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Sample records for nitrogen gas n2

  1. The Contamination of Commercial 15N2 Gas Stocks with 15N–Labeled Nitrate and Ammonium and Consequences for Nitrogen Fixation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dabundo, Richard; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treibergs, Lija; Tobias, Craig R.; Altabet, Mark A.; Moisander, Pia H.; Granger, Julie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the contamination of commercial 15-nitrogen (15N) N2 gas stocks with 15N-enriched ammonium, nitrate and/or nitrite, and nitrous oxide. 15N2 gas is used to estimate N2 fixation rates from incubations of environmental samples by monitoring the incorporation of isotopically labeled 15N2 into organic matter. However, the microbial assimilation of bioavailable 15N-labeled N2 gas contaminants, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, is liable to lead to the inflation or false detection of N2 fixation rates. 15N2 gas procured from three major suppliers was analyzed for the presence of these 15N-contaminants. Substantial concentrations of 15N-contaminants were detected in four Sigma-Aldrich 15N2 lecture bottles from two discrete batch syntheses. Per mole of 15N2 gas, 34 to 1900 µmoles of 15N-ammonium, 1.8 to 420 µmoles of 15N-nitrate/nitrite, and ≥21 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide were detected. One 15N2 lecture bottle from Campro Scientific contained ≥11 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide per mole of 15N2 gas, and no detected 15N-nitrate/nitrite at the given experimental 15N2 tracer dilutions. Two Cambridge Isotopes lecture bottles from discrete batch syntheses contained ≥0.81 µmoles 15N-nitrous oxide per mole 15N2, and trace concentrations of 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate/nitrite. 15N2 gas equilibrated cultures of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta confirmed that the 15N-contaminants are assimilable. A finite-differencing model parameterized using oceanic field conditions typical of N2 fixation assays suggests that the degree of detected 15N-ammonium contamination could yield inferred N2 fixation rates ranging from undetectable, <0.01 nmoles N L−1 d−1, to 530 nmoles N L−1 d−1, contingent on experimental conditions. These rates are comparable to, or greater than, N2 fixation rates commonly detected in field assays. These results indicate that past reports of N2 fixation should be interpreted with caution, and demonstrate that the purity of commercial 15N2

  2. The contamination of commercial 15N2 gas stocks with 15N-labeled nitrate and ammonium and consequences for nitrogen fixation measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabundo, Richard; Lehmann, Moritz F; Treibergs, Lija; Tobias, Craig R; Altabet, Mark A; Moisander, Pia H; Granger, Julie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the contamination of commercial 15-nitrogen (15N) N2 gas stocks with 15N-enriched ammonium, nitrate and/or nitrite, and nitrous oxide. 15N2 gas is used to estimate N2 fixation rates from incubations of environmental samples by monitoring the incorporation of isotopically labeled 15N2 into organic matter. However, the microbial assimilation of bioavailable 15N-labeled N2 gas contaminants, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, is liable to lead to the inflation or false detection of N2 fixation rates. 15N2 gas procured from three major suppliers was analyzed for the presence of these 15N-contaminants. Substantial concentrations of 15N-contaminants were detected in four Sigma-Aldrich 15N2 lecture bottles from two discrete batch syntheses. Per mole of 15N2 gas, 34 to 1900 µmoles of 15N-ammonium, 1.8 to 420 µmoles of 15N-nitrate/nitrite, and ≥21 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide were detected. One 15N2 lecture bottle from Campro Scientific contained ≥11 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide per mole of 15N2 gas, and no detected 15N-nitrate/nitrite at the given experimental 15N2 tracer dilutions. Two Cambridge Isotopes lecture bottles from discrete batch syntheses contained ≥0.81 µmoles 15N-nitrous oxide per mole 15N2, and trace concentrations of 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate/nitrite. 15N2 gas equilibrated cultures of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta confirmed that the 15N-contaminants are assimilable. A finite-differencing model parameterized using oceanic field conditions typical of N2 fixation assays suggests that the degree of detected 15N-ammonium contamination could yield inferred N2 fixation rates ranging from undetectable, <0.01 nmoles N L(-1) d(-1), to 530 nmoles N L(-1) d(-1), contingent on experimental conditions. These rates are comparable to, or greater than, N2 fixation rates commonly detected in field assays. These results indicate that past reports of N2 fixation should be interpreted with caution, and demonstrate that the purity of commercial 15N2

  3. Magnetic properties of iron nitride films prepared by oblique sputtering under different nitrogen gas flow ratios (N2/N2+Ar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Du, Jinlu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-10-01

    Iron nitride thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrates by oblique radio-frequency reactive magnetron oblique sputtering. Structures, phases and magnetic properties were investigated as a function of nitrogen gas flow ratio FN(FN=FN2/(FN2+FAr)×100%). When FN is in the range of 2-7%, the iron nitride films show amorphous or nano-crystalline structures, which exhibit good soft magnetic properties. With 3%≤FN≤6%, films show in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Both intrinsic damping factor αin and extrinsic damping factor αex of the iron nitride films increase with increasing FN. The film deposited under FN=6% with the resonance frequency fr=3.3 GHz and full width at half-maximum Δf=3.6 GHz has great potential for high-frequency electromagnetic shielding applications.

  4. Picosecond-TALIF and VUV absorption measurements of absolute atomic nitrogen densities from an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet with He/O2/N2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew; Niemi, Kari; Schröter, Sandra; Bredin, Jerome; Gans, Timo; Wagenaars, Erik

    2015-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen species (RONS) from RF atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are important in biomedical applications as well as industrial plasma processing such as surface modification. Atomic oxygen has been well studied, whereas, despite its importance in the plasma chemistry, atomic nitrogen has been somewhat neglected due to its difficulty of measurement. We present absolute densities of atomic nitrogen in APPJs operating with He/O2/N2 gas mixtures in open air, using picosecond Two-photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence (ps-TALIF) and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. In order to apply the TALIF technique in complex, He/O2/N2 mixtures, we needed to directly measure the collisional quenching effects using picosecond pulse widths (32ps). Traditional calculated quenching corrections, used in nanosecond TALIF, are inadequate due to a lack of quenching data for complex mixtures. Absolute values for the densities were found by calibrating against a known density of Krypton. The VUV absorption experiments were conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Atomic nitrogen densities were on the order of 1020 m-3 with good agreement between TALIF and VUV absorption. UK EPSRC grant EP/K018388/1.

  5. Nitrogen Dissociation in N_2-Ar Microwave Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, J.; Tatarova, E.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2002-10-01

    Microwave N_2-Ar discharges driven by a traveling surface wave (SW) attract attention due to their advantageous properties for plasma processing technologies, in particular for nitriding surfaces. Nitrogen atoms are the most important precursors in gas discharge nitriding and the study of their production and loss mechanisms is of fundamental importance. The kinetics of dissociation of N2 in N_2-Ar microwave plasmas was investigated as a function of the spatial position, mixture composition and pressure. A theoretical model(J. Henriques, E. Tatarova, V. Guerra and C.M. Ferreira, J. Appl. Phys. 91 5622 (2002).) was developed for the following situation: an azimuthally symmetric SW (TM_00, ω/2π=2.45 GHz) propagates and sustains an N_2-Ar plasma column in a dielectric tube (a=0.75 cm, \\varepsilon_d=3.78) surrounded by a metal screen (R=2.5 cm). The model account in a self-consistent way for the electron and heavy particle kinetics, gas thermal balance and wave electrodynamics. It is demonstrated that charge transfer Ar^+ + N2 arrow N_2^+ + Ar followed by dissociative recombination e + N_2^+ arrow N(^4S) + N(^4S) increases the dissociation degree of nitrogen at high Ar fractional percentage in the mixture. The predictions are validated by optical emission spectroscopy(J. Henriques, E. Tatarova, F.M. Dias and C.M. Ferreira, J. Appl. Phys. 91 5632 (2002).).

  6. Nitrogen metastable (N2(A3 Σu + )) in a cold argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Shielding and gas composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseni, Sylvain; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    N 2 ( A 3 Σu + ) metastable species are detected and measured in a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet by laser induced fluorescence. A shielding device is used to change the ambient conditions additionally to the feeding gas composition. Varying the amount of N2 and air admixed to the feeding gas as well as changing the shielding gas from N2 to air reveals that the highest N 2 ( A 3 Σu + ) is achieved in the case of air admixtures in spite of the enhanced collisional quenching due to the presence of O2. The reasons for these observations are discussed in detail.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the nitrogen dimer (N2)2 and clusters (N2)n: N2 dimer revealed as the chromophore in photoionization of condensed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnovale, Frank; Peel, J. Barrie; Rothwell, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The He i photoelectron spectra of gas-phase nitrogen dimer and nitrogen clusters have been measured in a pulsed cluster beam. The dimer (N2)2 is characterized by broad bands with vertical ionization energies which are 0.3±0.1 eV lower than for N2 monomer. The bands observed for a mixture of small clusters, estimated to be of average size N¯=10, are identical to the dimer bands except for further shifts of 0.3 eV to lower ionization energies. The clusters bandwidths and band shapes are virtually the same as measured for thin films of condensed N2, indicating that the nitrogen dimer (N2)2 is the ionization chromophore in each case. This offers support for Haberland's hypothesis that ionization of any Mn cluster produces the ion M+2Mn-2 provided M is a closed-shell atom or molecule. The theory of electronic relaxation polarization of the dielectric medium, which explains the gas-to-solid ionization energy shifts, is modified for the case of finite clusters and to account for dimer ion formation.

  8. Modification of nitrogen Townsend ionization coefficient in a N2 laser with a weak corona preionization and high gas pressure using laser output power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikhani, S.; Hariri, A.

    2013-05-01

    Based on the reported experimental measurements on the output power in a transversely excited nitrogen laser with a weak corona preionization and rate equations, a simulation study was made to describe the laser output power behavior. For the study, we first made a literature survey for the appropriate E/p functional dependences of nitrogen molecules on drift velocity vd, and the Townsend ionization coefficient α, to be applied for the laser operational characteristics of high gas pressures up to 1 atmosphere, and 20 < E/p < 1000 V cm-1 Torr-1. For the study when the corona UV preionization is applied, it was realized that it is necessary to modify the Townsend ionization coefficient to include the effect of the preionization for the laser system. This realization revealed that the Townsend coefficient upon utilizing the corona effect, (α/p)corona, can be viewed as a perturbation to be added to the (α/p)main due to the main gas discharge, where the total (α/p)t = (α/p)main + (α/p)corona was used for the calculation. We also introduced a single α/p relation with A* and B* coefficients to explain the gas discharge due to both the main and corona discharges. The results of the two approaches are introduced and have been compared with each other. The present study indicates that laser optical measurements, by themselves, constitute a reliable approach for understanding the physical quantities that are involved during plasma formation in a gas discharge. Details of the approach will be presented in this paper.

  9. Evaluation of an electrochemical N2/H2 gas separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Wynveen, R. A.; Carlson, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    A program was successfully completed to evaluate an electrochemical nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) separator for use in a spacecraft nitrogen (N2) generator. Based on the technical data obtained a N2/H2 separator subsystem consisting of an organic polymer gas permeator first stage and an electrochemical second and third stage was estimated to have the lowest total spared equivalent weight, 257 kg (566 lb), for a 15 lb/day N2 generation rate. A pre-design analysis of the electrochemical N2/H2 separator revealed that its use as a first stage resulted in too high a power requirement to be competitive with the organic polymer membrane and the palladium-silver membrane separation methods. As a result, program emphasis was placed on evaluating the electrochemical. A parametric test program characterized cell performance and established second- and third-stage electrochemical N2/H2 separator operating conditions. A design verification test was completed on the second and third stages. The second stage was then successfully endurance tested for 200 hours.

  10. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from managed arable soils with a fully coupled hydrology-biogeochemical modeling system simulating water and nutrient transport and associated carbon and nitrogen cycling at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, Steffen; Haas, Edwin; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kraft, Philipp; Plesca, Ina; Breuer, Lutz; Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Minghua; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Xunhua; Wlotzka, Martin; Heuveline, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    , organic matter mineralisation, nitrification, denitrification, chemodenitrification and methanogenesis producing and consuming soil based greenhouse gases. The model application will present first validation results of the coupled model to simulate soil based greenhouse gas emissions as well as nitrate discharge from the Yanting catchment. The model application will also present the effects of different management practices (fertilization rates and timings, tilling, residues management) on the redistribution of N surplus within the catchment causing biomass productivity gradients and different levels of indirect N2O emissions along topographical gradients.

  11. Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N2+, N+, and N2++ nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.; Dutuit, O.; Nicolas, C.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Zabka, J.; Franceschi, P.

    Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N+ , N+ , and N2+ nitrogen ions 2 2 R. Thissen (1), C. Alcaraz (1), O. Dutuit (1), C. Nicolas (2), H. Soldi-Lose (3), J. Zabka (4), P. Franceschi (5) (1) LCP, Bât. 350, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France, (2) Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, (3) Institut für Chemie, Fachgruppe Organische Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, (4) J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, CZ 18223 Praha 8 - Kobylisy, Czech Republik, (5) Dept. of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (TN), Italy (christian.alcaraz@lcp.u-psud.fr) N2 is the major neutral componant of Titan's atmosphere, its ionisation by solar radiation and by magnetospheric electron impact is the most important production of ions in Titan's ionosphere. These primary processes not only lead to N+ molecular 2 monocations but also to N+ atomic ions and to N2+ molecular dications, which can 2 pertain some internal or translational excitation. This contribution will summarize our efforts to caracterize in gaz phase laboratory experiments the reactivity of the nitrogen ions with the most important neutral targets of the Titan's atmosphere [1-3]: • N+ + CH4 , C2 H2 , and C2 H6 2 • N+ (3 P, 1 D) + CH4 , and C2 H4 • N2+ + N2 , CH4 , and C2 H4 2 In this work, particular attention has been paid on the effect of internal and/or translational excitation of the primary nitrogen ions on the rate constant and branching ratio of these ion-molecule reactions. The results from these studies have been compared to the literature values when available and some significant differences have been found. These new values have been used as input data in 1D models of the Titan's ionosphere to show the effect on the final density profiles of the main ions [4] and to demonstrate the existence of a N2+2 dication

  12. Effect of adduct formation with molecular nitrogen on the measured collisional cross sections of transition metal-1,10-phenanthroline complexes in traveling wave ion-mobility spectrometry: N2 is not always an "inert" buffer gas.

    PubMed

    Rijs, Nicole J; Weiske, Thomas; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The number of separations and analyses of molecular species using traveling wave ion-mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS) is increasing, including those extending the technique to analytes containing metal atoms. A critical aspect of such applications of TWIMS-MS is the validity of the collisional cross sections (CCSs) measured and whether they can be accurately calibrated against other ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) techniques. Many metal containing species have potential reactivity toward molecular nitrogen, which is present in high concentration in the typical Synapt-G2 TWIMS cell. Here, we analyze the effect of nitrogen on the drift time of a series of cationic 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of the late transition metals, [(phen)M](+), (M = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, and Hg) in order to understand potential deviations from expected drift time behaviors. These metal complexes were chosen for their metal open-coordination site and lack of rotameric species. The target species were generated via electrospray ionization (ESI), analyzed using TWIMS in N2 drift gas, and the observed drift time trends compared. Theoretically derived CCSs for all species (via both the projection approximation and trajectory method) were also compared. The results show that, indeed, for metal containing species in this size regime, reaction with molecular nitrogen has a dramatic effect on measured drift times and must not be ignored when comparing and interpreting TWIMS arrival time distributions. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to analyze the periodic differences due to the metal's interaction with nitrogen (and background water) in detail. PMID:26378338

  13. Nitrogen fertiliser formulation: The impact on N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Mary; Krol, Dominika; Carolan, Rachael; McNeill, Gavin; McGeough, Karen; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture was responsible for 31% of Ireland's Agricultural Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilizers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). Switching from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to a urea based fertiliser limits the soil residence period of nitrate, the major substrate for denitrification loss in the N2O form. However, urea is susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilisation but this risk can be managed using urease inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of switching from CAN to urea, urea with the urease inhibitor N- (n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (trade name Agrotain®) and/or the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD on direct and indirect N2O emissions. The experiment is a two year study (commenced March 2013) at six permanent pasture sites located on the island of Ireland, at Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford, Moorepark Co. Cork and Hillsborough Co. Down, covering a range of soil textures and drainage characteristics. The experiment simulated a grazing environment; annual fertiliser N was applied at different rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 kg N ha-1) in five equal splits, with grass harvested prior to fertilizer application. Direct N2O emissions were quantified regularly using static chambers over 1 year and indirect N2O from ammonia volatilisation was measured using wind tunnels and annual emission factors calculated. Switching from CAN to urea dramatically reduced direct N2O emissions, but had little effect on dry-matter yield. However, there was evidence of pollution swapping of direct for indirect N2O from NH3. In the first year, two urea based formulations successfully reduced both direct and indirect N2O emissions at all sites. Fertiliser formulation strategy has the potential to be a solution for reduction of direct and indirect N2O emissions.

  14. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (λ<120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120–200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths, using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, which indicates that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths >120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for how we view prebiotic chemistry on early Earth and similar planets. Key Words: Titan—Photochemical aerosol—CH4-N2 photolysis—Far UV—Nitrogen activation. Astrobiology 12, 315–326. PMID:22519972

  15. The sensitivity of marine N2 fixation to dissolved inorganic nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Angela N.

    2012-01-01

    The dominant process adding nitrogen (N) to the ocean, di-nitrogen (N2) fixation, is mediated by prokaryotes (diazotrophs) sensitive to a variety of environmental factors. In particular, it is often assumed that consequential rates of marine N2 fixation do not occur where concentrations of nitrate (NO−3) and/or ammonium (NH+4) exceed 1μM because of the additional energetic cost associated with assimilating N2 gas relative to NO−3 or NH+4. However, an examination of culturing studies and in situ N2 fixation rate measurements from marine euphotic, mesopelagic, and benthic environments indicates that while elevated concentrations of NO−3 and/or NH+4 can depress N2 fixation rates, the process can continue at substantial rates in the presence of as much as 30μM NO−3 and/or 200μM NH+4. These findings challenge expectations of the degree to which inorganic N inhibits this process. The high rates of N2 fixation measured in some benthic environments suggest that certain benthic diazotrophs may be less sensitive to prolonged exposure to NO−3 and/or NH+4 than cyanobacterial diazotrophs. Additionally, recent work indicates that cyanobacterial diazotrophs may have mechanisms for mitigating NO−3 inhibition of N2 fixation. In particular, it has been recently shown that increasing phosphorus (P) availability increases diazotroph abundance, thus compensating for lower per-cell rates of N2 fixation that result from NO−3 inhibition. Consequently, low ambient surface ocean N:P ratios such as those generated by the increasing rates of N loss thought to occur during the last glacial to interglacial transition may create conditions favorable for N2 fixation and thus help to stabilize the marine N inventory on relevant time scales. These findings suggest that restricting measurements of marine N2 fixation to oligotrophic surface waters may underestimate global rates of this process and contribute to uncertainties in the marine N budget. PMID:23091472

  16. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far UV Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (lambda < 120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120 - 200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We have examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, indicating that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross-section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths > 120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth and similar planets.

  17. General model for N2O and N2 gas emissions from soils due to dentrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Ojima, D. S.; Kulmala, A. E.; Phongpan, S.

    2000-12-01

    Observations of N gas loss from incubations of intact and disturbed soil cores were used to model N2O and N2 emissions from soil as a result of denitrification. The model assumes that denitrification rates are controlled by the availability in soil of NO3 (e- acceptor), labile C compounds (e- donor), and O2 (competing e- acceptor). Heterotrophic soil respiration is used as a proxy for labile C availability while O2 availability is a function of soil physical properties that influence gas diffusivity, soil WFPS, and O2 demand. The potential for O2 demand, as indicated by respiration rates, to contribute to soil anoxia varies inversely with a soil gas diffusivity coefficient which is regulated by soil porosity and pore size distribution. Model inputs include soil heterotrophic respiration rate, texture, NO3 concentration, and WFPS. The model selects the minimum of the NO3 and CO2 functions to establish a maximum potential denitrification rate for particular levels of e- acceptor and C substrate and accounts for limitation of O2 availability to estimate daily N2+N2O flux rates. The ratio of soil NO3 concentration to CO2 emission was found to reliably (r2=0.5) model the ratio of N2 to N2O gases emitted from the intact cores after accounting for differences in gas diffusivity among the soils. The output of the ratio function is combined with the estimate of total N gas flux rate to infer N2O emission. The model performed well when comparing observed and simulated values of N2O flux rates with the data used for model building (r2=0.50) and when comparing observed and simulated N2O+N2 gas emission rates from irrigated field soils used for model testing (r2=0.47).

  18. Relative gas diffusivity as a controller of soil N2 and N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Tim; Balaine, Nimlesh; Beare, Mike; Thomas, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Animal grazing may induce soil compaction and has been shown to enhance emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The dominant substrate for N2O production is urea, supplied to the soil in ruminant urine. While studies have examined the effects of water-filled pore space on N2O emissions there has been less attention paid to the role of soil physical properties, such as relative gas diffusivity (Dp/Do), on N2O emissions and associated emissions of dinitrogen (N2). Three experiments were performed on soil cores maintained at a range of soil bulk densities (1.1 to 1.5 Mg/m3) and soil matric potentials (-10 to -0.2 kPa). These soil cores received urea at 700 kg N/ha to simulate a urine deposition event. Using the 15N tracer technique we measured N2 and N2O fluxes in order to investigate the role of soil Dp/Do as a controlling factor the magnitude of N2 and N2O fluxes and the reduction of N2O. As soil compaction and soil moisture contents increased soil Dp/Do declined. This in turn resulted in slower rates of nitrification. The mean cumulative fluxes of N2O, as a percentage of N applied, ranged from <1 to 16% after 35 days. Cumulative N2 fluxes as a percentage of N applied, ranged from <1 to 60% after 35 days. Soil compaction and soil matric potential interacted to influence Dp/Do which in turn was seen to be a strong determinant of the magnitude of both N2O and N2 fluxes. As Dp/Do values decreased a critical value was reached where N2O fluxes rapidly switched from being at a maximum to a minimum while at the same time N2 production intensified. This was also reflected in the N2:N2O ratios, based on cumulative fluxes, which ranged from <1 to 25. When compared with water-filled pore space the Dp/Do variable proved to be a better predictor of the switch from N2O production to N2 production.

  19. Effect of excited nitrogen atoms on inactivation of spore-forming microorganisms in low pressure N2/O2 surface-wave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Chang, Xijiang; Tei, Reitou; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-06-01

    Using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy with a compact low pressure plasma light source, the absolute nitrogen atom density was measured to study its role in the spore inactivation with low pressure N2/O2 gas mixture surface-wave plasmas (SWPs). Self-absorption effect of the resonance emission lines of nitrogen atoms near 120 nm was minimized by optimizing its discharge conditions of the plasma light source. Experimental results showed that excited nitrogen atom densities monotonically decreased with the decrease of N2 gas percentage in N2/O2 gas mixture SWPs, concomitantly with similar decrease of VUV/UV emission intensities of nitrogen atoms and molecules. In the pure N2 gas SWPs, it was confirmed that a dominant lethal factor was VUV/UV emission generated by N2 plasma, while spore etching occurred via physical and chemical interactions with nitrogen species. With an addition of O2 gas, significant spore etching by excited oxygen atoms made it much easier for the VUV/UV photons emitted by nitrogen atoms, N2 and NO molecules to penetrate through the etched spore coats to the core and cause the fatal DNA damage of the microorganisms. As a result, more rapid inactivation was achieved in the middle region of N2/O2 gas mixture ratio, such as 30–80% O2 gas addition, in the present N2/O2 gas mixture SWPs.

  20. Regulation of CO2 and N2O fluxes by coupled carbon and nitrogen availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L. L.; Eberwein, J. R.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) interactions contribute to uncertainty in current biogeochemical models that aim to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2 and N2O) emissions from soil to atmosphere. In this study, we quantified CO2 and N2O flux patterns and their relationship along with increasing C additions only, N additions only, a C gradient combined with excess N, and an N gradient with excess C via laboratory incubations. Conventional trends, where labile C or N addition results in higher CO2 or N2O fluxes, were observed. However, at low levels of C availability, saturating N amendments reduced soil CO2 flux while with high C availability N amendments enhanced it. At saturating C conditions increasing N amendments first reduced and then increased CO2 fluxes. Similarly, N2O fluxes were initially reduced by adding labile C under N limited conditions, but additional C enhanced N2O fluxes by more than two orders of magnitude in the saturating N environment. Changes in C or N use efficiency could explain the altered gas flux patterns and imply a critical level in the interactions between N and C availability that regulate soil trace gas emissions and biogeochemical cycling. Compared to either N or C amendment alone, the interaction of N and C caused ∼60 and ∼5 times the total GHG emission, respectively. Our findings suggested that the response of CO2 and N2O fluxes along stoichiometric gradients in C and N availability should be accounted for interpreting or modeling the biogeochemistry of GHG emissions.

  1. Nitrogen attenuation in the Connecticut River, northeastern USA; a comparison of mass balance and N2 production modeling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.E.; Laursen, A.E.; Deacon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods were used to measure in-stream nitrogen loss in the Connecticut River during studies conducted in April and August 2005. A mass balance on nitrogen inputs and output for two study reaches (55 and 66 km), at spring high flow and at summer low flow, was computed on the basis of total nitrogen concentrations and measured river discharges in the Connecticut River and its tributaries. In a 10.3 km subreach of the northern 66 km reach, concentrations of dissolved N2 were also measured during summer low flow and compared to modeled N2 concentrations (based on temperature and atmospheric gas exchange rates) to determine the measured "excess" N2 that indicates denitrification. Mass balance results showed no in-stream nitrogen loss in either reach during April 2005, and no nitrogen loss in the southern 55 km study reach during August 2005. In the northern 66 km reach during August 2005, however, nitrogen output was 18% less than the total nitrogen inputs to the reach. N2 sampling results gave an estimated rate of N2 production that would remove 3.3% of the nitrogen load in the river over the 10.3 km northern sub-reach. The nitrogen losses measured in the northern reach in August 2005 may represent an approximate upper limit for nitrogen attenuation in the Connecticut River because denitrification processes are most active during warm summer temperatures and because the study was performed during the annual low-flow period when total nitrogen loads are small. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Quantifying N2 and N2O production in agricultural streams using open channel methods: a tool for finding missing watershed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. R.; Jordan, T. E.; Knee, K.; Fisher, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are altering biogeochemical cycles, impairing aquatic ecosystems, and contributing to climate change. Agricultural watersheds, such as those in our study area on the eastern shore of Maryland, play a significant role as one of the greatest sources of N to coastal waters and N2O to the atmosphere. Denitrification can permanently remove N from the landscape through conversion to N2 and N2O gases, and gaseous N loss from streams and rivers is thought to be an important loss term in watershed N budgets. However, denitrification and fluxes of biogenic gases in streams are poorly understood, especially at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we applied open channel methods to quantify in-situ N2 and N2O production at the reach scale. We accounted for both in-stream N2 production and watershed-derived N2 delivered to the stream via groundwater influx, and used two naturally present gases, 222Rn and Ar, as tracers for gas transfer velocity (k). We conducted eleven studies, each lasting six hours and repeated approximately quarterly in three different stream branches within a small watershed. Ultimately, these data will be part of a watershed nitrogen budget to assess the role of streams in the fate of Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI). Gas transfer velocity using 222Rn was 9-98% greater than k derived from Ar. However, k 222Rn agreed better with previous estimates; thus, the presented rates were estimated using k 222Rn. Biogenic N2 production rates ranged from 0.5 to 63.0 mmol N2-N m-2hr-1 with an average of 12.8. Biogenic N2O production ranged from 1.8 to 484.4 μmol N2O-N m-2hr-1 with an average of 98.0. N2O emissions to the atmosphere varied from 1.2 to 464.9 μmol N2O-N m-2 hr-1. Rates generally increased with temperature and spatial variation was fairly consistent across seasons. N2O will not contribute significantly to the watershed N budget (<2% of NANI); however, N2O was always supersaturated (344-3110%) and

  3. Steady-State Nitrogen Isotope Effects of N2 and N2O Production in Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Barford, Carol C.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Altabet, Mark A.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen stable-isotope compositions (δ15N) can help track denitrification and N2O production in the environment, as can knowledge of the isotopic discrimination, or isotope effect, inherent to denitrification. However, the isotope effects associated with denitrification as a function of dissolved-oxygen concentration and their influence on the isotopic composition of N2O are not known. We developed a simple steady-state reactor to allow the measurement of denitrification isotope effects in Paracoccus denitrificans. With [dO2] between 0 and 1.2 μM, the N stable-isotope effects of NO3− and N2O reduction were constant at 28.6‰ ± 1.9‰ and 12.9‰ ± 2.6‰, respectively (mean ± standard error, n = 5). This estimate of the isotope effect of N2O reduction is the first in an axenic denitrifying culture and places the δ15N of denitrification-produced N2O midway between those of the nitrogenous oxide substrates and the product N2 in steady-state systems. Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed. PMID:10049852

  4. N2O emissions and carbon sequestration in a nitrogen-fertilized Douglas fir stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Baozhang; Roy, Real; Nesic, Zoran; Spittlehouse, D. L.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated how nitrogen (N) fertilization with 200 kg N ha-1 of a 58-year-old West Coast Douglas fir stand influenced its net greenhouse gas (GHG) global warming potential (GWP) in the first year after fertilization. Effects of fertilization on GHG GWP were calculated considering changes in soil N2O emissions, measured using the static chamber technique and the soil N2O gradient technique; eddy covariance (EC) measured net ecosystem productivity (NEP); and energy requirements of fertilizer production, transport, and its aerial spreading. We found significant N2O losses in fertilized plots compared to a small uptake in nonfertilized plots. Chamber-measured N loss in the fertilized plots was about 16 kg N2O ha-1 in the first year, which is equivalent to 10 kg N ha-1 or 5% of the applied fertilizer N. Soil N2O emissions measured using the gradient technique, however, exceeded the chamber measurements by about 50%. We also compared a polymer-coated slow-release urea with regular urea and found that the former delayed N2O emissions but the year-end total loss was about the same as that from regular urea. Change in NEP due to fertilization was determined by relating annual NEP for the nonfertilized stand to environmental controls using an empirical and a process-based model. Annual NEP increased by 64%, from 326 g C m-2, calculated assuming that the stand was not fertilized, to the measured value of 535 g C m-2 with fertilization. At the end of the year, net change in GHG GWP was -2.28 t CO2 ha-1 compared to what it would have been without fertilization, thereby indicating favorable effect of fertilization even in the first year after fertilization with significant emissions of N2O.

  5. On the Provenance of Pluto's Nitrogen (N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; Stern, S. Alan

    2015-08-01

    N2 is abundant in Pluto’s atmosphere and on its surface, but the supply is depleted by prodigious atmospheric escape. We demonstrate that cometary impacts could not have delivered enough N mass to resupply Pluto’s N2 atmospheric escape over time; thus Pluto’s N2 is likely endogenous, and therefore was either acquired early in its history or created by chemistry inside/{on} Pluto. We find that cratering could excavate a considerable amount of N2 to resupply the atmosphere against escape if the near-surface N2 reservoir is deep. However, we find that this process likely falls short of that necessary to resupply the atmosphere against escape by at least an order of magnitude. We conclude that either the escape of N2 from Pluto’s atmosphere was on average much lower than the predictions for the current epoch, or that internal activity could be necessary to bring N2 to the surface and resupply escape losses. Observations made by the New Horizons spacecraft in mid-2015 will yield further constraints on the provenance and evolution of Pluto’s surface and atmospheric N2, and could reveal evidence for past or present internal activity.

  6. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Kroeger, K.D.; Tang, J.; Chao, W.C.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.; Green, A.; Shelton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m-2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged -33 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half the magnitude of typical

  7. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  8. N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Timothy A.; LaSarre, Breah; Posto, Amanda L.; McKinlay, James B.

    2015-01-01

    A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, can use N2 gas in lieu of traditional nitrogen supplements. Despite being an electron-intensive process, N2 fixation by Z. mobilis did not divert electrons away from ethanol production, as the ethanol yield was greater than 97% of the theoretical maximum. In a defined medium, Z. mobilis produced ethanol 50% faster per cell and generated half the unwanted biomass when supplied N2 instead of ammonium. In a cellulosic feedstock-derived medium, Z. mobilis achieved a similar cell density and a slightly higher ethanol yield when supplied N2 instead of the industrial nitrogen supplement, corn steep liquor. We estimate that N2-utilizing Z. mobilis could save a cellulosic ethanol production facility more than $1 million/y. PMID:25646422

  9. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. N2O and N2 emissions from contrasting soil environments - interactive effects of soil nitrogen, hydrology and microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper; Elberling, Bo; Ribbons, Relena; Hedo, Javier; José Fernández Alonso, Maria; Krych, Lukasz; Sandris Nielsen, Dennis; Kitzler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) in the environment has doubled relative to the natural global N cycle with consequences for biogeochemical cycling of soil N. Also, climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns and increase soil temperatures which in Arctic environments may accelerate permafrost thawing. The combination of changes in the soil N cycle and hydrological regimes may alter microbial transformations of soil N with unknown impacts on N2O and N2 emissions from temperate and Arctic soils. We present the first results of soil N2O and N2 emissions, chemistry and microbial communities over soil hydrological gradients (upslope, intermediate and wet) across a global N deposition gradient. The global gradient covered an N-limited high Arctic tundra (Zackenberg-ZA), a pacific temperate rain forest (Vancouver Island-VI) and an N saturated forest in Austria (Klausenleopoldsdorf-KL). The N2O and N2 emissions were measured from intact cores at field moisture in a He-atmosphere system. Extractable NH4+ and NO3-, organic and microbial C and N and potential enzyme-activities were determined on soil samples. Soil genomic DNA was subjected to MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing for the bacterial and fungal community structure. Similar soil moisture levels were observed for the upslope, intermediate and wet locations at ZA, VI and KL, respectively. Extractable NO3- was highest at the N rich KL and lowest at ZA and showed no trend with soil moisture similar to NH4+. At ZA and VI soil NH4+ was higher than NO3- indicating a tighter N cycling. N2O emissions increased with soil moisture at all sites. The N2O emissions for the wet locations ranked similarly to NO3- with the largest response to soil moisture at KL. N2 emissions were remarkably similar across the sites and increased with soil wetness. Microbial C and N also increased with soil moisture and were overall lowest at the N rich KL site. The potential activity of protease enzyme was site

  11. Nitrogen Gas Fluxes in Northeastern Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Lovett, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrogen gas fluxes are a poorly quantified component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of forest ecosystems and are important to water quality, atmospheric chemistry and forest health. We measured fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2) in oak and maple stands in the Catskill mountains of New York State. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using in situ chambers and N2 flux was measured in intact cores incubated in a helium-oxygen atmosphere closed recirculation system in the laboratory. Fluxes of NO and N2O were higher in maple than in oak stands, which is consistent with previous work showing higher rates of N cycling under maple than oak. NO fluxes averaged 1.7 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.2 in oak. N2O fluxes averaged 0.10 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.004 in oak. However, N2 fluxes were higher in oak (2.3 mg N m-2 d-1) than maple (0.15), a surprising result that was supported by independent measurements of denitrification potential. There was marked variability in fluxes between replicate plots that was linked to the presence of understory vegetation and physical characteristics of the forest floor. Results suggest that N gas fluxes in northeastern temperate forests may be more important than previously thought and may be an important regulator of export of N to coastal waters, N-related atmospheric chemistry and forest N saturation.

  12. Population inversion of molecular nitrogen in an Ar: N2 mixture by selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is shown to offer an attractive strategy for population inversion of molecular nitrogen in an Ar: N2 gas mixture. We present a detailed analysis of the key processes leading to a population inversion of molecular nitrogen in a REMPI-pumped Ar: N2 gas mixture, including a (3 + 1) REMPI of argon atoms, conversion of the REMPI-generated atomic argon ions into molecular ions, and generation of long-lived metastable excited-state argon atoms through dissociative recombination, populating the C3πu states of molecular nitrogen. Population inversion achieved for the second-positive-band laser transitions of molecular nitrogen enables stimulated emission of ultraviolet radiation at 337 nm. A high selectivity of the REMPI process helps to radically reduce the depletion of the working medium through the ionization of N2, providing a pump mechanism that is ideally suited for the creation of a new type of a highly efficient nitrogen laser.

  13. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  14. Dissolved N2/Ar Ratios in Sedimentary Pore Waters: A New Twist in Marine Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berelson, W.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Sigman, D. M.; Hammond, D.

    2008-12-01

    The nitrogen cycle is comprised predominantly of biologically mediated pathways, leading to a series of negative feedbacks that stabilize the cycle. Sedimentary denitrification, the major sink in the nitrogen budget, is regulated by the rate of organic carbon rain to the sea floor, as well as oxygen concentrations in overlying bottom waters. The sensitivity of sedimentary denitrification as a negative feedback can be expressed as a ratio between total denitrification (including nitrification sub-cycle) rates integrated over depth (fluxes) and fluxes of remineralized organic carbon out of the sediments, Ndenitr/Coxid_total. We have investigated benthic nitrogen cycling in three, semi-enclosed basins of the California Borderlands: Santa Monica, San Pedro and Santa Barbara located in the regime of seasonal coastal upwelling. Deep water in these basins is separated from the open ocean by sills of various depths, contributing to the low [O2], <1 to10 uM. In this study, we developed a method to sample pore waters for dissolved gas analysis. Ratios between O2, Ar and N2 were determined on extracted pore waters with 1) offline cryogenic extraction and subsequent analysis on Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS with 8 collectors; 2) Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometery (MIMS). Vertical profiles of pore water N2/Ar in the three basins indicate N2 production at depth horizons which exceed by a factor of 5 to 20 the depth of nitrate penetration supported solely by diffusive flux. At depths of maximum subsurface N2 production, we discovered large pools of intracellular nitrate. The relationship between δ15N and δ18O of nitrate are consistent with the activity of a membrane-bound nitrate reductase affecting the measured isotopic composition of the nitrate pool (Granger et al., 2008, in press). In addition, increases in δ15N of pore water NH4 at this depth suggests that at least some of the nitrate might be used for anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Our model estimates up to 25 % of the measured

  15. Characterization of the temporal dynamics of soil CO2 and N gas production (NO, N2O, N2) under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Zheng, Xunhua

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of environmental drivers of soil N gas losses remains largely uncertain, since our ability to measure and follow temporal dynamics of N2 production via denitrification as well simultaneous gaseous losses of NO, N2O and CO2 is still limited. To overcome this problem we further developed the gas flow soil core technique (e.g Butterbach-Bahl et al., 2002; Dannenmann et al., 2008) in such a way that simultaneous measurements of gaseous losses of CO2, NO, N2O and N2 can be done. Since measurements of N2 production with this technique requires the establishment of an N2 free atmosphere, i.e. exchange of the soil atmosphere with a N2-free gas mixture, we also investigated different pre-incubation conditions (temperature, O2 content) to minimize the effect of the atmosphere exchange process on the target parameters N gas production and fluxes. Finally we tested our experimental setup and determined the dynamic of CO2 and N gas production for varying environmental conditions (temperature, nitrate content, C availability) and for agricultural soils with different properties (SOC, texture, pH). For this we followed N and C gas fluxes over a period of up to three weeks and supplemented these measurements with observation of changes in soil microbial biomass and concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen. This allowed us to establish full nitrogen balances and to trace the sources for N gas production, i.e. changes in inorganic and organic N pools. Our experiments e.g. show that following a switch from aerobic to anaerobic soil incubation conditions, N2O as well as NO production can outweigh N2 production in the first few hours, whereas CO2 production remains largely unaffected. After approx. 1-2 day N2 production peaked, whereas production of N2O and NO as well as CO2 was already starting to decline. Depending on incubation conditions and investigated soils, N2O and NO production ceased after 5-10 days, whereas N2 production continued

  16. N2O and NO emissions during autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular sludge reactor--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, S W H; Callens, J; Mampaey, K E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Volcke, E I P

    2012-01-01

    This contribution deals with NO and N2O emissions during autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular sludge reactor. Two possible model scenarios describing this emission by ammonium- oxidizing biomass have been compared in a simulation study of a granular sludge reactor for one-stage partial nitritation--Anammox. No significant difference between these two scenarios was noticed. The influence of the bulk oxygen concentration, granule size, reactor temperature and ammonium load on the NO and N2O emissions has been assessed. The simulation results indicate that emission maxima of NO and N2O coincide with the region for optimal Anammox conversion. Also, most of the NO and N2O are present in the off-gas, owing to the limited solubility of both gases. The size of granules needs to be large enough not to limit optimal Anammox activity, but not too large as this implies an elevated production of N2O. Temperature has a significant influence on N2O emission, as a higher temperature results in a better N-removal efficiency and a lowered N2O production. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there is a strong correlation between nitrite accumulation and N2O production. Further, three regions of operation can be distinguished: a region with high N2O, NO and nitrite concentration; a region with high N2 concentrations and, as such, high removal percentages; and a region with high oxygen and nitrate concentrations. There is some overlap between the first two regions, which is in line with the fact that maximum emission of NO and N2O coincides with the region for optimal Anammox conversion. PMID:23393969

  17. A Termolecular Reaction Mechanism for Nitrogen Incorporation in Aerosol Produced by Far UV Irradiation of CH4-N2 Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, R. K.; Trainer, M. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yung, Y. L.; Toon, O. B.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Results from the Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser located onboard the Huygens lander reveal the presence of carbon and nitrogen in Titan's aerosols. Nitrogen incorporation is thought to be initiated by energy sources strong enough to break the N-N triple bond of molecular nitrogen (9.8eV). Such energy sources include extreme UV photons (λ <120 nm) and electrons from Saturn's magnetosphere. Less energetic photons in the far UV (120-200 nm) penetrate to the stratosphere of Titan and are only expected to affect hydrocarbon photochemistry there. However, recent results from our laboratory indicate a surprising amount of nitrogen incorporation- up to 16% by mass- in Titan aerosol analog produced by photochemistry initiated by far UV irradiation of CH4/N2 mixtures. The termolecular reaction CH + N2 + M --> HCN2 has been proposed to account for this observation. Here, we test this hypothesis by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the mass loading and chemical composition of aerosol produced at a range of pressures from roughly 0.1 to 1 atm. Even though these gas mixtures spanned an order of magnitude in pressure, they experienced the same residence time in the photochemical chamber and had the same methane optical depth. We report a 150% increase in aerosol mass loading across the range of pressures studied, indicating that the mechanism controlling the total mass produced depends on pressure. We also report an overall increase with pressure in the ratio of nitrogen-bearing organic species to hydrocarbon-only species. These observations support the hypothesis that the termolecular reaction above is responsible for the incorporation of nitrogen into Titan aerosol analog produced from CH4/N2 gas mixtures irradiated in the far UV. These findings have implications for our understanding of the evolution of Titan's atmosphere, and the atmospheric synthesis of biologically relevant N-containing molecules.

  18. A new method combining soil oxygen concentration measurements with the quantification of gross nitrogen turnover rates and associated formation of N2O and N2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlein, Adrian; Dannenmann, Michael; Sörgel, Christoph; Meier, Rudi; Meyer, Astrid; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and the expansion of land use have led to significant changes in terrestrial ecosystems. These include changes in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and therewith implications for biodiversity, water cycle and pedosphere-atmosphere exchange. To understand these impacts detailed research on nitrogen turnover and fluxes are conducted at various (semi-) natural and managed ecosystems in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. In this context, we execute 15N tracing analyses on soil samples in our stable isotope laboratory including a new experimental setup. The soils were sampled from different forest ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro varying in altitude (1600 - 4500 m) and will be analyzed for gross rates of ammonification and nitrification, gross rates of microbial inorganic N uptake as well as for the gaseous losses of ^15N2 and ^15N2O using ^15NH4+ and ^15NO3- tracing and pool dilution approaches. Since nitrogen turnover of nitrification and denitrification is dependent on soil oxygen concentrations we developed an incubation method which allows to adjust soil samples to different oxygen concentrations. For this purpose, soil is incubated in glass bottles with side tubes to ensure a constant gas flow over the whole incubation time. To adjust the oxygen levels in the laboratory experiment as close as possible to the natural conditions, we started to monitor soil oxygen concentrations with a FirestingO2 Sensor (Pyroscience) connected to a timer and a datalogger (MSR 145 IP 60 E3333) at a Mt. Kilimanjaro rainforest site. The equipment is complemented with soil temperature, moisture and pressure sensors (MSR 145 IP 60). A solar panel connected to an energy source guarantees a working time for over 2 years by a measuring frequency of 20 seconds each 30 minutes. The new laboratory incubation method together with in-situ oxygen concentration measurements in soils will facilitate laboratory incubations with realistic oxygen concentrations and thus will allow for a better

  19. Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, Iurii; Millar, Neville; Robertson, G Philip

    2014-06-24

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that also depletes stratospheric ozone. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate is the best single predictor of N2O emissions from agricultural soils, which are responsible for ∼ 50% of the total global anthropogenic flux, but it is a relatively imprecise estimator. Accumulating evidence suggests that the emission response to increasing N input is exponential rather than linear, as assumed by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodologies. We performed a metaanalysis to test the generalizability of this pattern. From 78 published studies (233 site-years) with at least three N-input levels, we calculated N2O emission factors (EFs) for each nonzero input level as a percentage of N input converted to N2O emissions. We found that the N2O response to N inputs grew significantly faster than linear for synthetic fertilizers and for most crop types. N-fixing crops had a higher rate of change in EF (ΔEF) than others. A higher ΔEF was also evident in soils with carbon >1.5% and soils with pH <7, and where fertilizer was applied only once annually. Our results suggest a general trend of exponentially increasing N2O emissions as N inputs increase to exceed crop needs. Use of this knowledge in GHG inventories should improve assessments of fertilizer-derived N2O emissions, help address disparities in the global N2O budget, and refine the accuracy of N2O mitigation protocols. In low-input systems typical of sub-Saharan Africa, for example, modest N additions will have little impact on estimated N2O emissions, whereas equivalent additions (or reductions) in excessively fertilized systems will have a disproportionately major impact. PMID:24927583

  20. Gas amplification factor in neon-nitrogen filled proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.

    1988-07-01

    The gas amplification factor in a cylindrical proportional counter filled with NeN 2 Penning mixtures has been measured (over the range 1 < A < 6.4 × 10 3) to verify the validity of the gas gain formulae of Rose and Korff, Khristov, Williams and Sara, Diethorn and Zastawny. This factor has been found to obey Zastawny's formula over the range of variables studied. The formula of Diethorn can be fitted only for small nitrogen concentrations (below 5 × 10 -4). Constants appropriate to the Zastawny and Diethorn formulae have been determined over a wide range of N 2 concentrations from spectroscopically pure Ne up to 11.1% N 2.

  1. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming. PMID:27324813

  2. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  3. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4(+)-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest's carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming. PMID:27324813

  4. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (< 10% of ambient concentration) of 15NH4+ + 14NO3- or 15NO3- + 14NH4+. An additional parallel incubation with 15NH4+ + 14NO3- and 1 mM of allylthiourea (ATU) was included to measure rates of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Well-homogenized slurries filled about 10% of the volume in the gas-tight incubation vials, and the rest of the volume was replaced with an O2/He (20%/80%) mixture. The production of 29N2, 44N2O and 45N2O were determined using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The rate of total N2O production in fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  5. [Nitrogen removal and N2O emission characteristics during the shortcut simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-ling; Li, Ping; Wu, Jin-hua; Wang, Xiang-de

    2013-05-01

    Complete simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was achieved in an air lift circulation bioreactor. Based on this condition, the system could be switched to shortcut SND as the free ammonia (FA) concentration was increased with higher influent pH. The nitrogen removal and N2O emission characteristics of the shortcut SND process were investigated and those of the complete SND process were also observed as control. In the shortcut SND process, the average total nitrogen removal and average SND efficiency reached 71.9% and 80.9%, which was 18.0 and 16.8 percents higher than those in the complete SND process, respectively. In addition, the total nitrogen removal rate in the shortcut SND process was 0.11 mg x (L x min)(-1), 1.4 times as high as that in the complete SND process. Although higher nitrogen removal efficiency was obtained in the shortcut SND process, the mean N2O conversion rate reached 57.1% and the average N2O accumulated emission amount was approximately 4 times higher than that in the complete SND process. The results also indicated that the increase of NO2- -N concentration in the reactor should be responsible for the remarkable enhancement of N2O emission. PMID:23914537

  6. Novel labeling technique illustrates transfer of 15N2 from Sphagnum moss to vascular plants via diazotrophic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.

