Styles in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Eleni; Kalokairinou, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Numerous surveys have confirmed that emerging technologies and Web 2.0 tools have been a defining feature in the lives of current students, estimating that there is a fundamental shift in the way young people communicate, socialize and learn. Nursing students in higher education are characterized as digital literate with distinct traits which influence their learning styles. Millennials exhibit distinct learning preferences such as teamwork, experiential activities, structure, instant feedback and technology integration. Higher education institutions should be aware of the implications of the Net Generation coming to university and be prepared to meet their expectations and learning needs. PMID:26152969

  5. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  6. Near-net-shape titanium alloy extrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, R.R.; Barta, E.R.; Henderson, J.W.

    1989-03-01

    The Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al has been used in an experimental program involving the development of Ti-alloy extrusion processes capable of achieving surfaces that do not require 100-percent machining. Attention was given to the effects of extrusion temperature and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the near-net-shape extrusions; in general, the properties of direct-aged materials are found to be sensitive to extrusion temperatures, with tensile strength increasing with extrusion temperature. The double open-hole fatigue strength of extrusion specimens was ascertained. Direct-aged specimens tested at 276 MPa are projected to fail at 100,000 cycles. 7 refs.

  7. The evolution of the actin binding NET superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Timothy J; Deeks, Michael J; Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Networked (NET) superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in Arabidopsis, which group into four distinct clades or families. NET homologs are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi; furthermore, in plantae, NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single family of the NET proteins is found encoded in the club moss genome, an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from families 4 and 3, with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 families, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 families are found only as independent sequences in Angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four families are conserved across Monocots and Eudicots, with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point, due, in part, to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants, they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and increasing complexity of land-plant species. PMID:24926301

  8. The evolution of the actin binding NET superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Timothy J.; Deeks, Michael J.; Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Networked (NET) superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in Arabidopsis, which group into four distinct clades or families. NET homologs are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi; furthermore, in plantae, NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single family of the NET proteins is found encoded in the club moss genome, an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from families 4 and 3, with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 families, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 families are found only as independent sequences in Angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four families are conserved across Monocots and Eudicots, with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point, due, in part, to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants, they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and increasing complexity of land-plant species. PMID:24926301

  9. The transcription factor Net regulates the angiogenic switch.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Wasylyk, Christine; Ayadi, Abdelkader; Abecassis, Joseph; Schalken, Jack A; Rogatsch, Hermann; Wernert, Nicolas; Maira, Sauveur-Michel; Multon, Marie-Christine; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2003-09-15

    Angiogenesis is fundamental to physiological and pathological processes. Despite intensive efforts, little is known about the intracellular circuits that regulate angiogenesis. The transcription factor Net is activated by phosphorylation induced by Ras, an indirect regulator of angiogenesis. Net is expressed at sites of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during early mouse development, suggesting that it could have a role in blood vessel formation. We show here that down-regulation of Net inhibits angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Ras-activated phosphorylated Net (P-Net) stimulates the mouse VEGF promoter through the -80 to -53 region that principally binds Sp1. P-Net and VEGF are coexpressed in angiogenic processes in wild-type mouse tissues and in human tumors. We conclude that Net is a regulator of angiogenesis that can switch to an activator following induction by pro-angiogenic molecules. PMID:12975317

  10. NET amyloidogenic backbone in human activated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Pulze, L; Bassani, B; Gini, E; D'Antona, P; Grimaldi, A; Luini, A; Marino, F; Noonan, D M; Tettamanti, G; Valvassori, R; de Eguileor, M

    2016-03-01

    Activated human neutrophils produce a fibrillar DNA network [neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)] for entrapping and killing bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Our results suggest that the neutrophil extracellular traps show a resistant amyloidogenic backbone utilized for addressing reputed proteins and DNA against the non-self. The formation of amyloid fibrils in neutrophils is regulated by the imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm. The intensity and source of the ROS signal is determinant for promoting stress-associated responses such as amyloidogenesis and closely related events: autophagy, exosome release, activation of the adrenocorticotrophin hormone/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/α-MSH) loop and synthesis of specific cytokines. These interconnected responses in human activated neutrophils, that have been evaluated from a morphofunctional and quantitative viewpoint, represent primitive, but potent, innate defence mechanisms. In invertebrates, circulating phagocytic immune cells, when activated, show responses similar to those described previously for activated human neutrophils. Invertebrate cells within endoplasmic reticulum cisternae produce a fibrillar material which is then assembled into an amyloidogenic scaffold utilized to convey melanin close to the invader. These findings, in consideration to the critical role played by NET in the development of several pathologies, could explain the structural resistance of these scaffolds and could provide the basis for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in immunomediated diseases in which the innate branch of the immune system has a pivotal role. PMID:26462606