    2013-12-01

    We used 15N2 gas to trace nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation to vascular plant uptake in an Alberta bog in order to determine if neighboring bog plants acquire recently fixed N from diazotrophs associating with Sphagnum mosses. Recent evidence indicates high rates of N2-fixation in Sphagnum mosses of Alberta bogs (Vile et al. 2013). Our previous work has shown that mosses can assimilate fixed N from associated diazotrophs as evidenced by the high N content of mosses despite minimal inputs from atmospheric deposition, retranslocation, and N mineralization. Therefore, the potential exists for vascular plants to obtain N from ';leaky' tissues of live mosses, however, this phenomenon has not been tested previously. Here we document the potential for relatively rapid transfer to vascular plants of N fixed by Sphagnum moss-associated diazotrophs. We utilized the novel approach of incubating mosses in 15N2 to allow the process of diazotrophic N2-fixation to mechanistically provide the 15N label, which is subsequently transferred to Sphagnum mosses. The potential for vascular bog natives to tap this N was assessed by planting the vascular plants in the labeled moss. Sphagnum mosses (upper 3 cm of live plants) were incubated in the presence of 98 atom % 15N2 gas for 48 hours. Two vascular plants common to Alberta bogs; Picea mariana and Vaccinium oxycoccus were then placed in the labeled mosses, where the mosses served as the substrate. Tissue samples from these plants were collected at three time points during the incubation; prior to 15N2 exposure (to determine natural abundance 15N), and at one and two months after 15N2 exposure. Roots and leaves were separated and run separately on a mass spectrometer to determine 15N concentrations. Sphagnum moss capitula obtained N from N2-fixation (δ15N of -2.43 × 0.40, 122.76 × 23.78, 224.92 × 68.37, 143.74 × 54.38 prior to, immediately after, and at 1 and 2 months after exposure to 15N2, respectively). Nitrogen was

  7. Soil N2O fluxes along an elevation gradient of tropical montane forests under experimental nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anke; Matson, Amanda; Corre, Marife; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient deposition to tropical forests is increasing, which could affect soil fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas. We assessed the effects of 35-56 months of moderate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions on soil N2O fluxes and net soil N-cycling rates, and quantified the relative contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O fluxes. In 2008, a nutrient manipulation experiment was established along an elevation gradient (1000, 2000 and 3000 m) of montane forests in southern Ecuador. Treatments included control, N, P and N+P addition (with additions of 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 yr-1). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using static, vented chambers and N cycling was determined using the buried bag method. Measurements showed that denitrification was the main N2O source at all elevations, but that annual N2O emissions from control plots were low, and decreased along the elevation gradient (0.57 ± 0.26 to 0.05 ± 0.04 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). We attributed the low fluxes to our sites’ conservative soil N cycling as well as gaseous N losses possibly being dominated by N2. Contrary to the first 21 months of the experiment, N addition did not affect N2O fluxes during the 35-56 month period, possibly due to low soil moisture contents during this time. With P addition, N2O fluxes and mineral N concentrations decreased during Months 35-56, presumably because plant P limitations were alleviated, increasing plant N uptake. Nitrogen plus phosphorus addition showed similar trends to N addition, but less pronounced given the counteracting effects of P addition. The combined results from this study (Months 1-21 and 35-56) showed that effects of N and P addition on soil N2O fluxes were not linear with time of exposure, highlighting the importance of long-term studies.

  8. DMPP-added nitrogen fertilizer affects soil N2O emission and microbial activity in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Luca; De Marco, Anna; Maglione, Giuseppe; Polimeno, Franca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Arable sites contributes to global N2O emission due to massive utilization of nitrogen fertilizers. N2O derives from the biological processes such as nitrification and denitrification influenced by soil nitrogen availability. The use of nitrogen fertilizers added with nitrification inhibitors represents one among the proposed strategy to reduce soil N2O emission form arable sites. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 3,4-dimethylphyrazole phosphate (DMPP), a nitrification inhibitor, on N2O emission and microbial activity of a soil cropped to potato in Southern Italy. The experiment was a randomized block design with two treatments applied and three replicates: control (C) and DMPP (Entec®, K+S Nitrogen) plots, both supplied with the same amount of ammonium nitrate. The nitrogen fertilizer was supplied in three events: at 0 Day After Sowing (DAS; 100 kg N ha-1), at 57 DAS (30 kg N ha-1), and at 71 DAS (30 kg N ha-1). Soil N2O emission was monitored by both dynamic and static chambers. Static chambers were located both on hills and furrows whereas dynamic chambers were located on furrows. Air samples were collected from chambers at different times and analysed by a gas chromatograph (SRI 8610C, Gas Chromatograph). Fluxes were estimated as a linear interpolation of N2O changes over a 30 min time. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were determined as CO2 evolution, analysed by means of an IRGA (Li6200, Licor), on 2 g of fresh soil over a 4h incubation time. Microbial biomass was determined by Substrate Induced Respiration method. Data show no statistical differences in N2O fluxes measured with either dynamic chambers between C and DMPP plots in studied period. However, after the first fertilization event, when the fertilizer was applied as 100 kg N ha-1, the average N2O fluxes measured with static chambers were higher in DMPP plots compared to C plots. In the same period, the microbial biomass significantly decreased in DMPP plots as compared to C

  9. Titan's interior ocean: a thermo-chemical assessment suggests N2 gas driven cryovolcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. M.; Bastea, S.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.

    2010-04-01

    We use a chemical equilibrium approach to model the composition of a subsurface ocean on Titan. The chemical equilibrium model includes an exponential exp-6 equation of state for fluids and a Murnaghan form for solids, the parameters for which are fitted to experimental shock Hugoniot data, isotropic compression and sound speed data from pressures of a few hundred kPa to that of a few hundred GPa. We also allow for solid phases of CO, CO2, NH3, N2 and CH4. In addition, the models allows for a variety of mixtures. We follow the equilibrium condensation of these elements from high to low temperature. For the pressures associated with Titan's interior (~1 GPa) we find that a pure ammonia-water ocean maybe stable. However we find that carbon present in the ocean destabilizes the ammonia to form N2. For an ocean with a C/N ratio equal to solar composition virtually all the nitrogen is in the form of N2. We suggest that the exsolution of N2 could power gas-driven cryovolcanism on Titan and possibly Triton. This would be consistent with the evidence for an ocean and for cryovolcanism, and with the absence of ammonia. Our results also provide an alternative explanation for the source of atmospheric N2. We also study the effects of tholins being introduced into the surface layers of Titan. Organic material (tholin) under pressure in the interior of Titan forms graphite, CH4 and N2 or if graphite is kinetically suppressed it forms benzene and N2. This could be an explanation for the benzene detected in the surface materials at the Huygens Probe landing site. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Modeling electron competition among nitrogen oxides reduction and N2O accumulation in denitrification.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Competition for electrons among different steps of denitrification has previously been shown to occur, and to play an important role in the accumulation and emission of N2O in wastewater treatment. However, this electron competition is not recognized in the current denitrification models, limiting their ability to predict N2O accumulation during denitrification. In this work, a new denitrification model is developed for wastewater treatment processes. It describes electron competition among the four steps of denitrification, through modeling the carbon oxidation and nitrogen reduction processes separately, in contrast to the existing models that directly couple these two types of processes. Electron carriers are introduced to link carbon oxidation, which donates electrons to carriers, and nitrogen oxides reduction, which receives electrons from these carriers. The relative ability of each denitrification step to compete for electrons is modeled through the use of different affinity constants with reduced carriers. Model calibration and validation results demonstrate that the developed model is able to reasonably describe the nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates of a methanol-utilizing denitrifying culture under various carbon and nitrogen oxides supplying conditions. The model proposed, while subject to further validation, is expected to enhance our ability to predict N2O accumulation in denitrification. PMID:24001217

  11. Automated online measurement of N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4 emissions based on a gas-flow-soil-core technique.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tingting; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xunhua; Sun, Yang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Chen, Nuo

    2013-11-01

    The gas-flow-soil-core (GFSC) technique allows to directly measure emission rates of denitrification gases of incubated soil cores. However, the technique was still suffering some drawbacks such as inadequate accuracy due to asynchronous detection of dinitrogen (N2) and other gases and low measurement frequency. Furthermore, its application was limited due to intensive manual operation. To overcome these drawbacks, we updated the GFSC system as described by Wang et al. (2011) by (a) using both a chemiluminescent detector and a gas chromatograph detector to measure nitric oxide (NO), (b) synchronizing the measurements of N2, NO, nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and (c) fully automating the sampling/analysis of all the gases. These technical modifications significantly reduced labor demands by at least a factor of two, increased the measurement frequency from 3 to 6 times per day and resulted in remarkable improvements in measurement accuracy (with detection limits of 0.5, 0.01, 0.05, 2.3 and 0.2μgN or Ch(-1)kg(-1)ds, or 17, 0.3, 1.8, 82, and 6μgN or Cm(-2)h(-1), for N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4, respectively). In some circumstances, the modified system measured significantly more N2 and CO2 and less N2O and NO because of the enhanced measurement frequency. The modified system distinguished the differences in emissions of the denitrification gases and CO2 due to a 20% change in initial carbon supplies. It also remarkably recovered approximately 90% of consumed nitrate during incubation. These performances validate the technical improvement, and indicate that the improved GFSC system may provide a powerful research tool for obtaining deeper insights into the processes of soil carbon and nitrogen transformation during denitrification. PMID:24184044

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of N2-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. 15N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N2 fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N2 were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO3−-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO3−-enriched (>1.5 μM), O2-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes. PMID:25575306

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-06-01

    Colonies of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. (15)N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N(2) fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N(2) were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO(3)(-)-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO(3)(-)-enriched (>1.5 μM), O(2)-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes. PMID:25575306

  14. Dehydrogenation of N2HX (X=2-4) by nitrogen atoms: thermochemical and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Spada, Rene Felipe Keidel; Ferrão, Luiz Fernando de Araujo; Roberto-Neto, Orlando; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto

    2013-11-21

    Thermochemical and kinetics of sequential hydrogen abstraction reactions from hydrazine by nitrogen atoms were studied. The dehydrogenation was divided in three steps, N2H4 + N, N2H3 + N, and N2H2 + N. The thermal rate constants were calculated within the framework of canonical variational theory, with zero and small curvature multidimensional tunnelling corrections. The reaction paths were computed with the BB1K/aug-cc-pVTZ method and the thermochemical properties were improved with the CCSD(T)/CBS//BB1K/aug-cc-pVTZ approach. The first dehydrogenation step presents the lowest rate constants, equal to 1.22 × 10(-20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. PMID:24320320

  15. Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O. PMID:12661029

  16. Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Tropical Savanna Soils of Northern Australia: Dynamics, Controls and Magnitude of N2O, NO, and N2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Hickler, T.; Hutley, L. B.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical savanna covers a large fraction of the global land area and thus may have a substantial effect on the global soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen. The pronounced seasonality of hygric conditions in this ecosystem affects strongly microbial process rates in the soil. As these microbial processes control the uptake, production, and release of nitrogen compounds, it is thought that this seasonality finally leads to strong temporal dynamics and varying magnitudes of gaseous losses to the atmosphere. However, given their areal extent and in contrast to other ecosystems, still few in-situ or laboratory studies exist that assess the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen. We present laboratory incubation results from intact soil cores obtained from a natural savanna site in Northern Australia, where N2O, NO, and N2 emissions under controlled environmental conditions were investigated. Furthermore, in-situ measurements of high temporal resolution at this site recorded with automated static and dynamic chamber systems are discussed (N2O, NO). This data is then used to assess the performance of a process-based biogeochemical model (LandscapeDNDC), and the potential magnitude and dynamics of components of the site-scale nitrogen cycle where no measurements exist (biological nitrogen fixation and nitrate leaching). Our incubation results show that severe nutrient limitation of the soil only allows for very low N2O emissions (0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and even a periodic N2O uptake. Annual NO emissions were estimated at 0.68 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while the release of inert nitrogen (N2) was estimated at 6.75 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (data excl. contribution by pulse emissions). We observed only minor N2O pulse emissions after watering the soil cores and initial rain events of the dry to wet season transition in-situ, but short-lived NO pulse emissions were substantial. Interestingly, some cores exhibited a very different N2O emission potential, indicating a substantial spatial variability of

  17. Theoretical investigation of rare gas hydride cations: HRgN2+ (Rg=He, Ar, Kr, and Xe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Ghanty, T. K.

    2012-04-01

    Rare gas containing protonated nitrogen cations, HRgN2+ (Rg=He, Ar, Kr, and Xe), have been predicted using quantum computational methods. HRgN2+ ions exhibit linear structure (C∞v symmetry) at the minima and show planar structure (Cs symmetry) at the transition state. The stability is determined by computing the energy differences between the predicted ions and its various unimolecular dissociation products. Analysis of energy diagram indicates that HXeN2+ is thermodynamically stable with respect to dissociated products while HHeN2+, HArN2+, and HKrN2+ ions are metastable with small barrier heights. Moreover, the computed intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis also confirms that the minima and the 2-body global dissociation products are connected through transition states for the metastable ions. The coupled-cluster theory computed dissociation energies corresponding to the 2-body dissociation (HN2+ + Rg) is -288.4, -98.3, -21.5, and 41.4 kJ mol-1 for HHeN2+, HArN2+, HKrN2+, and HXeN2+ ions, respectively. The dissociation energies are positive for all the other channels implying that the predicted ions are stable with respect to other 2- and 3-body dissociation channels. Atoms-in-molecules analysis indicates that predicted ions may be best described as HRg+N2. It should be noted that the energetic of HXeN2+ ion is comparable to that of the experimentally observed stable mixed cations, viz. (RgHRg')+. Therefore, it may be possible to prepare and characterize HXeN2+ ions in an electron bombardment matrix isolation technique.

  18. [Nutrients conservation of N & P and greenhouse gas reduction of N2O emission during swine manure composting].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Xi; Wei, Yuan-Song; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Xiao-Lan; Han, Sheng-Hui; Fang, Yun

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas (N2O) emission occur during animal manure composting, as well as phosphorus loss caused by runoff during land application of animal manure compost. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to simultaneously conserve nutrients of nitrogen & phosphorus and reduce N2O emission during animal manure composting using modified salts which are made from industrial solid waste. Experiments of in-vessel swine manure composting at lab-scale were carried out to investigate and compare effects of modified red-mud (MR) and modified forsterite (MF) as additives on nutrients conservation and greenhouse gas (N2O) reduction. As far as the nitrogen loss calculated on the basis of ammonia and nitrous oxide is concerned, the least nitrogen loss at only 6.38% of TKN occurred in the swine manure composting with MF addition at pH 7.0 +/- 0.2, compared with those of MR addition at pH 5.0 +/- 0.2 at 11.07% of TKN and the control at 14.68% of TKN, respectively. The best results of ammonia and nitrous oxide mitigation during swine manure composting were the treatments with MR addition and MF addition, which nitrogen losses were at 2.13% of TKN as NH3 and 0.65% of TKN, respectively. These results clearly showed that the modified salt additives from red-mud and forsterite were useful for saving nitrogen and reducing N2O emission. Moreover, the contents of soluble orthophosphate in swine manure compost with the addition of both modified salts were less than that of the control, which is helpful to reduce P loss during land application of swine manure compost. PMID:21922829

  19. NOx and N2O precursors from biomass pyrolysis: nitrogen transformation from amino acid.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui

    2012-04-01

    Large quantities of NO(x) and N(2)O emissions can be produced from biomass burning. Understanding nitrogen behavior during biomass pyrolysis is crucial. Nitrogen in biomass is mainly in forms of proteins (amino acids). Phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid were used as the model compounds for the nitrogen in biomass. Release behavior tests of nitrogen species from the three amino acids during pyrolysis in argon and gasification with O(2) and CO(2) were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results indicate that although the influence of oxygen and CO(2) in the atmosphere on nitrogen behavior is different for the amino acids, it is interesting to find some phenomenon in common. The presence of oxygen promotes NO and HNCO formation for all the three amino acids; HCN and HNCO formation are suppressed by introduced CO(2) for all the three amino acids. This can reveal the N-conversion mechanism from biomass in depth under the same conditions. PMID:22439902

  20. N2O emission from nitrogen removal via nitrite in oxic-anoxic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Yang, Jiaoling; Gao, Dawen

    2014-03-01

    Bionitrification is considered to be a potential source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which are produced as a by-product during the nitrogen removal process. To investigate the production of N2O during the process of nitrogen removal via nitrite, a granular sludge was studied using a lab-scale sequence batch reactor operated with real-time control. The total production of N2O generated during the nitrification and denitrification processes were 1.724 mg/L and 0.125 mg/L, respectively, demonstrating that N2O is produced during both processes, with the nitrification phase generating larger amount. In addition, due to the N2O-N mass/oxidized ammonia mass ratio, it can be concluded that nitrite accumulation has a positive influence on N2O emissions. Results obtained from PCR-DGGE analysis demonstrate that a specific Nitrosomonas microorganism is related to N2O emission. PMID:25079265

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of N2-Fixing and Non-N2-Fixing Paenibacillus spp.: Organization, Evolution and Expression of the Nitrogen Fixation Genes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian-Bo; Du, Zhenglin; Bai, Lanqing; Tian, Changfu; Zhang, Yunzhi; Xie, Jiu-Yan; Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng; Li, Jilun

    2014-01-01

    We provide here a comparative genome analysis of 31 strains within the genus Paenibacillus including 11 new genomic sequences of N2-fixing strains. The heterogeneity of the 31 genomes (15 N2-fixing and 16 non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains) was reflected in the large size of the shell genome, which makes up approximately 65.2% of the genes in pan genome. Large numbers of transposable elements might be related to the heterogeneity. We discovered that a minimal and compact nif cluster comprising nine genes nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV encoding Mo-nitrogenase is conserved in the 15 N2-fixing strains. The nif cluster is under control of a σ70-depedent promoter and possesses a GlnR/TnrA-binding site in the promoter. Suf system encoding [Fe–S] cluster is highly conserved in N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing strains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nif cluster enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Phylogeny of the concatenated NifHDK sequences indicates that Paenibacillus and Frankia are sister groups. Phylogeny of the concatenated 275 single-copy core genes suggests that the ancestral Paenibacillus did not fix nitrogen. The N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains were generated by acquiring the nif cluster via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a source related to Frankia. During the history of evolution, the nif cluster was lost, producing some non-N2-fixing strains, and vnf encoding V-nitrogenase or anf encoding Fe-nitrogenase was acquired, causing further diversification of some strains. In addition, some N2-fixing strains have additional nif and nif-like genes which may result from gene duplications. The evolution of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus involves a mix of gain, loss, HGT and duplication of nif/anf/vnf genes. This study not only reveals the organization and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in Paenibacillus, but also provides insight into the complex evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation. PMID:24651173

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus spp.: organization, evolution and expression of the nitrogen fixation genes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Bo; Du, Zhenglin; Bai, Lanqing; Tian, Changfu; Zhang, Yunzhi; Xie, Jiu-Yan; Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng; Li, Jilun

    2014-03-01

    We provide here a comparative genome analysis of 31 strains within the genus Paenibacillus including 11 new genomic sequences of N2-fixing strains. The heterogeneity of the 31 genomes (15 N2-fixing and 16 non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains) was reflected in the large size of the shell genome, which makes up approximately 65.2% of the genes in pan genome. Large numbers of transposable elements might be related to the heterogeneity. We discovered that a minimal and compact nif cluster comprising nine genes nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV encoding Mo-nitrogenase is conserved in the 15 N2-fixing strains. The nif cluster is under control of a σ(70)-depedent promoter and possesses a GlnR/TnrA-binding site in the promoter. Suf system encoding [Fe-S] cluster is highly conserved in N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing strains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nif cluster enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Phylogeny of the concatenated NifHDK sequences indicates that Paenibacillus and Frankia are sister groups. Phylogeny of the concatenated 275 single-copy core genes suggests that the ancestral Paenibacillus did not fix nitrogen. The N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains were generated by acquiring the nif cluster via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a source related to Frankia. During the history of evolution, the nif cluster was lost, producing some non-N2-fixing strains, and vnf encoding V-nitrogenase or anf encoding Fe-nitrogenase was acquired, causing further diversification of some strains. In addition, some N2-fixing strains have additional nif and nif-like genes which may result from gene duplications. The evolution of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus involves a mix of gain, loss, HGT and duplication of nif/anf/vnf genes. This study not only reveals the organization and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in Paenibacillus, but also provides insight into the complex evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation. PMID:24651173

  3. Novel microelectrode-based online system for monitoring N2O gas emissions during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2014-11-01

    Clark-type nitrous oxide (N2O) microelectrodes are commonly used for measuring dissolved N2O levels, but have not previously been tested for gas-phase applications, where the N2O emitted from wastewater systems can be directly quantified. In this study, N2O microelectrodes were tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to their temperature, gas flow, composition dependence, gas pressure, and humidity. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was found, whereas gas flow, composition, pressure, and humidity did not have any influence on the signal. Two of the sensors were tested at different N2O concentration ranges (0-422.3, 0-50, 0-10, and 0-2 ppmv N2O) and exhibited a linear response over each range. The N2O emission dynamics from two laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors performing ammonia or nitrite oxidation were also monitored using one of the microsensors and results were compared with two other analytical methods. Results show that N2O emissions were accurately described with these microelectrodes and support their application for assessing gaseous N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems. Advantages of the sensors as compared to conventional measurement techniques include a wider quantification range of N2O fluxes, and a single measurement system that can assess both liquid and gas-phase N2O dynamics. PMID:25317738

  4. Soil nitrogen gas emissions increase considerably in warmer forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzler, Barbara; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will likely modify ecosystem properties and processes and therefore impact nitrogen (N) dynamics of forest soils. To elucidate the effect of warming and drought conditions on the nitrogen gas emissions we measured N2O and NO fluxes from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The uppermost layer of the soil was warmed (4°C) by heating cables during the snow-free seasons. Roofs were installed during 25 days in July/August 2008 and 2009 to simulate drought conditions. Gas sampling was conducted biweekly with static chambers (N2O). Gas concentrations were detected by GC. Nitric oxide fluxes were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis. In our study the emissions of N2O were increased by up to 73 % at warmed plots, and we observed a temporary increase following first rain. However N2O emissions of the drought affected plots remained depressed for more than two months after roof removal. Nitric oxide fluxes were increased considerably during dry periods and under warmer conditions.

  5. Study of DC Circuit Breaker of H2-N2 Mixture Gas for High Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yuji; Morishita, Yukinaga; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    Global warming caused by CO2 etc. is a field where the concern is very high. Especially, automobile emissions are problem for it. Therefore, the hybrid car is widely development and used recently. Hybrid car used electric power and gasoline. So, the car reduces CO2. Hybrid car has engine and motor. To rotate the motor, hybrid car has battery. This battery is large capacity. Therefore, the relay should interrupt high DC current for the switch of the motor and the engine. So, hybrid car used hydrogen gas filling relay We studied interruption test for the research of a basic characteristic of hydrogen gas. DC current has not current zero point. So, it is necessary to make the current zero by high arc voltage and forcible current zero point. The loss coefficient and arc voltage of hydrogen is high. Therefore, we studied interruption test for used high arc voltage. We studied interruption test and dielectric breakdown test of air, pure Hydrogen, and Hydrogen- nitrogen mixture gas. As a result, we realized H2-N2(80%-20%) is the best gas.

  6. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil N2O emissions and soil respiration in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Qi, Y.; Peng, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen addition to soil can play a vital role in influencing nitrogen balance and the losses of soil carbon by respiration in N-deficient terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization (HN:200 kg N ha-1y-1, MN:100 kg N ha-1y-1 and LN:50 kg N ha-1y-1) on soil N2O emissions and soil respiration compared with non-fertilization(CK, 0 kg N ha-1y-1), from July 2007 to September 2008, in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Several N fertilizer forms were included(CAN:calcium ammonium nitrate, AS:ammonium sulphate and NS:sodium nitrate) and a static closed chamber method was used as gas fluxes measurement. Our data showed that peak N2O fluxes induced by N treatments were concentrated in short periods (2 to 3 weeks) after fertilization in summer and in soil thawing periods in early spring; there were similarly low N2O fluxes from all treatments in the remaining seasons of the year. The three N levels increased annual N2O emissions significantly(P<0.05) in the order of MN>HN>LN compared with the CK(control) treatment in year 1; in year 2, the elevation of annual N2O emissions was significant (P<0.05) by HN and MN treatments but was insignificant by LN treatments (P>0.05). The three N forms also had strong effects on N2O emissions. Significantly (P<0.05) higher annual N2O emissions were observed in the soils of CAN and AS fertilizer treatments than in the soils of NS fertilizer treatments in both measured years, but the difference between CAN and AS was not significant (P>0.05). Annual N2O emission factors (EF) ranged from 0.060 to 0.298% for different N fertilizer treatments in the two observed years, with an overall EF value of 0.125%. The EF values were by far less than the mean default EF proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC). Our results also showed that N fertilization did not change the seasonal patterns of soil respiration, which were mainly controlled by soil

  7. Potential use of the N2/Ar ratio as a constraint on the oceanic fixed nitrogen loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemitsu, M.; Gruber, N.; Oka, A.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Using a global ocean biogeochemical model, we investigate the suitability of the N2/Ar supersaturation ratio (ΔN2/Ar) as a tracer of marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification, i.e., the main biological processes that add or remove fixed nitrogen to or from the ocean. In a series of factorial simulations, we demonstrate that, in regions away from the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), the ΔN2/Ar characteristics are mostly determined by benthic denitrification occurring in the deep ocean with minor contributions from benthic and water column denitrification at shallower depths. In the OMZs, the subsurface maxima of ΔN2/Ar are mainly determined by water column denitrification. In contrast, nitrogen fixation has little impact on ΔN2/Ar owing to the rapid loss of the N2 supersaturation signal through air-sea exchange. We thus conclude that ΔN2/Ar can act as a powerful constraint on water column and benthic denitrification occurring in intermediate to deep waters, but it cannot be used to estimate nitrogen fixation. A comparison between the currently very limited observations of the ΔN2/Ar with our model results shows an acceptable level of agreement, suggesting that the model's prescribed rates and distributions of benthic and water column denitrification (i.e., 140 and 52 Tg N yr-1, respectively) are reasonable and confirm the results derived from other constraints.

  8. Effect of different agronomic practises on greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, management practises need to be adapted by implementing sustainable land use. At first, reliable field data are required to assess the effect of different farming practises on greenhouse gas budgets. The conducted field experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system, implementing additionally the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practises. Furthermore, the analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties enables a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the monitored cycle of matter, especially the nitrogen cycle. Measurements were carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then, parcels in a field (each around 0,2-0,4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted. So the 20 years impacts of different tillage and fertilisation practises on soil properties including trace gases were examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 are monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (per point: 4 chambers, each covering 0,4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit (Flessa et al. 2002). Each chamber is sampled 3-4 times in 24 hours. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes as influenced by management practice events (fertilisation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods

  9. Comparison of APSIM and DNDC simulations of nitrogen transformations and N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, I; Giltrap, D; Cichota, R

    2013-11-01

    Various models have been developed to better understand nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, which is governed by a complex interaction of physical, chemical and biological factors. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) and DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC), were used to simulate nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils following N input from either fertiliser or excreta deposition. The effect of environmental conditions on N transformations as simulated by the two different models was compared. Temperature had a larger effect in APSIM on nitrification, whereas in DNDC, water content produced a larger response. In contrast, simulated denitrification showed a larger response to temperature and also organic carbon content in DNDC. And while denitrification in DNDC is triggered by rainfall ≥5mm/h, in APSIM, the driving factor is soil water content, with a trigger point at water content at field capacity. The two models also showed different responses to N load, with nearly linearly increasing N2O emission rates with N load simulated by DNDC, and a lower rate by APSIM. Increasing rainfall intensity decreased APSIM-simulated N2O emissions but increased those simulated by DNDC. PMID:23036495

  10. Greenhouse gas budget (CO2, CH4 and N2O) of intensively managed grassland following restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merbold, Lutz; Eugster, Werner; Stieger, Jacqueline; Zahniser, Mark; Nelson, David; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    The first full greenhouse gas (GHG) flux budget of an intensively managed grassland in Switzerland (Chamau) is presented. The three major trace gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) technique. For CO2 concentrations, an open-path infrared gas analyzer was used, while N2O and CH4 concentrations were measured with a recently developed continuous-wave quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS). We investigated the magnitude of these trace gas emissions after grassland restoration, including ploughing, harrowing, sowing and fertilization with inorganic and organic fertilizers in 2012. Large peaks of N2O fluxes (20 - 50 nmol m-2 s-1 compared to a < 5 nmol m-2 s-1 background) were observed during thawing of the soil after the winter period and after mineral fertilizer application followed by re-sowing in the beginning of the summer season. N2O fluxes were controlled by nitrogen input, plant productivity, soil water content and temperature. Management activities led to increased variations of N2O fluxes up to 14 days after the management event as compared to background fluxes measured during periods without management (< 5nmol m-2 s-1). Fluxes of CO2 remained small until full plant development in early summer 2012. In contrast methane emissions showed only minor variations over time. The annual GHG flux budget was dominated by N2O (48 % contribution) and CO2 emissions (44 %). CH4 flux contribution to the annual budget was only minor (8 %). We conclude that recently developed multi-species QCLAS in an EC system open new opportunities to determine the temporal variation of N2O and CH4 fluxes, which further allow to quantify annual emissions. With respect to grassland restoration, our study emphasizes the key role of N2O and CO2 losses after ploughing, changing a permanent grassland from a carbon sink to a significant carbon source.

  11. Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms in Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: Will Nitrogen Reductions Cause Replacement of Non-N2 Fixing by N2 Fixing Taxa?

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S.; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L.; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J.; Joyner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China’s third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

  12. Nitrogen fixation in boreal peatlands: the effects of increased N deposition on N2-fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popma, J. M.; Wieder, R.; Lamers, L.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal peatlands are of great importance to global carbon and nitrogen cycling. While covering only 3-4 % of the terrestrial surface, they account for 25-30 % of the world's soil C and 9-15 % of the world's soil N. In Western Canada atmospheric dry deposition rates are extremely low: approximately 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Though these systems have been functioning as net sinks over the past 11,000 years, natural and anthropogenic disturbances might compromise the historical balance of C and N. Biological N2-fixation has recently been shown to represent a very significant input of N into these systems, contributing to 62% of total N in Western Canada. Interactions between N deposition and biological N2-fixation are as yet, unknown, but the impact of elevated deposition of N-compounds from increased industrial expansion of oil sands mining to peatlands, is concerning. Given that nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing N2-fixation, is energetically costly when active, enhanced inputs of atmospheric N deposition could be a major determinant for enzyme activity and rates of biological N input to these bogs. Understanding interactions between N deposition and N2 fixation in boreal peatlands can aid in predicting the consequences of increased N deposition and setting critical loads. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment in a poor fen in Alberta, Canada, to determine the effects of enhanced N deposition on a dominant fen species Sphagnum angustifolium. The experiment consisted of seven N treatments: Control, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 y1, n=3. N2-fixation was measured during summer 2012 and 2013 using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). ARA rates were converted to rates of N2-fixation by calibrating ARA with paired 15N2-incubations. In both 2012 and 2013, with increasing N deposition from 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1, rates of N2 fixation decreased, with highest rates in the 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 treatment mosses (54.2 × 1.40; 48.58 × 7.12 kg N ha

  13. Sources and sinks of atmospheric N2O and the possible ozone reduction due to industrial fixed nitrogen fertilizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. C.; Cicerone, R. J.; Donahue, T. M.; Chameides, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The terrestrial and marine nitrogen cycles are examined in an attempt to clarify how the atmospheric content of N2O is controlled. We review available data on the various reservoirs of fixed nitrogen, the transfer rates between the reservoirs, and estimate how the reservoir contents and transfer rates can change under man's influence. It is seen that sources, sinks and lifetime of atmospheric N2O are not understood well. Based on our limited knowledge of the stability of atmospheric N2O we conclude that future growth in the usage of industrial fixed nitrogen fertilizers could cause a 1% to 2% global ozone reduction in the next 50 years. However, centuries from now the ozone layer could be reduced by as much as 10% if soils are the major source of atmospheric N2O.

  14. [Estimation of N2O Emission from Anhui Croplands by Using a Regional Nitrogen Cycling Model IAP-N].

    PubMed

    Han, Yun-fang; Han, Sheng-hui; Yan, Ping

    2015-07-01

    N2O emissions from seven categories of Anhui croplands in 2011 were estimated by using a regional nitrogen cycling model IAP-N. The required statistical data were from each city's statistical yearbook in Anhui Province. The emission factors were from the published field data. The results showed that total N2O emissions from Anhui croplands in 2011 were 35. 1 thousand ton, in which direct and indirect N2O emissions were, respectively, 27. 6 thousand ton and 6. 6 thousand ton, and N2O emission from residues/straws burning in the field was 800 ton. Huaibei Plain (Region I) and Jianghuai Hilly (Region II) were the main contribution regions in Anhui, accounting for 41% and 35% of its regional total N2O emissions, respectively. The most important source for direct N2O emission is the year round upland fields with 74% contribution of the province total direct N2O emission. The second important source in Region II and Region III is upland cropping season of the rotation fields with rice and upland-crops, accounting for 19% and 14% , respectively. While in Region IV, the second direct N2O emission sources are tea gardens and orchards, accounting for 22%. About two-thirds of the indirect N2O were from atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The results can provide a scientific basis for policy makers to make agricultural soils GHG mitigation measures in Anhui Province, such as reasonable use of fertilizers. PMID:26489304

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus addition impact soil N2O emission in a secondary tropical forest of South China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Faming; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Bi; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Zhian

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient availability greatly regulates ecosystem processes and functions of tropical forests. However, few studies have explored impacts of N addition (aN), P addition (aP) and N×P interaction on tropical forests N2O fluxes. We established an N and P addition experiment in a tropical forest to test whether: (1) N addition would increase N2O emission and nitrification, and (2) P addition would increase N2O emission and N transformations. Nitrogen and P addition had no effect on N mineralization and nitrification. Soil microbial biomass was increased following P addition in wet seasons. aN increased 39% N2O emission as compared to control (43.3 μgN2O-N m−2h−1). aP did not increase N2O emission. Overall, N2O emission was 60% greater for aNP relative to the control, but significant difference was observed only in wet seasons, when N2O emission was 78% greater for aNP relative to the control. Our results suggested that increasing N deposition will enhance soil N2O emission, and there would be N×P interaction on N2O emission in wet seasons. Given elevated N deposition in future, P addition in this tropical soil will stimulate soil microbial activities in wet seasons, which will further enhance soil N2O emission. PMID:25001013

  16. Effect of hydrogen ratio on plasma parameters of N2-H2 gas mixture glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Brulsy, R. A.; Abd Al-Halim, M. A.; Abu-Hashem, A.; Rashed, U. M.; Hassouba, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    A dc plane glow discharge in a nitrogen-hydrogen (N2-H2) gas mixture has been operated at discharge currents of 10 and 20 mA. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) at different hydrogen concentrations is measured. A Maxwellian EEDF is found in the positive column region, while in both cathode fall and negative glow regions, a non-Maxwellian one is observed. Langmuir electric probes are used at different axial positions, gas pressures, and hydrogen concentrations to measure the electron temperature and plasma density. The electron temperature is found to increase with increasing H2 concentration and decrease with increasing both the axial distance from the cathode and the mixture pressure. At first, with increasing distance from the cathode, the ion density decreases, while the electron density increases; then, as the anode is further approached, they remain nearly constant. At different H2 concentrations, the electron and ion densities decrease with increasing the mixture pressure. Both the electron and ion densities slightly decrease with increasing H2 concentration.

  17. More About N2O-Based Propulsion and Breathable-Gas Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Mungas, Greg; Caviezel, K. Mark

    2010-01-01

    A concept was evaluated of using nitrous oxide as (1) a monopropellant in thrusters for space suits and spacecraft and (2) a source of breathable gas inside space suits and spacecraft, both by exploiting the controlled decomposition of N2O into N2 and O2. Relative to one prior monopropellant hydrazine, N2O is much less toxic, yet offers comparable performance. N2O can be stored safely as a liquid at room temperature and unlike another prior monopropellant hydrogen peroxide does not decompose spontaneously. A prototype N2O-based thruster has been demonstrated. It has also been proposed to harness N2O-based thrusters for generating electric power and to use the N2 + O2 decomposition product as a breathable gas. Because of the high performance, safety, and ease of handling of N2O, it can be expected to be economically attractive to equip future spacecraft and space suits with N2O-based thrusters and breathable-gas systems.

  18. Gas Phase Model of Surface Reactions for N{2} Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, V. Lj.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; Pejović, M. M.

    1996-07-01

    The adequacy of the homogeneous gas phase model as a representation of the surface losses of diffusing active particles in gas phase is studied. As an example the recent data obtained for the surface recombination coefficients are reanalyzed. The data were obtained by the application of the breakdown delay times which consists of the measurements of the breakdown delay times t_d as a function of the afterglow period tau. It was found that for the conditions of our experiment, the diffusion should not be neglected as the final results are significantly different when obtained by approximate gas phase representation and by exact numerical solution to the diffusion equation. While application of the gas phase effective coefficients to represent surface losses gives an error in the value of the recombination coefficient, it reproduces correctly other characteristics such as order of the process which can be obtained from simple fits to the experimental data. Dans cet article, nous étudions la validité du modèle approximatif représentant les pertes superficielles des particules actives qui diffusent de la phase gazeuse comme pertes dans la phase homogène du gaz. Les données actuelles du coefficient de recombination en surface sont utilisées par cette vérification . Les données experimentales sont obtenues en utilisant la technique qui consiste en la mesure du temps de retard du début de la décharge en fonction de la période de relaxation. Nous avons trouvé que, pour nos conditions expérimentales, la diffusion ne peut être négligée. Aussi, les résultats finals sont considérablement différents quand ils sont obtenus en utilisant le modèle approximatif par comparaison aves les résultats obtenus par la solution numérique exacte de l'équation de la diffusion. L'application des coefficients effectifs dans la phase gaseuse pour la présentation des pertes superficielles donne, pour les coefficients de la recombinaison, des valeurs qui diffèrent en

  19. Nitrogen Losses as N2O and NO After Non-tillage Agricultural Practice in a Tropical Corn Field at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Gil, J. A.; Marquina, S.; Donoso, L. E.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, the most common agricultural practice in Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions, has been mono cropping, with extensive tillage operations that usually causes rapid soil degradation and nitrogen losses. Alternative production systems, such as non-tillage agricultural practices, have been extensively implemented during the last few years. However, studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these alternative practices are not widely available. This study was conducted at "Fundo Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9°23'33" N, 66° 38'30" W) in a corn field under the non-tillage agricultural practice, during the growing season June-August 2005. The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). The area has two well defined precipitation seasons: wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). Because the irrigation of the crop depends on precipitation, the planting is scheduled during the months of highest precipitation in June-July. We measured nitrogenous gas emissions (N2O and NO), concentrations of total nitrogen (NT), NH4+ and NO3- in soil (0-100 cm) after fertilization to estimate the nitrogen losses. We also measured CO2 emissions to evaluate the relationship of microbial respiration to the emissions of nitrogenous trace gases. Soils were fertilized with 54 kgN/ha (NPK 12:24:12, nitrogen as NH4Cl) and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depth. Thirty days later, soils were fertilized by broadcast addition of 18 kgN/ha (as ammonium nitrate). Nitrous oxide emissions were highly dependant on the water content. Prior to fertilization N2O emissions were very low. Right after fertilization the emissions increased by a factor of 5 compared to pre-fertilization levels and increased to 100 times larger after the first heavy rain. NO emissions did not increase

  20. A Mid-IR, Wavelength-Scanned, Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer for Continuous Trace N2O and Nitrogen Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinas, A. D.; Balslev-Clausen, D.; Crosson, E.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important trace atmospheric gas with both a greenhouse effect and a role in ozone depletion. The globally averaged surface abundance of N2O was 314 ppb in 1998, corresponding to a global burden of 1510 TgN. The atmospheric burden of nitrous oxide continues to increase by about 0.25%/yr. The detailed impact of N2O cannot, however, be accurately assessed or mitigated as there is currently no quantitative analysis tool for N2O (and isotopes of nitrogen) that combines the requisite precision (sub-ppbv) with the rugged simplicity, low-drift and hands-free operation necessary for real-time field studies at unattended monitoring stations. In fact, the only laboratory tool capable of delivering this sensitivity - gas chromatography - is slow, relatively complex and labor intensive. Further, the utility of in-situ atmospheric nitrogen isotope analysis is practically nonexistent due to the impracticality of using isotope ratio mass spectrometry equipment in the field. We are addressing these needs by extending the capabilities of Picarro’s wavelength-scanned, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrumentation to cover N2O and nitrogen isotopes. These portable gas and isotope analyzers currently utilize one or more tunable, narrowband, near-infrared lasers to provide ppbv-level detection of several gases including CO2, CH4, H2O and various isotopes. However, detection of N2O at the ppbv level requires the use of longer, mid-infrared wavelengths. The advent of compact, tunable, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operating at room temperature in the mid-IR has recently enabled analyzers incorporating them to reach these sensitivities. Moreover, the long effective optical path length - over 15km - of WS-CRDS and corresponding high signal-to-noise ratio inherent in this time-based measurement means that high precision can be achieved with simple thermoelectric cooling of the laser and detector. We report the performance of this first-generation WS

  1. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. I. N2/H2 and NH3/H2 Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Benjamin S; Kelly, Mark W; Potter, Katie J; Johnson, Mack; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mankelevich, Yuri A

    2015-12-31

    We report a combined experimental/modeling study of microwave activated dilute N2/H2 and NH3/H2 plasmas as a precursor to diagnosis of the CH4/N2/H2 plasmas used for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of N-doped diamond. Absolute column densities of H(n = 2) atoms and NH(X(3)Σ(-), v = 0) radicals have been determined by cavity ring down spectroscopy, as a function of height (z) above a molybdenum substrate and of the plasma process conditions, i.e., total gas pressure p, input power P, and the nitrogen/hydrogen atom ratio in the source gas. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate variations in the relative number densities of H(n = 3) atoms, NH(A(3)Π) radicals, and N2(C(3)Πu) molecules as functions of the same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling for the same process conditions, which consider variations in both the overall chemistry and plasma parameters, including the electron (Te) and gas (T) temperatures, the electron density (ne), and the plasma power density (Q). Comparisons between experiment and theory allow refinement of prior understanding of N/H plasma-chemical reactivity, and its variation with process conditions and with location within the CVD reactor, and serve to highlight the essential role of metastable N2(A(3)Σ(+)u) molecules (formed by electron impact excitation) and their hitherto underappreciated reactivity with H atoms, in converting N2 process gas into reactive NHx (x = 0-3) radical species. PMID:26593853

  2. 21 CFR § 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2015-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2015-04-01 2015-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. § 868.1690 Section § 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. 868.1690 Section 868.1690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. 868.1690 Section 868.1690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. 868.1690 Section 868.1690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. 868.1690 Section 868.1690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1690 - Nitrogen gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrogen gas analyzer. 868.1690 Section 868.1690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1690 Nitrogen gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrogen gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  8. N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

    2013-03-01

    Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

  9. Dissociation degree of nitrogen molecule in low-pressure microwave-discharge nitrogen plasma with various rare-gas admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Kei; Nezu, Atsushi; Matsuura, Haruaki; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The dissociation degree of nitrogen molecules is examined in a microwave discharge nitrogen–rare gas mixture plasma with a total discharge pressure of 1 Torr, by actinometry measurement. Although the spectral line from the excited nitrogen atoms is overlapped by the band spectrum of the N2 first positive system (1PS), the subtraction of the 1PS spectrum fitted theoretically can successfully extract the atomic nitrogen line, which enables actinometry measurement. The nitrogen dissociation degree decreases with increasing mixture ratio of Ar to Kr, whereas it increases with He, which is attributed to the variations in the electron temperature and density. When we dilute the nitrogen with neon, however, we find an anomalous increase in the nitrogen dissociation degree by several orders of magnitude even at a downstream region in the discharge tube. The reason for the dissociation enhancement upon adding neon is discussed in terms of atomic and molecular processes in the plasma.

  10. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions from soils following afforestation in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The effects of afforestation are of great importance for terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, the consequences of afforestation for greenhouse gas (GHG, CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes remain poorly quantified. We investigate the temporal variations in CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in afforested soils (implementing woodland and shrubland) and the adjacent uncultivated area in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. We examined the effects of soil factors [e.g. soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic nitrogen (SON)], litter exclusion and vegetation types on GHG fluxes. Our results revealed that afforestation lead to a higher average CO2 flux from soils by 63.96% and a higher N2O flux by 54.53% in the observed year. The peak CO2 and CH4 fluxes from afforested soils occurred in summer, while the peak N2O flux occurred in winter. Afforestation also enhanced CH4 flux from soil with the largest increase by 247.94% in woodland and by 188.18% in shrubland in spring compared with the open area. On average, surface litter exclusion reduced soil CO2 fluxes by 18.84% and N2O fluxes by 27.93% in the woodland. The surface litter exclusion did not significantly affect CH4 flux from the afforested soils. The CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soils were strongly influenced by soil temperature, moisture and SOC content across seasons. The N2O flux was also strongly affected by SON content in our experimental field. Our results suggested that afforestation enhanced GHG fluxes from soils; however, the magnitude of the GHG fluxes should also be considered from various environmental conditions and vegetation types.

  11. Automated gas sampling system for laboratory analysis of CH4 and N2O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyzing the flux of CH4 and N2O from soil is labor intensive when conventional hand injection techniques are utilized in gas chromatography. An automated gas sampling system was designed and assembled from a prototype developed at the National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, Iowa. The sampler was e...

  12. Greenhouse gas budget (CO2, CH4 and N2O) of intensively managed grassland following restoration.

    PubMed

    Merbold, Lutz; Eugster, Werner; Stieger, Jacqueline; Zahniser, Mark; Nelson, David; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-06-01

    The first full greenhouse gas (GHG) flux budget of an intensively managed grassland in Switzerland (Chamau) is presented. The three major trace gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) technique. For CO2 concentrations, an open-path infrared gas analyzer was used, while N2O and CH4 concentrations were measured with a recently developed continuous-wave quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS). We investigated the magnitude of these trace gas emissions after grassland restoration, including ploughing, harrowing, sowing, and fertilization with inorganic and organic fertilizers in 2012. Large peaks of N2O fluxes (20-50 nmol m(-2) s(-1) compared with a <5 nmol m(-2) s(-1) background) were observed during thawing of the soil after the winter period and after mineral fertilizer application followed by re-sowing in the beginning of the summer season. Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were controlled by nitrogen input, plant productivity, soil water content and temperature. Management activities led to increased variations of N2O fluxes up to 14 days after the management event as compared with background fluxes measured during periods without management (<5 nmol m(-2) s(-1)). Fluxes of CO2 remained small until full plant development in early summer 2012. In contrast, methane emissions showed only minor variations over time. The annual GHG flux budget was dominated by N2O (48% contribution) and CO2 emissions (44%). CH4 flux contribution to the annual budget was only minor (8%). We conclude that recently developed multi-species QCLAS in an EC system open new opportunities to determine the temporal variation of N2O and CH4 fluxes, which further allow to quantify annual emissions. With respect to grassland restoration, our study emphasizes the key role of N2O and CO2 losses after ploughing, changing a permanent grassland from a carbon sink to a significant carbon source. PMID:24395474

  13. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Case, Sean D C; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal drying process (input temperature 95 °C, thermal fluid circuit temperature 200 °C, 95 % dry matter content). The drying process reduced the ammonium content of the biosolids and reduced it further at higher drying temperatures. These findings were attributed to ammonia volatilisation. The percentage of mineralisable organic N fraction (min-N) in the biosolids, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production were analysed 120 days after addition to soil. When incubated at soil field capacity (pF 2), none of the dried biosolids had a greater min-N than the AD biosolids (46.4 %). Min-N was lowest in biosolids dried at higher temperatures (e.g. 19.3 % at 250 °C vs 35.4 % at 70 °C). Considering only the dried biosolids, min-N was greater in WWTP-dried biosolids (50.5 %) than all of the laboratory-dried biosolids with the exception of the 70 °C-dried biosolids. Biosolid carbon mineralisation (CO2 release) and N2O production was also the lowest in treatments of the highest drying temperature, suggesting that this material was more recalcitrant. Overall, thermal drying temperature had a significant influence on N availability from the AD biosolids, but drying did not improve the N availability of these biosolids in any case. PMID:27068895

  14. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  15. Stabilization of methane hydrate by pressurization with He or N2 gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Tsuji, Yoshihiro; Ripmeester, John A

    2007-12-27

    The behavior of methane hydrate was investigated after it was pressurized with helium or nitrogen gas in a test system by monitoring the gas compositions. The results obtained indicate that even when the partial pressure of methane gas in such a system is lower than the equilibrium pressure at a certain temperature, the dissociation rate of methane hydrate is greatly depressed by pressurization with helium or nitrogen gas. This phenomenon is only observed when the total pressure of methane and helium (or nitrogen) gas in the system is greater than the equilibrium pressure required to stabilize methane hydrate with just methane gas. The following model has been proposed to explain the observed phenomenon: (1) Gas bubbles develop at the hydrate surface during hydrate dissociation, and there is a pressure balance between the methane gas inside the gas bubbles and the external pressurizing gas (methane and helium or nitrogen), as transmitted through the water film; as a result the methane gas in the gas bubbles stabilizes the hydrate surface covered with bubbles when the total gas pressure is greater than the equilibrium pressure of the methane hydrate at that temperature; this situation persists until the gas in the bubbles becomes sufficiently dilute in methane or until the surface becomes bubble-free. (2) In case of direct contact of methane hydrate with water, the water surrounding the hydrate is supersaturated with methane released upon hydrate dissociation; consequently, methane hydrate is stabilized when the hydrostatic pressure is above the equilibrium pressure of methane hydrate at a certain temperature, again until the dissolved gas at the surface becomes sufficiently dilute in methane. In essence, the phenomenon is due to the presence of a nonequilibrium state where there is a chemical potential gradient from the solid hydrate particles to the bulk solution that exists as long as solid hydrate remains. PMID:18062683

  16. Gas-phase CO depletion and N2H+ abundances in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippok, N.; Launhardt, R.; Semenov, D.; Stutz, A. M.; Balog, Z.; Henning, Th.; Krause, O.; Linz, H.; Nielbock, M.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya. N.; Schmalzl, M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Bieging, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    +. Chemical modeling indirectly suggests that the gas and dust temperatures decouple in the envelopes and that the dust grains are not yet significantly coagulated. Conclusions: We observationally confirm chemical models of CO-freezeout and nitrogen chemistry. We find clear correlations between the hydrogen density and CO depletion and the emergence of N2H+. The chemical ages indicate a core lifetime of less than 1 Myr. This work is partially based on observations by the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Effects of nitrogen loading on greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Mora, J.; Chen, X.; Carey, J.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic nitrogen loading alters greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate to triplicate plots bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. Our results will facilitate model development to simulate GHG emissions in coastal wetlands and support methodology development to assess carbon credits in preserving and restoring coastal wetlands.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes and their response to nitrogen loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Carey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. Anthropogenic nitrogen loading may alter greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient (between 1 and 10 gN m-2y-1) were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. We found that the studied salt marsh was a significant carbon sink (NEP ~ 380 gC m-2y-1). CH4 fluxes are 3 orders of magnitude less than CO2 fluxes in the salt marsh. Carbon fluxes are driven by light, salinity, tide, and temperature. We conclude that restoration or conservation of this carbon sink has a significant social benefit for carbon credit.

  19. Oxygen-Poor Microzones as Potential Sites of Microbial N2 Fixation in Nitrogen-Depleted Aerobic Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N2. Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N2 fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N2 fixation. In all cases bacterial N2 fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O2. Microelectrode O2 profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O2 tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O2 was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N2 fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N2 fixation responses of these waters. Images PMID:16347337

  20. Anoxic phases are the main N2O contributor in partial nitritation reactors treating high nitrogen loads with alternate aeration.

    PubMed

    Gabarró, J; González-Cárcamo, P; Ruscalleda, M; Ganigué, R; Gich, F; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2014-07-01

    Partial nitritation (PN) reactors treating complex industrial wastewater can be operated by alternating anoxic-aerobic phases to promote heterotrophic denitrification via NO2(-). However, denitrification under stringent conditions can lead to high N2O production. In this study, the suitability of including anoxic phases in a PN-SBR treating real industrial wastewater was assessed in terms of process performance and N2O production. The PN-SBR was operated successfully and, when the HCO3(-):NH4(+) molar ratio was adjusted, produced a suitable effluent for a subsequent anammox reactor. 10-20% of the total influent nitrogen was removed. N2O production accounted for 3.6% of the NLR and took place mainly during the anoxic phases (60%). Specific denitrification batch tests demonstrated that, despite the availability of biodegradable COD, NO2(-) denitrification advanced at a faster rate than N2O denitrification, causing high N2O accumulation. Thus, the inclusion of anoxic phases should be avoided in PN reactors treating industrial wastewaters with high nitrogen loads. PMID:24787321

  1. Nitrogen cycling and N2O production in the water column of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischer, Jana; Zopfi, Jakob; Frame, Caitlin H.; Jegge, Corinne; Kirsten, Oswald; Andreas, Brand; Miracle, Maria R.; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F.

    2016-04-01

    Ferruginous meromictic lakes are rare systems, considered potential modern analogues for an ancient Archean ferruginous Ocean. They may therefore represent valuable model ecosystems to study biogeochemical processes of early Earth history, in particular, the interaction between the iron (Fe) and other element cycles such as the complex nitrogen (N) cycle. In context of its exceptional water chemistry, we studied the N-cycling in the meromictic, ferruginous Lake La Cruz in the Central Iberian Ranges in Spain, combining i) general water column chemistry and detailed N speciation ii) stable isotope composition and intramolecular 15N distributions (site preference) of dissolved N2O and iii) 15N-isotope label incubation experiments, to identify and quantify biotic and abiotic N2O and N2 production pathways. Nitrification was identified as the main N2O production mechanism in the oxic zone, based on the N2O concentration profile and the isomeric composition of N2O (site preference = 24.7) at the depth of maximum concentration relative to the surface water. A second N2O peak of 23 nmol/L was observed within the chemocline, and relatively low values for the δ15N-N2O (-1.1) and a site preference of 16.1‰ with respect to the oxic water column suggest that here incomplete (nitrifier) denitrification is the dominant N2O production pathway. However, based on the bulk dual N-versus-O isotope signature, other production mechanisms cannot be excluded at this point. Within the anoxic water column, N2O is consumed quantitiatively to N2, consistent with 15N-NO3‑ incubation experiments, showing denitrification (and anammox) activity below the redox transition zone. The overlap of Fe and N-species (N2O, NO2‑) in the water column is small, therefore abiotic N2O production is most likely negligible. The planned analysis of the NO3‑ and NH4+ isotopic signatures will provide further insight into the origin of N2O. Additionally, molecular biological analyses will provide

  2. Soil trace gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) offset the CO2 uptake in poplar short rotation coppice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gelfand, Iya; Gielen, Bert; camino serrano, Marta; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The need for renewable energy sources will lead to a considerable expansion in the planting of dedicated fast-growing biomass crops across Europe. Among them poplar (Populus spp) is the most widely planted as short rotation coppice (SRC) and an increase in the surface area of large-scale SRC poplar plantations might thus be expected. In this study we report the greenhouse gas fluxes (GHG) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) measured using the eddy covariance technique in a SRC plantation for bioenergy production during the period 2010-2013. The plantation was established in April 2010 on 18.4 ha of former agricultural land with a density of 8000 plants ha-1; the above-ground biomass was harvested on February 2012 and 2014.The whole GHG balance of the four years of the study was 1.90 (± 1.37) Mg CO2eq ha-1; this indicated that soil trace gas emissions offset the CO2 uptake by the plantation. CH4 and N2O almost equally contributed to offset the CO2 uptake of -5.28 (±0.67) Mg CO2eq ha-1 with an overall emission of 3.56 (± 0.35) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of N2O and of 3.53 (± 0.85) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of CH4. N2O emissions mostly occurred during a single peak a few months after the site was converted into SRC and represented 44% of the entire N2O loss during the entire study. Accurately capturing these emission events proved to be critical for correct estimates of the GHG balance. The self-organizing map (SOM) technique graphically showed the relationship between the CO2 fluxes and the principal environmental variables but failed to explain the variability of the soil trace gas emissions. The nitrogen content in the soil and the water table depth were the two drivers that best explained the variability in N2O and CH4 respectively. This study underlines the importance of the "non-CO2 GHG" on the overall balance as well as the impact of the harvest on the CO2 uptake rate. Further long-term investigations of soil trace gas emissions should also monitor the N

  3. Impacts and Cratering on Pluto: Implications for the Source of Pluto's Nitrogen (N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, K. N.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    Craters on Pluto and Charon will provide key information, including clues to the source of Pluto's surface and atmospheric N2. With current estimates of impactor flux on Pluto, comets could not deliver enough N2, but impacts might excavate it.

  4. Novel method for online monitoring of dissolved N2O concentrations through a gas stripping device.

    PubMed

    Mampaey, Kris E; van Dongen, Udo G J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants are currently measured by online gas phase analysis or grab sampling from the liquid phase. In this study, a novel method is presented to monitor the liquid phase N2O concentration for aerated as well as non-aerated conditions/reactors, following variations both in time and in space. The monitoring method consists of a gas stripping device, of which the measurement principle is based on a continuous flow of reactor liquid through a stripping flask and subsequent analysis of the N2O concentration in the stripped gas phase. The method was theoretically and experimentally evaluated for its fit for use in the wastewater treatment context. Besides, the influence of design and operating variables on the performance of the gas stripping device was addressed. This method can easily be integrated with online off-gas measurements and allows to better investigate the origin of the gas emissions from the treatment plant. Liquid phase measurements of N2O are of use in mitigation of these emissions. The method can also be applied to measure other dissolved gasses, such as methane, being another important greenhouse gas. PMID:25573615

  5. Influence of electron collisions with N_2(A ^3Σ_u^+) metastables in the nitrogen afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Vasco; Sá, Paulo A.; Loureiro, Jorge

    2003-10-01

    In this work we present a study of the influence of electron collisions with metastable molecules N_2(A ^3Σ_u^+) during the afterglow of a nitrogen microwave discharge operating at ω/2π=433 MHz and p=3.3 Torr, in a tube with radius R=1.9 cm. In particular, we discuss i) the effect of superelastic collisions e+N_2(A)arrow e+N_2(X) in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and consequently in the electron impact excitation rate coefficients; and ii) the importance of the stepwise excitation processes e+N_2(A)arrow e+N_2(B,C) in the heavy-particle kinetics. This is an important issue since the concentrations of both N_2(A) metastables and electrons initially decrease in the afterglow, but then raise and pass through pronounced maxima, whose origin is in collisions involving very high vibration levels of ground-state molecules (v≥ 38) and N(^4S) atoms. [1] V. Guerra, P. A. Sá and J. Loureiro, accepted for publication in Plasma Sources Sci. and Technol.

  6. Nitrogen deposition and greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands: uncertainties and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) can strongly affect the greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4 and N2O) sink capacity of terrestrial ecosystems. Grasslands play an important role in determining the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere. Robust predictions of the net GHG sink strength of...

  7. Coupling discharge and gas dynamics in streamer-less spark formation in supercritical N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, Ashutosh; Hundsdorfer, Willem; Ebert, Ute

    2016-07-01

    A two-dimensional cylindrically symmetric model is developed to study the streamer-less spark formation in a short gap on the timescale of ion motion. It incorporates the coupling between the electric discharge and the gas through the heat generated by the discharge and the consecutive gas expansion. The model is employed to study electrical breakdown in supercritical N2. We present the simulation results of gas heating by the electrical discharge and the effect of gas expansion on the electrical discharge.

  8. Comparison of simulated and observed N2O gas emission rates from bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide is the largest greenhouse gas source from crop systems. DAYCENT was used to compare N2O emissions from the following 3 bioenergy cropping systems: switchgrass, reed canarygrass, and a rotation of 3 yr corn, 1 yr soybeans, and 4 yr alfalfa. Although DAYCENT did not always capture the ob...

  9. A Sea Floor Methane Hydrate Displacement Experiment Using N2 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Zhang, X.; Hester, K.

    2009-12-01

    The production of free methane gas from solid methane hydrate accumulations presents a considerable challenge. The presently preferred procedure is pressure reduction whereby the relief of pressure to a condition outside the hydrate phase boundary creates a gas phase. The reaction is endothermic and thus a problematic water ice phase can form if the extraction of gas is too rapid, limiting the applicability of this procedure. Additionally, the removal of the formation water in contact with the hydrate phase is required before meaningful pressure reduction can be attained -- and this can take time. An alternate approach that has been suggested is the injection of liquid CO2 into the formation, thereby displacing the formation water. Formation of a solid CO2 hydrate is thermodynamically favored under these conditions. Competition between CH4 and CO2 for the hydrate host water molecules can occur displacing CH4 from the solid to the gas phase with formation of a solid CO2 hydrate. We have investigated another alternate approach with displacement of the surrounding bulk water phase by N2 gas, resulting in rapid release of CH4 gas and complete loss of the solid hydrate phase. Our experiment was carried out at the Southern Summit of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, at 780m depth. There we harvested hydrate fragments from surficial sediments using the robotic arm of the ROV Doc Ricketts. Specimens of the hydrate were collected about 1m above the sediment surface in an inverted funnel with a mesh covered neck as they floated upwards. The accumulated hydrate was transferred to an inverted glass cylinder, and N2 gas was carefully injected into this container. Displacement of the water phase occurred and when the floating hydrate material approached the lower rim the gas injection was stopped and the cylinder placed upon a flat metal plate effectively sealing the system. We returned to this site after 7 days to measure progress, and observed complete loss of the hydrate phase

  10. N2 Gas Plasma Inactivates Influenza Virus by Inducing Changes in Viral Surface Morphology, Protein, and Genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2013-01-01

    We have recently treated with N2 gas plasma and achieved inactivation of bacteria. However, the effect of N2 gas plasma on viruses remains unclear. With the aim of developing this technique, we analyzed the virucidal effect of N2 gas plasma on influenza virus and its influence on the viral components. We treated influenza virus particles with inert N2 gas plasma (1.5 kpps; kilo pulses per second) produced by a short high-voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply. A bioassay using chicken embryonated eggs demonstrated that N2 gas plasma inactivated influenza virus in allantoic fluid within 5 min. Immunochromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue staining showed that N2 gas plasma treatment of influenza A and B viruses in nasal aspirates and allantoic fluids as well as purified influenza A and B viruses induced degradation of viral proteins including nucleoprotein. Analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that N2 gas plasma treatment induced changes in the viral RNA genome. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that aggregation and fusion of influenza viruses were induced by N2 gas plasma treatment. We believe these biochemical changes may contribute to the inactivation of influenza viruses by N2 gas plasma. PMID:24195077

  11. N 2 gas plasma inactivates influenza virus by inducing changes in viral surface morphology, protein, and genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have recently treated with N2 gas plasma and achieved inactivation of bacteria. However, the effect of N2 gas plasma on viruses remains unclear. With the aim of developing this technique, we analyzed the virucidal effect of N2 gas plasma on influenza virus and its influence on the viral components. We treated influenza virus particles with inert N2 gas plasma (1.5 kpps; kilo pulses per second) produced by a short high-voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply. A bioassay using chicken embryonated eggs demonstrated that N2 gas plasma inactivated influenza virus in allantoic fluid within 5 min. Immunochromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue staining showed that N2 gas plasma treatment of influenza A and B viruses in nasal aspirates and allantoic fluids as well as purified influenza A and B viruses induced degradation of viral proteins including nucleoprotein. Analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that N2 gas plasma treatment induced changes in the viral RNA genome. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that aggregation and fusion of influenza viruses were induced by N2 gas plasma treatment. We believe these biochemical changes may contribute to the inactivation of influenza viruses by N2 gas plasma. PMID:24195077

  12. Determination of nitrogen monoxide in high purity nitrogen gas with an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, K.

    1985-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric (API-MS) method was studied for the determination of residual NO in high purity N2 gas. The API-MS is very sensitive to NO, but the presence of O2 interferes with the NO measurement. Nitrogen gas in cylinders as sample gas was mixed with NO standard gas and/or O2 standard gas, and then introduced into the API-MS. The calibration curves of NO and O2 has linearity in the region of 0 - 2 ppm, but the slopes changed with every cylinder. The effect of O2 on NO+ peak was additive and proportional to O2 concentration in the range of 0 - 0.5 ppm. The increase in NO+ intensity due to O2 was (0.07 - 0.13)%/O2, 1 ppm. Determination of NO and O2 was carried out by the standard addition method to eliminate the influence of variation of slopes. The interference due to O2 was estimated from the product of the O2 concentration and the ratio of slope A to Slope B. Slope A is the change in the NO+ intensity with the O2 concentration. Slope B is the intensity with O2 concentration.

  13. N2O analysis in the atmosphere via electron capture-gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Krasnec, J.; Pierotti, D.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of commercially available pulse-modulated electron capture detector (ECD)-equipped gas chromatographs for direct measurement of ambient levels of N2O is assessed. Since the sensitivity of ECD to N2O is directly proportional to the detector operating temperature and detector standing current, it is necessary to use a 'hot' ECD (250-350 C). The method is shown to be very precise with a standard error not exceeding 1% for automated analysis of ambient air samples. The technology is available to permit highly accurate routine direct analysis of N2O in the troposphere and stratosphere. Both captured air samples or direct real-time measurement from research vessels or airborne platforms are possible.

  14. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  15. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. PMID:24140689

  16. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  17. Characterization of Anammox Hydrazine Dehydrogenase, a Key N2-producing Enzyme in the Global Nitrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Maalcke, Wouter J; Reimann, Joachim; de Vries, Simon; Butt, Julea N; Dietl, Andreas; Kip, Nardy; Mersdorf, Ulrike; Barends, Thomas R M; Jetten, Mike S M; Keltjens, Jan T; Kartal, Boran

    2016-08-12

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria derive their energy for growth from the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor. N2, the end product of this metabolism, is produced from the oxidation of the intermediate, hydrazine (N2H4). Previously, we identified N2-producing hydrazine dehydrogenase (KsHDH) from the anammox organism Kuenenia stuttgartiensis as the gene product of kustc0694 and determined some of its catalytic properties. In the genome of K. stuttgartiensis, kustc0694 is one of 10 paralogs related to octaheme hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidoreductase (HAO). Here, we characterized KsHDH as a covalently cross-linked homotrimeric octaheme protein as found for HAO and HAO-related hydroxylamine-oxidizing enzyme kustc1061 from K. stuttgartiensis Interestingly, the HDH trimers formed octamers in solution, each octamer harboring an amazing 192 c-type heme moieties. Whereas HAO and kustc1061 are capable of hydrazine oxidation as well, KsHDH was highly specific for this activity. To understand this specificity, we performed detailed amino acid sequence analyses and investigated the catalytic and spectroscopic (electronic absorbance, EPR) properties of KsHDH in comparison with the well defined HAO and kustc1061. We conclude that HDH specificity is most likely derived from structural changes around the catalytic heme 4 (P460) and of the electron-wiring circuit comprising seven His/His-ligated c-type hemes in each subunit. These nuances make HDH a globally prominent N2-producing enzyme, next to nitrous oxide (N2O) reductase from denitrifying microorganisms. PMID:27317665

  18. Influence of short-term transfers on nitrogen fluxes, budgets and indirect N2O emissions in rural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, S.; Drouet, J.-L.; Durand, P.; Cellier, P.

    2011-08-01

    Spatial interactions at short-term may lead to large inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to oligotrophic ecosystems and induce environmental threats such as additional N2O emissions and global warming. The paper presents a new methodology to estimate Nr fluxes, especially additional N2O emissions, at the landscape scale by taking into account spatial interactions between landscape elements. We used the NitroScape model which integrates processes of Nr transformation and short-term transfer in a dynamic and spatially distributed way to simulate Nr fluxes and budgets at the landscape scale. Four configurations of NitroScape were implemented by taking into account or not the atmospheric, hydrological or both pathways of Nr transfer. We simulated Nr fluxes, especially direct and indirect N2O emissions, within a test landscape including pig farms, croplands and unmanaged ecosystems. Simulation results showed the ability of NitroScape to simulate patterns of Nr losses and recapture for each landscape element and the whole landscape. They made it possible to quantify the contribution of both atmospheric and hydrological transfers in Nr fluxes and budgets. Indirect N2O emissions were estimated at almost 25 % of the total N2O emissions. They varied within the landscape according to land use, meteorological and soil conditions as well as topography. This first attempt has proved that the NitroScape model is a useful tool to estimate the effect of spatial interactions on Nr fluxes and budgets as well as indirect N2O emissions within landscapes. Our approach needs to be further tested by applying NitroScape to several spatial distributions of ecosystems within the landscape and to real and larger landscapes.

  19. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  20. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  1. Calculation of the thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures using an improved kinetic theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures has been calculated by means of the classical trajectory method using state-of-the-art intermolecular potential energy surfaces for the CH4-CH4, N2-N2, and CH4-N2 interactions. Results are reported in the temperature range from 70 K to 1200 K. Since the thermal conductivity is influenced by the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules, which are not included in the rigid-rotor classical trajectory computations, a new correction scheme to account for vibrational degrees of freedom in a dilute gas mixture is presented. The calculations show that the vibrational contribution at the highest temperature studied amounts to 46% of the total thermal conductivity of an equimolar mixture compared to 13% for pure nitrogen and 58% for pure methane. The agreement with the available experimental thermal conductivity data at room temperature is good, within ±1.4%, whereas at higher temperatures, larger deviations up to 4.5% are observed, which can be tentatively attributed to deteriorating performance of the measuring technique employed. Results are also reported for the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rotational collision number, Zrot, for CH4 relaxing in collisions with N2 and for N2 relaxing in collisions with CH4. Both collision numbers increase with temperature, with the former being consistently about twice the value of the latter.

  2. Calculation of the thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures using an improved kinetic theory approach.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures has been calculated by means of the classical trajectory method using state-of-the-art intermolecular potential energy surfaces for the CH4-CH4, N2-N2, and CH4-N2 interactions. Results are reported in the temperature range from 70 K to 1200 K. Since the thermal conductivity is influenced by the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules, which are not included in the rigid-rotor classical trajectory computations, a new correction scheme to account for vibrational degrees of freedom in a dilute gas mixture is presented. The calculations show that the vibrational contribution at the highest temperature studied amounts to 46% of the total thermal conductivity of an equimolar mixture compared to 13% for pure nitrogen and 58% for pure methane. The agreement with the available experimental thermal conductivity data at room temperature is good, within ±1.4%, whereas at higher temperatures, larger deviations up to 4.5% are observed, which can be tentatively attributed to deteriorating performance of the measuring technique employed. Results are also reported for the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rotational collision number, Z(rot), for CH4 relaxing in collisions with N2 and for N2 relaxing in collisions with CH4. Both collision numbers increase with temperature, with the former being consistently about twice the value of the latter. PMID:27059564

  3. Nitrogen removal characteristics analyzed with gas and microbial community in thermophilic aerobic digestion for piggery waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Lee, H W; Kim, S W; Lee, S Y; Park, Y K; Han, J H; Choi, S I; Yi, Y S; Yun, Z

    2004-01-01

    In order to characterize the nitrogen conversion characteristics in a thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) system, a laboratory study has been conducted with the analysis of effluent gas and microbial community in the sludge samples. The lab TAD system was operated with HRT of 3 days and 60 degrees C. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, it has been found that about 2/3 of the daily load of nitrogen was converted to the gaseous form of nitrogen whereas cellular transformation and unmetabolized nitrogen accounted for about 1/3. Among the gaseous nitrogen transformation, significant amount of influent nitrogen had been converted to N2 gas (29% of influent N) and N2O (9% of influent N). Ammonia conversion was only 28% of influent N. The detection of N2O gas is a clear indication of the biological nitrogen reduction process in the thermophilic aerobic digester. No conclusive evidence for the existence of aerobic deammonification has been found. The microbial community analysis showed that thermophilic bacteria such as Bacillus thermocloacae, Bacillus sp. and Clostridial groups dominated in this TAD reactor. The diverse microbial community in TAD sludge may play an important role in removing both strong organics and nitrogen from piggery waste. PMID:15137444

  4. Nitrogen, oxygen and air broadened widths and relative intensities of N2O lines near 2450/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of the v sub 1 + 2v sub 2 and the weak underlying v sub 1 + 3v sub 2 - v sub 2 band of N2O near 2450/cm were analyzed by the nonlinear, least squares, whole band technique. The oxygen, nitrogen, and air broadened line widths and the relative line intensities were determined. The air broadened widths, for/m/3, are in agreement with those in the 1980 AFGL line listing and the relative band intensities also agree, within about 20% with the values in this listing.

  5. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    comparison to the forest values for the 60-day evaluation period for NT and T, respectively. On the other hand, NO soil emissions were 1.5 and 5 times larger in NT and T fields, respectively, in comparison to forest values. The fertilizer-induced emissions factors (FEI) for NO and N2O show that the nitrogen gaseous losses are mostly in the form of N2O for NT (NO-FEI = 0.2% and N2O-FEI=3.6%) and T (NO-FEI=1.7% and N2O- FEI=2.8%) practices. However, NO losses are higher in T than NT soils, probably due to the higher porosity in the former that promotes NO production under aerobic conditions. These results imply that tillage agricultural practice leads to a higher stimulation of these nitrogen gaseous emissions than non-tillage agricultural practice. Our N2O-FEI values for direct emissions are higher than the proposed by the IPPC national guidelines 2006 (FEI = 1%, Volume 4, Chapter 11). This implies that tropical agroecosystems are more susceptible to increase emissions after fertilization than temperate regions. Our results will be used to produce better estimates of direct N2O emissions from tropical agriculture and improve the current Venezuelan national greenhouse gas inventory.

  6. [Raman spectroscopic studies on CO2-CH4-N2 mixed-gas hydrate system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-yong; Liu, Chuan-hai; Wu, Qiang; Gao, Xia

    2014-06-01

    Accurate determination of coal mine gas separation product characteristics is the key for gas separation application based on hydrate technology. Gas hydrate was synthesized from two types of gas compositions (CO2-CH4-N2). The separation products were measured by in situ Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of mixed-gas hydrate was determined, and the cavity occupancy and hydration index were calculated, based on the object molecular various vibrational mode, "loose cage-tight cage" model and the Raman bands area ratio, combined with the model of van der Waals-Platteeuw. The results show that the mixed-gas hydrates are both structure I for the two gas samples; Large cages of mixed-gas hydrate are nearly occupied by guest molecules, and the large cavity occupancies are 98.57% and 98.52%, respectively; but small cages are not easy to be occupied, and the small cavity occupancies are 29.93% and 33.87%, respectively; hydration index of the two gas samples hydrate is 7.14 and 6.98, respectively, which is greater than the theoretical value of structure I. PMID:25358164

  7. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  8. Depletion and low gas temperature in the L183 (=L134N) prestellar core: the N2H^+-N2D+ tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Bacmann, A.; Cabrit, S.; Vastel, C.

    2007-05-01

    Context: The study of pre-stellar cores (PSCs) suffers from a lack of undepleted species to trace the physical properties of the gas in their very dense inner parts. Aims: We carry out detailed modelling of N2H+ and N2D+ cuts across the L183 main core to evaluate the depletion of these species and their usefulness as a probe of physical conditions in PSCs. Methods: We have developed a non-LTE (NLTE) Monte-Carlo code treating the 1D radiative transfer of both N2H+ and N2D^+, making use of recently published collisional coefficients with He between individual hyperfine levels. The code includes line overlap between hyperfine transitions. An extensive set of core models is calculated and compared with observations. Special attention is paid to the issue of source coupling to the antenna beam. Results: The best-fitting models indicate that i) gas in the core center is very cold (7 ± 1 K) and thermalized with dust; ii) depletion of N2H+ does occur, starting at densities 5-7×105 cm-3 and reaching a factor of 6^+13-3 in abundance; iii) deuterium fractionation reaches ~70% at the core center; and iv) the density profile is proportional to r-1 out to ~4000 AU, and to r-2 beyond. Conclusions: Our NLTE code could be used to (re-)interpret recent and upcoming observations of N2H+ and N2D+ in many pre-stellar cores of interest, to obtain better temperature and abundance profiles. Based on observations made with the IRAM 30-m and the CSO 10-m. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). Table 1, Figs. 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Nitrogen loss from high N-input vegetable fields: a) Direct N2O emissions b) Spatiotemporal variability of N species (N2O, NH4+, NO3-) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, I.; Pfab, H.; Ruser, R.; Fiedler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. Soils are considered to be the major (70%) source for atmospheric N2O. Agriculture in general accounts for about 85% of the anthropogenic N2O emissions. Whereas 80% of these, are emitted from ag-riculturally used soils. Such estimations of N2O fluxes are associated with a high degree of uncertainties. Uncertainty of source strength estimates mainly results from local scale variability of known and unknown sources. It is not known how much uncertainty is due to unmeasured sources. For example, considerations of N2O fluxes from soils used for intensive vegetable production within inventories are still missing. We speculate that these types of arable soils act as ‚hot spots' for N2O. Given conditions (1) high N-input due to fertilization in concert with (2) easily mineralizable harvest residues should pro-mote disproportional high reaction rates in N-cycling and enhance N2O production as a by-product of nitrification and denitrification. Our investigation focused on the influence of: (1) N-input level (Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate (ASN)) below and above common N doses used for "good agricultural practice". (2) Application of modified fertilizers including nitrification inhibitor DMPP (Dimethylpyrazolphosphate, ENTEC®) and depot fertilization (pseudo-CULTAN) in comparison to non-fertilized control and common ASN application. (3) Effects of plant residues on N-cycling and (4) the deduction of mitigation strategies to reduce the potential N-loss from theses sites. The study was carried out during summer and autumn 2008 on a field cropped with cauliflower, located at the "Heidfeldhof" (South-West Germany; MAT 10.5°C, MAP 660 mm). Three different N-species (N2O; within gaseous soil phase, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) extracted from bulk soil) were measured weekly in three different soil depths (0-25 cm; 25-50 cm and 50-75 cm) in a fully randomized field design. At same depths water

  10. Lime and Soil Moisture Effects on Nitrogen gas Loss Following Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The loss of nitrogen from fertilizer application through ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions are of major environmental concern. Liming has been regarded as a mitigation option for lowering soil nitrogen gas emissions following the addition of fertilizers. A mechanistic nitrogen-cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) has been developed to simulate the interaction of water saturation variation with biogeochemical processes, and the balance between liming and soil buffering capacity. The model was tested with data from a laboratory soil incubation following the addition of synthetic urine (500 kg N ha-1). Simulation results agreed well with measured N2O emissions and soil inorganic-N concentrations. The study indicated that liming significantly increase NH3 volatilization, while the reduction in cumulative N2O emissions depended strongly on water regime. The cumulative N2O emissions under relatively dry conditions were reduced by up to 243% with liming. However, the cumulative N2O and N2 emissions were predicted to increase by up to 346% following liming because the resulting NO3--N pools (from enhanced nitrification) were susceptible to enhanced N2O and N2 losses during subsequent water application. Consequently, short-term (i.e., days ¡§C weeks) gains made in reducing soil N2O emissions by liming can be offset, and potentially reversed, by emissions later in the growing season. We describe an approach using the modeling framework to optimize N gas reductions using liming under various edaphic, crop type, fertilizer and irrigation application rates, and climate conditions.

  11. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NO(x)), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds. PMID:26889565

  12. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347

  13. Method and composition for generating nitrogen gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pietz, J.F.

    1988-01-26

    A solid composition is described for generating nitrogen gas substantially free of noxious and toxic impurities for inflating an air cushion in a vehicle passenger restraint system and capable of substantially fully inflating such cushion in the elapsed time between the occurrence of a primary collision of the vehicle with another object and secondary collisions occurring as a result thereof; comprising a mixture of alkali metal azide and at least a stoichiometric amount of a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of iron, titanium and copper oxides and mixtures thereof. The metal oxide is capable of reacting exothermically with the alkaki metal azide and wherein the metal of the oxide is lower in the electromotive series than the alkali metal of the azide and is a metal other than (the) an alkali metal.

  14. Effects of helium gas mixing on the production of active species in nitrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, M. A.; Qayyum, A.; Ali, Shujaat; Zakaullah, M.

    2006-12-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effects of helium gas mixing on the electron temperature and the production of active species in nitrogen plasma generated by 50 Hz pulsed-DC power source. The electron temperature is determined from He I line intensities, using Boltzmann's plot method. The relative changes in the concentration of active species N2(C Πu3) and N+2(B Σu+2) are monitored by measuring the emission intensities of nitrogen (0 0) bands of the second positive and the first negative systems. It is found that the electron temperature can be raised considerably by mixing helium in nitrogen plasma, which in return plays a significant role in enhancing the concentration of active species through Penning effect of metastable states of the helium.

  15. Heterotrophic n(2) fixation and distribution of newly fixed nitrogen in a rice-flooded soil system.

    PubMed

    Eskew, D L; Eaglesham, A R; App, A A

    1981-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants growing in pots of flooded soil were exposed to a (15)N(2)-enriched atmosphere for 3 to 13 days in a gas-tight chamber. The floodwater and soil surface were shaded with a black cloth to reduce the activity of phototrophic N(2)-fixing micro-organisms. The highest (15)N enrichments were consistently observed in the roots, although the total quantity of (15)N incorporated into the soil was much greater. The rate of (15)N incorporation into roots was much higher at the heading than at the tillering stage of growth. Definite enrichments were also found in the basal node and in the lower outer leaf sheath fractions after 3 days of exposure at the heading stage. Thirteen days was the shortest time period in which definite (15)N enrichment was observed in the leaves and panicle. When plants were exposed to (15)N(2) for 13 days just before heading and then allowed to mature in a normal atmosphere, 11.3% of the total (15)N in the system was found in the panicles, 2.3% in the roots, and 80.7% in the subsurface soil. These results provide direct evidence of heterotrophic N(2) fixation associated with rice roots and the flooded soil and demonstrate that part of the newly fixed N is available to the plant. PMID:16661887

  16. Interannual Variability in Soil Trace Gas (CO2, N2O, NO) Fluxes and Analysis of Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Interannual variability in flux rates of biogenic trace gases must be quantified in order to understand the differences between short-term trends and actual long-term change in biosphere-atmosphere interactions. We simulated interannual patterns (1983-1988) of global trace gas fluxes from soils using the NASA Ames model version of CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) in a transient simulation mode. This ecosystem model has been recalibrated for simulations driven by satellite vegetation index data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) over the mid-1980s. The predicted interannual pattern of soil heterotropic CO2 emissions indicates that relatively large increases in global carbon flux from soils occurred about three years following the strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event of 1983. Results for the years 1986 and 1987 showed an annual increment of +1 Pg (1015 g) C-CO2 emitted from soils, which tended to dampen the estimated global increase in net ecosystem production with about a two year lag period relative to plant carbon fixation. Zonal discrimination of model results implies that 80-90 percent of the yearly positive increments in soil CO2 emission during 1986-87 were attributable to soil organic matter decomposition in the low-latitudes (between 30 N and 30 S). Soils of the northern middle-latitude zone (between 30 N and 60 N) accounted for the residual of these annual increments. Total annual emissions of nitrogen trace gases (N2O and NO) from soils were estimated to vary from 2-4 percent over the time period modeled, a level of variability which is consistent with predicted interannual fluctuations in global soil CO2 fluxes. Interannual variability of precipitation in tropical and subtropical zones (30 N to 20 S appeared to drive the dynamic inverse relationship between higher annual emissions of NO versus emissions of N2O. Global mean emission rates from natural (heterotrophic) soil sources over the period modeled (1983

  17. The fate of nitrogen fertilizer added to soy-maize agriculture in the Amazon basin: Quantifying N2O flux and losses to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Neill, C.; Davidson, E. A.; Macedo, M.; Costa, C., Jr.; Galford, G. L.; Coe, M. T.; O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Lefebvre, P.; Maracahipes, L.; Nunes, D.; McHorney, R.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural intensification are rapidly changing the landscape of southeastern Amazonia. With international pressure to reduce deforestation, many Brazilian farms have opted to intensify agriculture to a system of soybean-maize double cropping, and it has expanded rapidly in the last 10 years. Maize agriculture requires additional nitrogen (N) fertilizers, whose downstream fate is currently unknown. Typical fertilizer application rates range from 30-120 kg N ha-1, and have the potential to introduce large amounts of N to ecosystems of the Amazon basin, which can alter greenhouse gas flux and nutrient transport to groundwater and streams. Little data on the fate of added fertilizers are available in the tropics in general, especially in this critical region of agricultural expansion. Therefore, we established a field-scale experiment to evaluate the fate of N fertilizer on Tanguro Ranch in Mato Grosso, Brazil, a region of rapidly expanding soy-maize double cropping. We measured greenhouse gas fluxes (N2O, CO2, and CH4), soil N content, losses to groundwater, and corn productivity across five levels of fertilizer addition (0-200 kg N ha-1) throughout an entire growing season. We found that N2O flux increased with fertilizer addition, but was only significantly higher at 200 kg N ha-1. Surface soil N content increased after fertilizer addition, but decreased within weeks, and was quickly observed in subsurface soil water. Modeling results that scale these findings to the state of Mato Grosso suggest that this land use transition could create a substantial new source of N2O and CO2 to the atmosphere and has the potential to leach N fertilizer into groundwater and downstream. It is important to maintain forest code policies that minimize these impacts.

  18. Atmospheric Emissions of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from Different Nitrogen Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing interest in quantification of significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural practices. Efficient N fertilizers and alternative sources of N that produce low GHG emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on global warmin...

  19. [n]Ferrocenophanes (n = 2, 3) with Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Bridging Positions.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhayan; Sun, Wei; Müller, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The in situ prepared dilithio derivative of the known species 1-bromo-1'-(trimethylsilylamino)ferrocene (1) reacted with tBuPCl2 to form the first example of a [2]ferrocenophane ([2]FCP) bridged by nitrogen and phosphorus (2). Sulfurization of 2 followed by column chromatography on silica gel gave the expected [2]FCP with a tBu(S)PN(SiMe3) bridging moiety (3a) and its desilylated counterpart with a tBu(S)PNH bridging moiety (3b). The molecular structure of 3b was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis (α = 18.40(11)°). Using a common synthetic methodology, two new 1-amino-1'-bromoferrocene derivatives were prepared, one species with a PhCH2 (6a) and another with a tBuCH2 group (6b) on nitrogen. Dilithiation of 6a followed by addition of tBuPCl2 gave a mixture of three constitutional isomers: the targeted [2]FCP (7a), the 1,1'-disubstituted ferrocene derivative (tBuPH)(PhCH═N)fc (8a), and the [3]FCP bridged by a (NH)(CHPh)PtBu moiety (9a). NMR spectroscopy revealed that 8a is the precursor for 9a. The salt-metathesis reaction of the dilithio derivative of 6b with tBuPCl2 exclusively gave the 1,1'-disubstituted ferrocene derivative (tBuPH)(tBuCH═N)fc (8b), which does not isomerize to the respective [3]FCP. DFT calculations at the M06/6-311+G(d,p) level were used to better rationalize these unexpected results. PMID:26986956

  20. The Answer to Rising Gas Prices...Nitrogen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Frank; Batelaan, Herman

    2010-01-01

    It is claimed by the company NitroFill and the GetNitrogen Institute that filling car tires with nitrogen improves gas mileage considerably. The reason given is that oxygen leaks out of tires so that the increased rolling friction causes a reduced gas mileage. Because it is hard to do an actual road test, we report on a simple visual test of…

  1. Nitrogen and carbon interactions in controlling terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    The increased input of N to terrestrial systems may have profound impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHGs) fluxes and, consequently, our future climate; however, fully capturing and quantifying these interactions under field conditions urgently requires new, more efficient, measurement approaches. We have recently developed and deployed a novel system for the automation of terrestrial GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scales, using the approach of 'flying' a single measurement chamber to multiple points in an experimental field arena. As an example of the value of this approach, we shall describe the results from a field experiment investigating the interactions between increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) additions on net ecosystem exchanges of N2O, CH4 and CO2, enabling the simultaneous application of 25 treatments, replicated five times in a fully replicated block field design. We will describe how the ability to deliver automated GHG flux measurements, highly replicated in space and time, has revealed hitherto unreported findings on N and C interactions in field soil. In our experiments we found insignificant N2O fluxes from bare field soil, even at very high inorganic N addition rates, but the interactive addition of even small amounts of available C resulted in very large and rapid N2O fluxes. The SkyGas experimental system enabled investigation of the underlying interacting response surfaces on the fluxes of the major soil-derived GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to increasing N and C inputs, and revealed unexpected interactions. In addition to these results we will also discuss some of the technical problems which have been overcome in developing these 'flying' systems and the potential of the systems for automatically screening the impacts of large numbers of treatments on GHG fluxes, and other ecosystem responses, under field conditions. We describe here technological advances that can facilitate the development of more robust GHG mitigation

  2. Investigations of x-ray response of single wire anode Ar-N 2 flow type gas scintillation proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, S. P.; Sharma, R. C.

    1984-05-01

    The X-ray response of single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters of two different geometries operated with argon + nitrogen gases in continuous flow has been investigated with wire anodes of diameters 25 μm to 1.7 mm. An energy resolution of 19% is obtained for 5.9 keV X-rays entering the counter perpendicular to the anode in pill-box geometry with 25 μm diameter anode. With cylindrical geometry counters energy resolutions obtained at 5.9 keV are 18%, 24% and 33% for 50 μm, 0.5 mm and 1.7 mm diameter anodes respectively. An analysis of the observed resolution shows that the contribution from photon counting statistics to the relative variance of scintillation pulses even for X-rays in Ar-N 2 single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters is small and is not a limiting factor. The energy resolution with thicker anodes, where the contribution from the variance of the charge multiplication factor also has been minimised, is found to deteriorate mainly by the interactions in the scintillation production region. Comments are made on the possibility of improvement in energy resolution by suppression of pulses due to such interactions with the help of the pulse risetime discrimination technique.

  3. Fast Nitrogen Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of N2 by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ciocca, Marco

    1996-01-01

    The Doppler profiles of one of the fine structure lines of the N I (1200 A) g (sup 4)S(sup 0)-(sup 4)P multiplet and of the N II (1085 A) g (sup 3)p(sup O)-(sup 3)D multiplet have been measured. Excitation of the multiplets is produced by electron impact dissociative excitation of N2. The experimental line profiles are evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques and analysis of the profiles yields the kinetic energy distribution of fragments. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of N I (1200 A) increases from 27+/-6 mA at 30 eV to 37+/-4 mA at 100 eV as the emission cross section of the dissociative ionization excitation process becomes more important relative to the dissociative excitation process. The FWHM of the N II (1085 A) line is 36+/-4 mA at 100 eV. For each multiplet the kinetic energy distribution function of each of the two fragment N atoms (ions) is much broader than thermal with a mean energy above 1.0 eV. The dissociation process with the largest cross section is predissociation and predominantly produces N atoms with kinetic energy distributions having mean energies above 0.5 eV. Dissociative processes can lead to a substantial escape flux of N I atoms from the satellites, Titan and Triton of the outer planets.

  4. Co-Regulations of Spartina alterniflora Invasion and Exogenous Nitrogen Loading on Soil N2O Efflux in Subtropical Mangrove Mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dai; Qi, Fei; Xu, Xia; Feng, Jianxiang; Wu, Hao; Guo, Jiemin; Lu, Weizhi; Peng, Ronghao; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Both plant invasion and nitrogen (N) enrichment should have significant impact on mangrove ecosystems in coastal regions around the world. However, how N2O efflux in mangrove wetlands responds to these environmental changes has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a mesocosm experiment with native mangrove species Kandelia obovata, invasive salt marsh species Spartina alterniflora, and their mixture in a simulated tide rotation system with or without nitrogen addition. In the treatments without N addition, the N2O effluxes were relatively low and there were no significant variations among the three vegetation types. A pulse loading of exogenous ammonium nitrogen increased N2O effluxes from soils but the stimulatory effect gradually diminished over time, suggesting that frequent measurements are necessary to accurately understand the behavior of N-induced response of N2O emissions. With the N addition, the N2O effluxes from the invasive S. alterniflora were lower than that from native K. obovata mesocosms. This result may be attributed to higher growth of S. alterniflora consuming most of the available nitrogen in soils, and thus inhibiting N2O production. We concluded that N loading significantly increased N2O effluxes, while the invasion of S. alterniflora reduced N2O effluxes response to N loading in this simulated mangrove ecosystem. Thus, both plant invasion and excessive N loading can co-regulate soil N2O emissions from mangrove wetlands, which should be considered when projecting future N2O effluxes from this type of coastal wetland. PMID:26727205

  5. Co-Regulations of Spartina alterniflora Invasion and Exogenous Nitrogen Loading on Soil N2O Efflux in Subtropical Mangrove Mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dai; Qi, Fei; Xu, Xia; Feng, Jianxiang; Wu, Hao; Guo, Jiemin; Lu, Weizhi; Peng, Ronghao; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Both plant invasion and nitrogen (N) enrichment should have significant impact on mangrove ecosystems in coastal regions around the world. However, how N2O efflux in mangrove wetlands responds to these environmental changes has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a mesocosm experiment with native mangrove species Kandelia obovata, invasive salt marsh species Spartina alterniflora, and their mixture in a simulated tide rotation system with or without nitrogen addition. In the treatments without N addition, the N2O effluxes were relatively low and there were no significant variations among the three vegetation types. A pulse loading of exogenous ammonium nitrogen increased N2O effluxes from soils but the stimulatory effect gradually diminished over time, suggesting that frequent measurements are necessary to accurately understand the behavior of N-induced response of N2O emissions. With the N addition, the N2O effluxes from the invasive S. alterniflora were lower than that from native K. obovata mesocosms. This result may be attributed to higher growth of S. alterniflora consuming most of the available nitrogen in soils, and thus inhibiting N2O production. We concluded that N loading significantly increased N2O effluxes, while the invasion of S. alterniflora reduced N2O effluxes response to N loading in this simulated mangrove ecosystem. Thus, both plant invasion and excessive N loading can co-regulate soil N2O emissions from mangrove wetlands, which should be considered when projecting future N2O effluxes from this type of coastal wetland. PMID:26727205

  6. Transport properties of N2 gas at cryogenic temperatures. [computation of viscosity and thermal conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The viscosity and thermal conductivity of nitrogen gas for the temperature range 5 K - 135 K have been computed from the second Chapman-Enskog approximation. Quantum effects, which become appreciable at the lower temperatures, are included by utilizing collision integrals based on quantum theory. A Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential was assumed. The computations yield viscosities about 20 percent lower than those predicted for the high end of this temperature range by the method of corresponding states, but the agreement is excellent when the computed values are compared with existing experimental data.

  7. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  8. Experimental studies on power frequency breakdown voltage of CF3I/N2 mixed gas under different electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiao, Song; Han, Yefei; Cressault, Yann

    2016-02-01

    To verify the feasibility of replacing SF6 by CF3I/N2, we compared their power frequency breakdown performance with the influence of gas pressure, mixing ratio, and electric field utilization coefficient. Under different electric fields and mixing ratios, the power frequency breakdown voltage of CF3I/N2 increases linearly along with gas pressure. Besides, with the rise of the electric field utilization coefficient, the linear growth rate of breakdown voltage along with gas pressure gradually rises. The sensitivity of pure CF3I to electric field is particularly high and can be improved by the addition of N2. The mixture 30% CF3I/70% N2 at 0.3 MPa could replace pure SF6 in equipment requiring a low insulation, but the gas pressure or the content of CF3I need to be increased for higher insulation requirements.