  11. Optical neural nets for scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David

    1991-04-01

    This project involves hybrid optical/digital neural nets (NNs) with attention to one of the most formidable NN problems: scene analysis and pattern recognition. Our research is unique in its attention to a hybrid optical/digital NN architecture that is very multifunctional. We describe the various novel uses for optics we employ within a NN and how our hybrid architecture can implement most major NNs (specifically: associative processors, optimization NNs, NNs to handle multiple objects in the field of view, and adaptive learning NNs). We also include new matrix inversion NN concepts. Our scene analysis algorithm work includes a new feature space, a new hybrid pattern recognition/neural net algorithm (the ACNNO, our symbolic correlator production system NN (that handles multiple objects in the field of view in parallel), and an advanced piecewise quadratic NN (PQNN) concept. Our major thrust has been the optical laboratory realization of these NN algorithms. Our initial work in this area is noted and includes: new error source modeling simulations of our initial and new real time optical laboratory system, a description of our newest optical laboratory system, and initial test results obtained with it.

  12. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  13. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Guerrero, Héctor; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL), using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. For the precursor mission (MMPM) intended to verify the landing concept and key technology during a real Mars mission all qualification activities are completed and the payload and system flight model components are being manufactured. The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. Details of the current MMPM system and payload configuration and their performance parameters will be shown.

  14. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  15. Net ecosystem production: A comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S., III; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Harmon, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual framework used by ecologists and biogeochemists must allow for accurate and clearly defined comparisons of carbon fluxes made with disparate techniques across a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. Consistent with usage over the past four decades, we define "net ecosystem production" (NEP) as the net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. Past use of this term has been ambiguous, because it has been used conceptually as a measure of carbon accumulation by ecosystems, but it has often been calculated considering only the balance between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration. This calculation ignores other carbon fluxes from ecosystems (e.g., leaching of dissolved carbon and losses associated with disturbance). To avoid conceptual ambiguities, we argue that NEP be defined, as in the past, as the net carbon accumulation by ecosystems and that it explicitly incorporate all the carbon fluxes from an ecosystem, including autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration, losses associated with disturbance, dissolved and particulate carbon losses, volatile organic compound emissions, and lateral transfers among ecosystems. Net biome productivity (NBP), which has been proposed to account for carbon loss during episodic disturbance, is equivalent to NEP at regional or global scales. The multi-scale conceptual framework we describe provides continuity between flux measurements made at the scale of soil profiles and chambers, forest inventories, eddy covariance towers, aircraft, and inversions of remote atmospheric flask samples, allowing a direct comparison of NEP estimates made at all temporal and spatial scales.

  16. Bed Net Durability Assessments: Exploring a Composite Measure of Net Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L.; Chan, Adeline; Abílio, Ana Paula; Wolkon, Adam; Ponce de Leon, Gabriel; Gimnig, John; Morgan, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Background The durability of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) in field conditions is of great importance for malaria prevention and control efforts; however, the physical integrity of the net fabric is not well understood making it challenging to determine overall effectiveness of nets as they age. The 2011 World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) guidelines provide a simple, standardized method using a proportional hole index (PHI) for assessing net damage with the intent to provide national malaria control programs with guidelines to assess the useful life of LLINS and estimate the rate of replacement. Methods We evaluated the utility of the PHI measure using 409 LLINs collected over three years in Nampula Province, Mozambique following a mass distribution campaign in 2008. For each LLIN the diameter and distance from the bottom of the net were recorded for every hole. Holes were classified into four size categories and a PHI was calculated following WHOPES guidelines. We investigate how the size, shape, and location of holes influence the PHI. The areas of the WHOPES defined categories were compared to circular and elliptical areas based on approximate shape and actual measured axes of each hole and the PHI was compared to cumulative damaged surface area of the LLIN. Results The damaged area of small, medium, large, and extra-large holes was overestimated using the WHOPES categories compared to elliptical areas using the actual measured axes. Similar results were found when comparing to circular areas except for extra-large holes which were underestimated. (Wilcoxon signed rank test of differences p< 0.0001 for all sizes). Approximating holes as circular overestimated hole surface area by 1.5 to 2 times or more. There was a significant difference in the mean number of holes < 0.5 cm by brand and there were more holes of all sizes on the bottom of nets than the top. For a range of hypothetical PHI thresholds used to designate a