  9. Thermodynamic stability, spectroscopic identification, and gas storage capacity of CO2-CH4-N2 mixture gas hydrates: implications for landfill gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Hoon; Ahn, Sook-Hyun; Nam, Byong-Uk; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Gang-Woo; Moon, Donghyun; Shin, Hyung Joon; Han, Kyu Won; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Landfill gas (LFG), which is primarily composed of CH(4), CO(2), and N(2), is produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic materials. To investigate the feasibility of the storage and transportation of LFG via the formation of hydrate, we observed the phase equilibrium behavior of CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrates. When the specific molar ratio of CO(2)/CH(4) was 40/55, the equilibrium dissociation pressures were gradually shifted to higher pressures and lower temperatures as the mole fraction of N(2) increased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrate prepared from the CO(2)/CH(4)/N(2) (40/55/5) gas mixture formed a structure I clathrate hydrate. A combination of Raman and solid-state (13)C NMR measurements provided detailed information regarding the cage occupancy of gas molecules trapped in the hydrate frameworks. The gas storage capacity of LFG hydrates was estimated from the experimental results for the hydrate formations under two-phase equilibrium conditions. We also confirmed that trace amounts of nonmethane organic compounds do not affect the cage occupancy of gas molecules or the thermodynamic stability of LFG hydrates. PMID:22380606

  10. Excessive use of nitrogen in Chinese agriculture results in high N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio of denitrification, primarily due to acidification of the soils

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhi; Wang, Jingguo; Almøy, Trygve; Bakken, Lars R

    2014-01-01

    China is the world's largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N, and decades of overuse has caused nitrate leaching and possibly soil acidification. We hypothesized that this would enhance the soils' propensity to emit N2O from denitrification by reducing the expression of the enzyme N2O reductase. We investigated this by standardized oxic/anoxic incubations of soils from five long-term fertilization experiments in different regions of China. After adjusting the nitrate concentration to 2 mM, we measured oxic respiration (R), potential denitrification (D), substrate-induced denitrification, and the denitrification product stoichiometry (NO, N2O, N2). Soils with a history of high fertilizer N levels had high N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios, but only in those field experiments where soil pH had been lowered by N fertilization. By comparing all soils, we found a strong negative correlation between pH and the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio (r2 = 0.759, P < 0.001). In contrast, the potential denitrification (D) was found to be a linear function of oxic respiration (R), and the ratio D/R was largely unaffected by soil pH. The immediate effect of liming acidified soils was lowered N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios. The results provide evidence that soil pH has a marginal direct effect on potential denitrification, but that it is the master variable controlling the percentage of denitrified N emitted as N2O. It has been known for long that low pH may result in high N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratios of denitrification, but our documentation of a pervasive pH-control of this ratio across soil types and management practices is new. The results are in good agreement with new understanding of how pH may interfere with the expression of N2O reductase. We argue that the management of soil pH should be high on the agenda for mitigating N2O emissions in the future, particularly for countries where ongoing intensification of plant production is likely to acidify the soils. PMID:24249526

  11. Mechanical properties of Ta-Al-N thin films deposited by cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering: Influence of N2% in the gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Elham; Moghaddasi, Naghmeh; Reza Hantehzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Ta-Al-N thin films were deposited by cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering on a stainless steel substrate under varying nitrogen flow ratios ( N2 with respect to N2 + Ar in the range of 1.5%-9%. The effect of the N2 content in the reactive gas mixture on crystalline structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of Ta-Al-N thin films was investigated. The amount of Al and Ta in deposited films was obtained by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis and films thickness was measured by surface step profilometer. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed that the crystalline structure of the Ta-Al-N polycrystalline thin film is a mixture of TaAl, TaN, and AlN crystalline phases. Surface morphology, roughness, and grain size were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nano hardness of Ta-Al-N thin films, measured by the nanoindentation method, was about 9GPa maximum for samples prepared under 3% N2 , and the friction coefficient, obtained by nanoscratch analysis, was approximately 0.2 for all Ta-Al-N thin films. Other results were found to be affected considerably by increasing the N2 amount.

  12. Plasma polymerization of an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby nitrogen can be incorporated into an organic film from an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture using an internal electrode capacitively coupled radio frequency reactor. The presence of nitrogen has been shown directly by infrared transmittance spectra and electron spectroscopic chemical analysis data, and further indirect evidence was provided by dielectric measurements and by the reverse osmosis properties of the film. Preparation of a nitrogen containing film did not require vapor from an organic nitrogen containing liquid monomer. Some control over the bonding and stoichiometry of the polymer film was provided by the added degree of freedom of the nitrogen partial pressure in the gas mixture. This new parameter strongly affected the dielectric properties of the plasma polymerized film and could affect the reverse osmosis behavior.

  13. Transport Properties of He-N2 Binary Gas Mixtures for CBC Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel P.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the size and mass of the single-shaft turbo-machines, with little impact on the size of the heat transfer components in the CBC loop, He-Xe binary mixture with a molecular weight of 40 g/mole has been the working fluid of choice in space nuclear reactor power systems with Close Brayton Cycle (CBC) for energy conversion. This working fluid is also a suitable coolant for the fission reactors heat source designed with fast neutron energy spectra. For space nuclear reactors with thermal neutron energy spectra, however, the high capture neutron cross-section of Xe will reduce the beginning-of-life excess reactivity of the reactor, decreasing its effective operation lifetime. In addition, the neutron activation of Xe in the reactor will introduce a radioactivity source term in the CBC loop. Alternative working fluids with no activation concerns and comparable performance are N2 and the binary mixtures of He-N2. This paper calculates the transport properties of these working fluids and compares their values to those of noble gas binary mixtures at the temperatures and pressures expected in CBC space reactor power system applications. Also investigated is the impact of using these working fluids on the pressure losses, heat transfer coefficient, and the aerodynamic loading of the blades in the CBC turbo-machines.

  14. Spatial variations of nitrogen trace gas emissions from tropical mountain forests in Nyungwe, Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharahi Ghehi, N.; Werner, C.; Cizungu Ntaboba, L.; Mbonigaba Muhinda, J. J.; Van Ranst, E.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Kiese, R.; Boeckx, P.

    2012-04-01

    Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. Therefore, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90 % water filled pore space (WFPS)) at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m-2 h-1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265 μg N m-2 h-1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50 %WFPS), 71.7 ± 11.5 (70 %WFPS) and 98.8 ± 16.4 (90 %WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1, while mean NO emission was 69.3 ± 9.3 (50 %WFPS), 47.1 ± 5.8 (70 %WFPS) and 36.1 ± 4.2 (90 %WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season) controls N2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N2O and NO production. But interestingly N2O and NO emissions also showed a positive correlation with free iron and a negative correlation with soil pH (only N2O). The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will benefit from spatially explicit trace gas emission estimates linked to basic soil property data and differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation.

  15. Effects of struvite formation and nitratation promotion on nitrogenous emissions such as NH3, N2O and NO during swine manure composting.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Waki, Miyoko; Yasuda, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    To reduce nitrogenous emissions from composting, two different countermeasures were applied simultaneously in swine manure composting. One was forming struvite by adding Mg and P at the start of composting, and the other was to promote nitratation (nitrite being oxidized nitrate) by adding nitrite-oxidizing bacteria after the thermophilic phase of composting. In the laboratory- and mid-scale composting experiments, 25-43% of NH3, 52-80% of N2O and 96-99% of NO emissions were reduced. From the nitrogen balance, it was revealed that the struvite formation reduced not only NH3, but also other nitrogenous emissions except N2O. The amount of total nitrogen losses was reduced by 60% by the two combined countermeasures, against 51% by the struvite formation alone. However, the nitratation promotion dissolved struvite crystals due to the pH decline, diminishing the effect of struvite as a slow-release fertilizer. PMID:20952186

  16. [Effects of water levels and the additions of different nitrogen forms on soil net nitrogen transformation rate and N2O emission in subtropical forest soils].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fen; Ma, Hong-liang; Qiu, Hong; Yang, Hong-yu

    2015-02-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the additions of different nitrogen forms on nitrogen transformation in red soils of subtropical forest under soil moisture conditions with 40%, 70% and 110% of water holding capacity (WHC). The results showed that soil net mineralization and ammonification rates were maximum at 70% WHC and minimum at 40% WHC. Compared with the control, the addition of NO(3-)-N decreased the soil net mineralization and ammonification rates by 56.1% and 43.0% under 70% WHC condition, and decreased by 68.2% and 19.0% under 110% WHC, respectively. However, the proportion of ammonification to mineralization increased at 70% and 110% WHC, which suggested that nitrate addition inhibited the nitrification. With addition of NO(3-)-N at 110% WHC, the net nitrification rate was lowest while N20 emission was highest with the concomitant decrease of nitrate content, indicating that N2O emission was largely derived from denitrification. However, at 40% WHC and 70% WHC, the maximum N20 flux was found at the early stage of incubation. Even with addition of NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N, N2O flux did not change much at the latter stage of incubation, indicating that autotrophic nitrification was dominant for N20 production at the early stage of incubation. Under 40% WHC condition, soluble organic carbon increased more and it increased largely with NH(4+)-N addition, which meant NH(4+)-N addition could enhance the mineralization of soil organic matter. Under 40% and 110% WHC conditions, the addition of NH(4+)-N increased significantly the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) by 73.6% and 176.6% compared with the control, respectively. A significant increase of 78.7% for SON was only found at 40% WHC under addition of NO(3-)-N compared with the control. These results showed that high soil moisture condition and addition of NH(4+)-N were of benefit to SON formation. PMID:26094450

  17. 71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ON SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Simple approach for the preparation of 15−15N2-enriched water for nitrogen fixation assessments: evaluation, application and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Klawonn, Isabell; Lavik, Gaute; Böning, Philipp; Marchant, Hannah K.; Dekaezemacker, Julien; Mohr, Wiebke; Ploug, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings revealed that the commonly used 15N2 tracer assay for the determination of dinitrogen (N2) fixation can underestimate the activity of aquatic N2-fixing organisms. Therefore, a modification to the method using pre-prepared 15−15N2-enriched water was proposed. Here, we present a rigorous assessment and outline a simple procedure for the preparation of 15−15N2-enriched water. We recommend to fill sterile-filtered water into serum bottles and to add 15−15N2 gas to the water in amounts exceeding the standard N2 solubility, followed by vigorous agitation (vortex mixing ≥ 5 min). Optionally, water can be degassed at low-pressure (≥950 mbar) for 10 min prior to the 15−15N2 gas addition to indirectly enhance the 15−15N2 concentration. This preparation of 15−15N2-enriched water can be done within 1 h using standard laboratory equipment. The final 15N-atom% excess was 5% after replacing 2–5% of the incubation volume with 15−15N2-enriched water. Notably, the addition of 15−15N2-enriched water can alter levels of trace elements in the incubation water due to the contact of 15−15N2-enriched water with glass, plastic and rubber ware. In our tests, levels of trace elements (Fe, P, Mn, Mo, Cu, Zn) increased by up to 0.1 nmol L−1 in the final incubation volume, which may bias rate measurements in regions where N2 fixation is limited by trace elements. For these regions, we tested an alternative way to enrich water with 15−15N2. The 15−15N2 was injected as a bubble directly to the incubation water, followed by gentle shaking. Immediately thereafter, the bubble was replaced with water to stop the 15−15N2 equilibration. This approach achieved a 15N-atom% excess of 6.6 ± 1.7% when adding 2 mL 15−15N2 per liter of incubation water. The herein presented methodological tests offer guidelines for the 15N2 tracer assay and thus, are crucial to circumvent methodological draw-backs for future N2 fixation assessments. PMID:26300853

  19. Simple approach for the preparation of (15-15)N2-enriched water for nitrogen fixation assessments: evaluation, application and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Isabell; Lavik, Gaute; Böning, Philipp; Marchant, Hannah K; Dekaezemacker, Julien; Mohr, Wiebke; Ploug, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings revealed that the commonly used (15)N2 tracer assay for the determination of dinitrogen (N2) fixation can underestimate the activity of aquatic N2-fixing organisms. Therefore, a modification to the method using pre-prepared (15-15)N2-enriched water was proposed. Here, we present a rigorous assessment and outline a simple procedure for the preparation of (15-15)N2-enriched water. We recommend to fill sterile-filtered water into serum bottles and to add (15-15)N2 gas to the water in amounts exceeding the standard N2 solubility, followed by vigorous agitation (vortex mixing ≥ 5 min). Optionally, water can be degassed at low-pressure (≥950 mbar) for 10 min prior to the (15-15)N2 gas addition to indirectly enhance the (15-15)N2 concentration. This preparation of (15-15)N2-enriched water can be done within 1 h using standard laboratory equipment. The final (15)N-atom% excess was 5% after replacing 2-5% of the incubation volume with (15-15)N2-enriched water. Notably, the addition of (15-15)N2-enriched water can alter levels of trace elements in the incubation water due to the contact of (15-15)N2-enriched water with glass, plastic and rubber ware. In our tests, levels of trace elements (Fe, P, Mn, Mo, Cu, Zn) increased by up to 0.1 nmol L(-1) in the final incubation volume, which may bias rate measurements in regions where N2 fixation is limited by trace elements. For these regions, we tested an alternative way to enrich water with (15-15)N2. The (15-15)N2 was injected as a bubble directly to the incubation water, followed by gentle shaking. Immediately thereafter, the bubble was replaced with water to stop the (15-15)N2 equilibration. This approach achieved a (15)N-atom% excess of 6.6 ± 1.7% when adding 2 mL (15-15)N2 per liter of incubation water. The herein presented methodological tests offer guidelines for the (15)N2 tracer assay and thus, are crucial to circumvent methodological draw-backs for future N2 fixation assessments. PMID:26300853

  20. The influence of SF6 and SF6/N2 gas pressure to the breakdown performance of polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Peihong; Gong Guoli; Dong Guangyu; Dong Zhenhua

    1996-12-31

    SF6 has been widely used as the gas insulating medium in gas insulated transformer, and polyester film used as the turn insulation and other insulating materials. In this paper, the insulation strength of turn insulation of SF6/N2-film is tested when the SF6 is replaced by SF6/N2 mixed gas, and also compared with that of SF6-film. The results show that the power frequency breakdown voltage and breakdown stress of SF6/N2-film is lower than that of SF6-film in the same pressure and the same film thickness, the mean value of the former is about 91% of the latter. In order to reach the same level of turn insulation strength in the operation range, the gas pressure must be increased by 0.05 Mpa.

  1. Measurements of gas phase reactive nitrogen during two wildfires in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Chen, X.; Hecobian, A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning represents an important source of particles and trace gases to the global atmosphere. In addition to carbon species, nitrogen compounds are abundant in biomass burning emissions, with NOx, N2O, and N2 released primarily during flaming combustion, and NH3, amines and nitriles associated with smoldering combustion. Although nitrogen emissions from fires have been documented from laboratory and satellite measurements, and during prescribed burns, few direct measurements have been made during major wildfires. In this presentation, we summarize measurements of gas-phase nitrogen species observed during two wildfires in northern Colorado in 2012: the Hewlett Gulch Fire and High Park Fire. The Hewlett Gulch Fire was directly northwest of Fort Collins, CO and covered 3,100 hectares, while the High Park fire was significantly larger (35,300 hectares), encompassing the Hewlett Gulch Fire and coming within 3-4 km of our laboratory at Colorado State University. Emissions from both fires reached our laboratory, where measurements were made of NOx, NOy, NH3, and additional, unspeciated gas-phase nitrogen compounds. Smoke impacts at our facility ranged from background conditions to periods with very heavy smoke, depending on the local meteorology. We observed dramatic increases in measured concentrations during periods influenced by the fires.

  2. On the collision quenching of N_2^+(B\\,^2\\Sigma_u^+, v=0) by N2 and O2 and its influence on the measurement of E/N by intensity ratio of nitrogen spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilecce, G.; Ambrico, P. F.; De Benedictis, S.

    2010-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the rate coefficients of N_2^+(B\\,^2\\!\\Sigma_u^+, v=0) collision quenching by N2 and O2 are presented. The values of (8.84 ± 0.37) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 and (10.45 ± 0.45) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 have been found for N2 and O2, respectively. The present results agree well with the literature data obtained by selective methods for ion B state excitation. The data are discussed in the framework of the spectroscopic evaluation of the reduced electric field in electrical discharges at high pressure, which makes use of the second positive system and first negative system emissions of nitrogen.

  3. The Answer to Rising Gas Prices...Nitrogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Frank; Batelaan, Herman

    2010-03-01

    It is claimed by the company NitroFill and the GetNitrogen Institute that filling car tires with nitrogen improves gas mileage considerably. The reason given is that oxygen leaks out of tires so that the increased rolling friction causes a reduced gas mileage. Because it is hard to do an actual road test, we report on a simple visual test of leakage from oxygen- and nitrogen-filled balloons. This experiment can be repeated in classrooms to address a controversial and topical issue, while at the same time highlighting hypothesis formulation, verification, and falsification in scientific experiments.

  4. Differences in the Spatial Variability Among CO2, CH 4, and N 2O Gas Fluxes from an Urban Forest Soil in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka Wenhong; Oura, Noriko; Sekikawa, Seiko; Yonemura, Seichiro; Sudo, Shigeto; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Minamikawa, Kazunori; Takata, Yusuke; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    The spatial variability of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes from forest soil with high nitrogen (N) deposition was investigated at a rolling hill region in Japan. Gas fluxes were measured on July 25th and December 5th, 2008 at 100 points within a 100 × 100 m grid. Slope direction and position influenced soil characteristics and site-specific emissions were found. The CO(2) flux showed no topological difference in July, but was significantly lower in December for north-slope with coniferous trees. Spatial dependency of CH(4) fluxes was stronger than that of CO(2) or N(2)O and showed a significantly higher uptake in hill top, and emissions in the valley indicating strong influence of water status. N(2)O fluxes showed no spatial dependency and exhibited high hot spots at different topology in July and December. The high N deposition led to high N(2)O fluxes and emphasized the spatial variability. PMID:24736940

  5. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  6. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  7. Rapid N2O fluxes at high level of nitrate nitrogen addition during freeze-thaw events in boreal peatlands of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qian; Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Shi, Fuxi; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-06-01

    Freeze-thaw (FT) events and increasing nitrogen (N) availability may alter N turnover and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in permafrost peatlands. However, the responses of N2O emissions to different N levels and additions during FT events are far from clear. We conducted an incubation study to investigate the impacts of different N addition levels (LN: 0.07 mg N g-1, HN: 0.14 mg N g-1) and N addition forms (AC: ammonium chloride, NS: sodium nitrate) on the emissions of N2O under FT and non-freeze-thaw (NFT) conditions in boreal peatlands of Northeast China. Results indicated that the FT condition significantly increased N2O emissions compared with the NFT condition and peaks occurred during thawing. Compared with AC treatments, NS treatments significantly elevated the accumulation of N2O emissions under the FT condition, exhibiting significant differences in different NS levels. N2O emissions were also positively dependent on soil NO3- concentrations to supply nitrate for denitrification. Nitrate-N addition was mainly responsible for the burst of N2O with denitrification as the main process during FT events. Therefore, these results suggest that N2O emissions potentially increase during FT events with increasing nitrate-N deposition in permafrost peatlands, which would contribute to global climate warming.

  8. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  9. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Simultaneous In-situ Measurements of NO3, N2O5, NO2, NO and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. S.; Stark, H.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Nicks, D. K.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2002-12-01

    We report the first simultaneous, in-situ observation of a suite of compounds important in nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry. Measurements took place at a ground site near Boulder, CO, during the fall of 2001. Chemical measurements included NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2 and O3; meteorological data were also available. The concentrations of NO3 and N2O5 showed large dynamic ranges that were consistent with variations in N2O5 and NO, and with shifts in meteorological conditions at this site. The observed ratio of N2O5 to NO3 agreed with the ratio calculated from the measured NO2 concentration and the temperature-dependent equilibrium constant. In addition, NO3 and N2O5 showed large short-term variability that may indicate inhomogeneously mixed source and sink compounds and/or deposition at this ground-based measurement site. Finally, N2O5 reached a peak concentration of nearly 3 ppbv under polluted conditions and accounted for an appreciable fraction of the total concentration of measured nitrogen oxide species.

  10. Effects of nitrogen on the ecosystem respiration, CH4 and N2O emissions to the atmosphere from the freshwater marshes in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihua; Song, Changchun; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Dexuan; Wang, Yiyong

    2007-04-01

    Freshwater marshes could be a source of greenhouse gases emission because they contain large amounts of soil carbon and nitrogen. These emissions are strongly influenced by exogenous nitrogen. We investigate the effects of exogenous nitrogen on ecosystem respiration (CO2), CH4 and N2O emissions from freshwater marshes in situ in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast of China during the growing seasons of 2004 and 2005, using a field fertilizer experiment and the static opaque chamber/GC techniques. The results show that there were no significant differences in patterns of seasonal variations of CO2 and CH4 among the fertilizer and non-fertilizer treatments, but the seasonal patterns of N2O emission were significantly influenced by the exogenous nitrogen. Seasonal averages of the CO2 flux from non-fertilizer and fertilizer were 987.74 and 1,344.35 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, in 2004, and 898.59 and 2,154.17 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, in 2005. And the CH4 from the control and fertilizer treatments were 6.05 and 13.56 mg m -2 h -1 and 0.72 and 1.88 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. The difference of N2O flux between the fertilizer and non-fertilizer treatments is also significant either in 2004 and 2005. On the time scale of 20-, 100-, and 500-year periods, the integrated global warming potential (GWP) of CO2 +CH4 +N2O released during the two growing seasons for the treatment of fertilizer was 97, 94 and 89%, respectively, higher than that for the control, which suggested that the nitrogen fertilizer can enhance the GWP of the CH4 and N2O either in long time or short time scale.

  11. [Effects of dicyandiamide combined with nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emission and economic benefit in winter wheat and summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-qun; Li, Ying-chun; Peng, Zheng-ping; Wang, Chao-dong; Liu, Ya-nan

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at the problems of excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application, lower nitrogen use efficiency, increasing N2O emission from soil and fertilizer in current intensified agricultural productions, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of dicyandiamide (DCD) combined with nitrogen fertilizer application at different levels, i.e., 150, 225, 300 kg . hm-2, on N20 emission and relevant economic benefit in a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China Plain. The results showed that DCD application decreased N2O emission fluxes and cumulative emissions by 25.6%-32.1% and 23.1%-31.1% in the year-round. There was a significant positive exponential correlation between N2O flux and soil surface temperature or soil moisture content. The effect of soil moisture on N2O emission was stronger in wheat season than in maize season, while the effect of temperature on N2O emission was on the contrary. The yields of winter wheat and summer maize with DCD addition were increased by 16.7%-24.6% and 29.8%-34.5%, respectively, and the average economic income of two seasons was increased by 7973.2 yuan . hm-2. Therefore, appropriate rate of N fertilizer combined with DCD could not only increase crop yield and economic income, but also reduce N2O emission. Considering environmental and economic benefit under this experimental condition, DCD combined with nitrogen of moderate level (total N amount 225 kg . hm-2) was a good nitrogen management mode in North China. PMID:26710625

  12. Nitrogen addition using a gas blow in an ESR process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Momoi, Y.; Kajikawa, K.

    2016-07-01

    A new nitrogen method for adding in an ESR process using nitrogen gas blown in through the electrode was investigated. Nitrogen gas blown through a center bore of the electrode enabled contact between the nitrogen gas and the molten steel directly underneath the electrode tip. A ɸ 145mm diameter, laboratory-sized PESR furnace was used for the study on the reaction kinetics. Also, we carried out a water-model experiment in order to check the injection depth of the gas blown in the slag. The water model showed that the gas did not reach the upper surface of the molten metal and flowed on the bottom surface of the electrode only. An EPMA was carried out for a droplet remaining on the tip of the electrode after melting. The molten steel from the tip of the electrode shows that nitrogen gas absorption occurred at the tip of the electrode. The mass transfer coefficient was around 1.0x10-2 cm/sec in the system. This value is almost the same as the coefficient at the molten steel free surface.

  13. Nitrogen isotopic ratios in Barnard 1: a consistent study of the N2H+, NH3, CN, HCN, and HNC isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, F.; Gérin, M.; Roueff, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Marcelino, N.; Lique, F.; Lis, D. C.; Teyssier, D.; Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 15N isotopologue abundance ratio measured today in different bodies of the solar system is thought to be connected to 15N-fractionation effects that would have occurred in the protosolar nebula. Aims: The present study aims at putting constraints on the degree of 15N-fractionation that occurs during the prestellar phase, through observations of D, 13C, and 15N-substituted isotopologues towards B1b. Molecules both from the nitrogen hydride family, i.e. N2H+, and NH3, and from the nitrile family, i.e. HCN, HNC, and CN, are considered in the analysis. Methods: As a first step, we modelled the continuum emission in order to derive the physical structure of the cloud, i.e. gas temperature and H2 density. These parameters were subsequently used as input in a non-local radiative transfer model to infer the radial abundance profiles of the various molecules. Results: Our modelling shows that all the molecules are affected by depletion onto dust grains in the region that encompasses the B1-bS and B1-bN cores. While high levels of deuterium fractionation are derived, we conclude that no fractionation occurs in the case of the nitrogen chemistry. Independently of the chemical family, the molecular abundances are consistent with 14N/15N ~ 300, a value representative of the elemental atomic abundances of the parental gas. Conclusions: The inefficiency of the 15N-fractionation effects in the B1b region can be linked to the relatively high gas temperature ~17 K, which is representative of the innermost part of the cloud. Since this region shows signs of depletion onto dust grains, we cannot exclude the possibility that the molecules were previously enriched in 15N, earlier in the B1b history and that such an enrichment could have been incorporated into the ice mantles. It is thus necessary to repeat this kind of study in colder sources to test such a possibility.

  14. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  15. Interaction of gas-phase oriented N 2O with lithium metal: evidence for an Eley-Rideal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, M.; Kuhlmann, F.; Greber, T.; Böwering, N.; Heinzmann, U.

    1999-09-01

    The interaction of state-selected and oriented N 2O molecules with one monolayer of Li on Rh(100) was studied by means of exoelectron emission analysis, time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and sticking measurements in a pulsed molecular beam experiment. State-selected and oriented N 2O molecules are prepared using electrostatic hexapole and dipole fields applying the linear Stark effect. The sticking probability of N 2O on Li/Rh(100) is found to be independent of the molecular state and orientation. The exoemission response on the pulsed beam reveals two different reaction channels: A direct channel which coincides with the arrival of the gas pulse and an indirect channel after the arrival of the gas pulses. The exoemission probability in the direct channel is strongly enhanced for vibrationally excited N 2O molecules and further increases when N 2O hits the surface with the O-end first. Furthermore, it is associated with the backscattering of N 2 molecules which depends on the molecular orientation, as well. From these observations we identify the direct reaction channel with an Eley-Rideal mechanism, i.e. an abstraction reaction that proceeds during the impact of the N 2O where 'harpooning' is the key step that triggers the reaction. The indirect reaction channel, on the other hand, follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood scheme where the reacting molecules are adsorbed on the surface with complete energy accommodation and thus lose the information on their molecular state and orientation in the gas phase.

  16. Laboratory Investigations of Titan Haze Formation: Characterization of Gas Phase and Particle Phase Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Sarah; Yoon, Heidi; Li, Rui; deGouw, Joost; Tolbert, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, aerosol production in Titan’s atmosphere was believed to begin in the stratosphere where chemical processes are predominantly initiated by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. However, the discovery of very heavy ions, coupled with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation measurements that show haze absorption up to 1000 km altitude (Liang et al., 2007), indicates that haze formation initiates in the thermosphere. The energy environment of the thermosphere is significantly different from the stratosphere; in particular there is a greater flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and energetic particles available to initiate chemical reactions, including the destruction of N2, in the upper atmosphere. The discovery of previously unpredicted nitrogen species in measurements of Titan’s atmosphere by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) indicates that nitrogen participates in the chemistry to a much greater extent than was appreciated before Cassini (Vuitton et al., 2007). Additionally, measurements obtained by the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyzer (ACP) carried by Huygens to Titan’s surface may indicate that Titan’s aerosols contain significant amounts of nitrogen (Israël et al., 2005, 2006). The degree of nitrogen incorporation in the haze particles is important for understanding the diversity of molecules that may be present in Titan’s atmosphere and on its surface. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments using either spark discharge (tesla coil) or FUV photons (deuterium lamp) to initiate chemistry in CH4/N2 gas mixtures ranging from 0.01% CH4/99.99% N2 to 10% CH4/90% N2. We obtained in situ measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the particle composition as a function of particle size and a proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) to measure the composition of gas phase

  17. Insulation Characteristics and its Evaluation Method of N2 Gas for Non-standard Lightning Impulse Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    Until recently, SF6 gas has widely been used as the best insulating medium in substation equipment. However, SF6 gas was specified to be a greenhouse gas at COP3 in 1997 because of its high global warming potential (GWP), alternative insulation gases to SF6 have been looked for since long time in the past. Alternatives using the natural gases are considered to be suitable substitute but none of them show better properties for insulation as well as good environmental compatibility. Therefore, it is necessary to rationalize the equipment insulation level and reduce the test voltage of electric power apparatus as low as possible. The actual lightning surge waveform (so-called non-standard lightning impulse waveform) occurring in the actual field is different from the standard lightning impulse waveform (1.2/50μs). There are many cases what the actual lightning surge waveform has steeply rising and large decay of overvoltage, and the insulation requirements are not as severe as those of the standard lightning impulse waveform. In this paper, we focused our research on N2 gas as SF6 substitute and investigated the insulation characteristics of N2 gas for single-frequency oscillatory waveform with various frequencies from 2.7 to 20.0MHz and damping ratios. From experimental results, it might be possible to reduce the test voltage of N2 gas insulation by evaluating the crest value of actual lightning surge waveform that was converted into an equivalent standard lightning impulse waveform.

  18. Characteristics of N2O production and transport within soil profiles subjected to different nitrogen application rates in China.

    PubMed

    Nan, Weige; Yue, Shanchao; Li, Shiqing; Huang, Haizhou; Shen, Yufang

    2016-01-15

    To better understand the effect of N fertilizer on the responses of subsoil N2O to N2O emissions in a high-yield plot, we investigated the subsurface N2O concentrations at seven mineral soil depths and analyzed the subsoil N2O fluxes between soil horizons. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in farmland located in the semi-humid area of the Changwu station, Shaanxi, and the results showed that the application of N fertilizer triggered the highest amount of N2O production and effluxes in the various soil layers. With an increase of N fertilizer, N2O effluxes and production significantly increased; the mean variation of 380 kg N ha(-1) treatment was much greater than that of 250 kg N ha(-1) treatment, particularly after fertilization during the maize growing season (MS). N2O concentrations increased within 30 cm and maintained low and stable values. However, N2O fluxes and production decreased with depth (below 30 cm) and then remained low (approximately zero or even negative) at depths of 30-90 cm. The cumulative N2O fluxes in the 0-15 cm soil layer accounted for 99.0% of the total amount in the soil profile, and high fluxes coincided with periods of relatively high production rates. The cumulative production of N2O also remained in step with the cumulative fluxes. In addition, more N fertilizer was applied, greater production occurred in the topsoil. A significantly positive relationship was found between N2O fluxes and mineral N, and a negative relationship was found between the fluxes and the water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the shallow soil. N2O effluxes increased with increasing amounts of N fertilizer, which was primarily due to nitrification on the Loess Plateau. PMID:26556751

  19. Application of the 15N-Gas Flux method for measuring in situ N2 and N2O fluxes due to denitrification in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems and comparison with the acetylene inhibition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, F.; Ullah, S.; Stott, A.

    2015-08-01

    Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilised agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps, a copper based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 μL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Pre-concentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N Gas-Flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. For our chamber design (volume / surface = 8:1) and a 20 h incubation period, the minimum detectable flux rates were 4 μg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. The N2 flux ranged between 2.4 and 416.6 μg N m-2 h-1, and the grassland soils showed on average 3 and 14 times higher denitrification rates than the woodland and organic soils respectively. The N2O flux was on average 20 to 200 times lower than the N2 flux, while the denitrification product ratio (N2O/N2 + N2O) was low, ranging between 0.03 and 13 %. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique under the same field conditions

  20. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Mass Selected [UO2(ligand)n]2+ Complexes in the Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Anita Gianotto; Michael Vanstipdonk; Kevin C. Cossel; David T. Moore,; Nick Polfer; Jos Oomens

    2006-03-01

    The gas-phase infrared spectra of discrete uranyl ([UO2]2+) complexes ligated with acetone and/or acetonitrile were used to evaluate systematic trends of ligation on the position of the O=U=O stretch, and to enable rigorous comparison with the results of computational studies. Ionic uranyl complexes isolated in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer were fragmented via infrared multiphoton dissociation using a free electron laser scanned over the mid-IR wavelengths. The asymmetric O=U=O stretching frequency was measured at 1017 cm-1 for [UO2(CH3COCH3)2]2+, and was systematically red shifted to 1000 and 988 cm-1 by the addition of a third and fourth acetone ligands, respectively, which was consistent with more donation of electron density to the uranium center in complexes with higher coordination number. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with values generated computationally using LDA, B3LYP, and ZORA-PW91 approaches. In contrast to the uranyl frequency shifts, the carbonyl frequencies of the acetone ligands were progressively blue shifted as the number of ligands increased from 2 to 4, and approached that of free acetone. This observation was consistent with the formation of weaker noncovalent bonds between uranium and the carbonyl oxygen as the extent of ligation increases. Similar trends were observed for [UO2(CH3CN)n]2+ complexes although the magnitude of the red shift in the uranyl frequency upon addition more acetonitrile ligands was smaller than for acetone, consistent with the more modest nucleophilic nature of acetonitrile. This conclusion was amplified by the uranyl stretching frequencies measured for mixed acetone/acetonitrile complexes, which showed that substitution of one acetone for one acetonitrile produced a modest red shift of 3 to 6 cm-1.

  1. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375kgN/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH4 mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO2, and N2O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO2 flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH4 flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N2O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225kgN/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO2-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89t/ha in paddy fields. PMID:27179680

  2. N2:O emissions from a cultivated Andisol after application of nitrogen fertilizers with or without nitrification inhibitor under soil moisture regime.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-Hui; Haruo, Tsuruta

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the emission of N2O from soils following addition of nitrogen fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitor (+inh) or without the nitrification inhibitor(-inh) at different soil water regime. Higher soil moisture contents increased the total N2O emissions in all treatments with total emissions being 7 times larger for the CK and > 20 times larger for the fertilizer treatments at 85% WFPS (soil water filled pore space) than at 40% WFPS. The rates of N2O emissions at 40% WFPS under all treatments were small. The maximum emission rate at 55% WFPS without the nitrification inhibitor (-inh) occurred later (day 11) than those of 70% WFPS (-inh) samples (day 8). The inhibition period was 4-22 d for 55% WFPS and 1-15 d for 70% WFPS comparing the rates of N2O emissions treated (+inh) with (-inh). The maximum emission rates at 85% WFPS were higher than those at the other levels of soil water content for all treatments. The samples (+inh) released less N2O than (-inh) samples at the early stage. Nevertheless, N2O emissions from (+inh) samples lasted longer than in the (-inh) treatment. Changes in mineral N at 55%, 70% and 85% WFPS followed the same pattern. NH4(+) -N concentrations decreased while NO3(-) -N concentrations increased from the beginning of incubation. NH4(+) -N concentrations from 40% WFPS treatment declined more slowly than those of the other three levels of soil water content. Nitrification was faster in the (-inh) samples with 100% NH4(+) -N nitrified after 22 d (50% WFPS) and 15 d (70% and 85% WFPS). N2O emissions increased with soil water content. Adding N-fertilizer increased emissions of N2O. The application of the nitrification inhibitor significantly reduced total N2O emissions from 30.5% (at 85% WFPS) to 43.6% (at 55% WFPS). PMID:15559801

  3. Spatial variations of nitrogen trace gas emissions from tropical mountain forests in Nyungwe, Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharahi Ghehi, N.; Werner, C.; Cizungu Ntaboba, L.; Mbonigaba Muhinda, J. J.; van Ranst, E.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Kiese, R.; Boeckx, P.

    2011-12-01

    Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. To investigate how soil properties affect N2O and NO emission, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90% water filled pore space (WFPS)) at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m-2 h-1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265 μg N m-2 h-1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50% WFPS), 71.7 ± 11.5 (70% WFPS) and 98.8 ± 16.4 (90% WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1, while mean NO emission was 69.3 ± 9.3 (50% WFPS), 47.1 ± 5.8 (70% WFPS) and 36.1 ± 4.2 (90% WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season) controls N2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N2O and NO production. But interestingly N2O and NO emissions also showed a negative correlation (only N2O) with soil pH and a positive correlation with free iron. The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will not only benefit from better spatial explicit trace gas emission and basic soil property monitoring, but also by differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation.

  4. Effects of N2-O2 Gas Mixture Ratio on Microorganism Inactivation in Low-Pressure Surface Wave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effect of N2/O2 gas mixture ratio on low-pressure surface wave plasma inactivation of spore-forming bacteria was investigated. It was experimentally confirmed from the quadrupole mass spectrometry measurements that the spores were etched by atomic oxygen via converting the hydrogen atoms constituting microorganisms into H2O and the carbon into CO2. On the basis of results of plasma diagnostics by optical emission spectroscopy and the results of inactivation efficiency by colony-forming units and scanning electron microscope, we found that although there is the highest ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity in pure N2 plasma and the highest etching efficiency in 90% O2/10% N2 plasma, the inactivation rate of microorganisms was not so efficient. The best inactivation result was obtained in 30-80% O2 gas mixture ratios after 60 s plasma irradiation. The present results indicated that more efficient inactivation is achieved by the synergetic effects between atomic oxygen etching and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/UV emission by combining both effects via optimizing N2/O2 gas mixture ratio.

  5. Application of the 15N gas-flux method for measuring in situ N2 and N2O fluxes due to denitrification in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems and comparison with the acetylene inhibition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, Fotis; Stott, Andrew; Ullah, Sami

    2016-03-01

    Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilized agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in-house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps and a copper-based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 µL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Preconcentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N gas-flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests, and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. The minimum detectable flux rates were 4 µg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique in the same land use types correlated (r = 0.58) with the denitrification rates measured under the 15N gas-flux method, but were underestimated by a factor of 4, and this was partially attributed to the incomplete inhibition of N2O reduction to N2, under a relatively high soil moisture content, and/or the catalytic NO decomposition in the presence of acetylene. Even though relatively robust for in situ denitrification measurements, methodological

  6. Hyperfine structures and Landé gJ-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C.; Jönsson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Godefroid, M.; Gaigalas, G.

    2014-09-01

    Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

  7. Real-Time N2O Gas Detection System for Agricultural Production Using a 4.6-μm-Band Laser Source Based on a Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Ridge Waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Tokura, Akio; Asobe, Masaki; Enbutsu, Koji; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Takenouchi, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a gas monitoring system for detecting nitrous oxide (N2O) gas using a compact mid-infrared laser source based on difference-frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. We obtained a stable output power of 0.62 mW from a 4.6-μm-band continuous-wave laser source operating at room temperature. This laser source enabled us to detect atmospheric N2O gas at a concentration as low as 35 parts per billion. Using this laser source, we constructed a new real-time in-situ monitoring system for detecting N2O gas emitted from potted plants. A few weeks of monitoring with the developed detection system revealed a strong relationship between nitrogen fertilization and N2O emission. This system is promising for the in-situ long-term monitoring of N2O in agricultural production, and it is also applicable to the detection of other greenhouse gases. PMID:23921829

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes and NO release from a Chinese subtropical rice-winter wheat rotation system under nitrogen fertilizer management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Dong, Haibo; Xie, Baohua; Mei, Baoling; Zhou, Zaixing; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-06-01

    synthetic nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in increasing cereal grain yields, there have been increased concerns about their intensive utilization and environmental consequences. The overall goal of this study is to gain an insight into the integrated evaluation of greenhouse gas emission and nitric oxide (NO) release and grain yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization in a subtropical rice-wheat rotation system. The assessment was based on four consecutive yearly measurements of the fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ecosystem respiration (CO2), and the simultaneous observation of NO emissions in nonrice seasons under three fertilization practices (i.e., the conventional farmers' practice with common nitrogen application rate, an alternative practice with reduced nitrogen input, and no nitrogen application as a control). Clearly, these trace gas fluxes showed largely intra-annual and interannual variations, highlighting the importance of entire year measurement for multiple years to achieve representative annual estimates. The annual mean CH4 fluxes varied from 95 kg C ha-1 (7.8 kg C t-1 grain) for the farmers' practice to 205 kg C ha-1 (25.7 kg C t-1 grain) for the control, indicating that nitrogen fertilization inhibited CH4 emissions. Across all the years, the annual N2O emissions increased exponentially with an increasing nitrogen rate and harvested aboveground biomass. The annual N2O emission averaged 1.3-5.3 kg N ha-1(159-444 g N t-1 grain) for all treatments. The annual direct emission factors of N2O-N tended to increase with increasing nitrogen rate and averaged 0.61% and 0.85% for the alternative and farmers' practices, respectively. Over all nonrice seasons, the seasonal mean NO emissions ranged from 0.15 to 1.4 kg N ha-1(58-253 g N t-1 grain), and were equivalent to 0.43% to 0.54% of the applied nitrogen. Averaging across the 4 years, the annual aggregate emissions of CH4 and N2O were 7.4 t CO2-eq ha-1(928 kg CO2-eq t-1grain

  9. Effect of N2 addition in sputter gas on giant magnetoresistance response of PtMn bottom spin-valve films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, M.; Devasahayam, A. J.; Kools, J. C. S.; Wang, J.; Su, C.

    2003-05-01

    Interlayer coupling in spin-valve films is usually dominated by the ferromagnetic Néel coupling of a magnetostatic nature due to interfacial roughness. The addition of N2 as a second sputter gas species during deposition of thin layers in PtMn bottom spin-valve films has shown effectiveness in the reduction of interfacial roughness and, therefore, control of ferromagnetic Néel coupling. The interlayer coupling field has been more effectively reduced from an original 38.8 Oe down to 6.1 Oe at a Cu spacer layer thickness of 24 Å with the addition of 4 sccm N2 gas during the Cu spacer layer deposition. In addition to higher giant magnetoresistance values over 10% at thinner Cu spacer layer thicknesses, a pronounced oscillatory dependence of the interlayer coupling field on Cu spacer layer thickness has been observed. Apparently, nitrogen serves as surfactant and helps layer-by-layer growth of Cu on a CoFe pinned layer, resulting in smoother CoFe/Cu and Cu/CoFe interfaces.

  10. Experimental study of effect of nitrogenous compounds in fuel on the emission of oxides of nitrogen from gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Svinukhov, V.P.; Filippova, E.M.

    1987-11-01

    Results of a study are presented on the relation between the output of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide in the exhaust gas of a gas turbine and the combined nitrogen content of the fuel to which organic nitrogen compounds, including piperidine, pyridine, and analine, have been added. The exhaust gases were analyzed continuously for nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and unburnt hydrocarbons. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide were assessed by chemiluminescence analysis. The nitrogen compounds used were selected because of the presence of similar high molecular structure compounds in petroleum and cracking distillates and also in coal liquefaction products.

  11. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  12. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  13. Continuous analysis of nitrogen dioxide in gas streams of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, W. T.; Kispert, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Analyzer and sampling system continuously monitors nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the feed and tail gas streams of a facility recovering nitric acid. The system, using a direct calorimetric approach, makes use of readily available equipment and is flexible and reliable in operation.

  14. Fast gas heating in N2/O2 mixtures under nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge: the effects of gas pressure and composition

    PubMed Central

    Nudnova, M. M; Kindysheva, S. V; Aleksandrov, N. L; Starikovskii, A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    The fractional electron power quickly transferred to heat in non-equilibrium plasmas was studied experimentally and theoretically in N2/O2 mixtures subjected to high electric fields. Measurements were performed in and after a nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge at various (300–750 Torr) gas pressures and (50–100%) N2 percentages. Observations showed that the efficiency of fast gas heating is almost independent of pressure and becomes more profound when the fraction of O2 in N2/O2 mixtures increases. The processes that contribute towards the fast transfer of electron energy to thermal energy were numerically simulated under the conditions considered. Calculations were compared with measurements and the main channels of fast gas heating were analysed at the gas pressures, compositions and electric fields under study. It was shown that efficient fast gas heating in the mixtures with high fraction of O2 is due to a notable contribution of heat release during quenching of electronically excited N2 states in collisions with O2 molecules and to ion–ion recombination. The effect of hydrocarbon addition to air on fast gas heating was numerically estimated. It was concluded that the fractional electron power transferred to heat in air, as a first approximation, could be used to estimate this effect in lean and stoichiometric hydrocarbon–air mixtures. PMID:26170431

  15. A Newly Developed Large Diameter Diaphragmless Shock Tube for Studies on CO2-N2 Gas-Dynamic Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rêgo, Israel Da Silveira; Sato, Kohnosuke; Miyoshi, Yoriaki; Ando, Taketora; Goto, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Kawasaki, Shoji; TRIAM Exp. Group

    A large diameter diaphragmless shock tube has been recently developed and designed to perform detailed studies of CO2-N2 gas-dynamic laser (GDL). This large diameter diaphragmless shock tube offers various advantages over the conventional shock tubes (diaphragm-type) as longer test times, higher degree of reproducibility of shock-tube data, and especially low-impurity operation condition. The latter advantage is experimentally demonstrated herein, which is very critical issue in the CO2-N2 GDL studies. A supersonic nozzle section was mounted at the end wall of the shock tube and instrumented for simultaneous measurement of laser output power and energy. The GDL action in a CO2-N2 mixture under low impurity condition has been obtained by using the large diameter diaphragmless shock tube for the first time.

  16. Gas molecule scattering & ion mobility measurements for organic macro-ions in He versus N2 environments.

    PubMed

    Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Fernández-García, Juan; Ewing, Michael A; Hogan, Christopher J; Clemmer, David E

    2015-06-14

    A pending issue in linking ion mobility measurements to ion structures is that the collisional cross section (CCS, the measured structural parameter in ion mobility spectrometry) of an ion is strongly dependent upon the manner in which gas molecules effectively impinge on and are reemitted from ion surfaces (when modeling ions as fixed structures). To directly examine the gas molecule impingement and reemission processes and their influence, we measured the CCSs of positively charged ions of room temperature ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-N(CN)2) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF4) in N2 using a differential mobility analyzer-mass spectrometer (DMA-MS) and in He using a drift tube mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (DT-MS). Cluster ions, generated via electrosprays, took the form (AB)N(A)z, spanning up to z = 20 and with masses greater than 100 kDa. As confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations, at the measurement temperature (∼300 K), such cluster ions took on globular conformations in the gas phase. Based upon their attained charge levels, in neither He nor N2 did the ion-induced dipole potential significantly influence gas molecule-ion collisions. Therefore, differences in the CCSs measured for ions in the two different gases could be primarily attributed to differences in gas molecule behavior upon collision with ions. Overwhelmingly, by comparison of predicted CCSs with selected input impingement-reemission laws to measurements, we find that in N2, gas molecules collide with ions diffusely--they are reemitted at random angles relative to the gas molecule incoming angle--and inelastically. Meanwhile, in He, gas molecules collide specularly and elastically and are emitted from ion surfaces at determined angles. The results can be rationalized on the basis of the momentum transferred per collision; in the case of He, individual gas molecule collisions minimally perturb the atoms within a cluster ion

  17. Nitrogen loss from high N-input vegetable fields - a) direct N2O emissions b) Spatiotemporal variability of N species (N2O, NH4+, NO3-) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfab, H.; Ruser, R.; Palmer, I.; Fiedler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide is a climate relevant trace gas. It contributes 7.9 % to the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission and it is also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Approximately 85 % of the anthropogenic N2O emissions result from agricultural activities, more than 50 % are produced during microbial N-turnover processes in soils. Especially soils with high N-input (N-fertilizer and high amount of N in plant residues) like vegetable cropped soils are assumed to cause high N2O losses. The aims of the study presented were (i) to quantify the N2O loss from a vegetable field (lettuce-cauliflower crop rotation), (ii) to calculate an emission factor for the study site in Southwest Germany and to compare this factor with the default value provided by the IPCC (2006) and (iii) to test the emission reduction potential (Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate fertilizer, ASN either by reduced N-fertilization) in comparison with common N doses used for good agricultural practice or by the use of a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), a banded N-application (lettuce) or a depot fertilization measure (pseudo-CULTAN in order to suppress nitrification). N2O fluxes determined with the closed chamber method were highly variable in time with strongly increased flux rates after N-fertilization in combination with rainfall or irrigation measures and after the incorporation of cauliflower crop residues. Using the mean soil nitrate contents of the top soil of our investigated treatments (0-25 cm depth), we could explain approximately 60 % of the variability of the cumulative N2O losses during the vegetation period of lettuce and cauliflower. The cumulative N2O emissions ranged between 0,99 kg N2O-N ha-1 from the unfertilized control plots (vegetation period) and 6,81 kg N2O-N ha-1 from the plots with the highest N-dose. Based on the guidelines of the IPCC (2006), we calculated an emission factor around 0,9 % for the cropping season. This value is in good agreement with the default value of the

  18. Effect of aeration on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from nitrogen-removing sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission was compared between the operations of two different sequencing batch reactors, conventional sequencing batch reactor (CNVSBR) and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification sequencing batch reactor (SND-SBR), using synthetic wastewater. The CNV-SBR consisted of anoxic (denitrification) and aerobic phases, whereas the SND-SBR consisted of a microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen concentration) phase, which was achieved by intermittent aeration for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The CNV-SBR emitted 3.9 mg of N(2)O-N in the denitrification phase and 1.6 mg of N2O-N in the nitrification phase, resulting in a total emission of 5.5 mg from 432 mg of NH(4)(+)-N input. In contrast, the SND-SBR emitted 26.2 mg of N(2)O-N under the microaerobic condition, which was about 5 times higher than the emission obtained with the CNV-SBR at the same NH(4)(+)-N input. From the N(2)O yield based on NH(4)(+)-N input, the microaerobic condition produced the highest yield (6.1%), followed by the anoxic (0.9%) and aerobic (0.4%) conditions. It is thought that an appropriate dissolved oxygen level is critical for reducing N(2)O emission during nitrification and denitrification at wastewater treatment plants. PMID:23314375

  19. [N2O emission and control in shortcut nitrification and denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification biological nitrogen removal systems].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-rong; Wang, Shu-ying; Shang, Hui-lai; Peng, Yong-zhen

    2009-12-01

    SBR reactors were used to investigate the N2O emission in shortcut nitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Shortcut nitrification with nitrosation rate above 90% was realized by real-time control strategy. The N2O emission and variation of nitrosation rate were investigated under 4 DO levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/L). The results turned out that the optimal DO to maintain high nitrosation rate and minimum N2O emission was 1.5 mg/L and the N4O emission was 0.06 g per ammonium removed. The SBR filled with carbon fiber performed under low DO and pulse feeding. The SND rate was over 79% during the experiment. The N2O emission was studied under DO 0.2, 0.4, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. It turned out that the optimal DO was 1.0 mg/L and the N2O emission was 0.021 g per ammonium removed. Compared to the shortcut nitrification, the N2O emission of SND was 1/3 of the short-cut nitrification under optimal DO. PMID:20187398

  20. Annual Greenhouse Gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) Fluxes Via Ebullition from a Temperate Emergent Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcnicol, G.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Knox, S. H.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying wetland greenhouse gas exchange is necessary to evaluate their potential for mitigating climate change via carbon sequestration. However measuring greenhouse gas fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in wetlands is difficult due to high spatial and temporal variability, and multiple transport pathways of emission. Transport of biogenic soil gas via highly sporadic ebullition (bubbling) events is often ignored or quantified poorly in wetland greenhouse gas budgets, but can rapidly release large volumes of gas to the atmosphere. To quantify a robust annual ebullition flux we measured rates continuously for a year (2013-2014) using custom-built chambers deployed in a restored emergent wetland located in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA. We combined ebullition flux rates with observations of gas concentrations to estimate annual ebullition emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and compare flux rates to whole-ecosystem exchange of CO2 and CH4 measured simultaneously by eddy covariance.Mean ebullition flux rates were 18.3 ± 5.6 L m-2 yr-1. Ebullition CH4 concentrations were very high and ranged from 23-76 % with a mean of 47 ± 2.9 %; CO2 concentrations were lower and ranged from 0.7-6.6 % with a mean of 2.8 ± 0.3 %; N2O concentrations were below atmospheric concentrations and ranged from 130-389 ppb(v) with a mean of 257 ± 13 ppb(v). We calculated well-constrained annual ebullition fluxes of: 6.2 ± 1.9 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, 1.0 ± 0.3 g CO2 m-2 yr-1 and 9.3 ± 2.8 mg N2O m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions via ebullition were very large, representing 15-25 % of total wetland CH4 emissions measured at this site, whereas ebullition released only relatively small quantities of CO2 and N2O. Our results demonstrate that large releases of CH4 via ebullition from open water surfaces can be a significant component of restored wetland greenhouse gas budgets.

  1. Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guihua; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, New J. Phys. 15, 023046 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/2/023046]. Based on this two-color scheme, here we report on systematic investigation of temporal characteristics of the radiation emitted at 391 nm [N2+: B2Σu+(ν =0) -X2Σg+(ν =0)] by experimentally examining its temporal profiles with the increase of the plasma channel induced by the intense 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses at a nitrogen-gas pressure of ˜25 mbar. We reveal unexpected temporal profiles of the coherent emissions, which show significant superradiance signatures owing to the cooperation of an ensemble of excited N2+ molecules that are coherently radiating in phase. Our findings shed more light on the mechanisms behind the coherent laserlike emissions induced by strong-field ionization of molecules.

  2. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  3. Modeling nitrogen and methane with ethane and propane gas hydrates at low temperatures (173-290 K) with applications to Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.; Tan, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    The FREZCHEM model was primarily designed for cold temperatures (173-298 K) and high pressures (1-1000 bars). Nitrogen gas (95.0%) and methane gas (5.0%) are major gases on the surface of Titan. Recently, we added nitrogen and methane gas hydrates to FREZCHEM model on Titan; and nitrogen-methane gas hydrates formed on Titan at 178 K. The other common but less abundant gases on Titan are ethane (C2H6) and propane (C3H8) that can also form gas hydrates with nitrogen and methane. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) add ethane and propane to gas hydrates, including mixtures with nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide, and (2) explore the potential roles of gas hydrates on Titan. At 273 K, the Ln(gas hydrates) were 5.095 for N2, 3.217 for CH4, 2.327 for CO2, 1.288 for C2H6, and 0.281 for C3H8. At 173 K, the Ln(gas hydrates) were -4.968 for N2, -6.102 for CH4, -7.803 for CO2, -5.125 for C2H6, and -5.512 for C3H8. Apparently C2H6 and C3H8 gas hydrates change less at lower temperatures than N2, CH4, and CO2 gas hydrates. In previous papers, we added three mixed CH4-CO2, N2-CH4, and N2-CO2 binary gas hydrates. In this paper, we added ethane and propane to include new binary gas hydrate mixtures of N2-C2H6, N2-C3H8, C2H6-C3H8, CH4-C2H6, CH4-C3H8, CO2-C2H6, and CO2-C3H8. Today, there are ten binary gas hydrates in the FREZCHEM model. In the text, how to cope with more than two species is described. Simulations from 273 K to 173 K used a surface Titan pressure of 1.467 bars with a major gas of nitrogen (94.24%), a minor gas of methane (5.65%), and extremely minor gases of ethane (0.0038%), and propane (0.000343%). Eventually at 178 K, N2·6H2O formed with 0.17694 mol, CH4·6H2O formed with 0.04101 mol, C2H6·6H2O formed with 6.48e-6 mol, and C3H8·6H2O formed with 9.36e-7 mol. Based on the atmospheric conditions of Titan, the trace gases of ethane and propane led to low gas hydrate precipitations of ethane and propane with nitrogen and methane. However, the gas

  4. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 °C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek® sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  5. Effect of systemic herbicides on N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soils of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, Amal Chandra; Debnath, Anjan

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment has been conducted with four systemic herbicides viz., butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-acetanilide], fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-(2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-trifluoromethyl) aniline], oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopro poxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at their recommended field rates (2.0, 1.5, 0.4 and 0.12kga.i.ha(-1), respectively) to investigate their effects on growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils as well as yield of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L cv. IR-36). Application of herbicides, in general, highly stimulated the population and activities of the target microorganisms, which resulted in a greater amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization in the rhizosphere soils of the test crop. The greater microbial activities subsequently augmented the mineralization and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil solution, which in turn increased the yield of the crop. Among the herbicides, oxyfluorfen was most stimulative followed by fluchloralin and oxadiazon in augmenting the microbial activities in soil. Butachlor also accentuated the mineralization and availability of nitrogen due to higher incitement of non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria in paddy soil. The grain and straw yields of the crop were also significantly increased due to the application of oxyfluorfen (20.2% and 21%) followed by fluchloralin (13.1% and 15.4%) and butachlor (9.1% and 10.2%), respectively. PMID:16630642

  6. Infrared-induced reactivity of N2O on small gas-phase rhodium clusters.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Suzanne M; Hopkins, W Scott; Harding, Dan J; Walsh, Tiffany R; Haertelt, Marko; Kerpal, Christian; Gruene, Philipp; Meijer, Gerard; Fielicke, André; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2011-03-31

    Far- and mid-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy has been employed to study both the structure and surface reactivity of isolated cationic rhodium clusters with surface-adsorbed nitrous oxide, Rh(n)N(2)O(+) (n = 4-8). Comparison of experimental spectra recorded using the argon atom tagging method with those calculated using density functional theory (DFT) reveals that the nitrous oxide is molecularly bound on the rhodium cluster via the terminal N-atom. Binding is thought to occur exclusively on atop sites with the rhodium clusters adopting close-packed structures. In related, but conceptually different experiments, infrared pumping of the vibrational modes corresponding with the normal modes of the adsorbed N(2)O has been observed to result in the decomposition of the N(2)O moiety and the production of oxide clusters. This cluster surface chemistry is observed for all cluster sizes studied except for n = 5. Plausible N(2)O decomposition mechanisms are given based on DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals. Similar experiments pumping the Rh-O stretch in Rh(n)ON(2)O(+) complexes, on which the same chemistry is observed, confirm the thermal nature of this reaction. PMID:21391545

  7. Octahedral Ni-nanocluster (Ni85) for Efficient and Selective Reduction of Nitric Oxide (NO) to Nitrogen (N2).

    PubMed

    Mahata, Arup; Rawat, Kuber Singh; Choudhuri, Indrani; Pathak, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) reduction pathways are systematically studied on a (111) facet of the octahedral nickel (Ni85) nanocluster in the presence/absence of hydrogen. Thermodynamic (reaction free energies) and kinetic (free energy barriers, and temperature dependent reaction rates) parameters are investigated to find out the most favoured reduction pathway for NO reduction. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster is investigated in greater detail toward the product selectivity (N2 vs. N2O vs. NH3). The previous theoretical (catalyzed by Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir) and experimental reports (catalyzed by Pt, Ag, Pd) show that direct N-O bond dissociation is very much unlikely due to the high-energy barrier but our study shows that the reaction is thermodynamically and kinetically favourable when catalysed by the octahedral Ni-nanocluster. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster toward NO reduction reaction is very much efficient and selective toward N2 formation even in the presence of hydrogen. However, N2O (one of the major by-products) formation is very much unlikely due to the high activation barrier. Our microkinetic analysis shows that even at high hydrogen partial pressures, the catalyst is very much selective toward N2 formation over NH3. PMID:27157072

  8. Octahedral Ni-nanocluster (Ni85) for Efficient and Selective Reduction of Nitric Oxide (NO) to Nitrogen (N2)

    PubMed Central

    Mahata, Arup; Rawat, Kuber Singh; Choudhuri, Indrani; Pathak, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) reduction pathways are systematically studied on a (111) facet of the octahedral nickel (Ni85) nanocluster in the presence/absence of hydrogen. Thermodynamic (reaction free energies) and kinetic (free energy barriers, and temperature dependent reaction rates) parameters are investigated to find out the most favoured reduction pathway for NO reduction. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster is investigated in greater detail toward the product selectivity (N2 vs. N2O vs. NH3). The previous theoretical (catalyzed by Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir) and experimental reports (catalyzed by Pt, Ag, Pd) show that direct N-O bond dissociation is very much unlikely due to the high-energy barrier but our study shows that the reaction is thermodynamically and kinetically favourable when catalysed by the octahedral Ni-nanocluster. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster toward NO reduction reaction is very much efficient and selective toward N2 formation even in the presence of hydrogen. However, N2O (one of the major by-products) formation is very much unlikely due to the high activation barrier. Our microkinetic analysis shows that even at high hydrogen partial pressures, the catalyst is very much selective toward N2 formation over NH3. PMID:27157072

  9. Octahedral Ni-nanocluster (Ni85) for Efficient and Selective Reduction of Nitric Oxide (NO) to Nitrogen (N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, Arup; Rawat, Kuber Singh; Choudhuri, Indrani; Pathak, Biswarup

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) reduction pathways are systematically studied on a (111) facet of the octahedral nickel (Ni85) nanocluster in the presence/absence of hydrogen. Thermodynamic (reaction free energies) and kinetic (free energy barriers, and temperature dependent reaction rates) parameters are investigated to find out the most favoured reduction pathway for NO reduction. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster is investigated in greater detail toward the product selectivity (N2 vs. N2O vs. NH3). The previous theoretical (catalyzed by Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir) and experimental reports (catalyzed by Pt, Ag, Pd) show that direct N-O bond dissociation is very much unlikely due to the high-energy barrier but our study shows that the reaction is thermodynamically and kinetically favourable when catalysed by the octahedral Ni-nanocluster. The catalytic activity of the Ni-nanocluster toward NO reduction reaction is very much efficient and selective toward N2 formation even in the presence of hydrogen. However, N2O (one of the major by-products) formation is very much unlikely due to the high activation barrier. Our microkinetic analysis shows that even at high hydrogen partial pressures, the catalyst is very much selective toward N2 formation over NH3.

  10. Nitrogenous gas emissions induced by abiotic nitrite reactions with soil organic matter of a Norway spruce forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry; Schloter, Michael; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    As an important intermediate of the nitrogen cycle, nitrite is highly reactive to soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soils under acidic conditions. However, there is little knowledge about how much its abiotic reactions with SOM contribute to nitrogen (N) gas emissions of forest soils till now. In this study, we provide data on N gas (N2O, NO, NO2) emissions from abiotic nitrite reactions with different fractions of soil organic matter in spruce forest soil, as well as the mechanisms involved. Soil samples were taken from the Oh layer at the TERENO-Wüstebach catchment, Germany, where Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominates. SOM was fractionated into dissolved organic matter (DOM), fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA) and humin (HN) according to their solubility. The dynamics of simultaneous NOx and N2O emissions were analyzed with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, coupled to an infrared laser absorption analyzer for N2O and a chemo-luminescence analyzer for NOx (NO and NO2), which allowed emission measurements with high time resolution. The 15N labelling technique was used for tracing the fate of nitrite-N towards establishment of a total N balance. When nitrite was added to the soil fractions, a large amount of NOx was immediately emitted, mostly in the form of NO. N2O emission was delayed by approximately 0.5-1 h. The NO and N2O emission pattern could be almost perfectly fitted with the Hill equation. The N2O formation rates increased significantly in the following order: DOM, FA, HA and HN, while the total amounts of the gases emitted increased significantly in the opposite order. These results revealed that abiotic reactions of nitrite with SOM in spruce forest soil play an important role in N gas emissions, while the chemical nature of the different SOM fractions determines the rate and amount of N gas emissions.

  11. Rotational Energy Transfer and Collisional Induced Raman Linewidths in N2 Gas. 1; Energy Transfer Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotationally inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigidrotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range. The CC and CS cross sections have been obtained both with and without identical molecule exchange symmetry, whereas exchange was neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well; between 113 - 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp -1), shows that IOS is sensitive to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subject to larger errors. It is found that the state-to-state cross sections with even and odd exchange symmetry agree to better than 2% and are well represented as a sum of direct and exchange cross sections for distinguishable molecules, an indication of the applicability of a classical treatment for this system. This result, however, does not apply to partial cross sections for given total J, but arises from a near cancellation in summing over partial waves. In order to use rigid-rotor results for the calculation of effective rotational excitation rates of N2 in the v=1 vibrational level colliding with bath N2 molecules in the v=0 level, it is assumed that exchange scattering between molecules in different vibrational levels is negligible and direct scattering is independent of Y. Good agreement with room temperature experimental data is obtained. The effective rates determined using the IOS and energy corrected sudden (ECS) approximations are also in reasonable agreement with experiment, with the ECS results being somewhat better. The problem with a degeneracy factor in earlier cross section expressions for collisions between identical molecules is pointed out

  12. Dynamics of N2 fixation and fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen in a low nutrient low chlorophyll ecosystem: results from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, S.; Berthelot, H.; Turk-Kubo, K.; Fawcett, S.; Rahav, E.; l'Helguen, S.; Berman-Frank, I.

    2015-12-01

    N2 fixation rates were measured daily in large (~ 50 m3) mesocosms deployed in the tropical South West Pacific coastal ocean (New Caledonia) to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of diazotrophy and the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in a low nutrient, low chlorophyll ecosystem. The mesocosms were intentionally fertilized with ~ 0.8 μM dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy. Bulk N2 fixation rates were replicable between the three mesocosms, averaged 18.5 ± 1.1 nmol N L-1 d-1 over the 23 days, and increased by a factor of two during the second half of the experiment (days 15 to 23) to reach 27.3 ± 1.0 nmol N L-1 d-1. These rates are higher than the upper range reported for the global ocean, indicating that the waters surrounding New Caledonia are particularly favourable for N2 fixation. During the 23 days of the experiment, N2 fixation rates were positively correlated with seawater temperature, primary production, bacterial production, standing stocks of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity, and negatively correlated with DIP concentrations, DIP turnover time, nitrate, and dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The fate of DDN was investigated during the bloom of the unicellular diazotroph, UCYN-C, that occurred during the second half of the experiment. Quantification of diazotrophs in the sediment traps indicates that ~ 10 % of UCYN-C from the water column were exported daily to the traps, representing as much as 22.4 ± 5.5 % of the total POC exported at the height of the UCYN-C bloom. This export was mainly due to the aggregation of small (5.7 ± 0.8 μm) UCYN-C cells into large (100-500 μm) aggregates. During the same time period, a DDN transfer experiment based on high-resolution nanometer scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) coupled with 15N2 isotopic labelling revealed that 16 ± 6 % of the DDN was released to the dissolved pool

  13. First detection of gas-phase ammonia in a planet-forming disk. NH3, N2H+, and H2O in the disk around TW Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Vachail N.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Brinch, Christian; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary J.; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C.; Kristensen, Lars; Yıldız, Umut A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Nitrogen chemistry in protoplanetary disks and the freeze-out on dust particles is key for understanding the formation of nitrogen-bearing species in early solar system analogs. In dense cores, 10% to 20% of the nitrogen reservoir is locked up in ices such as NH3, NH4+ and OCN-. So far, ammonia has not been detected beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. Aims: We aim to find gas-phase ammonia in a protoplanetary disk and characterize its abundance with respect to water vapor. Methods: Using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, we detected for the first time the ground-state rotational emission of ortho-NH3 in a protoplanetary disk around TW Hya. We used detailed models of the disk's physical structure and the chemistry of ammonia and water to infer the amounts of gas-phase molecules of these species. We explored two radial distributions (extended across the disk and confined to <60 au like the millimeter-sized grains) and two vertical distributions (near the midplane and at intermediate heights above the midplane, where water is expected to photodesorb off icy grains) to describe the (unknown) location of the molecules. These distributions capture the effects of radial drift and vertical settling of ice-covered grains. Results: The NH310-00 line is detected simultaneously with H2O 110-101 at an antenna temperature of 15.3 mK in the Herschel beam; the same spectrum also contains the N2H+ 6-5 line with a strength of 18.1 mK. We use physical-chemical models to reproduce the fluxes and assume that water and ammonia are cospatial. We infer ammonia gas-phase masses of 0.7-11.0 × 1021 g, depending on the adopted spatial distribution, in line with previous literature estimates. For water, we infer gas-phase masses of 0.2-16.0 × 1022 g, improving upon earlier literature estimates This corresponds to NH3/H2O abundance ratios of 7%-84%, assuming that water and ammonia are co-located. The inferred N2H+ gas mass of 4.9 × 1021 g agrees well with earlier

  14. Effects of agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from corn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, D.; Wang, J.; Jima, T.; Dennis, S.; Stockert, C.; Smart, D.; Bhattarai, S.; Brown, K.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, C.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is, by far, the largest producer of corn (Zea mays L.) in the world. Recent increases in fertilizer cost and concerns over global climate change have farmers and others interested in more efficient fertilization management and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. To seek the best management practices, we conducted field experiments during the 2012 growing season at Tennessee State University Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center in Nashville, TN. Six treatments were applied including regular URAN application [2 times], multiple URAN applications [4 times], denitrification inhibitor with regular URAN application, and chicken litter plus regular URAN application in no-tilled plots, and URAN application plus bio-char in tilled plots, all compared to regular URAN application in conventional tilled plots. Each treatment was replicated six times (blocks). We measured N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions using a closed chamber method after rainfall events, fertilizer applications or every two weeks whichever was shorter. Corresponding soil NH4+-N and NO3--N, soil temperature and moisture were also measured during the gas sampling. Plant physiology and growth were measured about every two weeks. While preliminary results indicate that N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly influenced by the agricultural practices on some days, particularly after rainfall events, CH4 flux was not influenced by the treatments during most of the days. Plots with bio-char showed significantly lower N2O emissions. We also measured N2O flux in a commercial corn field using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique to ground verify the chamber based N2O emissions at the field scale. Results obtained with the EC technique seem comparable with the chamber method.

  15. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm‑3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  16. High-accuracy measurements of N2O concentration and site-specific nitrogen isotopes in small or high concentration samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. R.; Arata, C.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas is among the major contributors to global warming and ozone depletion in stratosphere. Quantitative estimate of N­2O production in various pathways and N­2O fluxes across different reservoirs is the key to understanding the role of N­2O in the global change. To achieve this goal, accurate and concurrent measurement of both N2O concentration ([N2O]) and its site-specific isotopic composition (SP-δ15N), namely δ15Nα and δ15Nβ, is desired. Recent developments in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) have enabled high precision measurements of [N2O] and SP-δ15N of a continuous gas flow. However, many N­­2O samples are discrete with limited volume (< 500 ml), and/or high [N2O] (> 2 ppm), and are not suitable for direct measurements by CRDS. Here we present results of a Small Sample Isotope Module 2 (SSIM2) which is coupled to and automatically coordinated with a Picarro isotopic N2O CRDS analyzer to handle and measure high concentration and/or small volume samples. The SSIM2 requires 20 ml of sample per analysis, and transfers the sample to the CRDS for high precision measurement. When the sample injection is < 20 ml, a zero gas is optionally filled to make up the volume. We used the SSIM2 to dilute high [N2O] samples and < 20 ml samples, and tested the effect of dilution on the measured SP-δ15N. In addition, we employed and tested a newly developed double injection method for samples adequate for two 20 ml injections. After the SSIM2 and the CRDS cavity was primed with the first injection, the second injection, which has negligible dilution of the sample, can be accurately measured for both [N2O] and SP-δ15N. Results of these experiments indicate that the precision of SSIM2-CRDS is similar to that of the continuous measurements using the CRDS alone, and that dilution has minimal effect on SP-δ15N, as along as the [N2O] is > 300 ppb after dilution. Overall, the precision of SP-δ15N measured using the SSIM2 is < 0.5 ‰.

  17. Membrane Separation Of Nitrogen Tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, R. C.; Kaschemekat, J.; Helm, V. D.; Shrock, P. H.; Wijmans, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Pilot plant reduces N2O4 content to one-hundredth of inlet value. Permeable-membrane process removes nitrogen tetroxide from stream of nitrogen or helium gas. Operates in conjunction with scrubbing process removing N2O4 from He or N2 after He or N2 used as gas blanket in N2O4-storage tank. First stage of separator divided into two steps for efficiency. Permeate from second step of first stage and residue from second stage returned to inlet of first stage. Each module contains spiral-wound interleaved permeable membranes and spacer sheets.

  18. Surface-catalyzed chlorine and nitrogen activation: mechanisms for the heterogeneous formation of ClNO, NO, NO2, HONO, and N2O from HNO3 and HCl on aluminum oxide particle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2012-05-31

    It is well-known that chlorine active species (e.g., Cl(2), ClONO(2), ClONO) can form from heterogeneous reactions between nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride on aerosol particle surfaces in the stratosphere. However, less is known about these reactions in the troposphere. In this study, a potential new heterogeneous pathway involving reaction of gaseous HCl and HNO(3) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces, a proxy for mineral dust in the troposphere, is proposed. We combine transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate changes in the composition of both gas-phase and surface-bound species during the reaction under different environmental conditions of relative humidity and simulated solar radiation. Exposure of surface nitrate-coated aluminum oxide particles, from prereaction with nitric acid, to gaseous HCl yields several gas-phase products, including ClNO, NO(2), and HNO(3), under dry (RH < 1%) conditions. Under humid more conditions (RH > 20%), NO and N(2)O are the only gas products observed. The experimental data suggest that, in the presence of adsorbed water, ClNO is hydrolyzed on the particle surface to yield NO and NO(2), potentially via a HONO intermediate. NO(2) undergoes further hydrolysis via a surface-mediated process, resulting in N(2)O as an additional nitrogen-containing product. In the presence of broad-band irradiation (λ > 300 nm) gas-phase products can undergo photochemistry, e.g., ClNO photodissociates to NO and chlorine atoms. The gas-phase product distribution also depends on particle mineralogy (Al(2)O(3) vs CaCO(3)) and the presence of other coadsorbed gases (e.g., NH(3)). These newly identified reaction pathways discussed here involve continuous production of active ozone-depleting chlorine and nitrogen species from stable sinks such as gas-phase HCl and HNO(3) as a result of heterogeneous surface reactions. Given that aluminosilicates represent a major fraction of mineral dust

  19. Non-oxidizing heating technology by high temperature nitrogen gas jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Tsuguhiko; Hara, Kazuaki; Furuhata, Tomohiko; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a non-oxidizing heating system for hot-cycle operation of tundish. The newly developed device, which is called the N2 jet heater, uses the principle of the storage type heat exchanger. By means of employing one set of two heaters, each containing regenerator, it is possible to heat N{sub 2} gas to 1,773 K. The high temperature nitrogen gas kept the tundish high temperature under the non-oxidizing condition. This system has been applied to Mizushima No. 4 Continuous Caster. As a result, the rate of occurrence of inclusion-related defects in the quality of start slab has been reduced to 1/5 to 1/3 the past level. This paper presents an outline of the device and describes the effect of its use on steel quality.

  20. NITROGEN EXPORT FROM FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE: THE ROLE OF N2-FIXING RED ALDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. T...

  1. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  2. Laser flash-photolysis and gas discharge in N2O-containing mixture: kinetic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, Ilya; Popov, Nikolay; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Starikovskiy, Andrey; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    The paper is devoted to further experimental and theoretical analysis of ignition by ArF laser flash-photolysis and nanosecond discharge in N2O-containing mixture has been done. Additional experiments have been made to assure that laser emission is distributed uniformly throughout the cross-section. The series of experiments was proposed and carried out to check validity of O(1D) determination in experiments on plasma assisted ignition initiated by flash-photolysis. In these experiments, ozone density in the given mixture (mixture composition and kinetics has been preliminary analyzed) was measured using UV light absorption in Hartley band. Good coincidence between experimental data and results of calculations have been obtained Temporal behavior of energy input, electric field and electric current has been measured and analyzed. These data are considered as initial conditions for numerical modeling of the discharge in O2:N2O:H2:Ar = 0.3:1:3:5 mixture. Ion-molecular reactions and reactions of active species production in Ar:H2:O2:N2O mixture were analyzed. The set of reactions to describe chemical transformation in the system due to the discharge action has been selected.

  3. ACTIVE MEDIA: Gain dynamics in a pulsed laser amplifier on CO-He, CO-N2 and CO-O2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetoshkin, S. V.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kozlov, A. Yu; Kotkov, A. A.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2007-02-01

    Small-signal gain (SSG) dynamics G(t) in the active medium of a pulsed laser amplifier operating on the v+1→vP(J) vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO molecule, including high (v > 15) vibrational transitions, is studied experimentally. It is demonstrated that as the vibrational number increases from 7 to 31, G changes with time slower, while Gmax decreases in this case by three times. It is found that at a fixed value of v the rate of the SSG rise increases with increasing the rotational number J > 6. It is shown that in oxygen-containing gas mixtures (CO:O2 = 1:19) the value of Gmax at low vibrational levels (for v < 13) can substantially exceed Gmax in mixtures containing nitrogen (CO:N2 = 1:19) instead of oxygen. It is found that the efficiency (47%) of a CO laser on mixtures with a high concentration of oxygen considerably exceeds the efficiency (30%) of a CO laser operating on a nitrogen-containing mixture.

  4. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (<0.5 ppm). Mare basalt 74255 and the olivine fraction of 15555,876 record the smallest proportion of 15Ncosm; therefore, their δ15 N values of -0.2 to + 26.7 ‰ (observed at the low-temperature steps) are thought to well represent the isotopic composition of indigenous lunar nitrogen. However, δ15 N values ≤ - 30 ‰ are found in several basalts, overlapping with the isotopic signature of Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  5. Gas and aerosol fluxes. [emphasizing sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques to address the global need for accurate distribution and flux determinations of both man made and natural materials which affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the heat budget of the Earth, and the depletion, of stratospheric ozone is considered. Specifically, trace gas fluxes, sea salt aerosol production, and the effect of sea surface microlayer on gas and aerosol fluxes are examined. Volatile sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and halocarbon compounds are discussed including a statement of the problem associated with each compound or group of compounds, a brief summary of current understanding, and suggestions for needed research.

  6. Inactivation of microorganisms and endotoxins by low temperature nitrogen gas plasma exposure.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro; Sekiya, Takayuki; Tamazawa, Kahoru; Taniguchi, Akira; Kido, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    The plasma of several different gases has shown a sporicidal activity. From these gases, nitrogen gas was most difficult to produce atomic nitrogen radicals. However, these radicals have a high energy, indicating that nitrogen gas plasma could be used to sterilize microorganisms and inactivate endotoxins. The sterilization mechanism of nitrogen gas plasma is the synergistic effect of a high rising-up voltage pulse, UV irradiation and atomic nitrogen radicals. Thus, the target cells were damaged by degradation, which resulted in death. The biological indicator (BI) used in this study was Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 at a population of 1 x 10(6) CFU/sheet. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using the BI. Moreover, endotoxins were successfully inactivated. More than 5 log reduction of endotoxins could be attained with 30 minutes of nitrogen gas plasma exposure. Material functionality influenced by nitrogen gas plasma presented a satisfactory result. No deterioration of polymers could be observed by nitrogen gas plasma exposure. PMID:18198719

  7. N2O and N2 production during heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; He, Yi Liang; Guo, Jin Song

    2012-07-01

    A heterotrophic nitrifier, strain NR, was isolated from a membrane bioreactor. Strain NR was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis by Auto-Microbic system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A. faecalis strain NR shows a capability of heterotrophic nitrification and N(2)O and N(2) production as well under the aerobic condition. Further tests demonstrated that neither nitrite nor nitrate could be denitrified aerobically by strain NR. However, when hydroxylamine was used as the sole nitrogen source, nitrogenous gases were detected. With an enzyme assay, a 0.063 U activity of hydroxylamine oxidase was observed, while nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were undetectable. Thus, nitrogenous gas was speculated to be produced via hydroxylamine. Therefore, two different metabolic pathways might exist in A. faecalis NR. One is heterotrophic nitrification by oxidizing ammonium to nitrite and nitrate. The other is oxidizing ammonium to nitrogenous gas directly via hydroxylamine. PMID:22534373

  8. Gas phase dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) on Titan: New experimental and theoretical spectroscopy results applied to Cassini CIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Cottini, V.; Fayt, A.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Benilan, Y.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Nixon, C.; Irwin, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dicyanoacetylene has not been observed so far in the gas phase in Titan's atmosphere but this molecule is still on the list of the detected species, on the basis of the correspondence between a solid phase feature measured at 478 cm-1 in the laboratory and a spectral feature observed by Voyager. In this work, the infrared spectrum of gaseous C4N2 has been investigated to improve our knowledge of the band intensities and the line parameters for this molecule. Results of previously investigated bands have been revised and the intensity of the ν9 band at 107 cm-1, measured for the first time, was found to be the strongest absorption in the whole infrared domain. We have also improved the analysis of the complex rotational and hot band structure of C4N2 in order to obtain the first line lists for both bending modes ν8 and ν9. Using our radiative transfer code including the new line list of the strong ν9 band, we have searched for the signature of C4N2 at 107 cm-1 in the atmosphere of Titan utilizing Titan CIRS far infrared spectra. Despite averaging a large number of CIRS spectra at northern latitudes during the very favorable Titan winter, no gaseous C4N2 could be detected. At the 1-σ level we obtain an abundance upper limit of 5.3 × 10-10 for the limb average which is lower than or comparable to previously inferred values. As a consequence, the absence or very low amount of gaseous C4N2 makes quite puzzling its presence in the solid phase with an abundance compatible with the observed spectral feature at 478 cm-1.

  9. Ab initio calculations for the far infrared collision induced absorption by N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    We present (far-infrared) Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) spectra calculations for pure gaseous N2 made for the first time, from first-principles. They were carried out using classical molecular dynamics simulations based on ab initio predictions of both the intermolecular potential and the induced-dipole moment. These calculations reproduce satisfactory well the experimental values (intensity and band profile) with agreement within 3% at 149 K. With respect to results obtained with only the long range (asymptotic) dipole moment (DM), including the short range overlap contribution improves the band intensity and profile at 149 K, but it deteriorates them at 296 K. The results show that the relative contribution of the short range DM to the band intensity is typically around 10%. We have also examined the sensitivity of the calculated CIA to the intermolecular potential anisotropy, providing a test of the so-called isotropic approximation used up to now in all N2 CIA calculations. As all these effects interfere simultaneously with quantitatively similar influences (around 10%), it is rather difficult to assert which one could explain remaining deviations with the experimental results. Furthermore, the rather large uncertainties and sometimes inconsistencies of the available measurements forbid any definitive conclusion, stressing the need for new experiments.

  10. Ab initio calculations for the far infrared collision induced absorption by N2 gas.

    PubMed

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    We present (far-infrared) Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) spectra calculations for pure gaseous N2 made for the first time, from first-principles. They were carried out using classical molecular dynamics simulations based on ab initio predictions of both the intermolecular potential and the induced-dipole moment. These calculations reproduce satisfactory well the experimental values (intensity and band profile) with agreement within 3% at 149 K. With respect to results obtained with only the long range (asymptotic) dipole moment (DM), including the short range overlap contribution improves the band intensity and profile at 149 K, but it deteriorates them at 296 K. The results show that the relative contribution of the short range DM to the band intensity is typically around 10%. We have also examined the sensitivity of the calculated CIA to the intermolecular potential anisotropy, providing a test of the so-called isotropic approximation used up to now in all N2 CIA calculations. As all these effects interfere simultaneously with quantitatively similar influences (around 10%), it is rather difficult to assert which one could explain remaining deviations with the experimental results. Furthermore, the rather large uncertainties and sometimes inconsistencies of the available measurements forbid any definitive conclusion, stressing the need for new experiments. PMID:24511942

  11. High rate of N2 fixation by East Siberian cryophilic soil bacteria as determined by measuring acetylene reduction in nitrogen-poor medium solidified with gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shintaro; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Desyatkin, Roman V; Hatano, Ryusuke; Tahara, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    For evaluating N(2) fixation of diazotrophic bacteria, nitrogen-poor liquid media supplemented with at least 0.5% sugar and 0.2% agar are widely used for acetylene reduction assays. In such a soft gel medium, however, many N(2)-fixing soil bacteria generally show only trace acetylene reduction activity. Here, we report that use of a N(2) fixation medium solidified with gellan gum instead of agar promoted growth of some gellan-preferring soil bacteria. In a soft gel medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum under appropriate culture conditions, bacterial microbiota from boreal forest bed soils and some free-living N(2)-fixing soil bacteria isolated from the microbiota exhibited 10- to 200-fold-higher acetylene reduction than those cultured in 0.2% agar medium. To determine the N(2) fixation-activating mechanism of gellan gum medium, qualitative differences in the colony-forming bacterial components from tested soil microbiota were investigated in plate cultures solidified with either agar or gellan gum for use with modified Winogradsky's medium. On 1.5% agar plates, apparently cryophilic bacterial microbiota showed strictly distinguishable microbiota according to the depth of soil in samples from an eastern Siberian Taiga forest bed. Some pure cultures of proteobacteria, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Burkholderia xenovorans, showed remarkable acetylene reduction. On plates solidified with 1.0% gellan gum, some soil bacteria, including Luteibacter sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Paenibacillus sp., and Arthrobacter sp., uniquely grew that had not grown in the presence of the same inoculants on agar plates. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia spp. were apparent only as minor colonies on the gellan gum plates. Moreover, only gellan gum plates allowed some bacteria, particularly those isolated from the shallow organic soil layer, to actively swarm. In consequence, gellan gum is a useful gel matrix to bring out growth potential capabilities of many soil

  12. Cryogenically formed prestressed composite fiber-metal structures for O2/N2 high pressure gas tanks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration of high-structural-performance ARDEFORM cryoformed 301 stainless-steel glass-fiber-reinforced (GFR) vessels by room temperature tests of 13 1/2-in. diam spheres. Tests verified that the structural performance of ARDEFORM spherical GFR vessels not only exceeded that of all metal construction, but also bettered previous GFR experimental results by 50%. Achievement of essentially the full strength of fiberglass in a spherical wrap pattern was again verified. Significant weight advantages for this construction are projected for O2/N2 high-pressure gas tanks for Space Shuttle environmental control/life support system missions.

  13. Nitrogen availability and soil N2O emissions following conversion of forests to coffee in southern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verchot, Louis V.; Hutabarat, Lusida; Hairiah, Kurniatun; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2006-12-01

    Changes in land use impact on the N cycle with both local and global consequences. We examined how conversion of forest to agriculture in one catchment in southern Sumatra altered N availability and soil N2O emission. Measurements were made along a chronosequence of forest land converted to coffee gardens. A number of different management practices were also examined. Inorganic N stocks and N cycling rates were highest in the forest and lower in the coffee gardens. The forest and young conversion sites appeared to be N limited, whereas the older agricultural sites and the more intensively managed sites were not as strongly N limited. N2O emissions were low in the forest (<2 kgN ha-1yr-1) and increased sharply following deforestation. Emissions on recently cleared land were 4.6 kgN ha-1yr-1 and 8.4 kgN ha-1yr-1 in a 1-year-old coffee garden. Emissions in the older coffee gardens were lower with the lowest flux observed in a 10 year old site (1.8 kgN ha-1yr-1). We explored the effects of different types of management approaches that farmers are using in this landscape. Emissions in an 18-year-old multistrata coffee garden with a significant overstory of N fixing trees were 5 times greater (15.5 kg ha-1yr-1) than emissions from forests. We also found that intensive organic matter management produced high emissions. To understand the spatial and temporal variability of the N2O emissions we used the hole-in-the-pipe conceptual model. N2O fluxes were lowest on N limited sites. Soil water content also played an important role and emissions were highest when water filled pore space (WFPS) was between 85 and 95%. A number of formulations of this model have been applied in different ways over the years to explain spatial and temporal variation in the soil N-oxide flux, and in this study we found the mechanistic explanation useful. Our study suggests that land use change and intensification of agriculture in N limited highland landscapes may significantly increase the

  14. Molecular nitrogen in natural gas accumulations: Generation from sedimentary organic matter at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Littke, R.; Krooss, B.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Idiz, E.

    1995-03-01

    The occurrence of natural gas accumulations with high percentages (up to 100%) of molecular nitrogen in various hydrocarbon provinces represents a largely unresolved problem and a serious exploration risk. In this context, a geochemical and basin modeling study was performed to evaluate the potential of sedimentary organic matter to generate molecular nitrogen. The masses of nitrogen present in coals - if converted into molecular nitrogen - are sufficient to fill commercial gas reservoirs. A calculation for gas accumulations in northern Germany, where percentages of molecular nitrogen range from less than 5 to greater than 90%, reveals that the molecular nitrogen generated in underlying coal-bearing strata is sufficient to account for the nitrogen gas even in the largest fields. In addition, much of the total nitrogen in clay-rich rock types, such as shales and mudstones, is fixed in sedimentary organic matter and may add to the nitrogen generation capacity of the coals.

  15. Molecular Structures and Ion Mobility Cross Sections: Analysis of the Effects of He and N2 Buffer Gas.

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Christian; Johnson, Nicholas R; Contreras, Stephanie; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T

    2015-07-21

    An empirically observed correlation between ion mobility cross sections in helium and nitrogen buffer gases was examined as a function of temperature, molecular size, and shape. Experimental cross sections were determined for tetraglycine, bradykinin, angiotensin 2, melittin, and ubiquitin at 300 K and in the range from 80 to 550 K on home-built instruments and calculated by the projection superposition approximation (PSA) method. The PSA was also used to predict cross sections for larger systems such as human pancreatic alpha-amylase, concanavalin, Pichia pastoris lysyl oxidase, and Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase. The data show that the ratio of cross sections in helium and nitrogen depends significantly on the temperature of the buffer gas as well as the size and shape of the analyte ion. Therefore, the analysis of the data indicates that a simple formula that seeks to quantitatively relate the momentum transfer cross sections observed in two distinct buffer gases lacks a sound physical basis. PMID:26076363

  16. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  17. CO2 + N2O mixture gas hydrate formation kinetics and effect of soil minerals on mixture-gas hydrate formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 mitigation is one of the most pressing global scientific topics in last 30 years. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHGs) defined by the Kyoto Protocol and its global warming potential (GWP) of one metric ton is equivalent to 310 metric tons of CO2. They have similar physical and chemical properties and therefore, mixture-gas (50% CO2 + 50% N2O) hydrate formation process was studied experimentally and computationally. There were no significant research to reduce N20 gas and we tried to make hydrate to mitigate N20 and CO2 in same time. Mixture gas hydrate formation periods were approximately two times faster than pure N2O hydrate formation kinetic in general. The fastest induction time of mixture-gas hydrate formation observed in Illite and Quartz among various soil mineral suspensions. It was also observed that hydrate formation kinetic was faster with clay mineral suspensions such as Nontronite, Sphalerite and Montmorillonite. Temperature and pressure change were not significant on hydrate formation kinetic; however, induction time can be significantly affected by various chemical species forming under the different suspension pHs. The distribution of chemical species in each mineral suspension was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model, PHREEQC, and used for the identification of hydrate formation characteristics in the suspensions. With the experimental limitations, a study on the molecular scale modeling has a great importance for the prediction of phase behavior of the gas hydrates. We have also performed molecular dynamics computer simulations on N2O and CO2 hydrate structures to estimate the residual free energy of two-phase (hydrate cage and guest molecule) at three different temperature ranges of 260K, 273K, and 280K. The calculation result implies that N2O hydrates are thermodynamically stable at real-world gas hydrate existing condition within given temperature and pressure. This phenomenon proves that mixture-gas could be

  18. Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) Emission Levels by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Ponds in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. L. M.; Sundefeld Junior, G.; Aparicio, C.; Baldi, G. G.; Montes, C. R.; Piveli, R. P.; Melfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by Facultative Ponds on Wastewater Treatment Plants. The most studied GHGs include CO2, CH4and N2O. The level of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions by WWTPs in Australian-type stabilization ponds was measured in the city of Lins (22º21'S, 49º50'W), state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. GHG collection was carried outusing a collection chamber installed at the center of the facultative pond's final third. The effluent's pH and temperature (ET) were registered by probes, and meteorological information regarding air temperature (AT) and solar radiation (SR) were obtained from INMET, Brazil. GHG collection was carried out for 72 consecutive hours in June 2014, on an hourly basis, once every 5 minutes, for the first 30 minutes, and once every 10 minutes from 30 to 50 minutesand subsequently analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC).After three days of data collection, the average AT, SR, ET and pH values were, respectively, 18oC, 2583kJm-2, 23oC and 8.2. Average values for GHG emission levels (CH4, CO2 and N2O) were 79.01; 100.65 and 0.0 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. GHG emission levels were divided into light periods (morning, afternoon and evening)in order to verify the periods with the highest GHG emissions.The highest CH4 emission levels were measured between morning and early afternoon. The maximum CO2 emissions were observed from evening to early morning. N2O emissions were constant and values were close to the ones found in the atmosphere, which shows the emission of N2O by facultative ponds does not contribute to greenhouse gases emissions.The results enabled us to characterize and quantify GHG emission levels per Facultative Pond on Wastewater Treatment Plant. Acknowledgment to FAPESP and SABESP, Brazil.

  19. Ellipsometric investigation of nitrogen doped diamond thin films grown in microwave CH4/H2/N2 plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, Mateusz; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Ryl, Jacek; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Lin, I.-Nan; Haenen, Ken; Darowicki, Kazimierz

    2016-06-01

    The influence of N2 concentration (1%-8%) in CH4/H2/N2 plasma on structure and optical properties of nitrogen doped diamond (NDD) films was investigated. Thickness, roughness, and optical properties of the NDD films in the VIS-NIR range were investigated on the silicon substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples exhibited relatively high refractive index (2.6 ± 0.25 at 550 nm) and extinction coefficient (0.05 ± 0.02 at 550 nm) with a transmittance of 60%. The optical investigation was supported by the molecular and atomic data delivered by Raman studies, bright field transmission electron microscopy imaging, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy diagnostics. Those results revealed that while the films grown in CH4/H2 plasma contained micron-sized diamond grains, the films grown using CH4/H2/(4%)N2 plasma exhibited ultranano-sized diamond grains along with n-diamond and i-carbon clusters, which were surrounded by amorphous carbon grain boundaries.

  20. Synthesis of Fe16N2 compound Free-Standing Foils with 20 MGOe Magnetic Energy Product by Nitrogen Ion-Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Mehedi, Md Al; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Allard, Lawrence F.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Rare-earth-free magnets are highly demanded by clean and renewable energy industries because of the supply constraints and environmental issues. A promising permanent magnet should possess high remanent magnetic flux density (Br), large coercivity (Hc) and hence large maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max). Fe16N2 has been emerging as one of promising candidates because of the redundancy of Fe and N on the earth, its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku > 1.0 × 107 erg/cc), and large saturation magnetization (4πMs > 2.4 T). However, there is no report on the formation of Fe16N2 magnet with high Br and large Hc in bulk format before. In this paper, we successfully synthesize free-standing Fe16N2 foils with a coercivity of up to 1910 Oe and a magnetic energy product of up to 20 MGOe at room temperature. Nitrogen ion implantation is used as an alternative nitriding approach with the benefit of tunable implantation energy and fluence. An integrated synthesis technique is developed, including a direct foil-substrate bonding step, an ion implantation step and a two-step post-annealing process. With the tunable capability of the ion implantation fluence and energy, a microstructure with grain size 25–30 nm is constructed on the FeN foil sample with the implantation fluence of 5 × 1017/cm2.

  1. A variable conductance gas switch for intermediate temperature operation of liquid He/liquid N2 cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayner, J. T.; Chuter, T. C.; Mclean, I. S.; Radostitz, J. V.; Nolt, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for establishing a stable intermediate temperature stage in liquid He/liquid N2 double vessel cryostats is described. The tertiary cold stage, which can be tuned to any temperature between 10 and 60 K, is ideal for cooling IR sensors for use in astronomy and physics applications. The device is called a variable-conductance gas switch. It is essentially a small chamber, located between the cold stage and liquid helium cold-face, whose thermal conductance may be controlled by varying the pressure of helium gas within the chamber. A key feature of this device is the large range of temperature control achieved with a very small (less than 10 mW) heat input from the cryogenic temperature control switch.

  2. Effect of N2O Flow Rate on Reliability of SiOx Films Deposited by SiH4-N2O Gas Mixture Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Kim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Duck Jin; Lee, Nae Eung

    2009-08-01

    SiOx films have several advantages as an interlayer dielectric in electronic devices owing to the strong adhesion between SiOx and the substrate. In this study, the coating performance as a function of the N2O flow rate was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in an undisturbed environment. In addition, the coatings were examined by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy. The SiOx films on a stainless-steel substrate showed the highest coating performance at a N2O flow rate of 120 sccm. This was attributed to the films having the lowest porosity value among those examined as a result of the fragmentation of SiO and SiO2 bonds and the improved surface roughness.

  3. Global rates of water-column denitrification derived from nitrogen gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Tim; Deutsch, Curtis; Primeau, François; Chang, Bonnie; Devol, Allan

    2012-08-01

    Biologically available nitrogen (N) limits phytoplankton growth over much of the ocean. The rate at which N is removed from the contemporary ocean by denitrifying bacteria is highly uncertain. Some studies suggest that N losses exceed inputs; others argue for a balanced budget. Here, we use a global ocean circulation model to simulate the distribution of N2 gas produced by denitrifying bacteria in the three main suboxic zones in the open ocean. By fitting the model to measured N2 gas concentrations, we infer a globally integrated rate of water-column denitrification of 66+/-6TgNyr-1. Taking into account isotopic constraints on the fraction of denitrification occurring in the water column versus marine sediments, we estimate that the global rate of N loss from marine sediments and the oceanic water column combined amounts to around 230+/-60TgNyr-1. Given present estimates of N input rates, our findings imply a net loss of around 20+/-70Tg of N from the global ocean each year, indistinguishable from a balanced budget. A balanced N budget, in turn, implies that the marine N cycle is governed by strong regulatory feedbacks.

  4. Spectroscopic diagnosis of an atmospheric-pressure waveguide-based microwave N2-Ar plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shou-Zhe; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yong-Xing

    2015-04-01

    An atmospheric-pressure N2-Ar plasma is investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopic diagnosis concerning the variation of its fundamental parameters, electron density and plasma temperature, and concentrations of ionized molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and excited argon with the tuning variables, such as the input power and the ratio of N2 in N2-Ar mixture gas, in the discharge region of the plasma torch. Moreover, qualitative discussions are delivered with respect to the mechanisms for nitrogen dissociation and influence of the Ar component on the N2 plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure.

  5. LIF study of N2(A3\\mathbf{\\Sigma}_{\\text{u}}^{+} , v = 0-10) vibrational kinetics under nitrogen streamer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, V.