  17. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E.; Garrett, J. C.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of grazing on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures and thus on the climate system is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global carbon storage. We investigated how cattle grazing affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique over two complete wet-dry seasonal cycles. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing consistently decreased gross primary productivity (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015) and reduced ecosystem respiration (Re, 20% and 38% in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Lower Re in grazed (GP) than in ungrazed pasture (UP) was also explained by decreased soil and heterotrophic respiration and root biomass. Grazing increased the net CO2 sink strength of the pasture (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -118 ± 9 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +142 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 UP in 2014-2015). Over both wet-dry seasonal cycles, both ecosystems were net sources of CH4, and variations in fluxes without cattle present were driven by changes in soil wetness and temperature. The presence of cattle and greater soil moisture cased by the removal of aboveground biomass, caused greater total net ecosystem CH4 emissions from GP than from UP (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Wetter soils under GP were responsible for 21-56% of the difference in net CH4 emissions between pastures, suggesting that enhanced CH4 production from wetter soils due to cattle presence can be a major contributor to annual CH4 fluxes. Combining CO2 and CH4 to calculate a C budget revealed that grazing increased the net C sink strength of the pasture (-72 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -66 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -114 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +144 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2014-2015). Accounting for NEE and the radiative forcing of CH4, grazing increased the net global warming potential (GWP) of

  18. NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story.

    PubMed

    Rood, Julian I; Keyburn, Anthony L; Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the primary causative agent of avian necrotic enteritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this economically important disease has been enhanced by the discovery of C. perfringens NetB toxin, which belongs to the α-haemolysin family of β-pore-forming toxins. In a chicken disease model, the analysis of an isogenic set of strains comprising the wild type, a netB mutant, and its complemented derivative, fulfilled molecular Koch's postulates and revealed that NetB was essential for disease. These results were consistent with epidemiological surveys, which generally found that there was a higher prevalence of netB carriage in C. perfringens isolates from diseased poultry compared to healthy birds. The netB gene has been shown to be located on large conjugative plasmids that are closely related to other toxin plasmids from C. perfringens, which has potential implications for the epidemiology of necrotic enteritis infections. The crystal structures of both monomeric NetB and the heptameric NetB pore have been determined, the latter revealed a central pore diameter of approximately 26 Å. Finally, it has been shown that vaccine preparations that include NetB can protect chickens against disease and a series of single amino acid substitution derivatives of NetB that have potential value for vaccine formulations have been isolated and analysed. It is likely that NetB will be an important antigen to include in an effective, commercially viable, necrotic enteritis vaccine. PMID:27009522

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica-mediated degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

    PubMed

    Möllerherm, Helene; Neumann, Ariane; Schilcher, Katrin; Blodkamp, Stefanie; Zeitouni, Nathalie E; Dersch, Petra; Lüthje, Petra; Naim, Hassan Y; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is described as a tool of the innate host defence to fight against invading pathogens. Fibre-like DNA structures associated with proteins such as histones, cell-specific enzymes and antimicrobial peptides are released, thereby entrapping invading pathogens. It has been reported that several bacteria are able to degrade NETs by nucleases and thus evade the NET-mediated entrapment. Here we studied the ability of three different Yersinia serotypes to induce and degrade NETs. We found that the common Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8 and O:9 were able to induce NETs in human blood-derived neutrophils during the first hour of co-incubation. At later time points, the NET amount was reduced, suggesting that degradation of NETs has occurred. This was confirmed by NET degradation assays with phorbol-myristate-acetate-pre-stimulated neutrophils. In addition, we found that the Yersinia supernatants were able to degrade purified plasmid DNA. The absence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, but not that of a protease inhibitor cocktail, completely abolished NET degradation. We therefore postulate that Y. enterocolitica produces Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-dependent NET-degrading nucleases as shown for some Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:26459885

  20. OglNet Version 13(SOPHIA)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-09

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as well as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.