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of individual v = 0-10 vibrational levels of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ) metastable species produced by filamentary streamer discharge was investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence technique. Triggered single streamer filament was periodically produced in pure nitrogen at a pressure of 200 torr and metastable species were monitored during the streamer channel decay in the centre of the discharge gap. The observed dynamics of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ) vibrational levels follow two very different scenarios: while higher (v  >  6) vibronic levels decay exponentially in hundreds of nanoseconds, the populations of lower levels (v  ≤  6) definitely increase, first reaching a local maximum on a microsecond timescale and then decreasing afterwards. Population maxima of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ , v  ≤  6) levels occur after the streamer onset with a certain delay, which decreases with increasing vibrational number. Interpretation of experimental observation based on a 0D kinetic model of the post-discharge period takes into account the most important processes redistributing populations between the N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ), N2 ≤ft({{\\text{B}}3}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}\\right) and N2≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}\\text{u}}\\right) vibronic levels. The model reproduces experimental observations fairly well, including observed maxima delays occurring due to the collisional cascade, which transfers metastable species from higher even/odd vibrational levels towards v = 0/v = 1 terminal levels through the Δv = 2 vibrational relaxation mechanism. A calibration procedure based on the rate of energy-pooling processes was used to determine absolute populations of the v = 0 and 1 levels from LIF data, and the model results were utilized to place on an absolute scale all the higher (v  >  1) measured vibronic levels. Vibrational distributions obtained from calibrated LIF data at selected instants show a reasonable qualitative agreement with model predictions

  6. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  7. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  8. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-15

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N{sub 2}). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  9. Spectroscopic measurement of plasma gas temperature of the atmospheric-pressure microwave induced nitrogen plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Jie; Li, Shou-Zhe

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric-pressure microwave induced N2 plasma is diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy with respect to the plasma gas temperature. The spectroscopic measurement of plasma gas temperature is discussed with respect to the spectral line broadening of Ar I and the various emission rotational-vibrational band systems of N2(B-A), N2(C-B) and \\text{N}2+(\\text{B-X}). It is found that the Boltzmann plot of the selective spectral lines from \\text{N}2+(\\text{B-X}) at 391.4 nm is preferable to others with an accuracy better than 5% for an atmospheric-pressure plasma of high gas temperature. On the basis of the thermal balance equation, the dependences of the plasma gas temperature on the absorbed power, the gas flow rate, and the gas composition are investigated experimentally with photographs recording the plasma morphology.

  10. The mechanisms governing low denitrification capacity and high nitrogen oxide gas emissions in subtropical forest soils in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinbo; Yu, Yongjie; Zhu, Tongbin; Cai, Zucong

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that denitrification rates are low in subtropical forest soils. However, the mechanisms governing this process are not well known. This study seeks to identify the mechanisms responsible for the low denitrification capacity and high nitrogen oxide gas ratio in subtropical forest soils in China. The denitrification capacity and nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N2) emission rates were measured using the acetylene inhibition method under conditions of added nitrate and anoxia. The abundance of nitrate reductase (narG), nitrite reductase (nirK), nitric oxide reductase (cnorB), and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) was measured using real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of the nirK and norB products was performed to analyze the population structure of denitrifying bacteria. These results showed that the denitrification capacity in subtropical forest soils was lower than in temperate forest soils (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that redox potential at the start of incubation (Ehi), rather than soil pH or soil organic C, was the key soil variable influencing denitrification, and Ehi alone could explain 68% of the variations in denitrification capacity. The high Ehi in subtropical soils led to a low abundance of nirK and significant differences in the population structure of denitrifying bacteria between subtropical and temperate soils. Therefore, Ehi was responsible for the low denitrification capacity in subtropical forest soils. The ratio of NO to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.01) and the ratio of NO and N2O to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in subtropical forest soils than in temperate forest soils, while the reverse trend was observed for the ratio of N2 to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.05). A high Ehi reduced the specific reduction activity of each nosZ copy and, in turn, resulted in a large ratio of NO

  11. Insulating geothermal well casings from thermal stress with nitrogen gas or nitrogen foam

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.S.; Murphy, H.D.; Zyvoloski, G.; McEligot, D.M.; Dash, Z.; Nicholson, R.N.

    1984-08-26

    Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site Well EE-3 was designed and completed to function as a completion of the reservoirs with the injection well, EE-2, progressed it become evident that it would be desirable to fracture in EE-3 as well to obtain a flow connection between the wells. Unfortunately, the 9-5/8'' od production casing in EE-3 had been pretensioned to 885,000 lbs to accommodate its intended service as a hot water production well. Cool-down of the casing was thus limited to only 11/sup 0/C (20/sup 0/F) to keep the stress in the top joints of the casing below the minimum yield stress, or else the pretension had to be released. Before incurring the risk and expense required to release the tension, fracturing experiments were performed to evaluate the use gaseous nitrogen and 75% quality nitrogen-gel foam as insulating media in an annular wellbore configuration, i.e., the nitrogen gas or foam was placed in the annular gap between the tubing string and the casing.

  12. Nitrogen gas emissions and their genetic potential in tropical peatlands of French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasak, Kuno; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Järveoja, Järvi; Maddison, Martin; Ligi, Teele; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, nitrogen gas (N2, N2O) emissions from tropical peatlands (French Guiana) were measured and their relationships with the soil chemical parameters, water regime, and abundances of genes encoding denitrification associated nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases were analysed. The measurements and soil sampling (from 0-10 cm layer) were carried out in October 2013 in two sites (undisturbed and drainage influenced) of the northern part of French Guiana. In both study sites, three transects along the groundwater depth gradient with three sampling points in each transect were established. At each sampling point, N2O emissions were measured in six sessions during three days using static closed chambers. N2 emission from the top-soil samples were measured in the laboratory applying He-O (N2) method. Soil pHKCl, NO3-N, NH4-N, soluble P, K, Ca and Mg, totN and soil organic matter content were determined from the collected samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene, (and marker genes for measuring denitrification potential) nirS, nirK, nosZ clade I and clade II copies were quantified in the soils using qPCR method. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of DNA extracted from soil samples was performed on Illumina NextSeq system. Metagenomes were used for microbial profiling, identifying functional genes and relating them to biogeochemical cycles and biological processes. N2O emissions were significantly lower and N2 emissions higher (p<0.05 in both cases) in natural sites (mean values -0.3 and 10 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O, and 1477 and 637 μg m-2 h-1 for N2 in natural and drained sites, respectively). Results from molecular analyses show that the bacterial community was significantly more abundant (p<0.001) in the natural site while the N2O production potential (by the abundance of nir genes) was not different between the two sites. N2O reduction potential (by the abundance of nosZ genes) was higher (p<0.01) in the natural area where also the lower mineral N content and high

  13. Use of the new Nitrogen Index tier zero to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emissions from cropping systems in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexico is one of the largest users of N fertilizer in the world, and the 2nd largest user in Latin America after Brazil. Across large areas of Mexico, N fertilizers are being over-applied, resulting in lower N use efficiencies. Mexico’s trace gas inventory (in CO2 equivalents) reports that agricultu...

  14. Evaluation of bactericidal effects of low-temperature nitrogen gas plasma towards application to short-time sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kumiko; Sakuma, Ayaka; Nakamura, Yuka; Oguri, Tomoko; Sato, Natsumi; Kido, Nobuo

    2012-07-01

    To develop a novel low-temperature plasma sterilizer using pure N(2) gas as a plasma source, we evaluated bactericidal ability of a prototype apparatus provided by NGK Insulators. After determination of the sterilizing conditions without the cold spots, the D value of the BI of Geobacillus stearothermophilus endospores on the filter paper was determined as 1.9 min. However, the inactivation efficiency of BI carrying the same endospores on SUS varied to some extent, suggesting that the bactericidal effect might vary by materials of sterilized instruments. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also exposed to the N(2) gas plasma and confirmed to be inactivated within 30 min. Through the evaluation of bactericidal efficiency in a sterilization bag, we concluded that the UV photons in the plasma and the high-voltage pulse to generate the gas plasma were not concerned with the bactericidal effect of the N(2) gas plasma. Bactericidal effect might be exhibited by activated nitrogen atoms or molecular radicals. PMID:22469251

  15. Synthesis of Fe16N2 compound Free-Standing Foils with 20 MGOe Magnetic Energy Product by Nitrogen Ion-Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Mehedi, Md Al; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Allard, Lawrence F.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Rare-earth-free magnets are highly demanded by clean and renewable energy industries because of the supply constraints and environmental issues. A promising permanent magnet should possess high remanent magnetic flux density (Br), large coercivity (Hc) and hence large maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max). Fe16N2 has been emerging as one of promising candidates because of the redundancy of Fe and N on the earth, its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku > 1.0 × 107 erg/cc), and large saturation magnetization (4πMs > 2.4 T). However, there is no report on the formation of Fe16N2 magnet with high Br and large Hc in bulk format before. In this paper, we successfully synthesize free-standing Fe16N2 foils with a coercivity of up to 1910 Oe and a magnetic energy product of up to 20 MGOe at room temperature. Nitrogen ion implantation is used as an alternative nitriding approach with the benefit of tunable implantation energy and fluence. An integrated synthesis technique is developed, including a direct foil-substrate bonding step, an ion implantation step and a two-step post-annealing process. With the tunable capability of the ion implantation fluence and energy, a microstructure with grain size 25–30 nm is constructed on the FeN foil sample with the implantation fluence of 5 × 1017/cm2. PMID:27145983

  16. Synthesis of Fe16N2 compound Free-Standing Foils with 20 MGOe Magnetic Energy Product by Nitrogen Ion-Implantation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Mehedi, Md Al; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Allard, Lawrence F; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Rare-earth-free magnets are highly demanded by clean and renewable energy industries because of the supply constraints and environmental issues. A promising permanent magnet should possess high remanent magnetic flux density (Br), large coercivity (Hc) and hence large maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max). Fe16N2 has been emerging as one of promising candidates because of the redundancy of Fe and N on the earth, its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku > 1.0 × 10(7) erg/cc), and large saturation magnetization (4πMs > 2.4 T). However, there is no report on the formation of Fe16N2 magnet with high Br and large Hc in bulk format before. In this paper, we successfully synthesize free-standing Fe16N2 foils with a coercivity of up to 1910 Oe and a magnetic energy product of up to 20 MGOe at room temperature. Nitrogen ion implantation is used as an alternative nitriding approach with the benefit of tunable implantation energy and fluence. An integrated synthesis technique is developed, including a direct foil-substrate bonding step, an ion implantation step and a two-step post-annealing process. With the tunable capability of the ion implantation fluence and energy, a microstructure with grain size 25-30 nm is constructed on the FeN foil sample with the implantation fluence of 5 × 10(17)/cm(2). PMID:27145983

  17. Shifts and dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes in coastal marshes: Responses to short- and long-term nitrogen additions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Tang, J.; Fisher, K.; Bratton, J. F.; Crusius, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are estimated to sequester carbon at faster rates than most ecosystems, and thus they are appealing targets for efforts to ameliorate climate change through biological C storage. However, to accurately estimate the climatic impact of such strategies, we must simultaneously consider fluxes of greenhouse gases from these ecosystems, including CH4 and N2O. Coastal salt marshes are currently thought to represent minor sources of greenhouse gases relative to freshwater wetlands, but the few measurements that exist for N2O and CH4 fluxes in these systems have not spanned the range of their dynamic environmental conditions. Further, multiple anthropogenic sources have disproportionately increased nitrogen loads in coastal ecosystems, which we hypothesized may significantly enhance N2O emissions from salt marshes. We tested this hypothesis with short- and long-term manipulative experiments at low to moderate nitrogen loads in pristine temperate Spartina patens marshes at Plum Island (MA). In July 2009, we compared background greenhouse gas fluxes with those measured immediately after either a single addition of nitrate (equivalent to 1.4g N m -2) or a control solution of artificial seawater. Prior to manipulations, the salt marsh sediments represented small sinks of N2O, as fluxes averaged -33 μmol N2O m-2 day-1. Yet, within one hour of manipulations, the plots with nitrate additions became sources of N2O, with fluxes averaging 42 and 108 μmol N2O m-2 day-1 in light and dark chambers, respectively. These exceeded fluxes in control plots by more than an order of magnitude. Respiratory CO2 fluxes were also significantly higher in nitrate-enriched plots (4.4 +/- 1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than in controls (2.4 +/- 0.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) immediately following the nitrate additions. Methane fluxes were not affected by nitrogen, but they varied spatially, ranging from 7.5 to 2200 μmol CH4 m-2 day-1. Although the enhanced N2O fluxes did not persist after 2 days, the

  18. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. PMID:24784732

  19. The influence of woody encroachment on the nitrogen cycle: fixation, storage and gas loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, F.; Sparks, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Woody encroachment is a pervasive land cover change throughout the tropics and subtropics. Encroachment is frequently catalyzed by nitrogen (N)-fixing trees and the resulting N inputs potentially alter whole-ecosystem N cycling, accumulation and loss. In the southern US, widespread encroachment by legume Prosopis glandulosa is associated with increased soil total N storage, inorganic N concentrations, and net mineralization and nitrification rates. To better understand the effects of this process on ecosystem N cycling, we investigated patterns of symbiotic N fixation, N accrual and soil N trace gas and N2 emissions during Prosopis encroachment into the southern Rio Grande Plains. Analyses of d15N in foliage, xylem sap and plant-available soil N suggested that N fixation rates increase with tree age and are influenced by abiotic conditions. A model of soil N accrual around individual trees, accounting for atmospheric inputs and gas losses, generates lifetimes N fixation estimates of up to 9 kg for a 100-year-old tree and current rates of 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, these N inputs and increased soil cycling rates do not translate into increased N gas losses. Two years of field measurements of a complete suite of N trace gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and other oxidized N compounds) found no difference in flux between upland Prosopis groves and adjacent unencroached grasslands. Total emissions for both land cover types average 0.56-0.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, comparable to other southern US grasslands. Additional lab experiments suggested that N2 losses are low and that field oxygen conditions are not usually conducive to denitrification. Taken together, results suggest that this ecosystem is currently experiencing a period of net N accrual under ongoing encroachment.

  20. Magnetoelectric directional nonreciprocity in gas-phase molecular nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Pelle, B; Bitard, H; Bailly, G; Robilliard, C

    2011-05-13

    We report the direct observation of the nonreciprocity of the velocity of light, induced by electric and magnetic fields. This bilinear magneto-electro-optical effect appears in crossed electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the light wave vector, as a refractive index difference between two counterpropagating directions. Using a high finesse ring cavity, we have measured this magnetoelectric nonreciprocity in molecular nitrogen at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure; for light polarized parallel to the magnetic field it is 2η(∥exp)(N2) = (4.7±1)×10(-23)  m  V(-1)  T(-1) for λ = 1064  nm, in agreement with the expected order of magnitude. Our measurement opens the way to a deeper insight into light-matter interaction beyond the electric dipole approximation. We were able to measure a nonreciprocity as small as Δn =(5±2)×10(-18), which makes its observation in quantum vacuum a conceivable challenge. PMID:21668149

  1. Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Protonated N,2-Diphenyl- N'-( p-Toluenesulfonyl)Ethanimidamides: Tosyl Cation Transfer Versus Proton Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Yu, Lian; Wu, Yanqing; Guo, Cheng; Zhang, Ningwen; Jiang, Kezhi

    2015-08-01

    The gas-phase dissociation chemistry of protonated N,2-diphenyl- N'-( p-toluenesulfonyl) ethanimidamides was investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in combination with density functional theory calculation. The protonated molecules underwent fragmentation via two main competing channels: (1) migration of the tosyl cation to the anilinic N atom and the subsequent loss of 2-phenylacetonitrile to afford protonated N-phenyl p-toluenesulfonamide ( m/z 248); and (2) transfer of the ionizing proton to the anilinic N atom to give an ion/neutral complex of [tosyl cation / 2-phenylacetonitrile] ( m/z 272) and the subsequent decomposition to yield tosyl cation ( m/z 155). To the best of our knowledge, the gas-phase tosyl cation transfer has not been reported previously. For the para-substituted sulfonamides, the presence of electron-donating groups on the anilinic ring inhibits the reaction channel of the tosyl cation migration, whereas the presence of electron-withdrawing groups favors this pathway.

  2. Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Protonated N,2-Diphenyl-N'-(p-Toluenesulfonyl)Ethanimidamides: Tosyl Cation Transfer Versus Proton Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Yu, Lian; Wu, Yanqing; Guo, Cheng; Zhang, Ningwen; Jiang, Kezhi

    2015-08-01

    The gas-phase dissociation chemistry of protonated N,2-diphenyl-N'-(p-toluenesulfonyl) ethanimidamides was investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in combination with density functional theory calculation. The protonated molecules underwent fragmentation via two main competing channels: (1) migration of the tosyl cation to the anilinic N atom and the subsequent loss of 2-phenylacetonitrile to afford protonated N-phenyl p-toluenesulfonamide (m/z 248); and (2) transfer of the ionizing proton to the anilinic N atom to give an ion/neutral complex of [tosyl cation / 2-phenylacetonitrile] (m/z 272) and the subsequent decomposition to yield tosyl cation (m/z 155). To the best of our knowledge, the gas-phase tosyl cation transfer has not been reported previously. For the para-substituted sulfonamides, the presence of electron-donating groups on the anilinic ring inhibits the reaction channel of the tosyl cation migration, whereas the presence of electron-withdrawing groups favors this pathway. PMID:25962367

  3. N2O and NOy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The principal loss processes for ozone in the stratosphere are either directly or indirectly closely coupled to the abundance and distribution of reactive oxides of nitrogen (NOy). The main source of NOy in the stratosphere is N2O, a trace gas that is changing significantly as a result of anthropogenic forcing. Thus diagnosis of the distributions of N2O, NOy, and their coupling is required to evaluate any chemistry-climate model aspiring to accurately simulate ozone change. In the NASA Assessment of the Effects of High-speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998 we found that the sensitivity of various models ozone to perturbation did correspond consistently with their background NOy distribution. Coordinated NOy and N2O mixing ratio distributions are available from observations: ER-2 aircraft in the lower stratosphere and ATMOS and balloon profiles to higher altitudes at a subset of latitudes and seasons. Although close comparison to these diagnostics is crucial, unfortunately the distributions are due to a combination of transport and chemical processes, and isolating the source of differences is not always simple. However, in combination with other transport and photochemical diagnostics, comparison with N2O and NOy can be very instructive in evaluation of model processes and performance.

  4. Rapid monitoring of intermediate states and mass balance of nitrogen during denitrification by means of cavity enhanced Raman multi-gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Keiner, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-03-15

    The comprehensive investigation of changes in N cycling has been challenging so far due to difficulties with measuring gases such as N2 and N2O simultaneously. In this study we introduce cavity enhanced Raman gas spectroscopy as a new analytical methodology for tracing the stepwise reduction of (15)N-labelled nitrate by the denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri. The unique capabilities of Raman multi-gas analysis enabled real-time, continuous, and non-consumptive quantification of the relevant gases ((14)N2, (14)N2O, O2, and CO2) and to trace the fate of (15)N-labeled nitrate substrate ((15)N2, (15)N2O) added to a P. stutzeri culture with one single measurement. Using this new methodology, we could quantify the kinetics of the formation and degradation for all gaseous compounds (educts and products) and thus study the reaction orders. The gas quantification was complemented with the analysis of nitrate and nitrite concentrations for the online monitoring of the total nitrogen element budget. The simultaneous quantification of all gases also enabled the contactless and sterile online acquisition of the pH changes in the P. stutzeri culture by the stoichiometry of the redox reactions during denitrification and the CO2-bicarbonate equilibrium. Continuous pH monitoring - without the need to insert an electrode into solution - elucidated e.g. an increase in the slope of the pH value coinciding with an accumulation of nitrite, which in turn led to a temporary accumulation of N2O, due to an inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase. Cavity enhanced Raman gas spectroscopy has a high potential for the assessment of denitrification processes and can contribute substantially to our understanding of nitrogen cycling in both natural and agricultural systems. PMID:25732425

  5. Abiotic gas formation drives nitrogen loss from a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Carmody K; Sparks, Jed P

    2009-11-01

    In arid environments such as deserts, nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient for biological activity. The majority of the ecosystem nitrogen flux is typically thought to be driven by production and loss of reactive nitrogen species by microorganisms in the soil. We found that high soil-surface temperatures (greater than 50 degrees C), driven by solar radiation, are the primary cause of nitrogen loss in Mojave Desert soils. This abiotic pathway not only enables the balancing of arid ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but also changes our view of global nitrogen cycling and the predicted impact of climate change and increased temperatures on nitrogen bioavailability. PMID:19892980

  6. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  7. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  8. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  9. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  10. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  11. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained... in effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input rates greater than...

  12. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  13. Analysis of the insulation characteristics of c-C4F8 and N2 gas mixtures by Boltzmann equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. K.; Xiao, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    The present paper concerns itself with the insulation characteristics of c-C4F8/N2 gas mixtures and studies the possibility of applying in the gas insulation of power equipments. We aim to use the theoretical framework of the Boltzmann equation to calculate the density-normalized effective ionization coefficients (α-ƞ)/N and transport parameters of c-C4F8/N2 gas mixtures for E/N values from 180 to 550 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V cm2) in the condition of steady-state Townsend (SST) experiment. From the variation curve of (α-ƞ)/N with the c-C4F8 mixture ratio k, the limiting field strength (E/N)lim of the gas mixtures at different gas content is determined. In order to confirm the validity of the results obtained, comparisons with Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data have been performed. It is found that the insulation properties of c-C4F8 and N2 gas mixtures are much better than those of SF6 and N2 mixtures for applying in the high voltage apparatus as an insulation medium, especially if we take the global warming potential into account.

  14. Production and characterization of thin a-C:(H) films for gas permeation barrier functionality against He, CO(2), N(2), O(2) and H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Laidani, N; Bartali, R; Gottardi, G; Anderle, M; Chuste, G; Bellachioma, C

    2006-07-01

    This work reports on (i) the gas barrier properties of a-C:H films rf-sputtered in Ar-H(2) plasmas from a graphite target on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and (ii) the influence of the film chemical structure and defect properties on the gas permeability. The intrinsic permeabilities of the films to He, CO(2), O(2), N(2) gases and H(2)O vapour were determined and found to be orders of magnitude lower than that of the bare PET. Indirect evidence was given to a solubility-diffusion process as the more probable permeation mechanism, over a gas flow through microdefects or gas transport through nanodefects by a Knudsen diffusion mechanism. The barrier capability of the films was found to scale as the gas molecular diameter within the He, CO(2), O(2) and N(2) series, and inversely with the gas critical temperature for the CO(2), O(2), N(2) and H(2)O series. A correlation between the film Urbach energy, E(u), and the gas permeability was established, except for H(2)O. Such findings further favour a bulk diffusion contributing mechanism to permeation over the gas state transport. Conversely, this E(u)-permeability relation shed more light on the origin of the valence band tailing of the amorphous carbon electron structure. PMID:21690810

  15. Production and characterization of thin a-C:(H) films for gas permeation barrier functionality against He, CO2, N2, O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidani, N.; Bartali, R.; Gottardi, G.; Anderle, M.; Chuste, G.; Bellachioma, C.

    2006-07-01

    This work reports on (i) the gas barrier properties of a-C:H films rf-sputtered in Ar-H2 plasmas from a graphite target on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and (ii) the influence of the film chemical structure and defect properties on the gas permeability. The intrinsic permeabilities of the films to He, CO2, O2, N2 gases and H2O vapour were determined and found to be orders of magnitude lower than that of the bare PET. Indirect evidence was given to a solubility-diffusion process as the more probable permeation mechanism, over a gas flow through microdefects or gas transport through nanodefects by a Knudsen diffusion mechanism. The barrier capability of the films was found to scale as the gas molecular diameter within the He, CO2, O2 and N2 series, and inversely with the gas critical temperature for the CO2, O2, N2 and H2O series. A correlation between the film Urbach energy, Eu, and the gas permeability was established, except for H2O. Such findings further favour a bulk diffusion contributing mechanism to permeation over the gas state transport. Conversely, this Eu-permeability relation shed more light on the origin of the valence band tailing of the amorphous carbon electron structure.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless gas that is produced commercially by the fractionation of...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs....1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless gas that is produced commercially by the fractionation of liquid air. (b) The ingredient must...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless gas that is produced commercially by the fractionation of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless gas that is produced commercially by the fractionation of...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless gas that is produced commercially by the fractionation of...

  1. Spacecraft nitrogen generation. [liquid hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Carlson, J. N.; Powell, J. D.; Kacholia, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two spacecraft nitrogen (N2) generation systems based on the catalytic dissociation of hydrazine (N2H4) were evaluated. In the first system, liquid N2H4 is catalytically dissociated to yield an N2 and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture. Separation of the N2/H2 gas mixture to yield N2 and a supply of H2 is accomplished using a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator. In the second system, the N2/H2 gas mixture is separated in a two-stage palladium/silver (Pd/Ag) N2/H2 separator. The program culminated in the successful design, fabrication, and testing of a N2H4 catalytic dissociator, a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator, and a two-stage Pd/Ag N2/H2 separator. The hardware developed was sized for an N2 delivery rate of 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day). Experimental results demonstrated that both spacecraft N2 generation systems are capable of producing 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day) of 99.9% pure N2 at a pressure greater than or equal to 1035 kN/m(2) (150 psia).

  2. Gas analysis using Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the presence of intraperitoneal air (nitrogen and oxygen) in a cohort of children undergoing pediatric laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan P; Sato, Thomas T; Balcom, Anthony H; Groth, Travis; Hoffman, George M

    2015-02-01

    Clinically significant gas embolism during laparoscopy is a rare but potentially catastrophic event. Case reports suggest that air, in addition to the insufflation gas, may be present. We studied the effects of equipment design and flushing techniques on the composition of gas present under experimental and routine pediatric surgical conditions. Concentrations of nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by Raman spectroscopy in gas delivered to and retrieved from a mock peritoneum during simulated laparoscopy. We then analyzed the composition of insufflated and recovered gases during elective laparoscopic procedures conducted with CO2-preflushed and unflushed tubing to determine the presence of significant (10%) quantities of air. In vitro, CO2 was not detected at the distal end of insufflator tubing until after delivery of approximately 0.2 L of gas, and N2 persisted until >0.4 L was delivered, with 40% ± 8% (mean ± SD, range 33%-49%) recovered from the mock peritoneum at the termination of initial insufflation. In clinical studies, preflushing reduced the initial concentration of N2 from 78% ± 0.5% to 23% ± 15%, but >10% air was detected in all subsequent samples, regardless of insufflation technique. Laparoscopic equipment and practice routinely permit delivery of air to the insufflated cavity. Purging the equipment with CO2 reduces but does not eliminate air (N2, O2) within the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy. Thus, when vascular injury occurs, embolized gases will contain variable quantities of N2, O2, and CO2. As the initial insufflation volume diminishes and approaches the volume of the insufflation tubing, which occurs in infants and young pediatric patients, the concentration of N2 will approximate that of room air in an unflushed system. Small insufflation volumes containing high N2 concentrations can contribute to catastrophic air emboli in neonates and small pediatric patients. PMID:25602452

  3. [Effects of land use type and incubation temperature on soil nitrogen transformation and greenhouse gas emission].

    PubMed

    Lang, Man; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Chuan

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory experiment with the soil samples collected from China and Canada was conducted to study the effects of land use type (forestland vs. grassland) and incubation temperature (10 degrees C vs. 15 degrees C) on the soil nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and N2O and CO2 emissions under aerobic condition. As compared with forestland soils, grassland soils had higher nitrification rate and N2O emission, with the highest nitrification rate in China grassland soil. At 10 and 15 degrees C, the average net nitrification rate of China grassland soil was 2.10 and 2.86 mg N x kg(-1) x d(-1) and the cumulative N2O emission in 15 incubation days was 10.2 and 15.4 microg N2O-N x kg(-1), respectively. Soil pH was the main factor affecting the nitrification rate and N2O emission, and there existed significant positive correlations between the soil pH and the nitrification rate and N2O emission. Forestland soils had higher nitrogen mineralization rate and CO2 emission than grassland soils, and China forestland soil had the highest nitrogen mineralization rate, with the average net mineralization rate at 10 and 15 degrees C being 3.08 and 2.87 mg N x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. The CO2 emission was the highest in Canada forestland soil, and the cumulative CO2 emission in 15 incubation days at 10 and 15 degrees C was 314 and 370 mg CO2-C x kg(-1), respectively. The soil organic carbon and soluble organic carbon contents had significant positive correlations with the soil nitrogen mineralization rate and CO2 emission, respectively, whereas the increasing soil temperature promoted the nitrification in grassland soils and the N2O emission from forestland soils and grassland soils. The same pronounced effects of increasing temperature were also found on the CO2 emission from forestland soils. PMID:23359925

  4. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  5. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Enhanced Nitrogen Dissolution During Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T A

    2001-08-17

    Nitrogen concentrations far in excess of Sieverts' Law calculations and as high as 0.2 wt.% have been obtained in steel welds during arc welding. Such high concentrations of nitrogen in the weld metal can originate from a variety of sources, depending on the welding operation in question. One such mechanism involves the interaction between the surrounding atmosphere, which is about 80% nitrogen, and the plasma phase above the weld pool. Impingement of the surrounding atmosphere into the arc column, which is primarily composed of an inert shielding gas, can be due, in part, to insufficient shielding of the weld metal. In other cases, nitrogen can be purposefully added to the shielding gas to enhance the microstructural evolution of the weld metal. The mechanisms responsible for enhanced nitrogen concentrations are of significant interest. In both arc melting and welding operations, a plasma phase exists above the liquid metal. This plasma phase, which is composed of a number of different species not normally observed in gas-metal systems, significantly alters the nitrogen absorption reaction in liquid iron and steel. Monatomic nitrogen (N) is considered to be the species responsible for the observed enhancements in the nitrogen concentration. This role for monatomic nitrogen is based on its significantly higher solubility in iron with partial pressures many orders of magnitude less than that for diatomic nitrogen. It has also been proposed that the total amount of nitrogen present in the liquid metal is the balance of two independent processes. Monatomic nitrogen is absorbed through the interface between the arc and the liquid metal. Once a saturation level is reached at any location on the metal surface, nitrogen is then expelled from the surface of the liquid metal. This expulsion of nitrogen from the weld pool surface occurs via a desorption reaction, in which bubbles form at the surface and other heterogeneous nucleation sites in the liquid melt. These bubbles

  7. Low Temperature Combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate nox from large bore natural gas-filled engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Biruduganti, M. S.; Gupta, S. B.; Sekar, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NOx emissions levels set by regulatory agencies. This phenomenon can be realized by utilizing various advanced combustion control strategies. The present work discusses nitrogen enrichment using an Air Separation Membrane (ASM) as a better alternative to the mature Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) technique currently in use. A 70% NOx reduction was realized with a moderate 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving Fuel Conversion Efficiency (FCE). The maximum acceptable Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) in a single cylinder spark ignited natural gas engine was investigated in this paper. Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance both in terms of power density and FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N2 enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing NEA was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with NEA is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NOx emissions.

  8. Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Mass-Selected [UO2(ligand)n]2+ Complexes in the Gas Phase: Comparison with Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Anita K. Gianotto

    2006-03-01

    The gas-phase infrared spectra of discrete uranyl ([UO2]2+) complexes ligated with acetone and/or acetonitrile were used to evaluate systematic trends of ligation on the position of the OdUdO stretch and to enable rigorous comparison with the results of computational studies. Ionic uranyl complexes isolated in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer were fragmented via infrared multiphoton dissociation using a free electron laser scanned over the mid-IR wavelengths. The asymmetric OdUdO stretching frequency was measured at 1017 cm-1 for [UO2(CH3COCH3)2]2+ and was systematically red shifted to 1000 and 988 cm-1 by the addition of a third and fourth acetone ligand, respectively, which was consistent with increased donation of electron density to the uranium center in complexes with higher coordination number. The values generated computationally using LDA, B3LYP, and ZORA-PW91 were in good agreement with experimental measurements. In contrast to the uranyl frequency shifts, the carbonyl frequencies of the acetone ligands were progressively blue shifted as the number of ligands increased from two to four and approached that of free acetone. This observation was consistent with the formation of weaker noncovalent bonds between uranium and the carbonyl oxygen as the extent of ligation increases. Similar trends were observed for [UO2(CH3CN)n]2+ complexes, although the uranyl asymmetric stretching frequencies were greater than those measured for acetone complexes having equivalent coordination, which is consistent with the fact that acetonitrile is a weaker nucleophile than is acetone. This conclusion was confirmed by the uranyl stretching frequencies measured for mixed acetone/acetonitrile complexes, which showed that substitution of one acetone for one acetonitrile produced a modest red shift of 3-6 cm-1.

  10. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Alatossava, Tapani; Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  11. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  12. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  13. Nitrogen Inputs via Nitrogen Fixation in Northern Plants and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dominated by cold and often acidic water logged environments, mineralization of organic matter is slow in the majority of northern ecosystems. Measures of extractable ammonium and nitrate are generally low and can be undetectable in peat pore waters. Despite this apparent nitrogen limitation, many of these environments produce deep deposits of soil organic matter. Biological nitrogen fixation carried out by autotrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs associated with cryptograms provides the majority of known nitrogen inputs in these northern ecosystems. Nitrogen fixation was assessed in a variety of northern soils within rhizospheres of dominant plant communities. We investigated the availability of this newly fixed nitrogen to the vascular plant community in nitrogen limited northern plant communities. We tracked nitrogen flow from 15N2 gas fixed in Sphagnum mosses into tissues of two native vascular plant species, boreal cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) and black spruce (Picea mariana). 15N-labeled Sphagnum microcosms were grown within variable mesh size exclusion/inclusion fabrics in a nitrogen addition experiment in situ in order to investigate the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of newly fixed nitrogen. Up to 24% of daily fixed 15N label was transferred to vascular plant tissues during 2 months. Nitrogen addition resulted in decreased N2 fixation rates; however, with higher nitrogen availability there was a higher rate of 15N label uptake into the vascular plants, likely the result of increased production of dissolved organic nitrogen. Reliance on mycorrhizal networks for nitrogen acquisition was indicated by nitrogen isotope fractionation patterns. Moreover, N2 fixation activities in mosses were stimulated when vascular plants were grown in moss microcosms versus "moss only" treatments. Results indicate that bog vascular plants may derive considerable nitrogen from atmospheric N2 biologically fixed within Sphagnum mosses. This work demonstrates that

  14. Microplume model of spatial-yield spectra. [applying to electron gas degradation in molecular nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.

  15. Nitrogen transfers and air-sea N2O fluxes in the upwelling off Namibia within the oxygen minimum zone: a 3-D model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, E.; Dadou, I.; Le Vu, B.; Cambon, G.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Machu, E.; Rixen, T.; Kock, A.; Flohr, A.; Paulmier, A.; Lavik, G.

    2011-04-01

    As regions of high primary production and being often associated to Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle. Indeed, by exporting the Organic Matter (OM) and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. Losses of fixed inorganic N, through denitrification and anammox processes and through nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere, take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and alleviate the role of these regions as a source of N. In the present study, we developed a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical (ROMS/BioBUS) model for investigating the full N budget in the Namibian sub-system of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). The different state variables of a climatological experiment have been compared to different data sets (satellite and in situ observations) and show that the model is able to represent this biogeochemical oceanic region. The N transfer is investigated in the Namibian upwelling system using this coupled model, especially in the Walvis Bay area between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed (O2 < 0.5 ml O2 l-1). The upwelling process advects 24.2 × 1010 mol N yr-1 of nitrate enriched waters over the first 100 m over the slope and over the continental shelf. The meridional advection by the alongshore Benguela current brings also nutrient-rich waters with 21.1 × 1010 mol N yr-1. 10.5 × 1010 mol N yr-1 of OM are exported outside of the continental shelf (between 0 and 100-m depth). 32.4% and 18.1% of this OM are exported by advection in the form of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matters (DOM and POM), respectively, however vertical sinking of POM represents the main contributor (49.5%) to OM export outside of the first 100-m depth of the water column on the continental shelf. The continental slope also represents a net N export

  16. Development of a New N2O/CO Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer for sub-ppb Ambient Gas Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, G. A.; Saad, N.; Zhou, J.; Hoffnagle, J.; Fleck, D.

    2015-12-01

    With a global warming potential of nearly 300, N2O is a critically important greenhouse gas, contributing about 5% of the US total GHG emissions. Agriculture soil management practices are the dominant source of anthropogenic N2O emissions, contributing nearly 3/4ths of US N2O emissions. In urban areas, vehicle tailpipe emissions and waste water treatment plants are significant sources of N2O. We report here a new mid-infrared laser-based cavity ring-down spectrometer that was recently developed to measure sub-ppb ambient concentrations of two key greenhouse gas species, N2O and CO, simultaneously. It combines a quantum cascade laser with a proprietary 3-mirror optical cavity. The new optical analyzer was set up to monitor nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide, along with CO2 and CH4, in ambient air obtained from a 10m tower in Santa Clara, California. In the data collected, the contribution from traffic and a nearby sewage treatment facility was evident.

  17. Straightforward way to enhance robustness in ultrasonic nebulization-axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry via an additional N2 gas stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Guilherme Luiz; Pozebon, Dirce

    2015-11-01

    In the present study a low flow of N2 is mixed with the aerosol produced by ultrasonic nebulization (USN) prior analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The foreign gas is added for improving plasma characteristics in axially-viewed ICP. By computing the Mg ionic to atomic ratio (plasma robustness) it was concluded that N2 dissociates closer to the load coil when USN is used as sample introduction system. The maximum emission intensity of Mg(II) for pneumatic nebulization (PN) was observed at 11 mm from the load coil while it was 8 mm for USN, indicating earlier aerosol desolvation, atomization and excitation processes in the ICP. Emission profiles of Ar(I) 415.861 nm, Ba(II) 486.601 nm and Ba(II) 233.527 nm indicated that metastable Ar species are overpopulated in the ICP under the N2 flow. Copper and manganese ionic lines with energy close to 16 eV (Ar ionization) were monitored to evaluate spatially dependent charge-transfer reaction along the ICP axis in the presence and absence of the N2 flow. The Cu(II) signal profiles indicated abundance of Ar+ species at low distances from the load coil when N2 was added. On the other hand, differences were not observed at longer distances from the load coil for both plasmas (mixed-gas and pure Ar-ICP). The calculated limits of detection (LODs) for both plasmas had the same order of magnitude. Analysis of certified reference samples demonstrated that the accuracy was preserved by adding the low flow of N2. It was concluded that adding a low flow of N2 to the aerosol produced by USN is a simple way to increase plasma robustness, which is usually lower than that achieved using conventional PN.

  18. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  19. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-02-28

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd nitrogen removal/gas treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project field test at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  20. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O at two European beech forests: linking soil gas production profiles with soil and stem fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Halaburt, Ellen; Haddad, Sally; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant surfaces are known to exchange greenhouse gases with the atmosphere. Some gases like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) can be produced and re-consumed in different soil depths and soil compartments, so that elevated concentrations of CH4 or N2O in the soil do not necessarily mean a net efflux from the soil into the atmosphere. Soil aeration, and thus the oxygen status can underlay a large spatial variability within the soil on the plot and profile scale, but also within soil aggregates. Thus, conditions suitable for production and consumption of CH4 and N2O can vary on different scales in the soil. Plant surfaces can also emit or take up CH4 and N2O, and these fluxes can significantly contribute to the net ecosystem exchange. Since roots usually have large intercellular spaces or aerenchyma they may represent preferential transport ways for soil gases, linking possibly elevated soil gas concentrations in the subsoil in a "shortcut" to the atmosphere. We tested the hypothesis that the spatial variability of the soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O is caused by the heterogeneity in soil properties. Therefore, we measured soil-atmosphere gas fluxes, soil gas concentrations and soil diffusivity profiles and did a small scale field assessment of soil profiles on the measurments plots. We further tried to link vertical profiles of soil gas concentrations and diffusivity to derive the production and consumption profiles, and to link these profiles to the stem-atmosphere flux rates of individual trees. Measurements were conducted in two mountain beech forests with different geographical and climatic conditions (White Carpathians, Czech Republic; Black Forest, Germany). Gas fluxes at stem and soil levels were measured simultaneously using static chamber systems and chromatographic and continuous laser analyses. Monitoring simultaneously vertical soil gas profiles allowed to assess the within-soil gas fluxes, and thus to localize the production and

  1. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    PubMed Central

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N2 formation are inefficient, we argue that N2 does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH3 should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. PMID:22689957

  2. Using N2-N2 Collisionally-Induced Absorption to Detect N2 and Determine Pressure in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Robinson, T. D.; Meadows, V.; Crisp, D.; Misra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary habitability is determined by the stability of liquid water at the surface, which depends on surface temperature and pressure. While molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes the bulk of Earth’s atmosphere 78% by volume) and is the biggest contributor to surface pressure, it is also extremely hard to remotely detect. In particular, N2 lacks significant absorption features in the visible to near infrared because it is a symmetric homonuclear molecule with no transitional dipole moment. However, nitrogen has a collisionally-induced absorption (CIA) feature near 4.3 μm, nearly coincident with the 4.3 μm CO2 band but extending to shorter wavelengths. This feature has been known to spectroscopists for some time, but has never been considered in the context of exoplanet characterization from full-disk observations. We report a direct detection of this N2-N2 CIA feature in disk-integrated spectra of Earth taken by NASA’s EPOXI mission. We use the Virtual Planetary Laboratory’s 3D, line-by-line, multiply scattering Earth Model (Robinson et al., 2011) to match the EPOXI spectrum with a synthetic spectrum that includes N2-N2 CIA (coefficients from Lafferty et al., 1996). Because N2 is stable in the atmosphere for geologically long periods and is present in large quantities in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus, it may be a major component of many terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. Since the strength of a CIA feature goes as the square of the density of the gas, it is more sensitive to pressure than other forms of absorption. We use a self-consistent 1D climate model and a line-by-line radiative transfer model to explore different pressure scenarios from 0.2 to 10 bars assuming pure N2-CO2-H2O atmospheres. We investigate the detectability of N2 in direct beam and transmission and quantify the signal-to-noise ratio required to distinguish between the different pressure cases. For example, to detect the difference between the 1 and 2 bar models at a 5-sigma level in

  3. A new mathematical model for nitrogen gas production with special emphasis on the role of attached growth media in anammox hybrid reactor.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application. PMID:26143610

  4. Effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the evolution of Nitrogenous species during coal devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-02-15

    The effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the instantaneous evolution processes of nitrogenous species were investigated for pulverized coal particles undergoing devolatilization in a hot gas. The instantaneous mass variations of nitrogenous species released from the particles with diameters of 10-50 {mu} m were computed for different conditions. The instantaneous gas temperature was varied with time either in a simple harmonic way or in a random way. The calculated results showed that, under different time-average gas temperatures, the HCN evolution behaviors of particles with different diameters were all affected by the gas temperature fluctuations. The gas temperature fluctuations led to more rapid HCN release from the pulverized coal particles compared to the results obtained without gas temperature fluctuations. The effects were further enhanced by increasing the amplitude or intensity of the gas temperature fluctuations.

  5. Effects of loading rate and aeration on nitrogen removal and N2O emissions in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors treating slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Hu, Zhenhu; Liu, Rui; Zhan, Xinmin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to find optimal operation conditions for nitrogen removal from high strength slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C using the intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors (IASBRs) so as to provide an engineering control strategy for the IASBR technology. Two operational parameters were examined: (1) loading rates and (2) aeration rates. Both the two parameters affected variation of DO concentrations in the IASBR operation cycles. It was found that to achieve efficient nitrogen removal via partial nitrification-denitrification (PND), "DO elbow" point must appear at the end of the last aeration period. There was a correlation between the ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB)/nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) ratio and the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods; when the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods were lower than 4.86 mg/L, AOB became the dominant nitrifier population, which benefited nitrogen removal via PND. Both the nitrogen loading rate and the aeration rate influenced the population sizes of AOB and NOB. To accomplish efficient nitrogen removal via PND, the optimum aeration rate (A, L air/min) applied can be predicted according to the average organic loading rates based on mathematical equations developed in this study. The research shows that the amount of N2O generation in the aeration period was reduced with increasing the aeration rate; however, the highest N2O generation in the non-aeration period was observed at the optimum aeration rates. PMID:25348656

  6. The effect of soil pH on N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio of denitrification depends on soil NO3- concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senbayram, Mehmet; Dittert, Klaus; Well, Reinhard; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Lammel, Joachim; Bakken, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Globally, agricultural soils account for about 60% of the atmospheric N2O emissions and denitrification in soil is the major source of atmospheric N2O, which contributes to global warming and destruction of stratospheric ozone. Denitrification is the microbially mediated process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction that may produce not only N2O but also nitric oxide (NO), and molecular nitrogen (N2). The major controls on denitrification rates are soil NO3, O2, and labile C levels. Typically, when soils become more anoxic, larger proportions of N2O produced in denitrification are further reduced to N2 before leaving the soil. Microbial ecology may possibly find solutions to this major environmental problem of agricultural systems once mechanisms controlling the product ratio of denitrification (N2O/N2O+N2) are better understood. Recent investigations of these gaseous microbial products provided the evidence for a negative effect of soil acidity on the N2O/N2O+N2 product ratio. However, in an earlier study, we showed that, regardless of soil type, higher NO3- concentrations in soil may also retard the reduction of N2O to N2. In this context, the positive effect of higher soil pH on the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio in soils with high NO3- content is still poorly understood. Therefore, we set up a number of incubation experiments in order to test short-term and long-term effects of soil pH and NO3- concentration on denitrification rates and the product stoichiometry of denitrification. We measured N2O, NO as well as elemental N2 in soils with pH levels ranging 4.1 to pH 6.9 collected from a long-term liming experiment. In a continuous flow incubation system we evacuated and flushed all vessels with He. Then, fresh He was directed through an inlet in the lid at a flow rate of 15-30 ml min-1. Gas samples were analyzed twice a day for N2O by ECD and for N2 by TCD detectors. Denitrification rates increased significantly with increasing soil pH, however, during the initial

  7. Nitrogen trace gas fluxes from a semiarid subtropical savanna under woody legume encroachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Fiona M.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Groffman, Peter M.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-05-01

    Savanna ecosystems are a major source of nitrogen (N) trace gases that influence air quality and climate. These systems are experiencing widespread encroachment by woody plants, frequently associated with large increases in soil N, with no consensus on implications for trace gas emissions. We investigated the impact of encroachment by N-fixing tree Prosopis glandulosa on total reactive N gas flux (Nt = NO + N2O + NOy + NH3) from south Texas savanna soils over 2 years. Contrary to expectations, upland Prosopis groves did not have greater Nt fluxes than adjacent unencroached grasslands. However, abiotic conditions (temperature, rainfall, and topography) were strong drivers. Emissions from moist, low-lying Prosopis playas were up to 3 times higher than from Prosopis uplands. Though NO dominated emissions, NH3 and NOy (non-NO oxidized N) comprised 12-16% of the total summer N flux (up to 7.9 µg N m-2 h-1). Flux responses to soil wetting were temperature dependent for NO, NH3, and NOy: a 15 mm rainfall event increased flux 3-fold to 22-fold after 24 h in summer but had no effect in winter. Repeated soil wetting reduced N flux responses, indicating substrate depletion as a likely control. Rapid (<1 min) increases in NO emissions following wetting of dry soils suggested that abiotic chemodenitrification contributes to pulse emissions. We conclude that temperature and wetting dynamics, rather than encroachment, are primary drivers of N flux from these upland savannas, with implications for future emission patterns under altered precipitation regimes.

  8. Characterization of microbial communities removing nitrogen oxides from flue gas: the BioDeNOx process.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; van Dongen, Udo; Kuenen, J Gijs; Abma, Wiebe; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-10-01

    BioDeNOx is an integrated physicochemical and biological process for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases. In this process, the flue gas is purged through a scrubber containing a solution of Fe(II)EDTA2-, which binds the NOx to form an Fe(II)EDTA.NO2- complex. Subsequently, this complex is reduced in the bioreactor to dinitrogen by microbial denitrification. Fe(II)EDTA2-, which is oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA- by oxygen in the flue gas, is regenerated by microbial iron reduction. In this study, the microbial communities of both lab- and pilot-scale reactors were studied using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A pure bacterial strain, KT-1, closely affiliated by 16S rRNA analysis to the gram-positive denitrifying bacterium Bacillus azotoformans, was obtained. DNA-DNA homology of the isolate with the type strain was 89%, indicating that strain KT-1 belongs to the species B. azotoformans. Strain KT-1 reduces Fe(II)EDTA.NO2- complex to N2 using ethanol, acetate, and Fe(II)EDTA2- as electron donors. It does not reduce Fe(III)EDTA-. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed the presence of bacteria closely affiliated with members of the phylum Deferribacteres, an Fe(III)-reducing group of bacteria. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes designed for strain KT-1 and members of the phylum Deferribacteres showed that the latter were more dominant in both reactors. PMID:16204556

  9. Characterization of Microbial Communities Removing Nitrogen Oxides from Flue Gas: the BioDeNOx Process

    PubMed Central

    Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; van Dongen, Udo; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Abma, Wiebe; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    BioDeNOx is an integrated physicochemical and biological process for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases. In this process, the flue gas is purged through a scrubber containing a solution of Fe(II)EDTA2−, which binds the NOx to form an Fe(II)EDTA·NO2− complex. Subsequently, this complex is reduced in the bioreactor to dinitrogen by microbial denitrification. Fe(II)EDTA2−, which is oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA− by oxygen in the flue gas, is regenerated by microbial iron reduction. In this study, the microbial communities of both lab- and pilot-scale reactors were studied using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A pure bacterial strain, KT-1, closely affiliated by 16S rRNA analysis to the gram-positive denitrifying bacterium Bacillus azotoformans, was obtained. DNA-DNA homology of the isolate with the type strain was 89%, indicating that strain KT-1 belongs to the species B. azotoformans. Strain KT-1 reduces Fe(II)EDTA·NO2− complex to N2 using ethanol, acetate, and Fe(II)EDTA2− as electron donors. It does not reduce Fe(III)EDTA−. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed the presence of bacteria closely affiliated with members of the phylum Deferribacteres, an Fe(III)-reducing group of bacteria. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes designed for strain KT-1 and members of the phylum Deferribacteres showed that the latter were more dominant in both reactors. PMID:16204556

  10. Carbon, nitrogen balances and greenhouse gas emission during cattle feedlot manure composting.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Chang, Chi; Larney, Francis J

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and N losses reduce the agronomic value of compost and contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated GHG emissions during composting of straw-bedded manure (SBM) and wood chip-bedded manure (WBM). For SBM, dry matter (DM) loss was 301 kg Mg(-1), total carbon (TC) loss was 174 kg Mg(-1), and total nitrogen (TN) loss was 8.3 kg Mg(-1). These correspond to 30.1% of initial DM, 52.8% of initial TC, and 41.6% of initial TN. For WBM, DM loss was 268 kg Mg(-1), TC loss was 154 kg Mg(-1), and TN loss was 1.40 kg Mg(-1), corresponding to 26.5, 34.5, and 11.8% of initial amounts. Most C was lost as CO2 with CH4 accounting for <6%. However, the net contribution to greenhouse gas emissions was greater for CH4 since it is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were 0.077 kg N Mg(-1) for SBM and 0.084 kg N Mg(-1) for WBM, accounting for 1 to 6% of total N loss. Total GHG emissions as CO2-C equivalent were not significantly different between SBM (368.4 +/- 18.5 kg Mg(-1)) and WBM (349.2 +/- 24.3 kg Mg(-1)). However, emission of 368.4 kg C Mg(-1) (CO2-C equivalent) was greater than the initial TC content (330.5 kg Mg(-1)) of SBM, raising the question of the net benefits of composting on C sequestration. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of composting on overall GHG emissions and C sequestration and to fully investigate livestock manure management options. PMID:14964356

  11. Assessing the performance of the photo-acoustic infrared gas monitor for measuring CO(2), N(2)O, and CH(4) fluxes in two major cereal rotations.

    PubMed

    Tirol-Padre, Agnes; Rai, Munmun; Gathala, Mahesh; Sharma, Sheetal; Kumar, Virender; Sharma, Parbodh C; Sharma, Dinesh K; Wassmann, Reiner; Ladha, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, precise, and globally comparable methods for monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are required for accurate GHG inventories from different cropping systems and management practices. Manual gas sampling followed by gas chromatography (GC) is widely used for measuring GHG fluxes in agricultural fields, but is laborious and time-consuming. The photo-acoustic infrared gas monitoring system (PAS) with on-line gas sampling is an attractive option, although it has not been evaluated for measuring GHG fluxes in cereals in general and rice in particular. We compared N2 O, CO2 , and CH4 fluxes measured by GC and PAS from agricultural fields under the rice-wheat and maize-wheat systems during the wheat (winter), and maize/rice (monsoon) seasons in Haryana, India. All the PAS readings were corrected for baseline drifts over time and PAS-CH4 (PCH4 ) readings in flooded rice were corrected for water vapor interferences. The PCH4 readings in ambient air increased by 2.3 ppm for every 1000 mg cm(-3) increase in water vapor. The daily CO2 , N2 O, and CH4 fluxes measured by GC and PAS from the same chamber were not different in 93-98% of all the measurements made but the PAS exhibited greater precision for estimates of CO2 and N2 O fluxes in wheat and maize, and lower precision for CH4 flux in rice, than GC. The seasonal GC- and PAS-N2 O (PN2 O) fluxes in wheat and maize were not different but the PAS-CO2 (PCO2 ) flux in wheat was 14-39% higher than that of GC. In flooded rice, the seasonal PCH4 and PN2 O fluxes across N levels were higher than those of GC-CH4 and GC-N2 O fluxes by about 2- and 4fold, respectively. The PAS (i) proved to be a suitable alternative to GC for N2 O and CO2 flux measurements in wheat, and (ii) showed potential for obtaining accurate measurements of CH4 fluxes in flooded rice after making correction for changes in humidity. PMID:23929733

  12. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-22

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  14. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  15. On the influence of "non-Redfield" dissolved organic nutrient dynamics on the spatial distribution of N2 fixation and the size of the marine fixed nitrogen inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somes, Christopher J.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP) represent the most abundant form of their respective nutrient pool in the surface layer of the oligotrophic oceans and play an important role in nutrient cycling and productivity. Since DOP is generally more labile than DON, it provides additional P that may stimulate growth of nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs that supply fixed nitrogen to balance denitrification in the ocean. In this study, we introduce semirecalcitrant components of DON and DOP as state variables in an existing global ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-biogeochemistry model of intermediate complexity to assess their impact on the spatial distribution of nitrogen fixation and the size of the marine fixed nitrogen inventory. Large-scale surface data sets of global DON and Atlantic Ocean DOP are used to constrain the model. Our simulations suggest that both preferential DOP remineralization and phytoplankton DOP uptake are important "non-Redfield" processes (i.e., deviate from molar N:P = 16) that need to be accounted for to explain the observed patterns of DOP. Additional non-Redfield DOP sensitivity experiments testing dissolved organic matter (DOM) production rate uncertainties that best reproduce the observed spatial patterns of DON and DOP stimulate additional nitrogen fixation that increases the size of the global marine fixed nitrogen inventory by 4.7 ± 1.7% compared to the simulation assuming Redfield DOM stoichiometry that underestimates the observed nitrogen inventory. The extra 8 Tg yr-1 of nitrogen fixation stimulated in the Atlantic Ocean is mainly responsible for this increase due to its large spatial separation from water column denitrification, which buffers any potential nitrogen surplus in the Pacific Ocean. Our study suggests that the marine fixed nitrogen budget is sensitive to non-Redfield DOP dynamics because access to the relatively labile DOP pool expands the ecological niche for nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs.

  16. Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Oxide Films by Dielectric Barrier Discharge in TiCl4/O2/N2 Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jinhai; Zhang, Zhihui; Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Qi; Liu, Dongping; Qiu, Jieshan

    2014-07-01

    Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) TiCl4/O2 and N2 plasmas have been used to deposit titanium oxide films at different power supply driving frequencies. A homemade large area low pressure DBD reactor was applied, characterized by the simplicity of the experimental set-up and a low consumption of feed gas and electric power, as well as being easy to operate. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements have been used to characterize the deposited films. Experimental results show all deposited films are uniform and hydrophilic with a contact angle of about 15°. Compared to titanium oxide films deposited in TiCl4/O2 gas mixtures, those in TiCl4/O2/N2 gas mixtures are much more stable. The contact angle of titanium oxide films in TiCl4/O2/N2 gas mixtures with the addition of 50% N2 and 20% TiCl4 is still smaller than 20°, while that of undoped titanium oxide films is larger than 64° when they are measured after one week. The low-pressure TiCl4/O2 plasmas consist of pulsed glow-like discharges with peak widths of several microseconds, which leads to the uniform deposition of titanium oxide films. Increasing a film thickness over several hundreds of nm leads to the film's fragmentation due to the over-high film stress. Optical emission spectra (OES) of TiCl4/O2 DBD plasmas at various power supply driving frequencies are presented.

  17. Hyperfine structures and Landé g{sub J}-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C.; Rynkun, P.; Godefroid, M.

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé g{sub J}-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

  18. Closed-loop 15N measurement of N2O and its isotopomers for real-time greenhouse gas tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, Johanna; Mayr, Leopold; Heiling, Maria; Zaman, Mohammad; Resch, Christian; Weltin, Georg; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying sources of nitrous oxide is essential to improve understanding of the global N cycle and to develop climate-smart agriculture, as N2O has a global warming potential 300 times higher than CO2. The isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution (site preference) of 15N are powerful tools to trace N2O, but the application of these methods is limited as conventional methods cannot provide continuous and in situ data. Here we present a method for closed-loop, real time monitoring of the N2O flux, the isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution of 15N by using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, Los Gatos Research). The developed method was applied to a fertilizer inhibitor experiment, in which N2O emissions were measured on undisturbed soil cores for three weeks. The treatments consisted of enriched urea-N (100 kg urea-N/ha), the same fertilizer combined with the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin (375 g/100 kg urea), and control cores. Monitoring the isotopic signature makes it possible to distinguish emissions from soil and fertilizer. Characterization of site preference could additionally provide a tool to identify different microbial processes leading to N2O emissions. Furthermore, the closed-loop approach enables direct measurement on site and does not require removal of CO2 and H2O. Results showed that 75% of total N2O emissions (total=11 346 μg N2O-N/m2) in the fertilized cores originated from fertilizer, while only 55% of total emissions (total=2 450 μg N2ON/m2) stemmed from fertilizer for the cores treated with nitrapyrin. In the controls, N2O derived from soil was only 40% of the size of the corresponding pool from the fertilized cores, pointing towards a priming effect on the microbial community from the fertilizer and demonstrating the bias that could be introduced by relying on non-treated cores to estimate soil emission rates, rather than using the isotopic signature. The site preference increased linearly

  19. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-09-01

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  20. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-12-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPERATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-01-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-11-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  3. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Da Costa

    2003-11-24

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During precommissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. The target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  4. Observation of nuclear spin species conversion inside the 1593 cm -1 structure of H 2O trapped in argon matrices: Nitrogen impurities and the H 2O:N 2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardanaud, Cédric; Vasserot, Anne-Marie; Michaut, Xavier; Abouaf-Marguin, L.

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated, at high resolution (0.03 cm -1), the 1593 cm -1 structure observed in the IR absorption spectrum of water trapped in solid argon doped with nitrogen. It exhibits a doublet at 1592.59 ± 0.05 and 1593.08 ± 0.05 cm -1 and a line centered at 1592.93 ± 0.05 cm -1. The central component, which increases irreversibly upon annealing and when the concentration is increased, is due to the proton acceptor submolecule of the H 2O dimer, as mentioned in the literature. The doublet is assigned to the H 2O:N 2 complex. After a fast cooling of the sample from 20 to 4 K, the low frequency line of the doublet decreases with time and the high frequency one increases, the total integrated absorption increasing slightly. The ratio of the integrated intensities between the low frequency component and the high frequency one reaches a constant limit of 0.5 ± 0.1 at infinite time. This time behavior, perfectly exponential with a time constant τ of about 680 min, is reproducible. As the nitrogen molecule cannot rotate in an argon substitutional site, and as the H 2O submolecule seems to preserve somewhat its identity, this is interpreted as nuclear spin species conversion between ortho and para states of the H 2O submolecule within the complex. The order of magnitude of the energy difference between the ortho and para lowest levels, about 5 cm -1, is too weak to imply any, even very hindered, rotational motion of H 2O, but it could be the energy range of a tunneling effect. When the temperature is increased, the two components coalesce at 25 K into a single symmetrical line pointing at 1593.3 cm -1 and the conversion time shortens dramatically. An Arrhenius plot leads to a weak activation energy of the conversion process (about 30 cm -1). A possible geometry of the complex in solid argon, different from the gas phase one, is proposed.

  5. Assessing impacts of alternative fertilizer management practices on both nitrogen loading and greenhouse gas emissions in rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Yue, Yubo; Sha, Zhimin; Li, Changsheng; Deng, Jia; Zhang, Hanlin; Gao, Maofang; Cao, Linkui

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice fields contaminate water bodies and atmospheric environment. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted at a typical paddy rice field in a rural suburb of Shanghai, China. N losses and GHG emissions from the paddy field with alternative fertilizer management practices were simultaneously measured. Four treatments were tested in the experiment: applications of only chemical synthetic fertilizer urea (CT), only organic manure (OT), a combination of the two types of fertilizers (MT) and a control (CK). Results from the field study indicated that CT produced the highest seasonal N loading rate (18.79 kg N/ha) and N2O emissions (1.81 kg N2O/ha) but with the lowest seasonal CH4 emissions (69.09 kg CH4/ha). With organic manure applied, MT and OT respectively reduced N loading by 21.86% and 30.41%, reduced N2O emissions by 28.34% and 69.41%, but increased CH4 emissions by 137% and 310% in comparison with CT. However, the net impact of CH4 and N2O emissions on global warming was enhanced when organic manure was applied. In addition, CT and MT produced the optimal rice yield during the experimental period, while OT treatment led to a yield reduction by 9.29% compared with CT. In conclusion, the impacts of alternative fertilizer management practices on ecosystem services ought to be assessed specifically due to the great variations across rice yields, N loss and GHG emissions.

  6. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddy fields under different nitrogen fertilization loads in Chongming Island, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxian; Yin, Shan; Li, Yinsheng; Zhuang, Honglei; Li, Changsheng; Liu, Chunjiang

    2014-02-15

    Rice is one of the major crops of southern China and Southeast Asia. Rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources in this region because of the application of large quantities of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to the plants. In particular, the production of methane (CH4) is a concern. Investigating a reasonable amount of fertilizers to apply to plants is essential to maintaining high yields while reducing GHG emissions. In this study, three levels of fertilizer application [high (300 kg N/ha), moderate (210 kg N/ha), and low (150 kg N/ha)] were designed to examine the effects of variation in N fertilizer application rate on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the paddy fields in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China. The high level (300 kg N/ha) represented the typical practice adopted by the local farmers in the area. Maximum amounts of CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed upon high-level fertilizer application in the plots. Cumulative N2O emissions of 23.09, 40.10, and 71.08 mg N2O/m(2) were observed over the growing season in 2011 under the low-, moderate-, and high-level applications plots, respectively. The field data also indicated that soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm soil depths significantly affected soil respiration; the relationship between Rs and soil temperature in this study could be described by an exponential model. Our study showed that reducing the high rate of fertilizer application is a feasible way of attenuating the global-warming potential while maintaining the optimum yield for the studied paddy fields. PMID:24295754

  7. Analysis of the insulation characteristics of CF3I gas mixtures with Ar, Xe, He, N2, and CO2 using Boltzmann equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunkun; Xiao, Dengming

    2014-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the calculation of electron swarm parameters, including the reduced effective ionization coefficient, electron mean energy, and electron drift velocity, for the gas mixtures of CF3I with Ar, Xe, He, N2, and CO2. These data are computed by employing the Boltzmann equation method with two-term approximation in the condition of steady-state Townsend (SST) discharge. For the purpose of evaluating the insulation strength of CF3I gas mixtures, values of the limiting field strength (E/N)lim for which the ionization exactly balances the electron attachment are determined from the variation curves of (α - η)/N. The results indicate that mixtures of CF3I-N2 present the greatest insulation strength among all the combinations for CF3I content varied from 20 to 90%. Furthermore, the gas mixture with 70% CF3I can achieve a very similar dielectric strength to that of SF6. The concerned liquefaction issues are also taken into account to fully assess the possibility of applying CF3I gas mixtures in power equipment as an insulation medium.

  8. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations: Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Carolyn; Grabb, Kalina; Hansel, Colleen M.; Wankel, Scott D.

    2016-08-01

    Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or 'chemodenitrification', and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmental conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (∼8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

  9. SAPO-34 Membranes for N-2/CH4 separation: Preparation, characterization, separation performance and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, SG; Zong, ZW; Zhou, SJ; Huang, Y; Song, ZN; Feng, XH; Zhou, RF; Meyer, HS; Yu, M; Carreon, MA

    2015-08-01

    SAPO-34 membranes were synthesized by several routes towards N-2/CH4 separation. Membrane synthesis parameters including water content in the gel, crystallization time, support pore size, and aluminum source were investigated. High performance N-2-selective membranes were obtained on 100-nm-pore alumina tubes by using Al(i-C3H7O)(3) as aluminum source with a crystallization time of 6 h. These membranes separated N-2 from CH, with N-2 permeance as high as 500 GPU with separation selectivity of 8 at 24 degrees C. for a 50/50 N-2/CH4 mixture. Nitrogen and CH, adsorption isotherms were measured on SAPO-34 crystals. The N-2 and CH, heats of adsorption were 11 and 15 kJ/mol, respectively, which lead to a preferential adsorption of CE-H-4 over N-2 in the N-2/CH4 mixture. Despite this, the SAPO-34 membranes were selective for N-2 over CH4 in the mixture because N-2 diffuses much faster than CH4 and differences in diffusivity played a more critical role than the competitive adsorption. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that the required N-2/CH4 selectivity would be 15 in order to maintain a CH4 loss below 10%. For small nitrogen-contaminated gas wells, our current SAPO-34 membranes have potential to compete with the benchmark technology cryogenic distillation for N-2 rejection. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,

  10. NITROGEN OXIDE GAS EMISSIONS FROM TEMPERATE FOREST SOILS RECEIVING LONG-TERM NITROGEN INPUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From spring 2000 through fall 2001, we made monthly measurements of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in two temperate forest sites in Massachusetts that have been treated since 1988 with different levels of nitrogen (N) to simulate elevated rates of atmospheric N deposition. Plots within a red ...

  11. Spatial heterogeneity of forest soil carbon and nitrogen controls nitrogen transformations and trace gas production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-scale spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) pools and net transformation processes in forested ecosystems are not well understood. Two forests in central Oregon (Black Butte and Santiam Pass) were used to test the hypothesis that spatial distribution of soil nutrients cont...

  12. Simulation studies of the separation of Kr-85 radionuclide gas from nitrogen and oxygen across nanoporous graphene membranes in different pore configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Sepehrian, Hamid; Arabieh, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    Separating molecular species is an important precursor for various applications. In this work, we have utilized molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine how pore radius and structure affect the separation process. We show from MD simulations that 2-D graphene sheets with designed sub-nanometer pores can efficiently separate the Kr-85 radionuclide gas from an N2/O2 mixture. Three species of gases (Kr-85, N2 and O2 were considered in the simulation box in which different sizes and geometries of pores were modeled on the graphene sheet. The ( 30× 30× 80 Å^3 simulation box contains a nanoporous graphene membrane in the middle of the box and two fixed walls with equal distances on both sides of the nanoporous graphene. The results revealed that Kr-85 separation was improved by using an optimized pore structure. It was also found that the Kr-85 gas radionuclides could be completely separated from nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the pore-7 configuration. Restriction of the molecular orientation largely prohibited the permeation of nitrogen molecules. It was also found that nitrogen was more strongly adsorbed onto the membrane than oxygen, while krypton was not adsorbed.

  13. Soil nitrogen gas fluxes during woody legume encroachment: Does encroachment increase gaseous losses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, F.; Groffman, P. M.; Sparks, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Expansion of nitrogen (N2)-fixing trees is a major driver of ecosystem N enrichment in semi-arid grasslands. During this process, fluxes of N trace gases from soils are likely mediated by interactions between changing soil N availability and primary abiotic biogeochemical drivers in arid systems, namely temperature and wetting/re-wetting dynamics. We investigated the effects of encroachment, season and rainfall dynamics on total reactive N flux (NO, NOy, NH3, N2O) in a sub-tropical, semi-arid Texan savanna encroached by N-fixing Prosopis glandulosa over two years. We compared unencroached upland grasslands and non-fixing woody clusters with continuous Prosopis cover over uplands, intermediate drainages, and playa lowlands. We also quantified denitrification potential of intact soil cores to determine whether N2 could contribute significantly to soil N flux. Substantial soil N enrichment in upland Prosopis groves did not elevate N fluxes above those in remnant grasslands, though lower (moister) landscape positions did exhibit higher total emissions. Along with temperature, soil-wetting dynamics explained the greatest portion of variation in emissions and interacted with vegetation type. Timing and quantity of most recent soil wetting and interval to previous wetting were significant predictors, highlighting the importance of dynamics not captured by soil moisture measurements alone. As with other arid systems, rainfall events after dry periods can stimulate pulse emissions of >400 ug NO-N m-2 h-1. At realistic soil O2 concentrations, N2 fluxes fell below the detection limit of the Nitrogen-Free Atmospheric Recirculation Method system (~11 ug N m-2 h-1). However, applying plausible N2O:N2 flux ratios likely constrains the flux to much lower levels under field conditions. We conclude that encroachment does not increase N fluxes from upland savannas, but that interactions with rainfall and landscape position are important determinants of total emissions.

  14. Indirect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Multi-Component Gas By Measuring The Speed Of Sound At Two States Of The Gas.

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-10-12

    A methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the speed of sound in the gas is measured at two states and diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, two equations for molecular weight can be equated and solved for the nitrogen concentration in the gas mixture.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in constructed wetlands treating wastewater: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Richards, K. G.; Healy, M. G.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Fenton, O.

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and frequently does not reveal whether the removal processes are due to physical attenuation or whether the different species have been transformed to other reactive forms. Previous research on nutrient removal in CWs did not consider the dynamics of pollution swapping (the increase of one pollutant as a result of a measure introduced to reduce a different pollutant) driven by transformational processes within and around the system. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by reviewing the biogeochemical dynamics and fate of C and N in CWs and their potential impact on the environment, and by presenting novel ways in which these knowledge gaps may be eliminated. Nutrient removal in CWs varies with the type of CW, vegetation, climate, season, geographical region, and management practices. Horizontal flow CWs tend to have good nitrate (NO3-) removal, as they provide good conditions for denitrification, but cannot remove ammonium (NH4+) due to limited ability to nitrify NH4+. Vertical flow CWs have good NH4+ removal, but their denitrification ability is low. Surface flow CWs decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions but increase methane (CH4) emissions; subsurface flow CWs increase N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but decrease CH4 emissions. Mixed species of vegetation perform better than monocultures in increasing C and N removal and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but empirical evidence is still scarce. Lower hydraulic loadings with higher hydraulic retention times enhance nutrient removal, but more empirical evidence is required to determine an optimum design. A conceptual model highlighting the current state of knowledge is presented and experimental work that should be undertaken to address knowledge gaps across CWs, vegetation and wastewater types, hydraulic loading rates and regimes, and retention times, is suggested. We recommend that

  16. Nitrogen deposition and greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands: uncertainties and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Hudiburg, Tara W; Bernacchi, Carl J; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2016-04-01

    Increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) can strongly affect the greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, and N2O) sink capacity of grasslands as well as other terrestrial ecosystems. Robust predictions of the net GHG sink strength of grasslands depend on how experimental N loads compare to projected Ndep rates, and how accurately the relationship between GHG fluxes and Ndep is characterized. A literature review revealed that the vast majority of experimental N loads were higher than levels these ecosystems are predicted to experience in the future. Using a process-based biogeochemical model, we predicted that low levels of Ndep either enhanced or reduced the net GHG sink strength of most grasslands, but as experimental N loads continued to increase, grasslands transitioned to a N saturation-decline stage, where the sensitivity of GHG exchange to further increases in Ndep declined. Most published studies represented treatments well into the N saturation-decline stage. Our model results predict that the responses of GHG fluxes to N are highly nonlinear and that the N saturation thresholds for GHGs varied greatly among grasslands and with fire management. We predict that during the 21st century some grasslands will be in the N limitation stage where others will transition into the N saturation-decline stage. The linear relationship between GHG sink strength and N load assumed by most studies can overestimate or underestimate predictions of the net GHG sink strength of grasslands depending on their N baseline status. The next generation of global change experiments should be designed at multiple N loads consistent with future Ndep rates to improve our empirical understanding and predictive ability. PMID:26661794

  17. N2O and δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O from polar ice cores: interpretable data for interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Seth, Barbara; Beck, Jonas; Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    Ice cores provide a wealth of information on climate change. For instance, the history of the atmospheric greenhouse gas N2O can be reconstructed using air entrapped in polar ice cores. N2O has several sources in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, predominantly wetland soils and oxygen minimum zones in the ocean. N2O records generally follow the climatic changes during the glacial-interglacial cycles with higher N2O mixing ratios during warmer climate stages. However, the underlying processes driving these changes are difficult to identify from N2O mixing ratios alone. Additional information on the individual sources and sinks are provided by stable isotope measurements. The emission fluxes of the dominant N2O sources are ascribed to several pathways (nitrification, denitrification), with characteristic fractionation factors for the nitrogen and oxygen isotope signatures of the generated N2O (δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O). In the end, the individual proportions of pathways are responsible for distinct δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O for the average terrestrial and marine sources. Here, we present new ice core measurements of δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O covering the Holocene, MIS 5 and MIS 11. For the past 15 kyrs the δ15N-N2O record shows a continuous decrease starting at 15 kyrs to about 6 kyrs; during the past 6 kyrs δ15N-N2O remains rather constant. The resemblance with a recently published global reconstruction of bulk δ15N is remarkable (McLauchlan et al. 2013, Nature). Taken at face value this could mean that mainly the terrestrial source signature changed rather than a shift in the relative proportions of the terrestrial and marine source. The integrity of N2O ice core records relies on the assumption that the measurements truly represent the past atmosphere. However, comparative analyses of different ice cores from the same age intervals show offsets in the N2O mixing ratios among the records. One likely assumption is that higher mixing ratios are due to in

  18. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lavoute, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold). Striatal dopamine levels decrease during exposure to compressed argon, an inert gas more narcotic than nitrogen, or to nitrous oxide, an anesthetic gas. Inversely, striatal dopamine levels increase during exposure to compressed helium, an inert gas with a very low narcotic potency. Exposure to nitrogen at high pressure does not change N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta and striatum but enhances gama amino butyric acidA (GABAA) receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta. The decrease in striatal dopamine levels in response to hyperbaric nitrogen exposure is suppressed by recurrent exposure to nitrogen narcosis, and dopamine levels increase after four or five exposures. This change, the lack of improvement of motor disturbances, the desensitization of GABAA receptors on dopamine cells during recurrent exposures and the long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled with the higher sensitivity of NMDA receptors, suggest a nitrogen toxicity induced by repetitive exposures to narcosis. These differential changes in different neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1579-1590, 2016. PMID:27347903

  19. Dynamics of a femtosecond/picosecond laser-induced aluminum plasma out of thermodynamic equilibrium in a nitrogen background gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Annaloro, Julien; Chambrelan, Cédric; Edouard, Guillaume; Grisolia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the experimental studies, the assessment of the ability of ultra-short (femto or picosecond) laser pulses to provide correct estimates of the elemental composition of unknown samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy requires the modeling of a typical situation. The present article deals with this modeling for aluminum in nitrogen. A spherical layer model is developed. The central aluminum plasma is produced by the ultra-short pulse. This plasma is described using our collisional-radiative model CoRaM-Al in an upgraded version involving 250 levels. Its expansion and relaxation take place in nitrogen, where the formation and the propagation of a shock wave are taken into account. In this shocked nitrogen layer, the equilibrium conditions are assumed. Mass, momentum and energy conservation equations written under an Eulerian form are used to correctly model the global dynamics. Energy losses are due to radiative recombination, thermal Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous emission. These elementary processes are implemented. The only input parameters are the pulse energy E0, the ablated mass M of the sample and the pressure p0 of the surrounding gas. The equilibrium composition involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and free electrons of the shocked nitrogen layer is calculated from the thermodynamic database of our collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2. The conditions E0 = 10 mJ and M ≃ 10- 10 kg corresponding to a 532 nm laser pulse are chosen. The model assumes the initial equilibrium of the aluminum plasma produced by the laser pulse absorbed by the sample. Then, owing to the significant overpressure with respect to the background gas (p0 is assumed atmospheric), the surrounding gas starts to be compressed while the propagation of a shock wave takes place. The shock layer maximum pressure is obtained at approximately 20 ns. At this characteristic time, the nitrogen pressure is around 400 times the atmospheric pressure. A shock velocity of 7 km s- 1 is predicted. The

  20. Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium

  1. In-Situ XAFS Characterization for Nitriding Process of Silica Supported Nb Catalysts Under N2-H2 Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikuni, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroari; Haneishi, Hidenori; Shimazu, Shogo; Bando, Kyoko K.

    2007-02-02

    Fe-Nb/SiO2 catalyst was prepared from NbCl5 or peroxoniobic acid as Nb precursors. These precursor catalysts were nitrided by the TPR method under N2-H2 passage (without using NH3). Nb K-edge in-situ XAFS measurements were carried out during the nitriding process and revealed that the Nb species was more nitrided in the Fe-Nb/SiO2 catalyst prepared from peroxoniobic acid than in that prepared from NbCl5 as Nb precursor.

  2. In-Situ XAFS Characterization for Nitriding Process of Silica Supported Nb Catalysts Under N2-H2 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikuni, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroari; Haneishi, Hidenori; Bando, Kyoko K.; Shimazu, Shogo

    2007-02-01

    Fe-Nb/SiO2 catalyst was prepared from NbCl5 or peroxoniobic acid as Nb precursors. These precursor catalysts were nitrided by the TPR method under N2-H2 passage (without using NH3). Nb K-edge in-situ XAFS measurements were carried out during the nitriding process and revealed that the Nb species was more nitrided in the Fe-Nb/SiO2 catalyst prepared from peroxoniobic acid than in that prepared from NbCl5 as Nb precursor.

  3. Process of preparing nitrogen trifluoride by gas-solid reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, H.; Suenaga, T.

    1985-09-24

    NF3 is prepared with good yields by reaction between fluorine gas and an ammonium complex of a metal fluoride, such as (NH4)3AIF6, in solid phase. The metal flouride ammonium complex may be one additionally containing an alkali metal, such as (NH4)2NaAIF6. The gas-solid reaction is carried out preferably at temperatures above 80 C. and at relatively low partial pressures of fluorine in the gas phase of the reaction system, so that the reaction is easy to control.

  4. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOEpatents

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  5. Greenhouse gas fluxes in an Eastern Corn Belt soil: Weather, nitrogen source and rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contribution of diverse agroecosystems to the greenhouse gas effect is not completely documented. This study was conducted to estimate soil surface fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and global warming potential (GWP) as affect by management and weather....

  6. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We quantified the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil temperature and water content at the 0- to 15-cm depth and CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in a Lihen sandy loam i...

  7. Dryland soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed to mitigate dryland soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using improved management practices. We quantified the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil temperature and water content at the 0- to 15-cm depth and CO2, N2O, and CH...

  8. Residue placement and rate, crop species, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High variability due to soil heterogeneity and climatic conditions challenge measurement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as influenced by management practices in the field. To reduce this variability, we examined the effect of management practices on CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes and soil temperature a...

  9. State-of-the-art review of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anada, H.R.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a review of technical publications and patents in the field of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The physical and chemical characteristics of nitrogen and flue gas are provided with some comparisons with CO/sub 2/ related to EOR operations. Experimental research and field based activities using nitrogen and flue gas are briefly summarized. Cost data for generation of nitrogen and flue gases are provided. Nitrogen and flue gas costs are approximately one third to one half that of CO/sub 2/. The low cost of production and its non-corrosive nature are advantages of using nitrogen, whereas the higher miscibility pressure requirement is a disadvantage. Nitrogen flooding does not work well with low API gravity crudes. Miscible displacement with nitrogen seems promising for oils containing solution gas. Flue gas flooding can be applied to low API gravity crude reservoirs. However, flue gas flooding creates operating problems due to its corrosive nature. The report provides a discussion on process and reservoir parameters that affect nitrogen and/or flue gas flooding in EOR. A bibliography of related literature is provided in the appendices.

  10. Role of biochar amendment in mitigation of nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emission during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Huang, Hui; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Li, Ronghua; Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to mitigate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during composting of dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) employing biochar combined with zeolite (B+Z) and low dosage of lime (B+L). The 12% biochar was mixed at a 10%, 15% and 30% of zeolite and 1% lime, while without any additives was used as control. The results indicated that the combine use of B+Z was significantly increased the enzymatic activities and reduced the ammonia loss 58.03-65.17% as compare to B+L amended treatment, while CH4 92.85-95.34% and N2O 95.14-97.28% decreased than control. The B+L1% amendment significantly increased the organic matter degradation but the reduction was lower than B+Z and that could reduce the CH4 and N2O emission by 55.17-63.08% and 62.24-65.53% as compare to control, respectively. Overall our results demonstrated that 12%B+Z10% addition into DFSS can be potentially used to improve the DFSS composting by mitigation of GHG emission and nitrogen loss. PMID:27497088

  11. Efficiency of N2 Gas Flushing Compared to the Lactoperoxidase System at Controlling Bacterial Growth in Bovine Raw Milk Stored at Mild Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Quintyn, Romanie; De Man, Ingrid; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre

    2016-01-01

    To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/HT) in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H) and thiocyanate (T). N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6–12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N) was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT) on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances. PMID:27313575

  12. Application of microbial-based inoculants to evaluate the N2O production from a loamy sand soil under two different ammonium nitrate-based nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable effort is being made among the scientific community to identify mechanisms to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agriculture soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that microbial-based inoculants known to promote root growth and nutrient uptake will r...

  13. Laboratory Carburization of Direct-Reduced Iron in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures, and Comparison with Industrial Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yining; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2016-06-01

    Iron ore pellets, reduced with hydrogen, were isothermally carburized in CH4-H2-N2 at 823 K, 923 K, and 1023 K (550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C). Temperature strongly affected the total carbon concentration after carburization; significant unbound carbon deposited at the highest temperature. For the range of sizes tested (10 to 12 mm), pellet size did not affect carburization. The variability between pellets was much smaller than for industrial pellets; inhomogeneous gas distribution likely affects carburization under large-scale industrial conditions.

  14. Influence of nitrogen in the shielding gas on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, R.B.; Kamat, H.S.; Ghosal, S.K.; De, P.K.

    1999-10-01

    The influence of nitrogen in shielding gas on the corrosion resistance of welds of a duplex stainless steel (grade U-50), obtained by gas tungsten arc (GTA) with filler wire, autogenous GTA (bead-on-plate), electron beam welding (EBW), and microplasma techniques, has been evaluated in chloride solutions at 30 C. Pitting attack has been observed in GTA, electron beam welding, and microplasma welds when welding has been carried out using pure argon as the shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding with 5 to 10% nitrogen and 90 to 95% argon, as the shielding gas, has been found to result in an improved pitting corrosion resistance of the weldments of this steel. However, the resistance of pitting of autogenous welds (bead-on-plate) obtained in pure argon as the shielding gas has been observed to remain unaffected. Microscopic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the presence of nitrogen in the shielding gas in the GTA welds not only modifies the microstructure and the austenite to ferrite ratio but also results in a nearly uniform distribution of the various alloying elements, for example, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum among the constituent phases, which are responsible for improved resistance to pitting corrosion.

  15. Influence of nitrogen in the shielding gas on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, R. B.; Kamat, H. S.; Ghosal, S. K.; de, P. K.

    1999-10-01

    The influence of nitrogen in shielding gas on the corrosion resistance of welds of a duplex stainless steel (grade U-50), obtained by gas tungsten arc (GTA) with filler wire, autogenous GTA (bead-on-plate), electron beam welding (EBW), and microplasma techniques, has been evaluated in chloride solutions at 30 °C. Pitting attack has been observed in GTA, electron beam welding, and microplasma welds when welding has been carried out using pure argon as the shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding with 5 to 10% nitrogen and 90 to 95% argon, as the shielding gas, has been found to result in an improved pitting corrosion resistance of the weldments of this steel. However, the resistance to pitting of autogenous welds (bead-on-plate) obtained in pure argon as the shielding gas has been observed to remain unaffected. Microscopic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the presence of nitrogen in the shielding gas in the GTA welds not only modifies the microstructure and the austenite to ferrite ratio but also results in a nearly uniform distribution of the various alloying elements, for example, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum among the constitutent phases, which are responsible for improved resistance to pitting corrosion.

  16. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. MTR then located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; the units will be delivered in mid-2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  17. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-09-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the original project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  18. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-03-20

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we are now negotiating with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. Several commercial sales have also resulted from the partnership with ABB, and sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units now total $2.3 million.

  19. Analytical investigation of electrical breakdown properties in a nitrogen-SF6 mixture gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Byeon, Yong S.; Song, Ki B.; Choi, Eun H.; Ryu, Han-Yong; Lee, Jaimin

    2010-11-01

    The electrical breakdown properties in nitrogen gas mixed with SF6 are analytically investigated in this article by making use of the ionization and attachment coefficients of the mixed gas. The ionization coefficients of nitrogen and SF6 gas are obtained in terms of the electron temperature Te by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of the electron energy. The attachment coefficient of SF6 gas is also obtained in terms of the gas temperature Te. An algebraic equation is obtained, relating explicitly the electron breakdown temperature Tb in terms of the SF6 mole fraction χ. It was found from this equation that the breakdown temperature Tb increases from approximately 2 to 5.3 eV as the mole fraction χ increases from zero to unity. The breakdown temperature Tb of the electrons increases very rapidly from a small value and then approaches 5.3 eV slowly as the SF6 mole fraction increases from zero to unity. This indicates that even a small mole fraction of SF6 in the gas dominates the electron behavior in the breakdown system. The breakdown electric field Eb derived is almost linearly proportional to the breakdown electron temperature Tb. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results. Therefore, it is concluded that even a small fraction of SF6 gas dominates nitrogen in determining the breakdown field. In this context, nearly 25% of the SF6 mole fraction provides a reasonable enhancement of the breakdown field for practical applications.

  20. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  1. Evaluation of Electrochemical Nitrogen/hydrogen Gas Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, J. E.; Sexton, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    An electrochemical nitrogen-hydrogen separator subsystem was investigated for use following catalytic dissociation of ammonia or hydrazine in a storage system being considered for long-duration manned space flight. An experimental cell with concentric tubular Pd-25Ag alloy hydrogen diffusion electrodes and hermetically sealed aqueous caustic electrolyte was developed.It was found that this cell operated satisfactorily at 210 C to 245 C and produced dry nitrogen and dry hydrogen with either or both gases at pressures up to 6.8 atmospheres (100 psia) or higher for storage. The final cell developed was operated satisfactorily for 176 days (4200 hours) with no evidence of deterioration of current-voltage performance. The best experimental performance was obtained at 245 C at currents up to 4 amperes (180 ma/sq cm and 360 ma/sq cm anode and cathode current densities, respectively) with a maximum steady-state cell voltage of 0.125 volt for an anode feed of pure hydrogen.

  2. Tillage and Fertilizer Application Methods Effects on Greenhouse Gas Flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research Station located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy loam. Measure...

  3. The leaking soil nitrogen cycle and rising atmospheric N2O: Is there anything we can do to cap the well?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management refers to the addition and management of synthetic or organic fertilizers to soils primarily for purposes of increasing the supply of nutrients and efficiency of crop nutrient uptake in order to improve yields while minimizing environmental impact. Nitrogen (N) is generally the m...

  4. Dynamics of N2 fixation and fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem: results from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Berthelot, Hugo; Turk-Kubo, Kendra; Fawcett, Sarah; Rahav, Eyal; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2016-05-01

    N2 fixation rates were measured daily in large (˜ 50 m3) mesocosms deployed in the tropical southwest Pacific coastal ocean (New Caledonia) to investigate the temporal variability in N2 fixation rates in relation with environmental parameters and study the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem. The mesocosms were fertilized with ˜ 0.8 µM dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy. Bulk N2 fixation rates were replicable between the three mesocosms, averaged 18.5 ± 1.1 nmol N L-1 d-1 over the 23 days, and increased by a factor of 2 during the second half of the experiment (days 15 to 23) to reach 27.3 ± 1.0 nmol N L-1 d-1. These later rates measured after the DIP fertilization are higher than the upper range reported for the global ocean. During the 23 days of the experiment, N2 fixation rates were positively correlated with seawater temperature, primary production, bacterial production, standing stocks of particulate organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON) and phosphorus (POP), and alkaline phosphatase activity, and negatively correlated with DIP concentrations, DIP turnover time, nitrate, and dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The fate of DDN was investigated during a bloom of the unicellular diazotroph UCYN-C that occurred during the second half of the experiment. Quantification of diazotrophs in the sediment traps indicates that ˜ 10 % of UCYN-C from the water column was exported daily to the traps, representing as much as 22.4 ± 5.5 % of the total POC exported at the height of the UCYN-C bloom. This export was mainly due to the aggregation of small (5.7 ± 0.8 µm) UCYN-C cells into large (100-500 µm) aggregates. During the same time period, a DDN transfer experiment based on high-resolution nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) coupled with 15N2 isotopic labeling revealed that 16 ± 6 % of the DDN was released to the dissolved pool and 21 ± 4

  5. Evaluating Soil Oxygen as a Control on N2O Emissions from Ruminant Urine Patches under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J.; Clough, T. J.; Laubach, J.; Hunt, J.; Venterea, R. T.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Urine patches from grazing ruminant animals are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and irrigation is increasingly used to improve forage quality and yield for grazing cattle. The objective of this study was to test whether irrigation frequency influenced N2O emissions from urine patches on a free-draining grazed pasture soil. It was hypothesized that greater irrigation frequency would increase soil moisture thereby lowering soil oxygen (O2), and that these O2-limited conditions would increase the potential for N2O to be reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), resulting in lower N2O emissions. A field trial tested the effects of two irrigation frequencies and urine deposition on N2O fluxes measured daily for 35 days. Denitrification potential measurements using the acetylene inhibition technique were completed to infer N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios, and soil O2 concentrations were measured continuously at three depths within the soil profile. While a more frequent irrigation treatment resulted in a lower N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio, this did not give rise to lower N2O emissions. Nitrous oxide fluxes were not influenced by irrigation frequency, and approximately 0.09% of the nitrogen applied as urine was emitted as N2O from both irrigation treatments. Neither N2O nor soil O2 varied with individual irrigation events. Soil O2 ranged from 17 to 20% expect following urine deposition, where it temporarily decreased to 13%. Soil O2 measurements failed to explain N2O emissions, but a relationship was derived between N2O fluxes and estimates of soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do). This work is the first to show how soil O2 concentrations vary under a urine patch and under different irrigation treatments, and supports Dp/Do as robust predictor of N2O emissions in situ.

  6. Time of Flight measurement of stopping cross sections for low energy light ions in H2, He, N2, and Ne gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrejcic, David; Greife, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    The majority of available data for the stopping cross section of light ions in light gases is concentrated in the medium and high energy regimes, with little or no data available at energies below 25 keV/u. This energy regime applies to the temperature range of many stellar cores, where fusion reactions between light nuclei are common. Knowledge of the stopping cross section for light ions which interact in this environment is crucial to the accurate modeling of stellar nucleosynthesis. The current work uses time-of-flight techniques to directly measure the stopping cross section of H2, He, N2 and Ne gas for H and He ions with energies between 15-22 keV. The gas target is isolated using differential pumping, bypassing the need for entrance and exit foils. Funded through DOE Office of Science.

  7. Antiproton annihilation at rest in nitrogen and deuterium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Riedlberger, J.; Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Straumann, U.; Truol, P. ); Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Gastaldi, U.; Landua, R.; Sabev, C. ); Duch, K.D.; Heel, M.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kayser, F.; Klempt, E.; May, B.; Schreiber, O.; Weidenauer, P.; Ziegler, M. ); Dahme, W.; Feld-Dahme, F.; Schaefer, U.

    1989-12-01

    Results on antiproton absorption at rest in gaseous nitrogen and deuterium are presented from an analysis of approximately 10{sup 6} events each taken with a magnetic spectrometer. Inclusive features such as pion and proton multiplicities and spectra are presented. Data relating to absorption modes requiring more than one nucleon, such as the {Lambda} yield, the {Lambda} spectrum, and the exclusive deuterium channels {ital {bar p}d}{r arrow}{pi}{sup {minus}}p, {Lambda}{ital K}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} are discussed. The fully reconstructable channels {ital {bar p}}d{r arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital p},{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital p} also show a high-energy proton tail unaccounted for by single nucleon rescattering mechanisms.

  8. UV-induced N2O emission from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian R.; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Ambus, Per

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important long-lived greenhouse gas and precursor of stratospheric ozone-depleting mono-nitrogen oxides. The atmospheric concentration of N2O is persistently increasing; however, large uncertainties are associated with the distinct source strengths. Here we investigate for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20-50 nmol m-2h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission response to UV-A is of the same magnitude as that to UV-B. Therefore, UV-A is more important than UV-B given the natural UV-spectrum at Earth's surface. Plants also emitted N2O in darkness, although at reduced rates. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy indicative for an abiotic process. The prevailing zone for the N2O formation appears to be at the very surface of leaves. However, only c. 26% of the UV-induced N2O appears to originate from plant-N. Further, the process is dependent on atmospheric oxygen concentration. Our work demonstrates that ecosystem emission of the important greenhouse gas, N2O, may be up to c. 30% higher than hitherto assumed.

  9. Multistage plasma initiation process by pulsed CO2 laser irradiation of a Ti sample in an ambient gas (He, Ar, or N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, J.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-02-01

    New experimental results are reported on plasma initiation in front of a titanium sample irradiated by ir (λ=10.6 μm) laser pulses in an ambient gas (He, Ar, and N2) at pressures ranging from several Torr up to the atmosphere. The plasma is studied by space- and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, while sample vaporization is probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Threshold laser intensities leading to the formation of a plasma in the vapor and in the ambient gases are determined. Experimental results support the model of a vaporization mechanism for the plasma initiation (vaporization-initiated plasma breakdown). The plasma initiation is described by simple numerical criteria based on a two-stage process. Theoretical predictions are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experiment. This study provides also a clear explanation of the influence of the ambient gas on the laser beam-metal surface energy transfer. Laser irradiation always causes an important vaporization when performed in He, while in the case of Ar or N2, the interaction is reduced in heating and vaporization of some surface defects and impurities.

  10. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  11. Isotopic Monitoring of N2O Emissions from Wastewater Treatment: Evidence for N2O Production Associated with Anammox Metabolism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E. J.; Wunderlin, P.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Wolf, B.; Mohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial production is the major source of N2O, the strongest greenhouse gas produced within the nitrogen cycle, and the most important stratospheric ozone destructant released in the 21st century. Wastewater treatment is an important and growing source of N2O, with best estimates predicting N2O emissions from this sector will have increased by >25% by 2020. Novel treatment employing partial nitritation-anammox, rather than traditional nitrification-denitrification, has the potential to achieve a neutral carbon footprint due to increased biogas production - if N2O production accounts for <0.5-1% of total nitrogen turnover. As a further motivation for this research, microbial pathways identified from wastewater treatment can be applied to our understanding of N cycling in the natural environment. This study presents the first online isotopic measurements of offgas N2O from a partial-nitritation anammox reactor 1. The measured N2O isotopic composition - in particular the N2O isotopic site preference (SP = δ15Nα - δ15Nβ) - was used to understand N2O production pathways in the reactor. When N2O emissions peaked due to high dissolved oxygen concentrations, low SP showed that N2O was produced primarily via nitrifier denitrification by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOBs). N2O production by AOBs via NH2OH oxidation, in contrast, did not appear to be important under any conditions. Over the majority of the one-month measurement period, the measured SP was much higher than expected following our current understanding of N2O production pathways 2. SP reached 41‰ during normal operating conditions and achieved a maximum of 45‰ when nitrite was added under anoxic conditions. These results could be explained by unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction despite low dissolved organic matter concentrations, or by an incomplete understanding of isotopic fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH oxidation by AOBs - however the explanation most consistent with all

  12. 30 CFR 1202.558 - What standards do I use to report and pay royalties on gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), nitrogen (N2), helium (He), residue gas, and any gas marketed as a separate product by using the same standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Report natural gas liquid (NGL) volumes...

  13. 30 CFR 1202.558 - What standards do I use to report and pay royalties on gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), nitrogen (N2), helium (He), residue gas, and any gas marketed as a separate product by using the same standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Report natural gas liquid (NGL) volumes...

  14. 30 CFR 1202.558 - What standards do I use to report and pay royalties on gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), nitrogen (N2), helium (He), residue gas, and any gas marketed as a separate product by using the same standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Report natural gas liquid (NGL) volumes...

  15. 30 CFR 1202.558 - What standards do I use to report and pay royalties on gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), nitrogen (N2), helium (He), residue gas, and any gas marketed as a separate product by using the same standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Report natural gas liquid (NGL) volumes...

  16. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  17. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  18. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero-N control, optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. N0, Nopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon) with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  19. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  20. The effective ionization coefficients and electron drift velocities in gas mixtures of CF3I with N2 and CO2 obtained from Boltzmann equation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yun-Kun; Xiao, Deng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    The electron swarm parameters including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficients (α-η)/N and the electron drift velocities Ve are calculated for a gas mixture of CF3I with N2 and CO2 by solving the Boltzmann equation in the condition of a steady-state Townsend (SST) experiment. The overall density-reduced electric field strength is from 100 Td to 1000 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V·cm2), while the CF3I content k in the gas mixture can be varied over the range from 0% to 100%. From the variation of (α-η)/N with the CF3I mixture ratio k, the limiting field strength (E/N)lim for each CF3I concentration is derived. It is found that for the mixtures with 70% CF3I, the values of (E/N)lim are essentially the same as that for pure SF6. Additionally, the global warming potential (GWP) and the liquefaction temperature of the gas mixtures are also taken into account to evaluate the possibility of application in the gas insulation of power equipment.

  1. Beyond the Methanogenic Black-Box: Greenhouse Gas Fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) as Evidence for Wetlands as Dynamic Redox Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcnicol, G.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Seminal wetland research in the 1990s demonstrated that annual methane (CH4) fluxes scaled positively with ecosystem production across distinctive wetlands globally. This relationship implies a model of flooded wetland ecosystems as 'methanogenic black-boxes'; poised at a low redox state, and tending to release a fixed fraction of incoming annual productivity as CH4. In contrast, recent studies have reported high ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) to CH4 emissions, and are adding to a body of evidence suggesting wetlands can vary more widely in their redox state. To explore this apparent incongruence we used principles of redox thermodynamics and laboratory experiments to develop predictions of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes under different redox regimes. We then used a field study to test the hypothesis that ecosystem seasonality in gross primary productivity (GPP) and temperature would drive changes in GHG emissions, mediated by a dynamic - as opposed to static - redox regime. We estimated wetland GHG emissions from an emergent marsh in the Sacramento Delta, CA from March 2014-2015. We measured CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions via diffusion and ebullition with manual sampling, and whole-ecosystem fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using eddy-covariance. Ebullition and diffusive CH4 fluxes were strongly seasonal, with minimum rates (0.86 and 0.35 mg C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during winter, and maximum rates (1.3 and 1.8 g C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during the summer growing season. In contrast, winter diffusive CO2 fluxes (494 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) and fall bubble CO2 concentrations (1.49%) were highest, despite being seasons of lower GPP, temperature, and CH4 flux. Further, diffusive and ebullition fluxes of N2O showed zero net flux only during spring and summer months, whereas the wetland was a significant source of N2O during winter (81.2 ± 24.4 mg N-N2O m-2 yr-1). These seasonal flux dynamics contradict a 'methanogenic black box' model of wetland redox, which

  2. Tracing natural gas transport into shallow groundwater using dissolved nitrogen and alkane chemistry in Parker County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T.; Nicot, J. P.; Mickler, P. J.; Darvari, R.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved methane in shallow groundwater drives public concern about the safety of hydraulic fracturing. We report dissolved alkane and nitrogen gas concentrations and their stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N, respectively) from 208 water wells in Parker county, Texas. These data are used to differentiate 'stray' natural gas and low temperature microbial methane, and (2) estimate the ratio of stray gas to groundwater. The ratio of (gas-phase) stray natural gas to groundwater is estimated by correlating dissolved methane and nitrogen concentrations and dissolved nitrogen δ15N values. Our hypothesis is groundwater exposed to high volumes of stray natural gas have high dissolved methane concentrations and low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Alternatively, groundwater exposed to low volumes of stray gas-phase natural gas have elevated dissolved methane, but the concentration of dissolved nitrogen and its d15N value is atmospheric. A cluster of samples in Parker county have high concentrations of dissolved methane (>10mg/L) with d13Cmethane and alkane ratios (C1/C2+C3) typical of natural gas from the Barnett Shale and the Strawn Formation. Coupling dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values with these results, we suggest that few of the wells in this cluster preserve large gas to water ratios. Many samples with high dissolved methane concentrations have atmospheric dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values, providing evidence against high flux natural gas transport into shallow groundwater. These results demonstrate that dissolved nitrogen chemistry, in addition to dissolved alkane and noble gas measurements, may be useful to discern sources of dissolved methane and estimate ratios of stray natural gas-water ratios.

  3. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Ly, Proyuth; Nyamadzawo, George; Duong Vu, Quynh; de Neergaard, Andreas; Oelofse, Myles; Wollenberg, Eva; Keller, Emma; Malin, Daniella; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Hillier, Jonathan; Rosenstock, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for tools to rapidly assess greenhouse gas impacts from policy and technological change in the agricultural sector has catalyzed the development of ‘GHG calculators’— simple accounting approaches that use a mix of emission factors and empirical models to calculate GHG emissions with minimal input data. GHG calculators, however, rely on models calibrated from measurements conducted overwhelmingly under temperate, developed country conditions. Here we show that GHG calculators may poorly estimate emissions in tropical developing countries by comparing calculator predictions against measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease with a change in management. These results raise concerns about applying GHG calculators to tropical farming systems and emphasize the need to broaden the scope of the underlying data. PMID:27197778

  4. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Ly, Proyuth; Nyamadzawo, George; Duong Vu, Quynh; de Neergaard, Andreas; Oelofse, Myles; Wollenberg, Eva; Keller, Emma; Malin, Daniella; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hillier, Jonathan; Rosenstock, Todd S

    2016-01-01

    Demand for tools to rapidly assess greenhouse gas impacts from policy and technological change in the agricultural sector has catalyzed the development of 'GHG calculators'- simple accounting approaches that use a mix of emission factors and empirical models to calculate GHG emissions with minimal input data. GHG calculators, however, rely on models calibrated from measurements conducted overwhelmingly under temperate, developed country conditions. Here we show that GHG calculators may poorly estimate emissions in tropical developing countries by comparing calculator predictions against measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease with a change in management. These results raise concerns about applying GHG calculators to tropical farming systems and emphasize the need to broaden the scope of the underlying data. PMID:27197778

  5. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Ly, Proyuth; Nyamadzawo, George; Duong Vu, Quynh; de Neergaard, Andreas; Oelofse, Myles; Wollenberg, Eva; Keller, Emma; Malin, Daniella; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Hillier, Jonathan; Rosenstock, Todd S.

    2016-05-01

    Demand for tools to rapidly assess greenhouse gas impacts from policy and technological change in the agricultural sector has catalyzed the development of ‘GHG calculators’— simple accounting approaches that use a mix of emission factors and empirical models to calculate GHG emissions with minimal input data. GHG calculators, however, rely on models calibrated from measurements conducted overwhelmingly under temperate, developed country conditions. Here we show that GHG calculators may poorly estimate emissions in tropical developing countries by comparing calculator predictions against measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease with a change in management. These results raise concerns about applying GHG calculators to tropical farming systems and emphasize the need to broaden the scope of the underlying data.

  6. Low temperature combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate NOx from large bore natural gas fueled engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature combustion is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NO{sub x} emissions levels set by the regulatory agencies. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a well known technique to realize low NO{sub x} emissions. However, EGR has many built-in adverse ramifications that negate its advantages in the long term. This paper discusses nitrogen enrichment of intake air using air separation membranes as a better alternative to the mature EGR technique. This investigation was undertaken to determine the maximum acceptable level of nitrogen enrichment of air for a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. NO{sub x} reduction as high as 70% was realized with a modest 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving fuel conversion efficiency (FCE). Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N{sub 2} enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing nitrogen enrichment was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with nitrogen enrichment is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. [Effect of gas-lift device on nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor ].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Da-lini; Huang, Yong; Chen, Zong-heng; Yuan, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The effect of air-lift device on the nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor was studied by increasing the substrate concentration to improve nitrogen load rate and inoculate ANAMMOX sludge. The results showed that the effluent recirculation was achieved by using nitrogen gas produced from the ANAMMOX process as power in the air-lift room. With the increase of nitrogen removal rate, the rate of effluent recirculation was increased, which diluted influent substrate concentration and alleviated the inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria,. After 183 d operation, the effluent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 46. 3 mg L-1 and 53.21 mg.L-1, and the nitrogen removal rate was kept stable at 28.3 kg (m3.d)-1, when the influent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 700 mg.L-1 and 840 mgL-1, respectively. The effluent recirculation system formed by gas-lift devices is an economic and effective solution to the inhibition caused by high substrate concentration in traditional reactor, meanwhile, the power consumption of the external reflux pump was reduced. PMID:25518664

  8. Nitrogen removal from natural gas. Quarterly report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required methane/nitrogen separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeate membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make a membrane denitrogenation process viable. Phase I of this project showed that this target selectivity can be achieved, and that the economics of processes based on this selectivity would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below -20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, high-nitrogen-content streams. The Phase I work demonstrated the potential usefulness of using methane-permeable membranes for the denitrogenation of natural gas. The objective of Phase II is to determine which of the two candidate membranes is the most suitable for scale up to membrane modules for laboratory tests followed by field tests of the process.

  9. Depressurization and two-phase flow of water containing high levels of dissolved nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Depressurization of water containing various concentrations of dissolved nitrogen gas was studied. In a nonflow depressurization experiment, water with very high nitrogen content was depressurized at rates from 0.09 to 0.50 MPa per second and a metastable behavior which was a strong function of the depressurization rate was observed. Flow experiments were performed in an axisymmetric, converging diverging nozzle, a two dimensional, converging nozzle with glass sidewalls, and a sharp edge orifice. The converging diverging nozzle exhibited choked flow behavior even at nitrogen concentration levels as low as 4 percent of the saturation level. The flow rates were independent of concentration level. Flow in the two dimensional, converging, visual nozzle appeared to have a sufficient pressure drop at the throat to cause nitrogen to come out of solution, but choking occurred further downstream. The orifice flow motion pictures showed considerable oscillation downstream of the orifice and parallel to the flow. Nitrogen bubbles appeared in the flow at back pressures as high as 3.28 MPa, and the level at which bubbles were no longer visible was a function of nitrogen concentration.

  10. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  11. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated natural gas fuel to determine the effect of increasing fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperatures ranged from ambient to 800 K (980 F). Combustor pressure was 6 atmospheres and the inlet air temperature ranged from 589 to 894 K (600 to 1150 F). The NOx emission index increased with fuel temperature at a rate of 4 to 9 percent per 100 K (180 F), depending on the inlet air temperature. The rate of increase in NOx was lowest at the highest inlet air temperature tested.

  12. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Keshtkar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: On account of the lower electron density in the lung tissue, the dose distribution in the lung cannot be verified with the existing polymer gel dosimeters. Thus, the aims of this study are to make a low density polymer gel dosimeter and investigate the effect of nitrogen gas bubbles on the R2 responses and its homogeneity. Materials and Methods: Two different types of low density polymer gel dosimeters were prepared according to a composition proposed by De Deene, with some modifications. In the first type, no nitrogen gas was perfused through the gel solution and water. In the second type, to expel the dissolved oxygen, nitrogen gas was perfused through the water and gel solution. The post-irradiation times in the gels were 24 and 5 hours, respectively, with and without perfusion of nitrogen gas through the water and gel solution. Results: In the first type of gel, there was a linear correlation between the doses and R2 responses from 0 to 12 Gy. The fabricated gel had a higher dynamic range than the other low density polymer gel dosimeter; but its background R2 response was higher. In the second type, no difference in R2 response was seen in the dose ranges from 0 to 18 Gy. Both gels had a mass density between 0.35 and 0.45 g.cm-3 and CT values of about -650 to -750 Hounsfield units. Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R2-background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R2-responses. PMID:26015914

  13. Gas-chromatographic measurements of atmospheric CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and N2O in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, H.; Makino, Y.; Chubachi, S.; Muramatsu, H.; Shiobara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is produced photochemically and destroyed by reactions with such minor constituents as O, NOx, HOx, and ClOx. Chlorofluoromethanes (CF2Cl2 and CFCl3) and dinitrogen oxide (NwO) are considered as major sources of the stratospheric ClOx and NOx, respectively. It is well known that CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 are released only by man's activities, and are being accumulated in the troposphere. In order to assess the influence of these compounds on the natural ozone balance these gases have been measured over Japan since 1978. Measurements of Antarctic air samples are also indispensable to understanding the global distributions of these gases, because most CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 have been released in the Northern Hemisphere. Antarctic air samples were obtained by the 23rd, 24th and 25th Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions, and analyzed by a gas-chromatographic method using an electron capture detector. Three experimental results were obtained: (1) latitudinal distribution of these gases from Tokyo to Syowa Station (69.0 deg S, 39.6 deg E), (2) time trends at Syowa Station, and (3) vertical distributions over Syowa Station. Results are reported.

  14. Sustainable synthesis of aldehydes, ketones or acids from neat alcohols using nitrogen dioxide gas, and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Naimi-Jamal, M Reza; Hamzeali, Hamideh; Mokhtari, Javad; Boy, Jürgen; Kaupp, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Benzylic alcohols are quantitatively oxidized by gaseous nitrogen dioxide to give pure aromatic aldehydes. The reaction gas mixtures are transformed to nitric acid, which renders the processes free of waste. The exothermic gas-liquid or gas-solid reactions profit from the solubility of nitrogen dioxide in the neat benzylic alcohols. The acid formed impedes further oxidation of the benzaldehydes. The neat isolated benzaldehydes and nitrogen dioxide quantitatively give the benzoic acids. Solid long-chain primary alcohols are directly and quantitatively oxidized with nitrogen dioxide gas to give the fatty acids in the solid state. The oxidations with ubiquitous nitrogen dioxide are extended to solid heterocyclic thioamides, which gives disulfides, and to diphenylamine, which gives tetraphenylhydrazine. These sustainable (green) specific oxidation procedures produce no dangerous residues from the oxidizing agent or from auxiliaries. PMID:19115303

  15. Spatial Distributions of Electron, CF, and CF2 Radical Densities and Gas Temperature in DC-Superposed Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma Etch Reactor Employing Cyclic-C4F8/N2/Ar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Koshimizu, Chishio; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-05-01

    On a plasma etch reactor for a wafer of 300 mm in diameter, the spatial distributions of the absolute densities of CF and CF2 radicals, electron density (ne), and the gas temperature (Tg) of N2 were measured employing the dual frequency of negative dc voltage superposed to a very high frequency (VHF) of 60 MHz capacitively coupled plasma (DS-2f-CCP) with the cyclic- (c-)C4F8/Ar/N2 gas mixture. The dc bias was superposed on the upper electrode with a frequency of 60 MHz. The distributions of electron and radical densities were uniform within a diameter of about 260 mm, and took a monotonic decay in regions outside a diameter of 260 mm on the reactor for 300 mm wafers in the reactor. It was found that only CF2 density at the radial position between 150 and 180 mm, corresponding to the position of the Si focus ring, dropped, while CF density took a uniform distribution over a diameter of 260 mm. Additionally, at this position, the rotational temperature of N2 gas increased to be 100 K larger than that at the center position. CF2 radical density was markedly affected by the modified surface loss probability of the material owing to coupling with surface temperature.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gas mixtures of air, CO2, N2, and C3H8 for simultaneous C, H, O, and N measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Volker; Noll, Reinhard

    2003-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for simultaneous measurement of the elements C, H, N, and O in CO2-air, C3H8-CO2, and C3H8-N2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure. A single 7-mm-diameter aperture at the sample chamber was used for 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation and plasma signal output to an echelle spectrometer. Double-pulse laser bursts of ~8-ns pulse width (FWHM) and 250-ns interpulse separation were applied to increase the plasma signal. Calibration curves of the LIBS signal versus the partial pressure or the atomic abundance ratios were taken by dilution series in intervals that are relevant in the combustion of heptane (C7H16) near an equivalence ratio of 1.

  17. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2009-09-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21´ E, 53°24´N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  18. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2009-05-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21' E, 53°24' N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  19. Effects of N2O narcosis on the contraction and repayment of an oxygen debt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C. L.; Hall, P.; Fitch, J. W.; Loader, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, and the difference between them were measured in five male and three female subjects during and after exercise while breathing either air or a normoxic mixture containing 33% N2O and nitrogen. With the exception of a higher respiratory quotient at rest in N2O, there were no statistically significant differences for oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, expired gas volume, heart rate or blood lactate while breathing N2O during rest, exercise, or recovery. An appreciably, but not statistically, greater mean oxygen deficit was found in N2O along with a significantly greater mean oxygen debt; deficit-debt difference was unaffected by N2O. It was speculated that N2O narcosis did not affect the ability to utilize oxygen but that the response to the greater oxygen need of exercise may have been slowed with perhaps a concomitant greater depletion of stored high energy compounds.

  20. Spatial variability and temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations and fluxes along the Zambezi River mainstem and major tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, A. V.; Darchambeau, F.; Nyambe, I.; Bouillon, S.

    2014-11-01

    Spanning over 3000 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. As part of a~broader study on the riverine biogeochemistry in the Zambezi River basin, we present data on greenhouse gas (GHG, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) concentrations and fluxes collected along the Zambezi River, reservoirs and several of its tributaries during 2012 and 2013 and over two climatic seasons (dry and wet) to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity along the aquatic continuum. All GHGs concentrations showed high spatial variability (coefficient of variation: 1.01 for CO2, 2.65 for CH4 and 0.21 for N2O). Overall, there was no unidirectional pattern along the river stretch (i.e. decrease or increase towards the ocean), as the spatial heterogeneity of GHGs appeared to be determined mainly by the connectivity with floodplains and wetlands, and the presence of man-made structures (reservoirs) and natural barriers (waterfalls, rapids). Highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the mainstream river were found downstream of extensive floodplains/wetlands. Undersaturated CO2 conditions, in contrast, were characteristic for the surface waters of the two large reservoirs along the Zambezi mainstem. N2O concentrations showed the opposite pattern, being lowest downstream of floodplains and highest in reservoirs. Among tributaries, highest concentrations of both CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Shire River whereas low values were characteristic for more turbid systems such as the Luangwa and Mazoe rivers. The interannual variability in the Zambezi River was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4, and significantly higher concentrations (up to two fold) were measured during wet seasons compared to the dry season. Interannual variability of N2O was less pronounced but generally higher

  1. The nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. PMID:26859274

  2. [Effects of Water and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Coupling on CH4 and N2O Emission from Double-Season Rice Paddy Field].

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhi-qiang; Long, Pan; Liu, Yi-yi; Zhong, Juan; Long, Wen-fei

    2015-09-01

    To provide support for the efficient use of water and fertilizer technology to double-season rice cultivation, water and fertilizer coupling mode was applied in this research, including two irrigation methods and four N levels. The irrigation methods were flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation, while four N levels were high-N, middle-N, low-N and none-N. Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of water and fertilizer coupling mode on CH4 and N2O emission. The results showed that the accumulated CH4 emissions were significantly reduced by intermittent irrigation, in comparison with flood irrigation, the reduction in early rice season were from 13. 18 kg.hm-2 to 87. 90 kg.hm-2, and were from 74. 48 kg.hm-2 to 131. 07 kg.hm-2 in late rice season, with a rate of 24. 4% -67. 4% and 42. 5% -65. 5% respectively; whereas the accumulated N20 emissions were increased, the increment were from 0. 03 kg.hm-2 to 0. 24 kg.hm-2 in early rice season and from 0. 35 kg.hm-2 to 1. 53 kg.hm-2 in late rice season when compared flood irrigation, increased by 6.2% -18. 3% and 40.2% - 80.9% respectively. On the whole, intermittent irrigation reduces the warming potential of greenhouse gases (GWP), which were decreased by 18. 8% to 58. 6% in early rice season and by 34. 4% to 60. 1% in late rice season, and the reduction of total GWP were from 2 388 to 4 151 kg. hm-2 (CO2 eq), with a rate of 41% -54% . Through correlation analysis it found that CH4 emissions from soil were significantly related with soil solution Eh and solution CH4 concentration. In comparison with the flood irrigation, the application of intermittent irrigation in double-season rice cultivation was conducive to CH4 reduction, though the increase came in N2O, but the GWPs were significantly reduced. Comprehensively, intermittent irrigation matching with middle-N is more benefit to double-season rice cultivation. PMID:26717700

  3. Influence of N2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of N2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N2 partial pressure.

  4. Excited ozone is a possible source of atmospheric N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the possibility that internally excited ozone formed in the three-body recombination reaction between oxygen atoms and molecules may be a potential source of atmospheric N2O through a gas-phase reaction with nitrogen molecules. Determinations of the wavelength dependence of the quantum yield for N2O formation from the photolysis of dilute solutions of O3 in liquid N2 and of the O(1D) quantum yield in the gas-phase photolysis of O3 are interpreted as suggesting the possibility of the excited ozone reaction, and a new expression for N2O quantum yield is derived. An expression for the production rate of N2O through the proposed reaction is then obtained and used to calculate atmospheric concentrations and fluxes of N2O. The theoretical profile obtained is found to agree better with experimental data than that obtained without the excited ozone reaction taken into account and to demonstrate a wide variability in N2O mixing ratios. In addition, the existence of the new N2O source is noted to imply a significantly smaller flux of N2O from surface microbiological activities, and provide a possible physical basis for latitudinal and temporal N2O variations and an additional stability for the ozone layer.

  5. Seasonal and spatial variability of aquatic N2O, CH4 and CO2 concentrations and their contribution to the overall greenhouse gas budget of the river Tay catchment, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiba, Ute; Harley, James; Carvalho, Laurence; Heal, Kate; Rees, Bob

    2016-04-01

    River networks act as a link between components of the terrestrial landscape with the atmosphere and oceans, and are believed to contribute significantly to global budgets of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). However, knowledge of flux magnitudes and drivers of seasonal and spatial variability required to understand their contribution to the overall catchment greenhouse (GHG) flux is only available for relatively few river systems. For this reason we conducted a two year study of monthly GHG concentration measurements from the river Tay. The river Tay is the largest river in Scotland, in terms of discharge and can be considered typical for many North European river systems. The Tay and its tributaries drain peat dominated uplands and agricultural lowlands before entering the North Sea via the large intertidal estuary. We collected water samples from 9 locations along the river monthly and analysed these sampes for dissolved concentrations of N2O, CH4 and CO2, NH4+ , NO3-, O2, total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and turbidity. Fluxes across the air water interface were calculated using published gas transfer equations. All GHGs showed considerable spatial and seasonal variation. Nitrous oxide emissions ranged from 176 to 1850 μg N m-2 d-1 over the almost two year period February 2009 to December 2010. Emissions were highest in the lowland tributaries related to higher nutrient concentrations associated with more intensive agricultural activity. Methane emissions ranged from 1720 to 15500 μg C m-2 d-1, and in general decreased from upland to lowland sites. Variation in sediment quality was the predominant driving factor. Carbon dioxide emissions ranged from 517 to 2550 mg C m-2 d-1 and generally increased from upland to lowland sites. Emissions were highest in late summer and autumn and lowest in winter at most sites, highlighting the role of seasonal environmental controls such as temperature, light, and substrate availability

  6. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  7. N2O, NO, N2, and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of Northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in Northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (3 savanna, 1 pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emission were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short-lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% at 50% SM and 30 °C ST. N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. Emissions were controlled by SM and ST for N2O and CO2, ST and pH for NO, and SM and pH for N2.

  8. Recently identified microbial guild mediates soil N2O sink capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christopher M.; Spor, Ayme; Brennan, Fiona P.; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bru, David; Lemanceau, Philippe; Griffiths, Bryan; Hallin, Sara; Philippot, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the predominant ozone-depleting substance and contributes approximately 6% to overall global warming. Terrestrial ecosystems account for nearly 70% of total global N2O atmospheric loading, of which at least 45% can be attributed to microbial cycling of nitrogen in agriculture. The reduction of N2O to nitrogen gas by microorganisms is critical for mitigating its emissions from terrestrial ecosystems, yet the determinants of a soil's capacity to act as a source or sink for N2O remain uncertain. Here, we demonstrate that the soil N2O sink capacity is mostly explained by the abundance and phylogenetic diversity of a newly described N2O-reducing microbial group, which mediate the influence of edaphic factors. Analyses of interactions and niche preference similarities suggest niche differentiation or even competitive interactions between organisms with the two types of N2O reductase. We further identified several recurring communities comprised of co-occurring N2O-reducing bacterial genotypes that were significant indicators of the soil N2O sink capacity across different European soils.

  9. Uncertainties in United States agricultural N2O emissions: comparing forward model simulations to atmospheric N2O data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Saikawa, E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric N2O concentrations have increased from 275 ppb in the preindustrial to about 325 ppb in recent years, a ~20% increase with important implications for both anthropogenic greenhouse forcing and stratospheric ozone recovery. This increase has been driven largely by synthetic fertilizer production and other perturbations to the global nitrogen cycle associated with human agriculture. Several recent regional atmospheric inversion studies have quantified North American agricultural N2O emissions using top-down constraints based on atmospheric N2O data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, including surface, aircraft and tall tower platforms. These studies have concluded that global N2O inventories such as EDGAR may be underestimating the true U.S. anthropogenic N2O source by a factor of 3 or more. However, simple back-of-the-envelope calculations show that emissions of this magnitude are difficult to reconcile with the basic constraints of the global N2O budget. Here, we explore some possible reasons why regional atmospheric inversions might overestimate the U.S. agricultural N2O source. First, the seasonality of N2O agricultural sources is not well known, but can have an important influence on inversion results, particularly when the inversions are based on data that are concentrated in the spring/summer growing season. Second, boundary conditions can strongly influence regional inversions but the boundary conditions used may not adequately account for remote influences on surface data such as the seasonal stratospheric influx of N2O-depleted air. We will present a set of forward model simulations, using the Community Land Model (CLM) and two atmospheric chemistry tracer transport models, MOZART and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), that examine the influence of terrestrial emissions and atmospheric chemistry and dynamics on atmospheric variability in N2O at U.S. and

  10. Real-gas effects associated with one-dimensional transonic flow of cryogenic nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Real gas solutions for one-dimensional isentropic and normal-shock flows of nitrogen were obtained for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. These calculations are compared to ideal gas solutions and are presented in tables. For temperatures (300 K and below) and pressures (1 to 10 atm) that cover those anticipated for transonic cryogenic tunnels, the solutions are analyzed to obtain indications of the magnitude of inviscid flow simulation errors. For these ranges, the maximum deviation of the various isentropic and normal shock parameters from the ideal values is about 1 percent or less, and for most wind tunnel investigations this deviation would be insignificant.

  11. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  12. Agreement between experimental and theoretical effects of nitrogen gas flowrate on liquid jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    Two-phase flows were investigated by using high velocity nitrogen gas streams to atomize small-diameter liquid jets. Tests were conducted primarily in the acceleration-wave regime for liquid jet atomization, where it was found that the loss of droplets due to vaporization had a marked effect on drop size measurements. In addition, four identically designed two-fluid atomizers were fabricated and tested for similarity of spray profiles. A scattered-light scanner was used to measure a characteristic drop diameter, which was correlated with nitrogen gas flowrate. The exponent of 1.33 for nitrogen gas flowrate is identical to that predicted by atomization theory for liquid jet breakup in the acceleration-wave regime. This is higher than the value of 1.2 which was previously obtained at a sampling distance of 4.4 cm downstream of the atomizer. The difference is attributed to the fact that drop-size measurements obtained at a 2.2 cm sampling distance are less effected by vaporization and dispersion of small droplets and therefore should give better agreement with atomization theory. Profiles of characteristic drop diameters were also obtained by making at least five line-of-sight measurements across the spray at several horizontal positions above and below the center line of the spray.

  13. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  14. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) as NOx Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study

    PubMed Central

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Jamsaz, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Today's WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NOx. In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) for NOx  (x = 1,2) gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NOx molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NOx detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NOx gas sensors. PMID:25544841

  15. Precursor of N atoms of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nitride films formed from the microwave discharge of C2H2/N2 gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Haruhiko; Tsudome, Hiroki; Mogi, Nobuyoshi; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon nitride films with the [N]/([N] + [C]) ratios of 0.29-0.44 were formed from the microwave discharge of the gas mixture of C2H2 with an excess amount of N2. The ratio of the fluxes, s = Φa-CN/ΦCN(X), was evaluated in this study, where Φa-CN was the flux of N atoms incorporated into the films and ΦCN(X) was that of CN radicals in the gas phase. ΦCN(X) was evaluated from the density of CN radicals using the A2Πi-X2Σ+ laser-induced fluorescence spectra and from the flow speed using the time-resolved emission, and Φa-CN from the film mass calibrated against atomic compositions. The s value was in the range of 0.22-0.78, being 1.2-1.7 times the sticking probability of CN radicals corrected in this study, 0.19-0.45. Then, the contribution of CN radicals was evaluated to be 60-80% of the N source of the films. The chemical structure and mechanical property of the films were analyzed in terms of Raman scattering, IR absorption, and nanoindentation measurements.

  16. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.

    2003-01-01

    The ammonia industry partially recovered from the effects of high natural gas prices that had closed a significant portion of the industry in 2001. Ammonia production capacity in the United States in 2002 was about 17.1 Mt (18.8 million st). About 53 percent of this capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas where there are large reserves of natural gas.

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of Boreal Forest Land on Greenhouse Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest growth on mineral soils in boreal regions is often limited by a low availability of nitrogen (N), and fertilization has shown particular promise in increasing yields in productive boreal forests. In this study we analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing forest biomass production through N fertilization and using the increased production for bioenergy and biomaterials in place of non-renewable fuels and materials. We begin with a stand-level analysis of the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of GHG emissions to and removals from the atmosphere. We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in carbon stock and substitution benefits. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. We then consider a steady-state landscape-level scenario where 10% of Swedish forest land is fertilized. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net GHG benefits

  18. Absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane and nitrogen by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP).

    PubMed

    Almantariotis, D; Stevanovic, S; Fandiño, O; Pensado, A S; Padua, A A H; Coxam, J-Y; Costa Gomes, M F

    2012-07-01

    We measured the densities of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP) as a function of temperature and pressure and their viscosities as a function of temperature. These ionic liquids are less viscous than those based in the same cations but with other anions such as bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquids studied are only partially miscible with water, their solubility increasing with the size of the alkyl side-chain of the cation and with temperature (from x(H(2)O) = 0.20 ± 0.03 for [C(4)mim][eFAP] at 303.10 K to x(H(2)O) = 0.49 ± 0.07 for [C(6)mim][eFAP] at 315.10 K). The solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in the three ionic liquids was measured as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 3 × 10(-2) at 303 K. The solubility of these gases does not increase linearly with the size of the alkyl-side chain of the cation. The solubilities of ethane and nitrogen are much lower than those of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (mole fractions 60% and 90% lower, respectively). The higher solubility of CO(2) and N(2)O can be explained by more favorable interactions between the solutes and the polar region of the ionic liquids as shown by the enthalpies of solvation determined experimentally and by the calculation of the site-site solute-solvent radial distribution functions using molecular simulation. PMID:22680072

  19. N2O, NO, N2 and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (three savanna, one pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emissions were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in the case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was generally dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% to the total atmospheric nitrogen loss at 50% SM and 30 °C ST incubation settings (the contribution of N2 at these soil conditions was only 53.2%). N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. By using a conservative upscale approach we estimate total annual emissions from savanna soils to average 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2O), 0.68 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (NO) and 6.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2). The analysis of long-term SM and ST records makes it clear that extreme soil saturation that can lead to high N2O and N2 emissions only occurs a few days per year and thus has little impact on the annual total. The potential contribution of nitrogen released due to pulse events

  20. Negative ion-gas reaction studies using ion guides and accelerator mass spectrometry II: S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, J. A.; Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Currently analysis of 36Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires large facilities for separation of the isobar 36S. Previously, it has been shown possible to suppress S- by >6 orders of magnitude at low energies in a prototype radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) instrument by ion reactions in NO2 gas in the injection line of an AMS system. Reaction products for the negative ions S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2, and S- with N2O, have been surveyed in order to understand isobar attenuation plateaus and the losses of analyte ions. Ion energies were at eV levels, but had a large initial energy spread of at least several eV. Under these conditions, the aggregate total S- and SO- cross sections in NO2 were estimated to be 6.6 × 10-15 cm2 and 7.1 × 10-15 cm2 respectively and the major reaction channel observed was electron transfer producing NO2-. Other reaction products observed for S- were SO-, SO2-, NS-, and NSO2-. On the other hand, S-, SO- and NS- were found to be largely unreactive with N2O despite the existence of some highly exothermic reaction channels. When Cl- was injected into NO2, reaction products such as ClO- and NO2- were observed only at low levels suggesting that larger Cl- transmissions should be possible with some RFQ design modifications. The ClO- reaction product had only a small attenuation under the experimental conditions, despite having near resonant electron affinity with NO2.

  1. Multiscale Computational Analysis of Nitrogen and Oxygen Gas-Phase Thermochemistry in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Jason D.

    Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for

  2. Effect of N2O on high-rate homoepitaxial growth of CVD single crystal diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Li, H. D.; Cheng, S. H.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Lv, X. Y.; Zou, G. T.; Pei, X. Q.; Xie, J. G.

    2012-07-01

    Various gases such as N2, O2, and CO2 have been introduced in the typical reaction atmosphere of CH4/H2 and proposed to improve the growth of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) single-crystal diamonds (SCDs). In this paper, we study the influence of a new adding gas nitrous oxide (N2O) on the growth rate, morphology, and optical properties of homoepitaxy (100) CVD SCDs. The reaction pressure (H2/CH4 flow rates) was fixed at 300 Torr (750/90 in sccm) with the addition of a small amount of N2O gas varied at flow rates of 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 sccm. With the appropriate addition of N2O, the growth rate was increased up to 135 μm/h and the surface roughness was decreased to around 2 nm. Furthermore, adding N2O is favorable for inhibiting the generation of large anti-pyramidal pits on the top surface of SCDs, which generally appeared in the products synthesized in CH4/H2 ambient. The combined effect of the nitrogen- and oxygen-related radicals decomposed from N2O on the growth and properties of the CVD SCDs is discussed. As a result, the addition of N2O provides a new route to realize high-rate growth CVD SCDs instead of the traditional nitrogen.

  3. Modeling the Injection of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen into a Methane Hydrate Reservoir and the Subsequent Production of Methane Gas on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; McGuire, P. C.; Liu, Y.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    HydrateResSim (HRS) is an open-source finite-difference reservoir simulation code capable of simulating the behavior of gas hydrate in porous media. The original version of HRS was developed to simulate pure methane hydrates, and the relationship between equilibrium temperature and pressure is given by a simple, 1-D regression expression. In this work, we have modified HydrateResSim to allow for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates made from gas mixtures. This modification allows one to model the ConocoPhillips Ignik Sikumi #1 field test performed in early 2012 on the Alaska North Slope. The Ignik Sikumi #1 test is the first field-based demonstration of gas production through the injection of a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases into a methane hydrate reservoir and thereby sequestering the greenhouse gas CO2 into hydrate form. The primary change to the HRS software is the added capability of modeling a ternary mixture consisting of CH4 + CO2 + N2 instead of only one hydrate guest molecule (CH4), therefore the new software is called Mix3HydrateResSim. This Mix3HydrateResSim upgrade to the software was accomplished by adding primary variables (for the concentrations of CO2 and N2), governing equations (for the mass balances of CO2 and N2), and phase equilibrium data. The phase equilibrium data in Mix3HydrateResSim is given as an input table obtained using a statistical mechanical method developed in our research group called the cell potential method. An additional phase state describing a two-phase Gas-Hydrate (GsH) system was added to consider the possibility of converting all available free water to form hydrate with injected gas. Using Mix3HydrateResSim, a methane hydrate reservoir with coexisting pure-CH4-hydrate and aqueous phases at 7.0 MPa and 5.5°C was modeled after the conditions of the Ignik Sikumi #1 test: (i) 14-day injection of CO2 and N2 followed by (ii) 30-day production of CH4 (by depressurization of the well). During the

  4. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  5. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    US ammonia production in 2000 declined by about 7% from 1999. The largest decline occurred in the second half of the year. High natural gas prices caused many plants to close or curtail production near the end of the year. By year-end, about one-third of the US ammonia production capacity was shut down.

  6. The swelling of mitochondria from nitrogen gas; a possible cause of reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    VanDeripe, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    Electron photomicrograph evidence is presented which suggests that the in vivo swelling of mitochondria may result from the uptake of nitrogen gas bubbles which coalesce to fill the intramitochondrial space during tissue anoxia. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitrogen-filled mitochondria are unable to take up oxygen resulting in cell death. A test of this hypothesis also represents a probable treatment for stroke, namely the total body washout of nitrogen. This can be achieved by the inhalation of an oxygen-helium mixture with exhaled gases shunted to ambient atmosphere. This washout should facilitate nitrogen egress from the interior of affected mitochondria, allow oxygen uptake and a resumption of oxidative metabolism. This hypothesis generally fits well with the literature on luxury perfusion following stroke. In cases of luxury perfusion the venous blood exiting the lesion is red indicating a decreased transfer of oxygen to the extracellular and cytosolic fluids. However, whereas luxury perfusion assumes blood flow adequate for delivery of oxygen to the tissues, this hypothesis interjects a blockade at the level of oxygen uptake into mitochondria, and unless this blockade is reversed it will lead to cell death and brain tissue necrosis in the affected regions. PMID:14962642

  7. Generating Breathable Air Through Dissociation of N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Frankie, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A nitrous oxide-based oxygen-supply system (NOBOSS) is an apparatus in which a breathable mixture comprising 2/3 volume parts of N2 and 1/3 volume part of O2 is generated through dissociation of N2O. The NOBOSS concept can be adapted to a variety of applications in which there are requirements for relatively compact, lightweight systems to supply breathable air. These could include air-supply systems for firefighters, divers, astronauts, and workers who must be protected against biological and chemical hazards. A NOBOSS stands in contrast to compressed-gas and cryogenic air-supply systems. Compressed-gas systems necessarily include massive tanks that can hold only relatively small amounts of gases. Alternatively, gases can be stored compactly in greater quantities and at low pressures when they are liquefied, but then cryogenic equipment is needed to maintain them in liquid form. Overcoming the disadvantages of both compressed-gas and cryogenic systems, the NOBOSS exploits the fact that N2O can be stored in liquid form at room temperature and moderate pressure. The mass of N2O that can be stored in a tank of a given mass is about 20 times the mass of compressed air that can be stored in a tank of equal mass. In a NOBOSS, N2O is exothermically dissociated to N2 and O2 in a main catalytic reactor. In order to ensure the dissociation of N2O to the maximum possible extent, the temperature of the reactor must be kept above 400 C. At the same time, to minimize concentrations of nitrogen oxides (which are toxic), it is necessary to keep the reactor temperature at or below 540 C. To keep the temperature within the required range throughout the reactor and, in particular, to prevent the formation of hot spots that would be generated by local concentrations of the exothermic dissociation reaction, the N2O is introduced into the reactor through an injector tube that features carefully spaced holes to distribute the input flow of N2O widely throughout the reactor. A NOBOSS

  8. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  9. Computer program of data reduction procedures for facilities using CO2-N2-O2-Ar equilibrium real-gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III

    1972-01-01

    Data reduction procedures for determining free-stream and post-normal-shock flow conditions are presented. These procedures are applicable to flows of CO2, N2, O2, Ar, or mixtures of these gases and include the effects of dissociation and ionization. The assumption of thermochemical equilibrium free-stream and post-normal-shock flow is made. Although derived primarily to meet the immediate needs of an expansion tube of a hot gas radiation research facility, these procedures are applicable to any supersonic or hypersonic test facility using these gases or mixtures thereof. The data reduction procedures are based on combinations of three of the following flow parameters measured in the immediate vicinity of the test section: (1) stagnation pressure behind normal shock, (2) free-stream static pressure, (3) stagnation-point heat-transfer rate, (4) free-stream velocity, and (5) free-stream density. Thus, these procedures do not depend explicitly upon measured or calculated upstream flow parameters. The procedures are incorporated into a single computer program written in FORTRAN IV language. A listing of this computer program is presented, along with a description of the inputs required and a sample of the data printout.

  10. Modeling disequilibrium in gas ensembles: How quantum state populations evolve under multicollision conditions; CO*+Ar, CO, O2, and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, Anthony J.; Marsh, Richard J.

    2010-02-01

    The method of Marsh and McCaffery [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (2002)] is used to quantify how rovibrational populations and mode temperatures change as an ensemble of CO molecules, initially excited to (v;j)=(8;12), evolves to thermal equilibrium in a bath gas. The bath gases considered are Ar, N2, O2, and CO all at 300 K with the diatomics in their (0;8) rovibrational states. Ensembles generally contain 1000 molecules, 10% of which are excited CO (CO∗) molecules. State (v;j) populations and mode temperatures of CO∗ and bath molecules are calculated for successive collisions to 1000 or more. We find that relaxation to local thermodynamic equilibrium occurs in distinct phases that vary widely in rate of cooling. There is especially fast vibration-vibration (VV) exchange in CO∗-CO mixtures that is largely decoupled from rotation and translation. Several aspects of ensemble behavior may be rationalized using concepts established in quantum state resolved single collision studies. We demonstrate the existence of a simultaneous energy quasiresonant, angular momentum conserving, low Δj VV process that can cause either ultrafast relaxation or up pumping of the kind seen in a number of experiments.

  11. Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during CVD using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J.

    2013-06-01

    Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step CVD route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe process avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed.

  12. Effect of premixing quality on oxides of nitrogen in gas turbine combustors foi HC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.; Ferri, A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several premixing prevaporizing gas turbine combustor designs in reducing formation of oxides of nitrogen at the supersonic cruise condition. An atomized spray from a single injector mounted on the axis of the mixer tube produced a high initial concentration of fuel near the axis and only moderate premixed conditions entering the combustor. A fuel spray produced by 12 flush-mounted normal injection orifices in the mixer tube wall produced a good initial despersion of fuel and resulted in nearly complete premixing. Oxides of nitrogen emission levels of the order of 0.2 g NO2/kg fuel were obtained at 99 percent combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. Overall total pressure drop was less than 3 percent through the 1-meter combustor module.

  13. Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during CVD using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J

    2013-07-21

    Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step CVD route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe process avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed. PMID:23759928

  14. Trace-Rare-Gas Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Nitrogen Plasma Generated at a Frequency of 13.56 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U. Rehman, N.; U. Khan, F.; Naseer, S.; Murtaza, G.; S. Hussain, S.; I., Ahmad; Zakaullah, M.

    2011-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopic measurement of trace rare gas is carried out to determine the density of nitrogen (N) atom, in a nitrogen plasma, as a function of filling pressure and RF power applied. 2% of argon, used as an actinometer, is mixed with nitrogen. In order to normalize the changes in the excitation cross section and electron energy distribution function at different operational conditions, the Ar-I emission line at 419.83 nm is used, which is of nearly the same excitation efficiency coefficient as that of the nitrogen emission line at 493.51 nm. It is observed that the emission intensity of the selected argon and atomic nitrogen lines increases with both pressure and RF power, as does the nitrogen atomic density.

  15. Cryogenic and Simulated Fuel Jet Breakup in Argon, Helium and Nitrogen Gas Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1995-01-01

    Two-phase flow atomization of liquid nitrogen jets was experimentally investigated. They were co-axially injected into high-velocity gas flows of helium, nitrogen and argon, respectively, and atomized internally inside a two-fluid fuel nozzle. Cryogenic sprays with relatively high specific surface areas were produced, i.e., ratios of surface area to volume were fairly high. This was indicated by values of reciprocal Sauter mean diameters, RSMD's, as measured with a scattered- light scanning instrument developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. Correlating expressions were derived for the three atomizing gases over a gas temperature range of 111 to 422 K. Also, the correlation was extended to include waterjet breakup data that had been previously obtained in simulating fuel jet breakup in sonic velocity gas flow. The final correlating expression included a new dimensionless molecular-scale acceleration group. It was needed to correlate RSMD data, for LN2 and H2O sprays, with the fluid properties of the liquid jets and atomizing gases used in this investigation.

  16. Undoped and doped poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) as sensitive material for an impedimetric nitrogen dioxide gas dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, I.; Moos, R.; Neumann, K.; Thelakkat, M.

    2014-09-29

    This article presents a nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) detecting gas dosimeter based on poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) poly(TPD) as nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) sensitive layer. Gas dosimeters are suitable devices to determine reliably low levels of analytes over a long period of time. During NO{sub x} exposure, the analyte molecules are accumulated irreversibly in the sensing layer of the dosimeter enhancing the conductivity of the hole conducting poly(TPD), which can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. Due to their possibility for low cost production by simple printing techniques and very good physical, photochemical, and electrochemical properties, poly(TPD)s are suitable for application in gas dosimeters operated at room temperature. We studied the effect of doping with a Co(III)-complex in combination with a conducting salt on the dosimeter behavior. Compared to the undoped material, a strong influence of the doping can be observed: the conductivity of the sensing material increases significantly, the noise of the signal decreases and an unwanted recovery of the sensor signal can be prevented, leading to a NO{sub x} detection limit <10 ppm.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  18. Spray absorption and electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingbin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; He, Yi; Jia, Jinping

    2013-08-20

    This work developed an electrochemical reduction system which can effectively scrub NO× from flue gas by using aqueous solution of Fe(II)(EDTA) (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) as absorbent and electrolyte. This new system features (a) complete decomposition of NOX to harmless N2; and (b) fast regeneration of Fe(II)(EDTA) through electrochemical reaction. The Fe(II)(EDTA) solution was recycled and reused continuously during entire process, and no harmful waste was generated. The reaction mechanism was thoroughly investigated by using voltammetric, chromatographic and spectroscopic approaches. The operating conditions of the system were optimized based on NOX removal efficiency. Approximately 98% NO removal was obtained at the optimal condition. The interference of SO2 in flue gas and the system operating stability was also evaluated. PMID:23875953

  19. [Study on distribution of nitrogen compounds in catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography-atomic emission detector].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongtan; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Haiying; Lu, Wanzhen

    2004-09-01

    The method for the separation and determination of nitrogen compounds in a typical catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography-atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was established. Seventy-three nitrogen compounds (including aniline, alkyl anilines, quinoline, indole, alkyl indole, carbazole, alkyl carbazole) in the catalytic diesel oil were qualified based on the retention times of some pure nitrogen compounds and the retention indices of nitrogen compounds. Effects of pressures of various reagent gases on peak area of main nitrogen compounds in diesel oil were examined as well. The pressures of reagent gases were optimized. Retention indices of different nitrogen compounds under temperature programmed condition were calculated. Reproducibilities of peak areas of main nitrogen compounds in the catalytic diesel oil were no more than 8.0%. The detection limit for nitrogen was 1.0 mg/L under specific conditions. The linear range was 2.0 - 600 mg/L for each nitrogen compound and correlation coefficient was greater than 0.998. The method can be successfully applied in the determination of nitrogen compounds in different catalytic diesel oils. PMID:15706939

  20. Nitrogen isotopic analyses by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, D. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Amino acids containing natural-abundance levels of 15N were derivatized and analyzed isotopically using a technique in which individual compounds are separated by gas chromatography, combusted on-line, and the product stream sent directly to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For samples of N2 gas, standard deviations of ratio measurement were better than 0.1% (Units for delta are parts per thousand or per million (%).) for samples larger than 400 pmol and better than 0.5% for samples larger than 25 pmol (0.1% 15N is equivalent to 0.00004 atom % 15N). Results duplicated those of conventional, batchwise analyses to within 0.05%. For combustion of organic compounds yielding CO2/N2 ratios between 14 and 28, in particular for N-acetyl n-propyl derivatives of amino acids, delta values were within 0.25% of results obtained using conventional techniques and standard deviations were better than 0.35%. Pooled data for measurements of all amino acids produced an accuracy and precision of 0.04 and 0.23%, respectively, when 2 nmol of each amino acid was injected on column and 20% of the stream of combustion products was delivered to the mass spectrometer.

  1. Theoretical analysis of fluorescence signals in filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, E.; Becker, A.

    2005-10-15

    We study numerically and analytically the role of the combined effect of self-focusing, geometrical focusing, and the plasma defocusing in the formation of the fluorescence signal during the filamentation of a Ti:sapphire laser pulse in nitrogen molecular gas. Results of numerical simulations are used to estimate the number of excited ions in the focal volume, which is proportional to the fluorescence signal. We find good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental data, showing that such data can be used to get further insight into the effective focal volume during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in transparent media.

  2. Prevaporization and premixing to obtain low oxides of nitrogen in gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.; Ferri, A.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of prevaporization and premixing in reducing the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine type combustor using liquid JP-5 fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. The combustor inlet temperature was 833 K (1500 R) at a pressure of 4 atmospheres and a reference velocity of 46 m/sec (150 ft/sec). An order of magnitude reduction in nitric oxide emissions was achieved. Nitric oxide emission indices as low as 0.6 gm NO2/kg fuel were measured at an equivalence ratio of 0.29 with one percent combustion inefficiency without vitiation of the mixer stream.

  3. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M.; Erisman, J.; Skiba, U.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Olesen, J.; Phillips, G. J.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P.; Soussana, J.; Tang, S.; Theobald, M. R.; Winiwarter, W.; van Oijen, M.; Vesala, T.

    2009-12-01

    The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance.