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Sample records for nitrogen removal performance

  1. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. PMID:18957747

  2. Stormwater nitrogen removal performance of a floating treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    Borne, Karine E; Tanner, Chris C; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency and effluent quality of two parallel stormwater retention ponds, one retrofitted with a floating treatment wetland (FTW) and one without any vegetation, was compared in a field trial. This study shows that inclusion of FTWs in stormwater retention ponds has potential to moderately improve N removal. Median FTW outlet event mean concentrations (EMCs) were lower than median inlet and control pond outlet EMCs for all species of N, except for NH(4)-N. Performance was statistically better from late spring to end autumn due to higher organic nitrogen (ON) removal and denitrification in presence of the FTW. Low dissolved oxygen (DO), higher temperature and increased organic matter (OM) and microbial activity below the FTW, likely facilitated the higher denitrification rates observed over this period. Greater sediment N accumulation in the FTW pond also contributed to its higher overall N removal. Higher OM availability in the FTW pond due to release of root exudates and supply of detritus from plant die-back may have contributed to floc formation in the water column, increasing particulate ON settlement. Enhanced ON mineralisation may also be responsible but was probably limited in summer due to the low DO induced by the FTW. Direct uptake by the plants appears to be of less importance. PMID:24135117

  3. Performance and recent improvement in microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haishu; Xu, Shengjun; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have become a promising technology for wastewater treatment accompanying electricity generation. Carbon and nitrogen removal can be achieved by utilizing the electron transfer between the anode and cathode in an MFC. However, large-scale power production and high removal efficiency must be achieved at a low cost to make MFCs practical and economically competitive in the future. This article reviews the principles, feasibility and bottlenecks of MFCs for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal, the recent advances and prospective strategies for performance improvement, as well as the involved microbes and electron transfer mechanisms. PMID:26899662

  4. Nitrogen removal performance of intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor treating black water.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, S Murat; Atasoy, E; Baban, A; Insel, G; Orhon, D

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of intermittent aeration on the nitrogen removal performance of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating black water. A pilot-scale MBR with an effective volume of 630 L operating as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aeration was used in the experiments. Substrate feeding was limited to the initial non-aerated phase. The MBR unit was sustained at a steady state at a sludge age of 60 d with a biomass concentration of around 10,000 mg/L for 3 months. The treated black water could be characterized with an average COD of 950 mg/L and total nitrogen of 172 mg/L, corresponding to a low COD/N ratio of 5.5. The selected MBR scheme was quite effective, reducing COD down to 26 mg/L, providing effective nitrification and yielding a total oxidized nitrogen concentration under 10 mg N/L. The nitrogen removal performance was substantially better than the level predicted by process stoichiometry, due to multiple anoxic configuration inducing additional nitrogen removal. Dissolved oxygen profiles associated with the cyclic operation of the system suggested that the incremental nitrogen removal could be attributed to simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, a commonly observed mechanism in MBR systems sustained at high biomass concentrations. PMID:24527634

  5. Performance of autotrophic nitrogen removal in the granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianwei; Xing, Yajuan; Ji, Qixing; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2012-11-01

    The autotrophic nitrogen removal process in the granular sludge bed reactor (GSB-ANR process) is a new and promising biotechnology for nitrogen removal from wastewater, which requires single reactor, simple operation and inorganic carbon. The results showed that the GSB-ANR process could be successfully started up with nitrifying granular sludge as inoculum. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate and the volumetric nitrogen removal rate reached 5.44 and 2.57kgNm(-3)day(-1), respectively, which were significantly higher than the level reported for the autotrophic nitrogen removal processes in single reactor. The predominant functional microorganisms were from Planctomycetes and Nitrosomonas. The excellent performance of GSB-ANR process was ascribed to: (a) The high activities of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria; (b) the good settlability of the granular sludge; (c) the suitable DO concentration that satisfied the oxygen requirement of AOB and prevented ANAMMOX bacteria from oxygen inhibition. PMID:22940302

  6. Performance of a 'Transitioned' Infiltration Basin Part 2: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Poornima; Davis, Allen P

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration basins have been widely used for stormwater runoff management. However, their longevity could be compromised over time, up to the point of operational failure. This research study showed that a 'failed' infiltration basin can 'transition' into a wetpond/wetland-like practice and provide water quality benefits. Performance evaluation over three years showed that the transitioned infiltration basin reduced the discharge event mean concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), particulate phosphorus (PP), NOx-N (nitrate+nitrite), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), organic-N (ON), and total nitrogen (TN) during most storm events. Exports of TP, DP, ON, and TKN masses were observed only during the coldest periods. The cumulative mass removals were 61% TP, 53% DP, 63% PP, 79% NOx-N, 51% TKN, 45% ON, and 64% TN. The dry-weather nutrient concentrations combined with the environmental conditions at the transitioned basin indicated that sedimentation, adsorption, denitrification, and volume reduction were the removal mechanisms. PMID:26182426

  7. High performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an electrolysis-integrated biofilter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Xie, Y W; Zhang, Q; Yu, Y X; Yang, L Y

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated biofilter system was developed in this study to evaluate the intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from contaminated water. Two laboratory-scale biofilter systems were established, one with electrolysis (E-BF) and one without electrolysis (BF) as control. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the changes of inflow and outflow water qualities were also evaluated. The total nitrogen (TN) removal rate was 94.4% in our newly developed E-BF, but only 74.7% in the control BF. Ammonium removal rate was up to 95% in biofilters with or without electrolysis integration with an influent ammonium concentration of 40 mg/L, and the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was much lower in the effluent of E-BF than that of BF. Thus electrolysis plays an important role in TN removal especially the nitrate and nitrite removal. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 90% in E-BF by chemical precipitation, physical adsorption, and flocculation of phosphorus because of the in situ formation of ferric ions by the anodizing of sacrificial iron anodes. Results from this study indicate that the electrolysis integrated biofilter is a promising solution for intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal. PMID:27508376

  8. Modelling and evaluation of nitrogen removal performance in subsurface flow and free water surface constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tunçsiper, B; Ayaz, S C; Akça, L

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of protecting drinking water sources in rural regions, pilot-scale subsurface water flow (SSF) and free water surface flow (FWS) constructed wetland systems were evaluated for removal efficiencies of nitrogenous pollutants in tertiary stage treated wastewaters (effluent from the Pasaköy biological nutrient removal plant). Five different hydraulic application rates and emergent (Canna, Cyperus, Typhia sp., Phragmites sp., Juncus, Poaceae, Paspalum and Iris) and floating (Pistia, Salvina and Lemna) plant species were assayed. The average annual NH4-N, NO3-N and organic-N treatment efficiencies were 81, 40 and 74% in SSFs and 76, 59 and 75% in FWSs, respectively. Two types of the models (first-order plug flow and multiple regression) were tried to estimate the system performances. Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification rate constants (k20) values in SSF and FWS systems were 0.898 d-1 and 0.541 d(-1), 0.486 d(-1) and 0.502 d(-1), 0.986 d(-1) and 0.908, respectively. Results show that the first-order plug flow model clearly estimates slightly higher or lower values than observed when compared with the other model. PMID:16889247

  9. Bioretention Design to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention has been shown to effectively remove a variety of stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate and total nitrogen removal performance is highly variable. The media typically used in bioretention install...

  10. Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Ambrose, Richard F; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Zhao, Zhimiao

    2016-05-01

    Microcosm horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were used to examine the impacts of vegetation on nitrogen dynamics treating different influent COD/N ratios (1:1, 4:1, and 8:1). An increase in the COD/N ratio led to increased reductions in NO3 and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in planted and unplanted wetlands, but diminished removal of NH4. The HSSFCW planted with Canna indica L. exhibited a significant reduction in NH4 compared to the unplanted system, particularly in the active root zone where NH4 removal performance increased by up to 26 % at the COD/N ratio of 8:1. There was no significant difference in NO3 removal between the planted and unplanted wetlands. TIN removal efficiency in the planted wetland increased with COD/N ratios, which was likely influenced by plant uptake. NH4 reductions were greater in planted wetland at the 20- and 40-cm depths while NO3 reductions were uniformly greater with depth in all cases, but no statistical difference was impacted by depth on TIN removal. These findings show that planting a HSSFCW can provide some benefit in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents, but only when a sufficient carbon source is present. PMID:26822218

  11. Performance of one-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal in a biofilm reactor with low C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jinsong; Chen, Youpeng; Yang, Jixiang; Wei, Honghuai

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater with C/N ratios ranging from 1.00 to 0.33 caused by a gradual increase in influent NH4+-N concentration was used to evaluate the performance of the one-stage nitrogen removal process in a biofilm reactor. The system was operated for 197 days under chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 250 mg L(-1) and influent NH4+-N concentrations ranging from 250 to 750 mg L(-1). The effects of the C/N ratio and dissolved oxygen (DO) on nitrogen removal were evaluated at different influent C/N ratios and DO concentrations, respectively. The microbial composition of the system was examined by scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and the relative contribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) to nitrogen removal was assessed by calculating the average rates of ANAMMOX and denitrification in batch experiments. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N and COD were 74-97%, 75-99% and 64-97%, respectively. The C/N ratio had a significant influence on nitrogen removal efficiency when it was decreased from 1.00 to 0.70, but no significant change was observed when it was reduced from 0.70 to 0.33. DO also correlated with the NH4+-N concentration in the influent, and 3.0 mg L(-1) was found to be a suitable concentration for the influent NH4+-N concentration of 450±5 mg L(-1). Analysis of microbial composition of the system revealed that biofilm and activated sludge were mainly composed of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) and denitrifying bacteria. Activity tests suggested that AnAOB played an important role in the one-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal process, contributing to about 52.7% of total TN removal via ANAMMOX. PMID:25650251

  12. Comparative performance of A2/O and a novel membrane-bioreactor-based process for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinGu; Nakhla, George

    2010-01-01

    The comparison between a novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) system and a conventional anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A2/O) system was conducted using synthetic wastewater (SWW) and municipal wastewater (MWW). Each system was operated at an overall hydraulic retention time of 8 hours and solids retention time of 10 days. The MBR exhibited better overall system performance than the A2/O system, in terms of phosphorus removal. Nitrogen removal efficiencies were close in the two systems at 73 to 74% in both runs, while phosphorus removal efficiencies were 96 and 74% (SWW run) and 80 and 75% (MWW run), for the MBR and A2/O, respectively. Effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) was less than 15 mg/L in the two systems during both runs. Phosphorus uptake by denitrifying phosphate-accumulating organisms accounted for 49% of the total uptake in the MBR compared with 33% in the A2/O during the SWW run. The dynamic test clearly showed that the MBR had better denitrification capacity than the A2/O system. The MWW run indicated that MBR ferments particulate COD better than A2/ O. The effect of the intermediate clarifier on MBR phosphorus removal was significant, with phosphorus uptake of 0.16 g/d in the SWW run and phosphorus release of 0.08 g/d in the MWW run, thus enhancing thetotal phosphorus removal in both cases. PMID:20112540

  13. [Nitrogen removal performance of ANAMMOX ABR process in tannery wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guo-Qu; Jia, Xiao-Shan

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from tannery wastewater was investigated using a lab-scale anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). The results indicated that ABR could be used as a good anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactor, the stable and effective performance of ammonium-N and COD removal from tannery wastewater was demonstrated in the ANAMMOX ABR. When the NH4(+) -N concentration of the influents were in the range of 25.0 mg x L(-1) to 76.2 mg x L(-1) and COD ranged from 131 mg x L(-1) to 237 mg x L(-1), under the volumetric loading of 0.05 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) to 0.15 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the NH4(+)-N and COD of the effluents were from 0.20 mg x L(-1) to 7.12 mg x L(-1) and from 35.1 mg x L(-1) to 69.2 mg x L(-1), respectively, and the removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N and COD were 90.8% to 99.6% and 66.9% to 74.7%, respectively. In addition, the brown-red, brown-yellow, red granular sludges were developed in ABR. SEM observation confirmed the presence of ANAMMOX bacteria in granular sludge of all four compartments of ANAMMOX ABR. According to FISH results, ANAMMOX bacteria had grown in all four compartments to various degrees during the acclimatization and running process, the percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria in sludge increased from 4% to 9%, 8%, 12% and 30% in compartment 1, compartment 2, compartment 3 and compartment 4, respectively, and a higher population percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria existed in the rear than in the front compartments. PMID:25826933

  14. Nitrogen removal performance and microbial community analysis of an anaerobic up-flow granular bed anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunja; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Naoki; Yamada, Yohei; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2010-02-01

    We investigated nitrogen removal performance and responsible microbial community in an anaerobic up-flow granular bed anammox reactor. The anammox reactor was operated more than 1 year. Biomass in the reactor formed granules after about 2 months of operation, and a sufficient amount of the granules was retained in the reactor with a metallic net to avoid biomass washout during the entire operation. The average diameter of the granules was 3.6mm at day 310. After 8 months of operation, stable nitrogen removal (60%) was achieved at an average total inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 14 kg-N m(-3)d(-1). The phylogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization results revealed that the anammox granules consisted of mono species of anammox bacteria, "Candidatus Brocadia-like species", affiliated with "Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans" with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.7%. The relative abundance of the anammox bacteria in the granules was more than 80% of the total bacteria stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The anammox bacteria were present throughout the granules whereas the other bacterial groups, Chloroflexi-like filamentous bacteria and betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, were mainly present on the surface of the anammox granules and around the anammox bacterial clusters. The in situ anammox activity was detected mainly from near the surface of granules to the upper 800 microm of the granules with microsensors. The granular anammox biomass tolerated higher concentrations of nitrite (400 mg-NL(-1)) than did the homogenized biomass (200 mg-NL(-1)) probably due to substrate diffusion limitation. PMID:20079515

  15. Changes in the nitrogen removal performance and the properties of granular sludge in an Anammox system under oxytetracycline (OTC) stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2013-02-01

    The short- and long-term effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process were evaluated. The OTC inhibition of Anammox was substrate-, and especially nitrite-, dependent. The IC50 of OTC in the batch tests on an Anammox mixed culture was calculated to be 517.5 mg L(-1). The long-term effects of OTC on the Anammox process were examined in a continuous-flow upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Fifty milligrams per liter of OTC significantly decreased the nitrogen removal rate from 12.4 to 2 kg N m(-3) d(-1) within 26 days. The recovery of Anammox performance after OTC inhibition was accelerated by adding biocatalyst. In contrast to the modified Stover-Kincannon model, the modified Boltzmann model accurately simulated the recovery of Anammox performance. OTC presented in the influent led to sludge hardening and cell lysis. A poor settling property of Anammox sludge was also observed. PMID:23232224

  16. [Performance and Mechanism of Ferric Tannate in the Removal of Inorganic Nitrogen from Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-na; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2015-11-01

    A novel adsorbent material-ferric tannate was synthesized, and performances and mechanisms of NH4(+) -N, NO2(-) -N and NO3(-) -N were investigated via batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that ferric tannate exhibited preferential adsorption for NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N. When the mass ratios of ferric tannate to NH4(+) -N and ferric tannate to NO2(-) -N were both 200, the removal efficiencies were both higher than 95%. The adsorption behaviors were analyzed with adsorption kinetic models, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm adsorption models, and Weber-Morris equation. The results implied that NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N were adsorbed on the surface of ferric tannate in the forms of monolayer and multilayer, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was more suitable to describe the adsorption processes, and the external particle diffusion and surface adsorption played the key roles in the adsorption process. NH: -N could be combined with negative oxygen ions which distributed on the external surface of ferric tannate by the electrostatic interaction, whereas NO2(-) -N could be combined with ferric ions in ferric tannate by the electrostatic interaction and coordination. The present study provided scientific evidence for the application of ferric tannate as a potential adsorbent in the future. PMID:26911001

  17. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  18. [Effect of the ratio of height to diameter on the performance of the simultaneous reactor for nitrogen removal from swine wastewater and sulfide removal from biogas].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhu; Wu, Jun; Pu, Xiao-Dong; Deng, Liang-Wei

    2010-09-01

    The effect of the ratio of height to diameter (H/D) on the process of simultaneous nitrogen removal from swine wastewater and hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was investigated, using the bubble column reactors with packing material. The performance of the reactor with H/D of 8 : 1, 3 :1 and 2 : 1 was compared. Under temperature of 30-32 degrees C, gas retention time of 6.70 min, hydraulic retention time of 3.35 d, hydrogen sulfide concentration of 1 414-1 838 mg x m(-3) in biogas, and NO(x)(-) -N concentration of 114-243 mg x L(-1) in influent. The reactor with H/D of 2 : 1 achieved a stable and good treatment result, with the average removal rates of 96.7% for hydrogen sulfide, and 88.7% for N(x)(-) -N. While the reactors with H/D of 3 : 1 and 8 : 1 obtained unstable and inferior results, with the average removal rates of 68.0%, 80.4% for hydrogen sulfide respectively, and 89.7%, 90.2% for NO(x)(-) -N respectively. The reason could be attributed to the following facts. The reactor with H/D of 2:1 has a slower optimum gas velocity (3.12 x 10(-2) m x s(-1))- than the reactor with H/D of 3 : 1 and 8 : 1 (3.62 x 10(-2) m x s(-1) and 6.64 x 10(-2) m x s(-1) respectively), and has a higher gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (1.79 x 10(-5) s(-1)) than the other two reactors (1.64 x 10(-5) s(-1) and 1.55 x 10(-5) s(-1) respectively). Results of the performance and the hydrodynamics parameters of the reactors all indicated that the reactor with H/D of 2 : 1 was more suitable for the process of simultaneous nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide removal. PMID:21072949

  19. Performance of organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems by intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long; Huang, Linli; Fei, Hexin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Organics and nitrogen removal in four subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs), named SWIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SWIS B (with intermittent aeration), SWIS C (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SWIS D (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) was investigated. High average removal rates of 92.3% for COD, 90.2% for NH4-N and 88.1% for TN were achieved simultaneously in SWIS D compared with SWIS A, B and C. The excellent TN removal of SWIS D was due to intermittent aeration provided sufficient oxygen for nitrification in upper matrix and the favorable anoxic or anaerobic environment for denitrification in subsequent matrix, and moreover, shunt distributing wastewater provided sufficient carbon source for denitrification process. The results indicated that intermittent artificial aeration combined with shunt distributing wastewater could achieve high organics and nitrogen removal in SWISs. PMID:27039353

  20. Performance of aerated submerged biofilm reactor packed with local scoria for carbon and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Shafai, Saber A; Zahid, Waleed M

    2013-09-01

    An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with scoria was evaluated for municipal wastewater treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles (with and without effluent recycle) as single aerobic reactor at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 3.5-4.0 L/L/day and four cycles (with and without effluent recycle) as anaerobic/aerobic reactor at two HLR (3.5 and 5.2 L/L/day). Results indicated better removal efficiency in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles especially for ammonia and total nitrogen. Effluent recycling in the aerobic reactor enhanced ammonification with significant reduction in ammonia and nitrogen removal, while in case of single anaerobic/aerobic reactor the effluent recycling improved ammonia and nitrogen removal and kept nitrate concentration in the final effluent below 10 mg N/L. The reactor produced good settled sludge with sludge volume index (SVI) of 46-74 ml/g for aerobic cycles and 18-50 ml/g for anaerobic/aerobic cycles. The average sludge production was 0.145 g TSS/g COD removed. PMID:23831746

  1. Performance of a new suspended filler biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides under thermophilic conditions and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Shaobin, Huang; Zhendong, Wei; Pengfei, Chen; Yongqing, Zhang

    2016-08-15

    A suspended biofilter, as a new bioreactor, was constructed for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOX) from simulated flue gas under thermophilic conditions. The suspended biofilter could be quickly started up by inoculating the thermophilic denitrifying bacterium Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1. The NO concentration in the inlet stream ranged from 200mg/m(3) to 2000mg/m(3) during the operation, and inlet loading ranged from 8.2-164g/(m(3)·h). The whole operation period was divided into four phases according to the EBRT. The EBRT of phases I, II, III and IV were 88s (9-43d), 44s (44-61d), 66s (62-79d) and 132s (80-97d), respectively. An average NO removal efficiency of 90% was achieved during the whole operation period, and the elimination capacity increased linearly with the increase in NO inlet loading and the maximum elimination capacity reached 146.9g/(m(3)·h). No clogging was observed, although there was a high biomass concentration in the biofilter bed. The remarkable performance in terms of NO removal could be attributed to the rich bacterial communities. The microbial community structure in the biofilm was investigated by high throughput sequencing analysis (16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing). The experimental results showed that the microbial community structure of the biofilm was very rich in diversity, with the most abundant bacterial class of the Alphaproteobacteria, which accounted for 36.5% of the total bacteria, followed by Gammaproteobacteria (30.7%) and Clostridia (27.5%). It was worthwhile to mention that the dominant species in the suspended biofilter biofilm were all common denitrifying bacteria including Rhizobiales (inoculated microbe), Rhodospirillales, Enterobacteriales and Pseudomonadales, which accounted for 19.4%, 17%, 21.6% and 7%, respectively. The inoculated strain TAD1 belonged to Alphaproteobacteria class. Because high-throughput 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing has improved resolution of bacterial community analysis, 16S rRNA gene

  2. Nitrogen removal performance and microbial distribution in pilot- and full-scale integrated fixed-biofilm activated sludge reactors based on nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Peng, Yongzhen; Han, Xiaoyu; Gan, Yiping

    2015-11-01

    Nitritation-anammox process was successfully established in pilot- and full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80% was achieved under ammonium loading rate of 0.7-1.3kgN/(m(3)d) in the pilot-scale reactor (12m(3)). Moreover, molecular analysis showed that ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were more abundant in the activated sludge while anammox bacteria were primarily located in the biofilm. The segregation of AOB and anammox bacteria enhanced the nitrogen removal rate and operational stability. Furthermore, a full-scale IFAS reactor of 500m(3) was set-up to treat sludge dewatering liquors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 85% and a nitrogen removal rate of 0.48kgN/(m(3)d) were achieved after inoculation. It was noted that high influent suspended solids would seriously affect the performance of the IFAS system. Therefore, a pre-treatment was proposed to reduce suspended solid in the full-scale application. PMID:26278191

  3. SOLUBLE ORGANIC NITROGEN CHARACTERISTICS AND REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses sources, concentrations, characteristics and methods for removal of Soluble Organic Nitrogen (SON) in wastewater. Removal by various physical, chemical and biological processes are described and molecular weight distribution is characterized. A significant p...

  4. Anammox for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater: Effect of COD/N ratios on process performance and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Nunes, Fernando Terra; Ferreira, Luísa Ornelas; Coelho, Aline Carolina Cirilo; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Mac Conell, Erika F Abreu; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani; de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calábria

    2016-07-01

    Long-term effects of COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community of an anammox reactor were evaluated by adding a synthetic medium (with glucose) and real anaerobic effluent to a SBR. At a COD/N ratio of 2.8 (COD, 390mg·L(-1)) ammonium removal efficiency was 66%, while nitrite removal remained high (99%). However, at a COD/N ratio of 5.0 (COD, 300mg·L(-1)), ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were high (84% and 99%, respectively). High COD, nitrite, and ammonium removal efficiencies (80%, 90% and 95%, respectively) were obtained on adding anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (with nitrite) to the reactor. DGGE revealed that the addition of anaerobic effluent changed the bacterial community structure and selected for DNA sequences related to Brocadia sinica and Chloroflexi. Adding glucose and anaerobic effluent increased denitrifiers concentration threefold. Thus, the possibility of using the anammox process to remove nitrogen from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater was demonstrated. PMID:27023380

  5. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  6. New anaerobic process of nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Mulder, A; Versprille, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on successful laboratory testing of a new nitrogen removal process called DEAMOX (DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation) for the treatment of strong nitrogenous wastewater such as baker's yeast effluent. The concept of this process combines the recently discovered ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reaction with autotrophic denitrifying conditions using sulfide as an electron donor for the production of nitrite within an anaerobic biofilm. The achieved results with a nitrogen loading rate of higher than 1,000 mg/L/d and nitrogen removal of around 90% look very promising because they exceed (by 9-18 times) the corresponding nitrogen removal rates of conventional activated sludge systems. The paper describes also some characteristics of DEAMOX sludge, as well as the preliminary results of its microbiological characterization. PMID:17163025

  7. Fluidized-bed biological nitrogen removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hosaka, Yukihisa; Minami, Takeshi; Nasuno, Sai )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes a compact process for nitrogen removal developed in Japan. It does not require the large amounts of land of current denitrification processes. The process uses a three-phase fluidized bed of granular anthracite to which the nitrifying bacteria adhere and are fluidized by the activated sludge in the reactor. The process was developed in response to the need for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from waste water to prevent the eutrophication of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  8. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention systems effectively remove many stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate removal performance is highly variable. Bioretention media is typically coarse-grained with low organic matter content, which...

  9. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  10. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation. PMID:12420968

  11. Effect of Cu(II) shock loads on shortcut biological nitrogen removal in a hybrid biofilm nitrogen removal reactor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Hengjuan; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Kun; Lin, Ying

    2015-06-01

    The effect of Cu(II) shock loads on shortcut biological nitrogen removal during a continuous-flow anoxic/aerobic process was investigated using a hybrid biofilm nitrogen removal reactor. The results demonstrated that [Formula: see text]-N removal was not affected by any Cu(II) shock loads, but TN removal was inhibited by Cu(II) of shock loads of 2 and 5 mg/L, and the performance could not be recovered at 5 mg/L. Furthermore, the TN removal pathway also changed in response to Cu(II) concentrations of 2 and 5 mg/L. Denitrification is more sensitive to Cu(II) shock in SBNR processes. Examination of amoA communities using quantitative PCR showed that the abundance of AOB in the aerobic tank decreased after Cu(II) shock with 5 mg/L, which supported the observed changes in [Formula: see text]-N removal efficiency. The abundance of denitrification genes declined obviously at Cu(II) concentrations of 2 and 5 mg/L, which explained the decreased TN removal efficiency at those concentrations. PMID:25833010

  12. Nitrogen removal in recirculated duckweed ponds system.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, L; Koottatep, T

    2007-01-01

    Duckweed-based ponds (DWBPs) have the potential for nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater; however, operational problems such as duckweed die-off regularly occur. In this study, effluent recirculation was applied to the DWBPs to solve the above problem as well as to investigate N removal mechanisms. Two pilot scale recirculated DWBPs were employed to treat municipal wastewater. The average removal efficiencies for TN, TKN and NH4-N were 75%, 89% and 92%, respectively at TN loading of 1.3 g/m2.d and were 73%, 74% and 76%, respectively at TN loading of 3.3 g/m2.d. The effluent of the system under both operational conditions had stable quality and met the effluent standard. Duckweed die-off was not observed during the study, which proves the system stability and effluent recirculation which is thought to be a reason. N-mass balance revealed that nitrification-denitrification and duckweed uptake play major roles in these recirculated DWBPs. The rates of nitrification-denitrification were increased as TN loading was higher, which might be an influence from an abundance of N and a suitable condition. The rates of N uptake by duckweed were found similar and did not depend on the higher TN loading applied, as the duckweed has limited capacity to assimilate it. PMID:17591202

  13. RESTORED STREAMS ENHANCE ABILITY TO REMOVE EXCESS NITROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten human and aquatic ecosystem health. Furthermore, degraded ecosystems like those impacted by urbanization have reduced ability to process and remove excess nitrogen from t...

  14. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  15. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  16. Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.

  17. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  18. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. PMID:23735800

  19. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Providencia rettgeri strain YL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; He, Yi Liang; Huang, Jue; Taylor, Shauna; Hughes, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Providencia rettgeri strain YL was found to be efficient in heterotrophic nitrogen removal under aerobic conditions. Maximum removal of NH(4) (+)-N occurred under the conditions of pH 7 and supplemented with glucose as the carbon source. Inorganic ions such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) largely influenced the growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. A quantitative detection of nitrogen gas by gas chromatography was conducted to evaluate the nitrogen removal by strain YL. From the nitrogen balance during heterotrophic growth with 180 mg/l of NH(4) (+)-N, 44.5% of NH(4) (+)-N was in the form of N(2) and 49.7% was found in biomass, with only a trace amount of either nitrite or nitrate. The utilization of nitrite and nitrate during the ammonium removal process demonstrated that the nitrogen removal pathway by strain YL was heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification. A further enzyme assay of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity under the aerobic condition confirmed this nitrogen removal pathway. PMID:20333440

  20. Eutrophication control and the fallacy of nitrogen removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sincero, A.P.

    1984-11-01

    There has been a great deal of controversy over the issue of nitrogen control from sewage treatment plants discharges to alleviate excessive algae growths in receiving bodies of water. Some of the controversy seems to have risen from a thorough misunderstanding of the microbiology involved in the utilization of nitrogen by microbes. In a haste to control eutrophication, some regulators have required the removal of nitrogen from the effluent of sewage treatment plants; e.g., the Patuxent Nitrogen Removal Policy of the State of Maryland.

  1. [Mechanism of ammonium removal in the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal in one reactor process].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-hong; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jin-song; Qin, Yu; Wei, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Different synthetic wastewaters were used in the batch tests to analyze the intermediate products and the nitrogen balance, and to study the mechanism of ammonium removal in the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal in one reactor process with the sludge cultured in the SBBR completely autotrophic nitrogen removal system. The results showed that 62% of ammonium was converted to such nitrogen compounds as NO2-, NO3-, NH2 OH, N2H4, NO, NO2, N2O and N2 without addition of organic carbon, and N2 took up 90.07%. The ammonium in the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal in one reactor system was removed in many ways. 4.5% of ammonium was removed in the physical-chemical way. 3.73% of ammonium was converted by the conventional nitrification-denitrification process. The quantity of ammonium removed by the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal in one reactor process was 53.77%, which is the largest, and the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal in one reactor process could be realized in two different metabolic pathways. But the effluent ammonium in the anoxic reactor, where enough NO2 present were present, was equal to the blank system, and no ammonium was converted to such nitrogen compounds as NO2- and N2 by Nitrosomonas eutropha using NO2 as electron acceptor, which maybe caused by lack of the function bacteria. PMID:19353865

  2. Comparative analysis of modeled nitrogen removal by shellfish farms.

    PubMed

    Rose, Julie M; Bricker, Suzanne B; Ferreira, Joao G

    2015-02-15

    The use of shellfish aquaculture for nutrient removal and reduction of coastal eutrophication has been proposed. Published literature has indicated that nitrogen contained in harvested shellfish can be accurately estimated from shell length:nitrogen content ratios. The range of nitrogen that could be removed by a typical farm in a specific estuarine or coastal setting is also of interest to regulators and planners. Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model outputs of nitrogen removal at the shellfish farm scale have been summarized here, from 14 locations in 9 countries across 4 continents. Modeled nitrogen removal ranged from 105 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (12 g m(-2) year(-1)) to 1356 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (152 g m(-2) year(-1)). Mean nitrogen removal was 520 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (58 g m(-2) year(-1)). These model results are site-specific in nature, but compare favorably to reported nitrogen removal effectiveness of agricultural best management practices and stormwater control measures. PMID:25534625

  3. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  4. [Cultivation and nitrogen removal characteristics of deammonifition granules].

    PubMed

    Tang, Lin-Ping; Liao, De-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yi, Ting

    2009-02-15

    An SBR reactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge was started up to enrich deammonifition bacteria and investigate its nitrogen removal characteristics. Research results showed that deammonification granular sludge could be cultivated successfully with firstly enriched ANAMMOX microorganisms in anaerobic condition and then controlled the dissolved oxygen in the SBR reactor between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, in which the maximum total nitrogen removal rate reach 75.3%. When the Ca and P concentrations of the medium exceeded the necessary quantity, salt precipitation was observed and interfered with microbial activity and caused a decrease of the nitrogen removal rate of the reactor system. Salt precipitation was avoided by diminishing adequately the Ca and P concentrations of the medium during the following operation period, and the total nitrogen removal rate restored. PMID:19402490

  5. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  6. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yanjie; Ji Min; Li Ruying; Qin Feifei

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  7. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  8. High strength nitrogen removal from nightsoil and piggery wastes.

    PubMed

    Choi, E; Eum, Y; Gil, K I; Oa, S W

    2004-01-01

    Nightsoil and piggery wastes generally present high strength organics and nitrogen. This study evaluated the nitrogen removal characteristics with the existing and modified nightsoil and piggery waste treatment plants. The existing conventional plants showed 20 to 40% nitrogen removal, but the modification with SBR or MLE process could remove effectively both nitrogen and organics with the minimum COD/TN and alkalinity/TN ratios of 6 and 3.6, respectively. Nitrite nitrification and denitrification rates obtainable at higher nitrogen loads were faster than the rates of nitrate nitrification and denitrification resulting in less reactor volume requirement. However, the higher nitrogen loads increased the organic loads resulting in the reactor temperature inhibiting nitrification. Thus, a combined treatment with anaerobic digestion with the adjustment of influent bypass rates was proposed to reduce the reactor temperature and the external carbon requirement. The biological treatment could discharge about 1,100 mg/L soluble COD and 50 mg/L soluble nitrogen, respectively. PMID:15137412

  9. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:27544265

  10. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOEpatents

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  11. Method for removal of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles D. (Inventor); Clausen, III, Christian A. (Inventor); Collins, Michelle M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for removing NO.sub.X from gas streams emanating from stationary combustion sources and manufacturing plants utilizes the injection of hydrogen peroxide into the gas stream for rapid gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO.sub.2 and water-soluble nitrogen acids HNO.sub.2 and HNO.sub.3. The nitrogen acids may be removed from the oxidized gas stream by wet scrubbing or by contact with a particulate alkaline material to form a nitrite/nitrate salt.

  12. [Cultivation and nitrogen removal characteristics of ANAMMOX granules].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Hong; Liao, De-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yang, Qi

    2007-04-01

    An SBR reactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge was started-up to enrich ANAMMOX (anaerobic ammonia oxidation) bacteria and investigate its nitrogen removal characteristics. Research results showed that hydraulic retention time (HRT) was the most important factor to enrich ANAMMOX bacteria. When the HRT was controlled at 30 d during the initial cultivation, the SBR reactor presented ANAMMOX activity at t = 58 days. Simultaneously, the anaerobic granular sludge changed gradually from dust black to brownish color and its diameter became smaller. At t = 90 days, the ANAMMOX was obvious, and ANAMMOX granules was cultivated successfully. NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N were removed simultaneously with higher speed and maximum removal rate reached 14.6 g/(m3 x d) and 6.67 g/(m3 x d) respectively. Between t = 110 days and t = 156 days, the nitrogen load was increased gradually to a hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The removal rate of ammonium and nitrite were 60.6% and 62.5% respectively. The ratio of nitrite/ammonium was 1.12. The sludge changed to henna and formed ANAMMOX granulation with high nitrogen removal activity. The total nitrogen load was 34.3 g/(m3 x d). PMID:17639941

  13. Combination process of limited filamentous bulking and nitrogen removal via nitrite for enhancing nitrogen removal and reducing aeration requirements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Peng, Yongzhen; Yang, Xiong; Gao, Chundi; Wang, Shuying

    2013-03-01

    Limited filamentous bulking (LFB) activated sludge process was proposed by Guo et al. (2010) to increase the removal of tiny suspended particulates in the clarifier and reduce aeration energy consumption. However, when the use of LFB process, ammonium removal efficiency would be compromised due to low dissolved oxygen (DO). In this study, the combination process of nitrogen removal via nitrite and LFB was achieved to enhance nitrogen removal and reduce aeration energy consumption by controlling low DO levels (0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)) in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor (V=66 L) treating real domestic wastewater at room temperature. Above 85% of nitrite accumulation ratio was steadily maintained during continuous operation period. The combined process improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the traditional process via the nitrate pathway, and also reduced the specific aeration energy consumption by 35%. COD, ammonium and TN removal efficiencies were up to 86%, 94% and 75%, respectively. The process proved effective in achieving a steady LFB state, whereby sludge volume index between 150 and 250 mL g(-1) was sustained for long-term operation. The microbial community structure was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which indicated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria out-competed nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Moreover, the filaments Type 0041 and Microthrix parvicella proliferated with limited abundance. The results indicated the combination process of LFB and nitrogen removal via nitrite under low DO was a feasible solution for saving energy and enhancing nitrogen removal when treating domestic wastewater. PMID:23305749

  14. Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated biofilm airlift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Benthum, W.A.J. van; Mathijssen, J.P.M.; Sunde, J.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Heijnen, J.J.; Garrido, J.M.

    1998-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds like ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate can be found in domestic as well as industrial wastewaters. These compounds can cause many environmental problems in surface waters but can be removed by applying nitrification and denitrification processes. Denitrification was integrated in a nitrifying biofilm airlift suspension reactor by intermittent aeration. A total nitrogen-removal efficiency of 75% was reached at an aerobic ammonia load of 5 kg{sub N}{center_dot}m{sup {minus}3}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}. Acetate was added to the reactor during the anoxic periods. The system was operated at sufficiently long anoxic hydraulic retention times to allow suspended growth of denitrifying heterotrophs. However, the heterotrophic biomass did not grow in suspension but grew as protuberances and layers on the nitrifying biofilms. Nitrification and denitrification occurred via nitrite as an intermediate, possibly because denitrifiers outcompeted the nitrite oxidizers. Because of the establishing of the nitrite route, a low average COD/N ratio of 2.6 kg{sub COD}{center_dot}kg{sub N}{sup {minus}1} was obtained. When denitrifying operation with acetate addition was started, initially almost all nitrogen removed was emitted as nitrous oxide. Subsequently, the nitrous oxide emission strongly decreased to almost zero in a period of 30 days, while the nitrogen-removal efficiency was maintained.

  15. Nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lina; Peng, Chengyao; Zhang, Shujun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2009-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), was used to treat landfill leachate. During operation, denitrification and methanogenesis took place simultaneously in the first stage UASB, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was further removed in the second stage UASB. Then the denitrification of nitrite and nitrate in the returned sludge by using the residual COD was accomplished in the A/O reactor, and ammonia was removed via nitrite in it. Last but not least, the residual ammonia was removed in SBR as well as nitrite and nitrate which were produced by nitrification. The results over 120 d (60 d for phase I and 60 d for phase II) were as follows: when the total nitrogen (TN) concentration of influent leachate was about 2500 mg/L and the ammonia nitrogen concentration was about 2000 mg/L, the short-cut nitrification with 85%-90% nitrite accumulation was achieved stably in the A/O reactor. The TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of the system were 98% and 97%, respectively. The residual ammonia, nitrite and nitrate produced during nitrification in the A/O reactor could be washed out almost completely in SBR. The TN and ammonia nitrogen concentrations of final effluent were about 39 mg/L and 12 mg/L, respectively. PMID:20108678

  16. USE OF ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS TO REMOVE NITROGEN FROM WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California, focused on nitrogen removal from municipal wastewaters using lower-cost alternatives to methanol to supply carbon to drive denitrification. Using plant biomass, mulched and applied to the surface of the artificial marsh beds, ...

  17. Further contributions to nitrogen removal modelling in waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Bastos, R K X; Cabral, V A L; Rios, E N; Combatt, M P M

    2014-01-01

    A large database from an experimental maturation pond system in Brazil was used to verify the agreement of field results with values predicted by some of the most widely accepted models to describe ammonium and total nitrogen (TN) removal in facultative and maturation ponds. The same database was used to derive a pH-independent linear model to predict ammonium removal in ponds, which was proved to be, essentially, a function of ammonium surface loading rate. In general, all these models made reasonable predictions of ammonium or TN removal but tended to overestimate low ammonium effluent concentrations while underestimating higher values of field data. PMID:25521122

  18. Nitrogen removal during secondary treatment by aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Erol Nalbur, B; Akça, L; Bayhan, H

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of this study, two lab-scale aquatic plant reactors consisting of duckweed (Lemna minor) ponds, were investigated for the removal of nitrogen forms during the secondary treatment of domestic wastewater. TKN, NH3-N and NO3-N parameters have been measured in both reactors for hydraulic retention times ranging from 3.3 days to 23 days and at various distances from the inlet of reactors. The results were evaluated for hydraulic retention times, hydraulic loading rates and mass loading rates. I was concluded that hydraulic and mass loading parameters were more meaningful than hydraulic retention time. Optimum nitrogen removal values of hydraulic loading rate and mass loading rate were found to be 1.2 cm/day and 90-160 mg TKN/m2-day, respectively. At the higher and lower loading rates, nitrogen removal efficiency was lower than those at optimum conditions. Effluent TKN concentration was around 2.5 to 3.0 mg/l while NH3-N concentration was almost zero at these loading conditions. On the other hand, effluent NO3-N concentrations changed between 7 mg/l to 11 mg/l. When investigating the longitudinal profile, values were reduced rapidly along the reactors. It was concluded that most of the nitrogen conversion occurred at the beginning of the reactor. PMID:14753556

  19. Photocatalytic performance of nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 for removal of eosin yellow in water under simulated solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kuvarega, Alex T; Krause, Rui W M; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using ammonia as the nitrogen source and osmium tetroxide as the source of osmium. The role of rutile phase OsO2 in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 towards the degradation of Eosin Yellow was investigated. The materials were characterised by various techniques that include FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, TGA and DRUV-Vis. The amorphous, oven dried sample was transformed to the anatase and then the rutile phase with increasing calcination temperature. DRUV-Vis analysis revealed a red shift in absorption with increasing calcination temperature, confirmed by a decrease in the band gap of the material. The photocatalytic activity of N, Os co-doped TiO2 was evaluated using eosin yellow degradation and activity increased with increase in calcination temperature under simulated solar irradiation. The rutile phase of the co-doped TiO2 was found to be more effective in degrading the dye (k(a) = 1.84 x 10(-2) min(-1)) compared to the anatase co-doped phase (k(a) = 9.90 x 10(-3) min(-1)). The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of rutile TiO2 and rutile OsO2 in the N, Os co-doped TiO2. PMID:23901525

  20. Long-term performance of side-stream deammonification in a continuous flow granular-activated sludge process for nitrogen removal from high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Donald S; Kelly, Harlan G

    2015-01-01

    An innovative granular sludge deammonification system was incorporated into a conventional-activated sludge process. The process incorporated an internal baffle in the bioreactor for continuous separation of granular biomass from flocculent biomass, which allowed for controlling the solids retention time of flocculent sludge. The process was evaluated for ammonium removal from municipal digested sludge dewatering centrate under various operating conditions lasting over 450 days. The process successfully removed, on average, 90% of the ammonium from centrate at various ammonium loading reaching 1.4 kg/m³d at 20 hours hydraulic retention time. Controlling the retention time of the flocculent biomass and maintaining low nitrite concentration were both found to be effective for nitrite oxidizing bacteria management, resulting in a low nitrate concentration (below 50 mg/L) over a wide range of flocculent biomass concentration in the bioreactor. PMID:25909736

  1. [Removal of nitrogen in simulated rivers embanked by ecological concrete].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-hui; Lü, Xi-wu; Wu, Yi-feng

    2008-08-01

    The removal of nitrogen was studied in four types of pilot-scale rivers. The embankment for rivers No. 1, 2 and 3 consisted of respectively spheriform ecological-concrete prefab-bricks, rectangular ecological-concrete prefab-bricks and square ecological-concrete prefab-bricks with 4 hemispheroids. The embankment for river No. 4 was made of concrete C25. The results show that the removal rates of NH4+ -N, NO2- -N, NO3- -N and TN of river 1 are 83.6%, 75.2%, 37.1% and 47.5% under hydraulic retention time of 2 days, 83.4%, 53.0%, 30.6% and 40.4% for river 2, 88.1%, 72.4%, 33.0% and 40.9% for river 3. Under the same condition, NH4+ -N, TN of river 4 decreasesby 61.1%, 9.1%, while NO2- -N, NO3- -N increase by 7.4%, 3.4% due to the transformation of NH4+ -N. It indicates that ecological embankment rivers can effectively remove nitrogen. Besides, the addition of pore rate in embankment structure and more rate of plant coverage are good for the removal of nitrogen in ecological embankment rivers. PMID:18839568

  2. Cost-saving biological nitrogen removal from strong ammonia landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Pelkonen, M; Kaila, J

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an improved management mode in Ämmässuo landfill (Finland) for leachate ammonium-nitrogen removal, to minimize the leachate management costs and secure compliance with the uptrend requirements of regulations for on-site leachate management. With a single sequential batch simulation reactor, the minimum C/N ratio was detected as 1.7 (adjusted by external carbon addition), to achieve the acceptable removal efficiency of 99, 62 and 74% in NH( 4)-N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand, respectively. Both total nitrogen removal and efficiency of carbon use were correlated with an increasing NO(-) (2) /NO(-) (x) ratio indicating higher performance with denitrification via nitrite. It was estimated that the leachate management cost could be reduced by 28 to 38%. PMID:21382875

  3. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs. PMID:27396293

  4. RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, VEGETATIVE COVER, AND NITROGEN REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Buffer width may be related to nitrogen removal efficiency by influencing nitrogen retention through plant seq...

  5. RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, VEGETATIVE COVER, AND NITROGEN REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal efficiency by influencing nitrogen retention throug...

  6. [Nitrogen Removal Using ANAMMOX and Denitrification for Treatment of Municipal Sewage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-ying; Wu, Peng; Song, Yin-ling; Shen, Yao-liang; Zhang, Ting

    2015-11-01

    In this study, an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor ( ABR) was constructed. The ANAMMOX process was successfully started up using this reactor within 45 days under the following condition: 27 degrees C, pH of 8, HRT of 10 h, and the influent NO2(-) -N/NH4(+) -N was 1.32. At the stable phase, the average TN removal percentages reached 83% and the ΔNH4(+) -N: ΔNO2(-) -N: ΔNO3(-) -N was 1 : 1. 31 : 0.27. In the process of treating municipal sewage, there was inevitably a certain amount of organic carbon in the influent. Organic carbon had no obvious effect on the ANAMMOX process at C/N of 0.5; Nitrogen removal was improved, and the average total nitrogen (TN, including ammonia, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen) removal efficiency of 93% was obtained at C/N of 1. However, at C/N of 2, the TN removal performance reduced due to the suppression of ANAMMOX by organic carbon; the ANAMMOX bacteria could recover their activity in a short period of time by reducing the influent COD concentration. In this work, the performance of the ANAMMOX-denitrification process in the treatment of municipal sewage was investigated, which proved the suitability of ABR-denitrification reactor in treating municipal sewage with low ammonia nitrogen concentration, with an effluent TN concentration of 7.5 mg x L(-1), and the average TN removal percentages reaching 86%. PMID:26911006

  7. High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase-brookite TiO₂ photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Said M; Zhang, Geshan; El-Hosainy, Hamza M; Ismail, Adel A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kontos, Athanassios G; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-09-15

    Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (C, N and S) doped mesoporous anatase-brookite nano-heterojunction titania photocatalysts have been synthesized through a simple sol-gel method in the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. XRD and Raman spectra revealed the formation of anatase and brookite mixed phases. XPS spectra indicated the presence of C, N and S dopants. The TEM images demonstrated the formation of almost monodisperse titania nanoparticles with particle sizes of approximately 10nm. N2 isotherm measurements confirmed that both doped and undoped titania anatase-brookite materials have mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been investigated using these novel nanomaterials under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic efficiency of the mesoporous titania anatase-brookite photocatalyst dramatically increased with the addition of the C, N and S non-metal, achieving complete degradation (∼ 100 %) of MC-LR. The results demonstrate the advantages of the synthetic approach and the great potential of the visible light activated C, N, and S doped titania photocatalysts for the treatment of organic micropollutants in contaminated waters under visible light. PMID:25238189

  8. Model-based evaluation of mechanisms and benefits of mainstream shortcut nitrogen removal processes.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Ahmed; Wett, Bernhard; Nopens, Ingmar; De Clippeleir, Haydee; Han, Mofei; Regmi, Pusker; Bott, Charles; Murthy, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge in implementing shortcut nitrogen removal processes for mainstream wastewater treatment is the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to limit nitrate production. A model-based approach was utilized to simulate the impact of individual features of process control strategies to achieve NO(-)(2)-N shunt via NOB out-selection. Simulations were conducted using a two-step nitrogen removal model from the literature. Nitrogen shortcut removal processes from two case studies were modeled to illustrate the contribution of NOB out-selection mechanisms. The paper highlights a comparison between two control schemes; one was based on online measured ammonia and the other was based on a target ratio of 1 for ammonia vs. NOx (nitrate + nitrite) (AVN). Results indicated that the AVN controller possesses unique features to nitrify only that amount of nitrogen that can be denitrified, which promotes better management of incoming organics and bicarbonate for a more efficient NOB out-selection. Finally, the model was used in a scenario analysis, simulating hypothetical optimized performance of the pilot process. An estimated potential saving of 60% in carbon addition for nitrogen removal by implementing full-scale mainstream deammonification was predicted. PMID:25812092

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

  10. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). PMID:25458677

  11. Development of anammox process for removal of nitrogen from wastewater in a novel self-sustainable biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2016-10-01

    Effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was treated in a downflow rope-bed-biofilm-reactor (RBBR) to remove residual organic matter and nitrogen. Nitrogen removal was observed in phase 1 and phase 2 with and without aeration, respectively for 320days each. Organic matter, ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 78±2%, 95±1% and 79±11% were obtained in phase 1 and 78±2%, 93±9% and 87±6% in phase 2, respectively. In phase 2, anammox bacteria had a specific anammox activity of 3.35gNm(-2)day(-1). Heme c concentration, sludge characteristics and reaction ratios of dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and pH corroborated contribution of anammox process. Using experimental results kinetic coefficients required for design of RBBR were estimated. Anammox gave more stable performance under varying nitrogen loading and this option is more sustainable for solving problem of nitrogen removal from sewage. PMID:27420160

  12. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by EPSs in aerobic granular sludge enhanced nitrogen removal of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Shaoliang; Hao, Guoxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ren, Yuan; Wen, Yan; Guo, Yihan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In this study, role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in enhancing nitrogen-removal from ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology were analyzed. AGS enabled ammonium oxidation and denitrification to occur simultaneously. Air stripping and simultaneous nitrification-denitrification contributed to total-nitrogen removal. Clone-library analysis revealed that close relatives of Nitrosomonas eutropha and heterotrophic denitrifiers were dominant in the AGS, whereas anammox bacteria were not detected. EPSs adsorption of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate nitrogen results in improved removal of nitrogen in batch experiments. PMID:26706722

  13. Effects of HRT and water temperature on nitrogen removal in autotrophic gravel filter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-hang; He, Sheng-bing; Wu, Su-qing; Huang, Jung-Chen; Zhou, Wei-li; Chen, Xue-chu

    2016-03-01

    Organic Carbon added to low ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio) wastewater to enhance heterotrophic denitrification performance might lead to higher operating costs and secondary pollution. In this study, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) was applied as an electron donor for a gravel filter (one kind of constructed wetland) to investigate effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and water temperature on the nitrate removal efficiency. The results show that with an HRT of 12 h, the average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies were 91% at 15-20 °C and 18% at 3-6 °C, respectively. When HRT increased to 24 h, the average TN removal increased accordingly to 41% at 3-6 °C, suggesting denitrification performance was improved by extended HRT at low water temperatures. Due to denitrification, 96% of added nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) was converted to nitrogen gas, with a mean flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) was 0.0268-0.1500 ug m(-2) h(-1), while 98.86% of thiosulfate was gradually converted to sulfate throughout the system. Thus, our results show that the sulfur driven autotrophic denitrification constructed wetland demonstrated an excellent removal efficiency of nitrate for wastewater treatment. The HRT and water temperature proved to be two influencing factors in this constructed wetland treatment system. PMID:26766357

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an airlift intermittent circulation membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiyan; Chen, Jiandong; Li, Yun; Feng, Tengteng; Zhang, Shoutong

    2013-12-01

    A new airlift intermittent circulation integrated bioreactor was developed for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal of wastewater, in which, circulation of mixed liquid between mixing zone and aeration zone was realized by aeration power, alternately anaerobic/anoxic bio-environment in mixing zone was realized by intermittent circulation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was obtained through strengthened denitrifying phosphorus removal process. Removal performance of the reactor was investigated and pollutant removal and transfer mechanism in one operation circle was analyzed. The experiment results indicated that under the influent condition of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 642.1 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 87.4 mg/L and PO4(3-)-P of 12.1 mg/L, average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and PO4(3-)-P reached 96.4%, 83.2% and 90.5%, respectively, with the hydraulic residence time of 22 hr and operation circle time of 185 min. Track studies indicated that the separation of aeration and mixing zones and intermittent circulation of mixed liquid between the two zones provided distinct biological environments spatially and temporally, which ensured the occurrence of multifunctional microbial reactions. PMID:25078818

  15. Nitrogen oxide removal dynamic process through 15 Ns DBD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lianshui; Lai, Weidong; Liu, Fengliang

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen oxides exhaust gas assumes the important responsibility on air pollution by forming acid rain. This paper discusses the NO removal mechanism in 15 ns pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma through experimental and simulating method. Emission spectra collected from plasma are evaluated as sourced from N+ and O(3P). The corresponding zero-dimensional model is established and verified through comparing the simulated concentration evolution and the experimental time-resolved spectra of N+. The electron impact ionization plays major role on NO removal and the produced NO+ are further decomposed into N+ and O(3P) through electron impact dissociative excitation rather than the usual reported dissociative recombination process. Simulation also indicates that the removal process can be accelerated by NO inputted at lower initial concentration or electrons streamed at higher concentration, due to the heightened electron impact probability on NO molecules. The repetitive pulse discharge is a benefit for improving the NO removal efficiency by effectively utilizing the radicals generated from the previous pulse under the condition that the pulse period should be shorter enough to ignore the spatial diffusion of radicals. Finally, slight attenuation on NO removal has been experimentally and simulatively observed after N2 mixed, due to the competitive consumption of electrons.

  16. Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Newly Isolated Indigenous Aerobic Denitrifier from Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Zoogloea sp. N299.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhou, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Han; Bai, Shi-Yuan; He, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is considered to be one of the most widespread pollutants leading to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, especially in drinking water reservoirs. In this study, an oligotrophic aerobic denitrifier was isolated from drinking water reservoir sediment. Nitrogen removal performance was explored. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Zoogloea sp. N299. This species exhibits a periplasmic nitrate reductase gene (napA). Its specific growth rate was 0.22 h-1. Obvious denitrification and perfect nitrogen removal performances occurred when cultured in nitrate and nitrite mediums, at rates of 75.53%±1.69% and 58.65%±0.61%, respectively. The ammonia removal rate reached 44.12%±1.61% in ammonia medium. Zoogloea sp. N299 was inoculated into sterilized and unsterilized reservoir source waters with a dissolved oxygen level of 5-9 mg/L, pH 8-9, and C/N 1.14:1. The total nitrogen removal rate reached 46.41%±3.17% (sterilized) and 44.88%±4.31% (unsterilized). The cell optical density suggested the strain could survive in oligotrophic drinking water reservoir water conditions and perform nitrogen removal. Sodium acetate was the most favorable carbon source for nitrogen removal by strain N299 (p<0.05). High C/N was beneficial for nitrate reduction (p<0.05). The nitrate removal efficiencies showed no significant differences among the tested inoculums dosage (p>0.05). Furthermore, strain N299 could efficiently remove nitrate at neutral and slightly alkaline and low temperature conditions. These results, therefore, demonstrate that Zoogloea sp. N299 has high removal characteristics, and can be used as a nitrogen removal microbial inoculum with simultaneous aerobic nitrification and denitrification in a micro-polluted reservoir water ecosystem. PMID:25946341

  17. Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Newly Isolated Indigenous Aerobic Denitrifier from Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Zoogloea sp. N299

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhou, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Han; Bai, Shi-Yuan; He, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is considered to be one of the most widespread pollutants leading to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, especially in drinking water reservoirs. In this study, an oligotrophic aerobic denitrifier was isolated from drinking water reservoir sediment. Nitrogen removal performance was explored. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Zoogloea sp. N299. This species exhibits a periplasmic nitrate reductase gene (napA). Its specific growth rate was 0.22 h−1. Obvious denitrification and perfect nitrogen removal performances occurred when cultured in nitrate and nitrite mediums, at rates of 75.53% ± 1.69% and 58.65% ± 0.61%, respectively. The ammonia removal rate reached 44.12% ± 1.61% in ammonia medium. Zoogloea sp. N299 was inoculated into sterilized and unsterilized reservoir source waters with a dissolved oxygen level of 5–9 mg/L, pH 8–9, and C/N 1.14:1. The total nitrogen removal rate reached 46.41% ± 3.17% (sterilized) and 44.88% ± 4.31% (unsterilized). The cell optical density suggested the strain could survive in oligotrophic drinking water reservoir water conditions and perform nitrogen removal. Sodium acetate was the most favorable carbon source for nitrogen removal by strain N299 (p < 0.05). High C/N was beneficial for nitrate reduction (p < 0.05). The nitrate removal efficiencies showed no significant differences among the tested inoculums dosage (p > 0.05). Furthermore, strain N299 could efficiently remove nitrate at neutral and slightly alkaline and low temperature conditions. These results, therefore, demonstrate that Zoogloea sp. N299 has high removal characteristics, and can be used as a nitrogen removal microbial inoculum with simultaneous aerobic nitrification and denitrification in a micro-polluted reservoir water ecosystem. PMID:25946341

  18. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    PubMed

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. PMID:25965951

  19. Sustainable nitrogen removal by denitrifying anammox applied for anaerobic pre-treated potato wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mulder, A; Versprille, A I; van Braak, D

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of sustainable nitrogen removal was investigated in a two stage biofilm configuration consisting of a MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) and a Deamox reactor (Biobed-EGSB). The MBBR is used for nitrification and the denitrifying ammonium oxidation (Deamox) is aimed at a nitrogen removal process in which part of the required nitrite for the typical anammox reaction originated from nitrate. Anaerobic pre-treated potato wastewater was supplied to a MBBR and Deamox reactor operated in series with a bypass flow of 30%. The MBBR showed stable nitrite production at ammonium-loading rates of 0.9-1.0 kg NH₄-N/m³ d with ammonium conversion rates of 0.80-0.85 kg NH₄-N/m³ d. The nitrogen-loading rate and conversion rate of the Deamox reactor were 1.6-1.8 and 1.6 kg N/m³ d. The maximum ammonium removal capacity in the Deamox reactor was 0.6 kg NH₄-N/m³ d. The removal efficiency of soluble total nitrogen reached 90%. The Deamox process performance was found to be negatively affected during decline of the operating temperature from 33 to 22 °C and by organic loading rates with a chemical oxygen demand (COD)/NO₂-N ratio >1. PMID:23109579

  20. Effect of carrier fill ratio on biofilm properties and performance of a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor treating coal gasification wastewater for the removal of COD, phenols and ammonia-nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Rava, E; Chirwa, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect different biofilm carrier filling ratios would have on biofilm morphology and activity and bacterial diversity in a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor treating high strength coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols and ammonia-nitrogen. Results showed that a carrier fill of 70% formed a 'compact' biofilm, a 50% fill formed a 'rippling' biofilm and a 30% fill formed a 'porous' biofilm. The highest microbial activity was obtained with a 50% carrier fill supporting a relatively thin biofilm. The highest level of biofilm bound metals were aluminium, silicon, calcium and iron in the 'compact' biofilm; nitrogen, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium in the 'rippling' biofilm, and copper in the 'porous' biofilm. The bioreactor improved the quality of the CGWW by removing 49% and 78% of the COD and phenols, respectively. However, no significant amount of ammonia-nitrogen was removed since nitrification did not take place due to heterotrophic bacteria out-competing autotrophic nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm. The dominant heterotrophic genera identified for all three carrier filling ratios were Thauera, Pseudaminobacter, Pseudomonas and Diaphorobacter. PMID:27191568

  1. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    .5-7.4 respectively. The molar ratio of NO2-N and NH4+-N was varied from 0.85 to 4.1 and RUN3 has closed to Stoichiometric ratio of anaerobic ammonia oxidation process. Total nitrogen removal in all reactors was ranged from 11-79% and RUN3 showed best removal performance (Table 1). Table 1 Characteristic of N removal process Parameters RUN1 RUN2 RUN3 RUN4 Effluent TOC (mg/l) 1.22 2.08 2.33 1.97 NO2- -N/ NH4+-N converted 1.18 0.85 1.32 4.15 Average NH4+-N removal % 86 95 74 32 Average NO2- -N removal % 97 81 98 92 Average TN removal % 11 36 79 59 Four different kinds of laboratory scale nitrogen removal bio-rectors were monitored for 218 days. Comparing reactors based on observed data, the bioreactor containing mix culture (RUN3) removed the 79% of incoming total nitrogen and suggests best for nitrogen removal in the natural water systems. It is recommended that further study is required in pilot scale to understand scaling effects and other natural phenomenon.

  2. An experimental study for biological nitrogen removal and control strategies in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Venegas, C; Palma-Acosta, M J; Abad, D

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present an overview about an experimental study for biological nitrogen removal implemented in a pilot-scale plant, located in the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia. This plant was studied in two different periods. The first period, which was carried out in 90 days, was dedicated to study the influence of the daily variations on the influent and effluent wastewater, and prove some control routines for nitrogen removal. In the second period, which was carried out in 120 days, the removal process was optimized with the addition of acetic acid as an external carbon source, and the implementation of the final control strategy was performed based on the results of the previous period. PMID:17674653

  3. Characteristics of Biological Nitrogen Removal in a Multiple Anoxic and Aerobic Biological Nutrient Removal Process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Li, Li; Wu, Guangxue

    2015-01-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors, one with the conventional anoxic and aerobic (AO) process and the other with the multiple AO process, were operated to examine characteristics of biological nitrogen removal, especially of the multiple AO process. The long-term operation showed that the total nitrogen removal percentage of the multiple AO reactor was 38.7% higher than that of the AO reactor. In the multiple AO reactor, at the initial SBR cycle stage, due to the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, no nitrite and/or nitrate were accumulated. In the multiple AO reactor, activities of nitrite oxidizing bacteria were inhibited due to the multiple AO operating mode applied, resulting in the partial nitrification. Denitrifiers in the multiple AO reactor mainly utilized internal organic carbon for denitrification, and their activities were lower than those of denitrifiers in the AO reactor utilizing external organic carbon. PMID:26491676

  4. Nitrogen removal in Northern peatlands treating mine wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Karlsson, Teemu; Turunen, Kaisa; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Natural peatlands can be used as passive purification systems for mine wastewaters. These treatment peatlands are well-suited for passive water treatment as they delay the flow of water, and provide a large filtration network with many adsorptive surfaces on plant roots or soil particles. They have been shown to remove efficiently harmful metals and metalloids from mine waters due to variety of chemical, physical and biological processes such as adsorption, precipitation, sedimentation, oxidation and reduction reactions, as well as plant uptake. Many factors affect the removal efficiency such as inflow water quality, wetland hydrology, system pH, redox potential and temperature, the nature of the predominating purification processes, and the presence of other components such as salts. However, less attention has been paid to nitrogen (N) removal in peatlands. Thus, this study aimed to assess the efficiency of N removal and seasonal variation in the removal rate in two treatment peatlands treating mine dewatering waters and process effluent waters. Water sampling from treatment peatland inflow and outflow waters as well as pore waters in peatland were conducted multiple times during 2012-2014. Water samples were analysed for total N, nitrate-N and ammonium-N. Additionally, an YSI EXO2 device was used for continuous nitrate monitoring of waters discharged from treatment peatlands to the recipient river during summer 2014. The results showed that the oxic conditions in upper peat layer and microbial activity in treatment peatlands allowed the efficient oxidation of ammonium-N to nitrite-N and further to nitrate-N during summer time. However, the slow denitrification rate restricts the N removal as not all of the nitrate produced during nitrification is denitrified. In summer time, the removal rate of total N varied between 30-99 % being highest in late summer. N removal was clearly higher for treatment peatland treating process effluent waters than for peatland

  5. Alternate anoxic/aerobic operation for nitrogen removal in a membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, G; Andreottola, G

    2011-01-01

    A large pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a conventional denitrification/nitrification scheme for municipal wastewater treatment has been run for one year under two different aeration strategies in the oxidation/nitrification compartment. During the first five months air supply was provided according to the dissolved-oxygen set-point and the system run as a conventional predenitrification MBR; then, an intermittent aeration strategy based on effluent ammonia nitrogen was adopted in the aerobic compartment in order to assess the impact on process performances in terms of N and P removal, energy consumption and sludge reduction. The experimental inferences show a significant improvement of the effluent quality as COD and total nitrogen, both due to a better utilization of the denitrification potential which is a function of the available electron donor (biodegradable COD) and electron acceptor (nitric nitrogen); particularly, nitrogen removal increased from 67% to 75%. At the same time, a more effective biological phosphorus removal was observed as a consequence of better selection of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (dPAO). The longer duration of anoxic phases also reflected in a lower excess sludge production (12% decrease) compared with the standard pre-denitrification operation and in a decrease of energy consumption for oxygen supply (about 50%). PMID:22335118

  6. Removal of nitrogen from wastewater with perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mats biofilm combined system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongjun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Liang; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-04-01

    To develop a cost-effective combined phytoremediation and biological process, a combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor was used to treat synthetic wastewater. Influent ammonium loading, reflux ratio, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature all had significant effects on the treatment efficiency. The results indicated that the effluent concentration of ammonium increased with increasing influent ammonium loading. The reactor temperature played an important role in the nitrification process. The ammonium removal efficiency significantly decreased from 80% to 30%-50% when the reactor temperature dropped to below 10 degrees C. In addition, the optimal nitrogen removal condition was a reflux ratio of 2. The nitrate and ammonium concentration of the effluent were consistent with the HRT of the combined system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was at a high level during the whole experiment, being almost 80% after the start-up, and then mostly above 90%. The direct uptake of N by the perennial ryegrass accounted for 18.17% of the total N removal by the whole system. The perennial ryegrass absorption was a significant contributor to nitrogen removal in the combined system. The result illustrated that the combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor demonstrated good performance in ammonium, total N and COD removal. PMID:23923775

  7. Enhancing combined biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater by applying mechanically disintegrated excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Zubrowska-Sudol, Monika; Walczak, Justyna

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the possibility of applying disintegrated excess sludge as a source of organic carbon to enhance biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The experiment, performed in a sequencing batch reactor, consisted of two two-month series, without and with applying mechanically disintegrated excess sludge, respectively. The effects on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal were observed. It was shown that the method allows enhancement of combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. After using disintegrated sludge, denitrification effectiveness increased from 49.2 ± 6.8% to 76.2 ± 2.3%, which resulted in a decline in the NOx-N concentration in the effluent from the SBR by an average of 21.4 mg NOx-N/L. Effectiveness of biological phosphorus removal increased from 28.1 ± 11.3% to 96.2 ± 2.5%, thus resulting in a drop in the [Formula: see text] concentration in the effluent by, on average, 6.05 mg PO4(3-)-P/L. The application of disintegrated sludge did not deteriorate effluent quality in terms of COD and NH4(+)-N. The concentration of NH4(+)-N in both series averaged 0.16 ± 0.11 mg NH4(+)-N/L, and the concentration of COD was 15.36 ± 3.54 mg O2/L. PMID:25776916

  8. Simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal from municipal wastewater in a circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ajay; Zhu, Jesse; Nakhla, George

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the performance of the circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBB) with anoxic and aerobic beds and employing lava rock as a carrier media for the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 0.82 h was discussed. The CFBB was operated without and with bioparticles' recirculation between the anoxic and aerobic bed for 260 and 110 d respectively. Without particles' recirculation, the CFBB was able to achieve carbon (C), total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) removal efficiencies of 94%, 80% and 65% respectively, whereas with bioparticles' recirculation, 91%, 78% and 85% removals of C, N and P were achieved. The CFBB was operated at long sludge retention time (SRT) of 45-50 d, and achieved a sludge yield of 0.12-0.135 g VSS g COD(-1). A dynamic stress study of the CFBB was carried out at varying feed flow rates and influent ammonia concentrations to determine response to shock loadings. The CFBB responded favourably in terms of TSS and COD removal to quadrupling of the feed flow rate. However, nitrification was more sensitive to hydraulic shock loadings than to doubling of influent nitrogen loading. PMID:16762392

  9. Mechanism and design of intermittent aeration activated sludge process for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Oytun; Insel, Güçlü; Yagci, Nevin Ozgur; Artan, Nazik; Orhon, Derin

    2011-01-01

    The paper provided a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanism and design of intermittent aeration activated sludge process for nitrogen removal. Based on the specific character of the process the total cycle time, (T(C)), the aerated fraction, (AF), and the cycle time ratio, (CTR) were defined as major design parameters, aside from the sludge age of the system. Their impact on system performance was evaluated by means of process simulation. A rational design procedure was developed on the basis of basic stochiometry and mass balance related to the oxidation and removal of nitrogen under aerobic and anoxic conditions, which enabled selected of operation parameters of optimum performance. The simulation results indicated that the total nitrogen level could be reduced to a minimum level by appropriate manipulation of the aerated fraction and cycle time ratio. They also showed that the effluent total nitrogen could be lowered to around 4.0 mgN/L by adjusting the dissolved oxygen set-point to 0.5 mg/L, a level which promotes simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. PMID:21104491

  10. [Stability of Short-cut Nitrification Nitrogen Removal in Digested Piggery Wastewater with an Intermittently Aerated Sequencing Batch Reactor].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-yan; Liu, Rui; Shui, Yong; Kawagishi, Tomoki; Zhan, Xin-min; Chen, Lu-jun

    2016-05-15

    Stability of short-cut nitrification nitrogen removal performance was studied in a step-feeding, intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) at 30°C to treat digested piggery wastewater. Results showed that the nitrogen removal was greatly influenced by the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) in the influent. Nitrite nitrogen kept accumulating up to 800 mg · L⁻1 when the influent COD/TN ratio was 0.8 ± 0.2, and the removal rates of TN, ammonium nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) were only 18.3% ± 12.2%, 84.2% ± 10.3% and 60.7% ± 10.7%, respectively. By contrast, as the influent COD/ TN ratio was increased to 2.4 ± 0.5, the accumulated concentration of nitrite nitrogen sharply decreased from 800 mg · L⁻¹ to below 10 mg-L⁻¹, and the removal rates of TN, ammonium nitrogen and TOC were increased to over 90%, 95% and 85%, respectively. Gradually shortened hydraulic retention time ( HRT) reveales that the ammonia load is a restricting factor for nitrogen removal. The ammonia load should be controlled at no more than 0.30 kg · (m³ · d) ⁻¹, or else, the removal rates of TN, ammonium and TOC would be greatly decreased. The nitrite accumulation rate over the whole run was 74.6%-97.8% and the TN removal rate in the stable phase was over 90%. With efficient and stable short-cut nitrification-denitrification in a low COD/TN, moreover, and unnecessary for addition of alkaline, IASBR shows great advantage for treating wastewater with high concentration of ammonia while low COD/TN ratio. PMID:27506043

  11. Ammonium nitrogen removal from slurry-type swine wastewater by pretreatment using struvite crystallization for nitrogen control of anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Kim, B U; Lee, W H; Lee, H J; Rim, J M

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation of ammonium together with phosphate and magnesium is a possible alternative for lowering the nitrogen content of wastewater. In this study we examine the removal of ammonium nitrogen and phosphorus from slurry-type swine wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients by the addition of phosphoric acid along with either calcium oxide or magnesium oxide, which leads to the crystallization of insoluble salts such as hydroxyapatite and struvite. The struvite crystallization method showed a high capacity for the removal of nitrogen when magnesium oxide and phosphoric acid were used as the magnesium and phosphate sources, respectively. When it was applied to swine wastewater containing a high concentration of nitrogen, the injection molar ratio of Mg2+:NH4+:PO4(3-) that gave maximum ammonium nitrogen removal was 3.0:1.0:1.5. PMID:15137426

  12. Enhanced long-term nitrogen removal and its quantitative molecular mechanism in tidal flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wei; Yuan, Li; Ji, Guodong; He, Chunguang

    2015-04-01

    Tidal flow constructed wetlands (TF CWs) have recently been studied as a sustainable technology to achieve enhanced nitrogen removal; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for removing ammonium (NH4(+)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) have not been compared and quantified at the molecular level (genes) in controlled TF CWs. In this study, two TF CWs T1 (treating NH4(+) wastewater) and T2 (treating NO3(-) wastewater) achieved high removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD, 92 ± 2.7% and 95 ± 2.4%, respectively), NH4(+)/NO3(-) (76 ± 3.9% and 97 ± 2.2%, respectively), and total nitrogen (TN, 81 ± 3.5% and 93 ± 2.3%, respectively). Combined analyses revealed that the presence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification processes and the coupling of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, ammonia oxidation, and anammox were the primary reason accounted for the robust treatment performance in T1 and T2, respectively. Results from stepwise regression analysis suggested that the NH4(+) removal rate in T1 was collectively controlled by amoA, nxrA, and anammox, while the NO3(-) removal rate in T2 was governed by nxrA and narG gene. PMID:25781063

  13. [Isolation, Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain y3 Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Xu, Guang-yao; Li, Jin

    2016-03-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification--aerobic denitrification bacterium named y3 was isolated from the sludge of Jiaozhou Bay using the enrichment medium with seawater as the matrix. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological observation, physiological experiments and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate, the optimal pH was 7.0, and the optimal C/N was 13. The strain could use NH₄Cl, NaNO₂ and KNO₃ as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were 98.69%, 78.38% and 72.95% within 20 hours, respectively. There was no nitrate and nitrite accumulation during the heterotrophic nitrification process. Within 20 hours, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 99.56%, 99.75% and 99.41%, respectively, in the mixed system with NO₃⁻-N: NO²⁻-N of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. When the NH₄⁺-N: NO₃⁻-N ratios were 2: 1 , 1: 1 , 1: 2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were all 100% . When the NH₄⁺-N:NO₂⁻-N ratios were 2:1,1:1,1:2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 90.43%, 92.79% and 99.96%, respectively. They were higher than those with single nitrogen source. As a result, strain y3 had good nitrogen removal performance in high saline wastewater treatment. PMID:27337905

  14. [Effective nitrogen removal in low C/N wastewater with combined aerobic-low DO biofilm treatment process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Rong; Ai, Qi-Feng; Xu, Wen-Lu; Wu, Min-Lin

    2011-10-01

    The municipal wastewater in China is characterized by low ratio of carbon to nitrogen, which is the key restrictive factor for effective biological removal of nitrogen. In this study, the aerobic-low DO biofilm process was used for the nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater. By means of adjusting inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and inflow ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), the performances of nitrification in aerobic biofilm section and denitrification in low-DO section could be improved, the good performance of nitrogen removal was achieved. In order to insure the good effluent quality, especially for ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen indexes, the nitrification and denitrification could be made up in aerobic and low-DO biofilm section respectively due to the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic zone in biofilm. There were 3 stages for the research process. In the first stage, the original C/N, inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section were chosen as 3:1 and 1:1 respectively, then the effects of various HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) values such as (10 + 5) h, (8 + 4) h, (6 + 3) h, (4 + 2) h to nitrogen removal were analyzed. According to the conclusion in the first stage, the original C/N was kept at 3:1, HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h. Then, the effects of various inflow ratios to nitrogen removal were studied in the second stage. In the third stage, when HRT(aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h and inflow ratio was 1:1, the original C/N were adjusted from 2:1, 3:1, 5:1 to 10:1. To conclude, the optimal parameters for nitrogen removal in the biofilm system were as follows: original C/N = 5:1, inflow ratio of aerobic to low-DO section = 1:1, HRT of aerobic and low-DO sections were 10 h and 5 h respectively. As a result, COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could be removed from 254 mg/L to 48 mg/L, 37.2 mg/L to 9.3 mg/L and 48.2 mg/L to 14.8 mg

  15. Robust biological nitrogen removal by creating multiple tides in a single bed tidal flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian; Rymszewicz, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Achieving effective total nitrogen (TN) removal is one of the major challenges faced by constructed wetlands (CWs). To address this issue, multiple "tides" were proposed in a single stage tidal flow constructed wetland (TFCW). With this adoption, exceptional TN removal (85% on average) was achieved under a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of around 28 g Nm(-2)day(-1), which makes the proposed system an adequate option to provide advanced wastewater treatment for peri-urban communities and rural area. It was revealed that the multiple "tides" not only promoted TN removal performance, but also brought more flexibility to TFCWs. Adsorption of NH4(+)-N onto the wetland medium (during contact period) and regeneration of the adsorption capacity via nitrification (during bed resting) were validated as the key processes for NH4(+)-N conversion in TFCWs. Moreover, simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) was found to be significant during the bed resting period. These findings will provide a new foundation for the design and modeling of nitrogen conversion and oxygen transfer in TFCWs. PMID:24246943

  16. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stéphanie; Gülay, Arda; Ruscalleda, Maël; Terada, Akihiko; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Hansen, Martin Asser; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration can bring the rapid and long-term suppression of NOB and the onset of the activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed that such shift in performance was mirrored by a change in population densities, with a very drastic reduction of the NOB Nitrospira and Nitrobacter and a 10-fold increase in AnAOB numbers. The study of biofilm sections with relevant 16S rRNA fluorescent probes revealed strongly stratified biofilm structures fostering aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biofilm areas close to the membrane surface (rich in oxygen) and AnAOB in regions neighbouring the liquid phase. Both communities were separated by a transition region potentially populated by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria. AOB and AnAOB bacterial groups were more abundant and diverse than NOB, and dominated by the r-strategists Nitrosomonas europaea and Ca. Brocadia anammoxidans, respectively. Taken together, the present work presents tools to better engineer, monitor and control the microbial communities that support robust, sustainable and efficient nitrogen removal. PMID:24112350

  17. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stéphanie; Gülay, Arda; Ruscalleda, Maël; Terada, Akihiko; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Hansen, Martin Asser; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration can bring the rapid and long-term suppression of NOB and the onset of the activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed that such shift in performance was mirrored by a change in population densities, with a very drastic reduction of the NOB Nitrospira and Nitrobacter and a 10-fold increase in AnAOB numbers. The study of biofilm sections with relevant 16S rRNA fluorescent probes revealed strongly stratified biofilm structures fostering aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biofilm areas close to the membrane surface (rich in oxygen) and AnAOB in regions neighbouring the liquid phase. Both communities were separated by a transition region potentially populated by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria. AOB and AnAOB bacterial groups were more abundant and diverse than NOB, and dominated by the r-strategists Nitrosomonas europaea and Ca. Brocadia anammoxidans, respectively. Taken together, the present work presents tools to better engineer, monitor and control the microbial communities that support robust, sustainable and efficient nitrogen removal. PMID:24112350

  18. Nitrogen Removal from Milking Center Wastewater via Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Using a Biofilm Filtration Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Won, Seung-Gun; Jeon, Dae-Yong; Kwag, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Ra, Chang-Six

    2015-01-01

    Milking center wastewater (MCW) has a relatively low ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio), which should be separately managed from livestock manure due to the negative impacts of manure nutrients and harmful effects on down-stream in the livestock manure process with respect to the microbial growth. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is linked to inhibition of the second nitrification and reduces around 40% of the carbonaceous energy available for denitrification. Thus, this study was conducted to find the optimal operational conditions for the treatment of MCW using an attached-growth biofilm reactor; i.e., nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.14, 0.28, 0.43, and 0.58 kg m−3 d−1 and aeration rate of 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24 m3 h−1 were evaluated and the comparison of air-diffuser position between one-third and bottom of the reactor was conducted. Four sand packed-bed reactors with the effective volume of 2.5 L were prepared and initially an air-diffuser was placed at one third from the bottom of the reactor. After the adaptation period of 2 weeks, SND was observed at all four reactors and the optimal NLR of 0.45 kg m−3 d−1 was found as a threshold value to obtain higher nitrogen removal efficiency. Dissolved oxygen (DO) as one of key operational conditions was measured during the experiment and the reactor with an aeration rate of 0.12 m3 h−1 showed the best performance of NH4-N removal and the higher total nitrogen removal efficiency through SND with appropriate DO level of ~0.5 mg DO L−1. The air-diffuser position at one third from the bottom of the reactor resulted in better nitrogen removal than at the bottom position. Consequently, nitrogen in MCW with a low C/N ratio of 2.15 was successfully removed without the addition of external carbon sources. PMID:25925067

  19. Effects of dissolved oxygen on microbial community of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal system treating simulating mature landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiale; Qing, Xiaoxia; He, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The performance of four identical sequencing biofilm batch reactors (SBBR) for autotrophic nitrogen removal was investigated with 2000mg/L ammonia-containing mature landfill leachate at 30°C. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the performance and microbial community of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) system. At an applied load of 0.5kgNm(-3)d(-1), average total nitrogen removal efficiency (TNRE) above 90% was long-term achieved with an optimal DO concentration of 2.7mg/L. The microelectrode-measured profiles showed the microenvironments inside the biofilms. 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) amplicon pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to analyze the microbial variations of different DO concentrations and different positions inside one reactor. PMID:27450126

  20. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  1. Selective adsorption for removal of nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon streams over carbon-based adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarri, Masoud S.

    desulfurization of model diesel fuel, which contains equimolar concentrations of nitrogen (i.e., quinoline and indole), sulfur (i.e., dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene), and aromatic compounds (naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and fluorene), was examined. The results revealed that when both nitrogen and sulfur compounds coexist in the fuel, the type and density of oxygen functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon are crucial for selective adsorption of nitrogen compounds but have negligible positive effects for sulfur removal. The adsorption of quinoline and indole is largely governed by specific interactions. There is enough evidence to support the importance of dipole--dipole and acid-base-specific interactions for the adsorption of both quinoline and indole. Modified carbon is a promising material for the efficient removal of the nitrogen compounds from light cycle oil (LCO). Adsorptive denitrogenation of LCO significantly improved the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) performance, especially for the removal of the refractory sulfur compounds such as 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene. An essential factor in applying activated carbon for adsorptive denitrogenation and desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon streams is regeneration after saturation. The regeneration method of the saturated adsorbents consisted of toluene washing followed by heating to remove the remaining toluene. The results show that the spent activated carbon can be regenerated to completely recover the adsorption capacity. The high capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for nitrogen compounds, along with their ability to be regenerated, indicate that activated carbon is a promising adsorbent for the deep denitrogenation of liquid hydrocarbon streams.

  2. Start-up and microbial communities of a simultaneous nitrogen removal system for high salinity and high nitrogen organic wastewater via heterotrophic nitrification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahao; Han, Yi; Wang, Yingmu; Gong, Benzhou; Zhou, Jian; Qing, Xiaoxia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simultaneous nitrogen removal system for high salinity and high nitrogen organic wastewater was developed in a pressurized biofilm reactor. The result showed that under the air supply rate of 200Lh(-1), salinity of 3.0±0.2%, organic load of 10kgCODm(-3)d(-1) and nitrogen loading of 0.185kgm(-3)d(-1), the reactor started up rapidly and performed stably after 30days operation. Meanwhile, a simultaneous COD and nitrogen removal was achieved in the single-stage reactor, with COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiency of 97%, 99% and 98%, respectively. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that simultaneous nitrogen removal could be achieved through heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification, and the pivotal microorganisms were Flavobacterium phragmitis and Paracoccus denitrificans. The microbial community of salt-tolerant halophilic microorganisms was developed successfully. This study can provide a more efficient and feasible solution to treat high salinity organic wastewater. PMID:27240235

  3. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen and phosphorus removal and electricity production in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qinqin; Luo, Jingjing; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Shaoqi; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-07-01

    Performance of a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated with the influence of cathodic dissolved oxygen (DO). The maximum voltage, coulombic efficiency and maximum power density outputs of MFC decreased from 521 to 303 mV, 52.48% to 23.09% and 530 to 178 mW/m(2) with cathodic DO declining. Furthermore, a great deal of total phosphorus (TP) was removed owing to chemical precipitation (about 80%) and microbial absorption (around 4-17%). COD was first removed in anode chamber (>70%) then in cathode chamber (<5%). Most of nitrogen was removed when the cathodic DO was at low levels. Chemical precipitates formed in cathode chamber were verified as phosphate, carbonate and hydroxyl compound with the aid of scanning electron microscope capable of energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). PMID:24880930

  4. Nitrogen removal properties in a continuous marine anammox bacteria reactor under rapid and extensive salinity changes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiaoyan; Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Huang, Xiaowu; Hong, Nian; Van Duc, Luong; Yamashita, Yuki; Hama, Takehide

    2016-04-01

    Salinity tolerance is one of the most important factors for the application of bioreactors to high-salinity wastewater. Although marine anammox bacteria (MAB) might be expected to tolerate higher salinities than freshwater anammox bacteria, there is little information on the effects of salinity on MAB activity. This study aimed to reveal the nitrogen removal properties in a continuous MAB reactor under conditions of rapid and extensive salinity changes. The reactor demonstrated stable nitrogen removal performance with a removal efficiency of over 85% under salinity conditions ranging from 0 to 50 g/L NaCl. The reactor performance was also well maintained, even though the salinity was rapidly changed from 30 to 50 g/L and from 30 to 0 g/L. Other evidence suggested that the seawater medium used contained components essential for effective MAB performance. Bacterial community analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) showed that planctomycete UKU-1, the dominant MAB species in the inoculum, was the main contributor to anammox activity under all conditions. The PCR-DGGE using a universal bacterial primer set showed different DNA band patterns between the reactor biomass sample collected under conditions of 75 g/L NaCl and all other conditions (0, 30, 50 and freshwater-medium). All DNA sequences determined were very similar to those of bacterial species from marine environments, anaerobic environments, or wastewater-treatment facilities. PMID:26845464

  5. A new step aeration approach towards the improvement of nitrogen removal in a full scale Carrousel oxidation ditch.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xianbao; Wang, Xiaochang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Jin, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Two aeration modes, step aeration and point aeration, were used in a full-scale Carrousel oxidation ditch with microporous aeration. The nitrogen removal performance and mechanism were analyzed. With the same total aeration input, both aeration modes demonstrated good nitrification outcomes with the average efficiency in removing NH4(+)-N of more than 98%. However, the average removal efficiencies for total nitrogen were 89.3% and 77.6% under step aeration and point aeration, respectively. The results indicated that an extended aerobic zone followed the aeration zones could affect the proportion of anoxic and oxic zones. The step aeration with larger anoxic zones indicated better TN removal efficiency. More importantly, step aeration provided the suitable environment for both nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The diversity and relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria under the step aeration (1.55%) was higher than that under the point aeration (1.12%), which resulted in an overall higher TN removal efficiency. PMID:26363498

  6. Effects of aeration position on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Wu, Qing; Yan, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Given that few studies investigated the effects of aeration position (AP) on the performance of aerated constructed wetlands, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AP on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in lab-scale combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland (OP-CW) systems. Results showed that middle aeration allowed the CW to possess more uniform oxygen distribution and to achieve greater removals of COD and NH3-N, while the CW under bottom aeration and surface aeration demonstrated more distinct stratification of oxygen distribution and surface aeration brought about better TN removal capacity for the OP-CW system. However, no significant influence of artificial aeration or AP on TP removal was observed. Overall, AP could significantly affect the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen by influencing the oxygen diffusion paths in aerated CWs, thereby influencing the removal of pollutants, especially organics and nitrogen, which offers a reference for the design of aerated CWs. PMID:26360599

  7. [Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor with self-generated granular sludge for treating sludge dewatering effluent].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-ping; Du, Bing; Liu, Yin; Qin, Yong-sheng

    2009-10-15

    Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal (SANR) has been observed in a long-term operated nitrosation air-lift reactor for treating digested sludge dewatering effluent from sewage wastewater treatment plant. A kind of so called self-generated granular sludge which undertake the SANR reaction has oriented formed. The performance of SANR reactor cultivated above sludge for treating sludge dewatering effluent has been tested and better results have been reached. When the influent total nitrogen (TN) was kept about 350 mg/L (mainly ammonium nitrogen), the average TN removal efficiency and nitrogen removal load were 74.8% (maximum 86.92%) and 0.68 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) [maximum 0.9 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)] respectively. The operation stability and nitrogen removal efficiency have been enforced after adding a certain quantity powered activated carbon. The influent ammonium concentration, nitrogen load and aeration rate have a great effect on SANR reactor as well as the influent organic compound, pH, alkalinity have a relatively low effect. The parameters such as the ratios of aeration rate/deltaTN, aeration rate/deltaNH4+ -N, deltaALK/deltaTN can be used for better controlling the reaction. PMID:19968119

  8. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J

    2010-01-01

    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth. PMID:20182083

  9. In-situ nitrogen removal from the eutrophic water by microbial-plant integrated system*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-qing; Yang, Xiao-e; Fang, Yun-ying; Pu, Pei-min; Li, Zheng-kui; Rengel, Zed

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was to assess the influence of interaction of combination of immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (INCB) with aquatic macrophytes on nitrogen removal from the eutrophic waterbody, and to get insight into different mechanisms involved in nitrogen removal. Methods: The aquatic macrophytes used include Eichhornia crassipes (summer-autumn floating macrophyte), Elodea nuttallii (winter-growing submerged macrophyte), and nitrogen cycling bacteria including ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria isolated from Taihu Lake. The immobilization carriers materials were made from hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and hydrophobic 2-hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the roles of macrophytes combined with INCB on nitrogen removal from eutrophic water during different seasons. Results: Eichhornia crassipes and Elodea nuttallii had different potentials in purification of eutrophic water. Floating macrophyte+bacteria (INCB) performed best in improving water quality (during the first experiment) and decreased total nitrogen (TN) by 70.2%, nitrite and ammonium by 92.2% and 50.9%, respectively, during the experimental period, when water transparency increased from 0.5 m to 1.8 m. When INCB was inoculated into the floating macrophyte system, the populations of nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the un-inoculated treatments, but ammonifying bacteria showed no obvious difference between different treatments. Lower values of chlorophyll a, CODMn, and pH were found in the microbial-plant integrated system, as compared to the control. Highest reduction in N was noted during the treatment with submerged macrophyte+INCB, being 26.1% for TN, 85.2% for nitrite, and 85.2% for ammonium at the end of 2nd experiment. And in the treatment, the populations of ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria

  10. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    PubMed

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice. PMID:24851327

  11. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date. PMID:21195446

  12. Effect of Algal Inoculation on COD and Nitrogen Removal, and Indigenous Bacterial Dynamics in Municipal Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangho; Lee, Jaejin; Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Park, Joonhong; Lee, Tae Kwon

    2016-05-28

    The effects of algal inoculation on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and indigenous bacterial dynamics were investigated in municipal wastewater. Experiments were conducted with municipal wastewater inoculated with either Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325, or Scenedesmus quadricauda AG 10308. C. vulgaris and S. gracile as fast growing algae in municipal wastewater, performed high COD and TN removal in contrast to Sc. quadricauda. The indigenous bacterial dynamics revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplification showed different bacterial shifts in response to different algal inoculations. The dominant bacterial genera of either algal case were characterized as heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Our results suggest that selection of indigenous bacteria that symbiotically interact with algal species is important for better performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:26930350

  13. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater. PMID:25693403

  14. ANAMMOX and partial denitritation in anaerobic nitrogen removal from piggery waste.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Hwang, I S; Min, K S

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium removal from a piggery waste with high strength (56 g COD/L and 5 g T-N/L) was investigated using a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor at a mesophilic condition. Based on the nitrogen and carbon balance in the process, the contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms was also evaluated in terms of the influent NO2-N/NH4-N ratio (1:0.8 and 1:1.2 for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively). The result of this research demonstrates that the anaerobic ammonium removal from the piggery waste, using the UASB reactor, can be performed successfully. Furthermore, it appears that by using granular sludge as the seed biomass, the ANAMMOX reaction can start more quickly. Average nitrogen conversion was 0.59 kg T-N/m3 reactor-day (0.06 kg T-N/kg VSS/day) and 0.66 kg T-N/m3 reactor-day (0.08 kg T-N/kg VSS/day) for Phase 1 and Phase 2. The NO2-N/NH4-N removal ratio by the ANAMMOX was 1.48 and 1.79 for Phase 1 and Phase 2. The higher nitrite contents (about 50%) in the substrate resulted in higher nitrite nitrogen removal by the partial denitritation, as well as the ANAMMOX reaction, implying higher potential of partial denitritation. However, the result reveals that the ANAMMOX reaction was influenced less by the degree of partial denitritation, and the ANAMMOX bacteria did not compete with denitritation bacteria. The colour of the biomass at the bottom of the reactor changed from dark gray to dark red, which was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome content. At the end of the experiment, red-coloured granular sludge with diameter of 1-2 mm at the lower part of the reactor was also observed. PMID:15137418

  15. Microtopography enhances nitrogen cycling and removal in created mitigation wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Natural wetlands often have a heterogeneous soil surface topography, or microtopography (MT), that creates microsites of variable hydrology, vegetation, and soil biogeochemistry. Created mitigation wetlands are designed to mimic natural wetlands in structure and function, and recent mitigation projects have incorporated MT as one way to attain this goal. Microtopography may influence nitrogen (N) cycling in wetlands by providing adjacent areas of aerobic and anaerobic conditions and by increasing carbon storage, which together facilitate N cycling and removal. This study investigated three created wetlands in the Virginia Piedmont that incorporated disking-induced MT during construction. One site had paired disked and undisked plots, allowing an evaluation of the effects of this design feature on N flux rates. Microtopography was measured using conventional survey equipment along a 1-m circular transect and was described using two indices: tortuosity (T), describing soil surface roughness and relief, and limiting elevation difference (LD), describing soil surface relief. Ammonification, nitrification, and net N mineralization were determined with in situ incubation of modified ion-exchange resin cores and denitrification potential was determined using denitrification enzyme assay (DEA). Results demonstrated that disked plots had significantly greater LD than undisked plots one year after construction. Autogenic sources of MT (e.g. tussock-forming vegetation) in concert with variable hydrology and sedimentation maintained and in some cases enhanced MT in study wetlands. Tortuosity and LD values remained the same in one wetland when compared over a two-year period, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of MT-forming and -eroding processes at play. Microtopography values also increased when comparing the original induced MT of a one-year old wetland with MT of older created wetlands (five and eight years old) with disking-induced MT, indicating that MT can increase by

  16. Oxygen and carbon requirements for biological nitrogen removal processes accomplishing nitrification, nitritation, and anammox.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T

    2014-03-01

    The oxygen and carbon savings associated with novel nitrogen removal processes for the treatment of high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter waste streams such as the recycle streams from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludges are well documented.This understanding may lead some to think that similar oxygen savings are possible if novel processes such as nitritation/ denitritation and partial nitritation-deammonification are incorporated into main liquid stream processes where influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen (nitrite and nitrate). It is demonstrated that the net oxygen required for nitrogen removal is 1.71 mg O2/mg ammonia-nitrogen converted to nitrogen gas as long as influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen. Less oxygen is required to produce oxidized nitrogen with these novel processes, but less biodegradable organic matter is also required for oxidized nitrogen reduction to nitrogen gas, resulting in reduced oxygen savings for the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. The net oxygen requirement is the same since the net electron transfer for the conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrogen gas is the same. The biodegradable organic matter required to reduce the oxidized nitrogen to nitrogen gas is estimated for these processes based on standard biological process calculations. It is estimated to be in the range of 3.5 to 4.0 mg biodegradable COD/mg ammonia-nitrogen reduced to nitrogen gas for nitrification-denitrification, 2.0 to 2.5 for nitritation-denitritation, and 0.5 for partial nitritation-deammonification. The resulting limiting influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratios are estimated and can be used to guide the appropriate selection of biological nitrogen removal process given knowledge of the biological process influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Energy savings possible for mainstream processes incorporating these novel

  17. Nitrogen removal from raw landfill leachate by an algae-bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Sniffen, Kaitlyn D; Sales, Christopher M; Olson, Mira S

    2016-01-01

    A remediation system for the removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate by a mixed algae-bacteria culture was investigated. This system was designed to treat leachate with minimal inputs and maintenance requirements, and was operated as an open semi-batch reactor in an urban greenhouse. The results of this study showed a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 9.18 mg N/(L·day) and maximum biomass density of 480 mg biomass/L. The ammonia removal rates of this culture increased with increasing initial ammonia concentration; maximum nitrogen removal occurred at an ammonia concentration of 80 mg N-NH3/L. At starting ammonia concentrations above 80 mg N-NH3/L a reduction in nitrogen removal was seen; this inhibition is hypothesized to be caused by ammonia toxicity. This inhibiting concentration is considerably higher than that of many other published studies. PMID:26877028

  18. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Ekama, George A; Wang, Hai-Guang; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Ho-Kwong; Liu, Wen-Tso; Brdjanovic, Damir; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-02-01

    Hong Kong has practiced seawater toilet flushing since 1958, saving 750,000 m(3) of freshwater every day. A high sulfate-to-COD ratio (>1.25 mg SO4(2-)/mg COD) in the saline sewage resulting from this practice has enabled us to develop the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process with minimal sludge production and oxygen demand. Recently, the SANI(®) process has been expanded to include Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) in an alternating anaerobic/limited-oxygen (LOS-EBPR) aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This paper presents further development - an anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying sulfur cycle-associated EBPR, named as DS-EBPR, bioprocess in an alternating anaerobic/anoxic SBR for simultaneous removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. The 211 day SBR operation confirmed the sulfur cycle-associated biological phosphorus uptake utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor. This new bioprocess cannot only reduce operation time but also enhance volumetric loading of SBR compared with the LOS-EBPR. The DS-EBPR process performed well at high temperatures of 30 °C and a high salinity of 20% seawater. A synergistic relationship may exist between sulfur cycle and biological phosphorus removal as the optimal ratio of P-release to SO4(2-)-reduction is close to 1.0 mg P/mg S. There were no conventional PAOs in the sludge. PMID:24342048

  19. Enhanced biological nitrogen removal in MLE combined with post-denitrification process and EF clarifier.

    PubMed

    Chung, C M; Cho, K W; Kim, Y J; Yamamoto, K; Chung, T H

    2012-05-01

    A modified ludzack ettinger reactor (MLE) combined with a post-denitrification reactor (PDMLE) using electroflotation (EF) as a secondary clarifier was investigated on its feasibility and process performance. Results indicated that higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations in bioreactor (5,350 ± 352 mg L(-1)) were maintained via the highly concentrated return sludge (16,771 ± 991 mg L(-1)) from the EF clarifier and the effluent suspended solids (SS) concentrations continued relatively low, representing effluent SS concentration of 1.71 ± 1.16 mg L(-1), compared with GS-A2O process during the operation of four months. The denitrification was improved by combining MLE process with post-denitrification based on endogenous decay (i.e. no additional carbon source was added), resulting in the removal efficiencies of TN were about 91 and 59% for the influent C/N ratio of 10 and 5, respectively, revealing relatively high nitrogen removal as compared with EF-A2O and gravity settling (GS)-A2O processes as a control. The nitrogen balance analysis indicates that pre-denitrification and post-denitrification contributed to 78 and 22% of TN removed, respectively. PMID:21947625

  20. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  1. Fluvial Wetland Nitrogen Removal in Shallow Sloped, Coastal New England Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, C. T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G.; Lightbody, A.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment contributes to eutrophication that can result in "dead zones" and fish kills. Most of the anthropogenic N is retained or removed by terrestrial and aquatic systems within watersheds, preventing this N from reaching the coast. Much research has focused on N removal in channelized stream reaches but recent studies have suggested that fluvial wetlands may play a larger role in the removal of anthropogenic N from aquatic ecosystems. We use the "Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization" (TASCC) method coupled with deployment of new in situ nitrate analyzer technology to conduct experiments in long residence time, wetland dominated stream reaches (e.g. beaver ponds, flood plains, natural wetlands). These sensor based TASCC experiments were performed in three headwater fluvial wetlands in the spring and early summer and repeated in the fall and early winter during the 2014 field season. Preliminary results from a beaver pond reach show that N removal (as a percentage of inputs) was greater than in similar length channelized streams in the same region, but that most of this was due to longer residence time rather than increased biological uptake rates. This suggests that increased abundance of fluvial wetlands due to beaver activity will enhance network-scale retention. Use of the in situ sensor allows us to capture fine-scale variability, allowing for a better understanding of different flow paths taken by water parcels traversing a wetland and providing a better estimate of N removal compared to the discrete grab sampling method.

  2. Nitrogen removal from old landfill leachate with SNAP technology using biofix as a biomass carrier.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh Tung; Nguyen, Tan Phong

    2016-08-01

    Single-stage nitrogen removal using Anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) is a novel technology developed in recent years for removing nitrogen. To evaluate the ability of SNAP technology to remove nitrogen in old landfill leachate under the conditions in Vietnam, we conducted a survey with 7 different nitrogen loading rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 kg-N/m(3) day and a concentration from 100 to 700 mg-N/L. The operating conditions were as follows: DO at 1.0-5.3 mg/L, HRT at 12 h, and pH at 7.5-7.8. The biomass carrier was a biofix made from acrylic fiber. The maximum ammonium conversion and nitrogen removal efficiency were approximately 98% and 85%, respectively, at 1.2 kg-N/m(3) day. In general, the nitrogen removal efficiency increased and stabilized at the end of each loading rate. The first step showed that SNAP could potentially be applied in real life for removing nitrogen from old landfill leachate. PMID:27005592

  3. Nitrogen removal by Providencia rettgeri strain YL with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Huang, Yuan-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Providencia rettgeri strain YL shows the capability of nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. By using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, (15)N-labelled N2O and N2 were detected in aerobic batch cultures containing [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Strain YL converted [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to produce more N2O than N2 in the presence of [Formula: see text]. An (15)N isotope tracing experiment confirmed that the nitrogen removal pathway of strain YL was heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification. The optimal treatment conditions for nitrogen removal were pH of 8, C/N ratio of 12, temperature of 25°C and shaking speed of 105 rpm. A continuous aerobic bioreactor inoculated with strain YL was developed. With an influent [Formula: see text] concentration of 90-200 mg/L, the [Formula: see text] removal efficiency ranged from 80% to 97% and the total nitrogen removal efficiency ranged from 72% to 95%. The nitrogen balance in the continuous bioreactor revealed that approximately 35-52% of influent [Formula: see text] was denitrified aerobically to form gaseous nitrogen. These findings show that the P. rettgeri strain YL has potential application in wastewater treatment for nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. PMID:26824874

  4. Effect of heterotrophic growth on autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Mozumder, M Salatul Islam; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the influence of heterotrophic growth on autotrophic nitrogen removal from wastewater in a granular sludge reactor. A mathematical model was set-up including autotrophic and heterotrophic growth and decay in the granules from a partial nitritation-anammox process. A distinction between heterotrophic bacteria was made based on the electron acceptor (dissolved oxygen, nitrite or nitrate) on which they grow, while the nitrogen gas produced was 'labelled' to retrieve its origin, from anammox or heterotrophic bacteria. Taking into account heterotrophic growth resulted in a lower initial nitrogen removal, but in a higher steady state nitrogen removal compared with a model in which heterotrophic growth was neglected. The anammox activity is related with the fact that heterotrophs initially use nitrite as electron acceptor, but when they switch to nitrate the produced nitrite can be used by anammox bacteria. Increased anammox activity in the presence of heterotrophs, therefore, resulted in a marginally increased N2 production at steady state. Heterotrophic denitrification of nitrate to nitrite also explains why small amounts of organic substrate present in the influent positively affect the maximum nitrogen removal capacity. However, the process efficiency deteriorates once the amount of organic substrate in the influent exceeds a certain threshold. The bulk oxygen concentration and the granule size have a dual effect on the autotrophic nitrogen removal efficiency. Besides, the maximum nitrogen removal efficiency decreases and the corresponding optimal bulk oxygen concentration increases with increasing granule size. PMID:24645487

  5. Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

    1988-01-01

    High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

  6. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  7. A comparison of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Manuel, Michelle; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2016-05-15

    This study demonstrates simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in laboratory-scale continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and provides side-by side comparison of these bioelectrochemical systems. The maximum organic carbon removal rates in MFC and MEC tests were similar at 5.1 g L(-1) d(-1) and 4.16 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively, with a near 100% carbon removal efficiency at an organic load of 3.3 g L(-1) d(-1). An ammonium removal efficiency of 30-55% with near-zero nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the MFC operated at an optimal external resistance, while open-circuit MFC operation resulted in a reduced carbon and ammonium removal of 53% and 21%, respectively. In the MEC ammonium removal was limited to 7-12% under anaerobic conditions, while micro-aerobic conditions increased the removal efficiency to 31%. Also, at zero applied voltage both carbon and ammonium removal efficiencies were reduced to 42% and 4%, respectively. Based on the observed performance under different operating conditions, it was concluded that simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal was facilitated by concurrent anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation pathways at the anode and cathode, which balanced bioelectrochemical nitrification and denitrification reactions. PMID:26950500

  8. Nitrogen removal from plasma-facing components by ion cyclotron wall conditioning in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, A. G.; Wauters, T.; Petersson, P.; Drenik, A.; Rubel, M.; Crombé, K.; Douai, D.; Fortuna, E.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Möller, S.; Pisarek, M.; Vervier, M.

    2015-08-01

    The efficiency of ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) in the removal of nitrogen from plasma-facing components in TEXTOR was assessed. In two experiments the wall was loaded with nitrogen and subsequently cleaned by ICWC in deuterium and helium. The retention and removal of nitrogen was studied in-situ by means of mass spectrometry, and ex-situ by surface analysis of a set of graphite, tungsten and TZM plates installed on test limiter systems. 15N rare isotope was used as a marker. The results from the gas balance showed that about 25% of the retained nitrogen was removed after ICWC cleaning, whereas surface analysis of the plates based on ToF-HIERDA showed an increase of the deposited species after the cleaning. This indicates that during ICWC operation on carbon devices, nitrogen is not only pumped out but also transported to other locations on the wall. Additionally, deuterium surface content was studied before and after ICWC cleaning.

  9. [Analysis of Precipitation Formation in Biofilm CANUN Reactor and its effect on Nitrogen Removal].

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun-ming; Wang, Hui-fang; Zuo, Zao-rong; Qiu, Fu-guo

    2015-08-01

    A CANON reactor with polymeric sponge as carrier was started by incubating sludge from another CANON reactor using synthetic inorganic ammonia-rich wastewater as raw water, and was operated at 30 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, pH 6.92-8.52. The precipitation on the surface of carriers was studied in this paper, including influence on nitrogen removal efficiency, causes for formation and composition. The results showed that: (1) the precipitation could influence the distribution of substrate to undermine the performance of CANON reactors; (2) the precipitation was calcium carbohydrate; (3) the production of precipitation may be a common result of four effects that were the regulatory effect of microorganisms on pH value, stripping effect, the role of extracellular polymers, adsorption of sponge and simultaneous chemical, biological reactions; (4) once the precipitation formed, it was difficult to recover to normal. Therefore, some measures are necessary to avoid precipitation, including: (1) raw water pretreatment to reduce the concentrations of Ca2 and Mg2. (2) ensuring short-cut nitrification stable, which could avoid increase of pH because of reduction of DO; (3) we can choose other carriers to reduce precipitation, which must ensure the optimal total nitrogen removal performance and stable short-cut nitrification. PMID:26592023

  10. Modeling simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the effects of nitrate concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater. The model was calibrated using previously published experimental data obtained from anaerobic batch tests for different COD/ [Formula: see text] ratios. Model simulations were performed to predict the SCNR in a completely mixed reactor (CSTR) operating under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Six different scenarios were evaluated to investigate the performance of the SCNR based on typical influent characteristics of domestic wastewater. The variables analyzed were chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, nitrate concentration, methane production, nitrogen gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, pH and percentage of COD used by the denitrifying and methanogenic microorganisms. The HRT was decreased stepwise from 15 to 4 h. The results indicate that Scenario (S5) with a COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio equal to 10 and an HRT equal to 15 h ensures the occurrence of the stable SCNR. Furthermore, the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and a significant reduction in the biogas production when the organic matter is limited was verified. PMID:27088208

  11. Nitrogen removal from wastewater using simultaneous nitrate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in single reactor.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Tatsuo; Isaka, Kazuichi; Ikuta, Hajime; Saiki, Yuko; Yokota, Toyokazu

    2006-10-01

    The effects of C/N ratio and total organic carbon (TOC) loading on nitrogen removal through simultaneous nitrate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a single reactor were examined. Granular sludge taken from a methane fermentation reactor was placed in an upflow reactor and supplied with synthetic wastewater containing nitrate at a C/N ratio of 1 to grow heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria. When nitrogen removal ratio reached 30%, anammox sludge attached to nonwoven-carrier was added into the same reactor and then ammonia was added to the synthetic wastewater. Nitrogen removal ratio was markedly increased to 80-94%. In this system, nitrogen removal ratio was affected by C/N ratio and TOC loading, not by the amount of granular sludge. A stable isotopic analysis using 15N-labeled nitrate showed that N2 gas was formed by anammox reaction. PMID:17116583

  12. High rate nitrogen removal by the CANON process at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Jiachun; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) is a cost-effective nitrogen removal process. Implementation of the CANON process relies on the cooperation of ammonium-oxidizing and Anammox bacteria, as well as the inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Strict limitations on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the reactor, and the addition of sufficient inorganic carbon in the influent, were adopted as the main operational strategies. The reactor was fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater composed mainly of NH(4)(+)-N, and operated for 106 days. Stable nitrogen removal rates (NRR) of around 1.4 kg N m(-3) d(-1) were obtained at ambient temperature. Morphological characteristics and analysis of bacterial community confirmed the formation of functional outer aerobic and inner anaerobic granular sludge, providing evidence of stable nitrogen removal. PMID:22546798

  13. Removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollutants from a synthetic wastewater using a membrane-coupled bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; LaPara, Timothy M

    2004-09-01

    Two modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE)-type membrane-coupled bioreactors (MBRs) were investigated in this study for the purpose of removing both nitrogenous and carbonaceous pollutants from a synthetic wastewater. During the first MBR experiment, removal efficiencies were high (>90%) for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia, but total nitrogenous pollutant removal efficiency was poor (approximately 25%). Bacterial community analysis of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) by a nested PCR-DGGE approach detected two Nitrosomonas-like populations and one Nitrosospira-like population. During the initial portion of the second MBR experiment, COD and ammonia removal efficiencies were similar to the first MBR experiment until the COD of the influent wastewater was increased to provide additional electron donors to support denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies eventually exceeded 90%, with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 24 h and a recirculation ratio of 8. When the HRT of the MBR experiment was decreased to 12 h, however, ammonia removal efficiency was adversely affected. A subsequent increase in the HRT to 18 h helped improve removal efficiencies for both ammonia (>85%) and total nitrogenous compounds (approximately 70%). Our research demonstrates that MBRs can be effectively designed to remove both carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollutants. The ability of the microbial community to switch between anoxic (denitrifying) and oxic (nitrifying) conditions, however, represents a critical process constraint for the application of MLE-type MBR systems, such that little benefit is gained compared to conventional designs. PMID:15338423

  14. [Effect of HCO3- on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in Partial Nitritation-ANAMMOX Process].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Cheng, Zong-heng; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Da-lin

    2015-11-01

    The effect of HCO3- on nitrogen removal efficiency in partial nitritation-ANAMMOX process was studied by using the combined process of partial nitritation and ANAMMOX has been started and achieved the stable operation of nitrogen removal. The results showed that, when the ratio of C/N decreased from 2 to 0.17 in influent, the nitrogen removal rate decreased from 1.3 kg- ( M3 x d)(-1) to 0.40 kg x (M3 x d)(-1), the decrease range arrived at 69.3%. The nitrogen conversion efficiency was limited, because of the added amount of HCO3- was decreased, which leading to the pH value declined sharply in nitritation and ANAMMOX zone. In the partial nitritation-ANAMMOX process, the effect of HCO3- limitation on activity of ammonium oxidizing bacteria, ANAMMOX bacteria and nitrifying bacteria was decreased in turn. When the C/N ratio increased to 1, the nitrogen removal rate of combined process was quickly restored to 1 kg x (m3 x d)(-1). It indicated that short HCO3- limitation on nitrogen conversion efficiency of the combined process can be fast recovery. The resulted also showed that the relationship between influent C/N ratio and nitrogen removal efficiency has obvious relativity in partial nitritation-ANAMMOX process. PMID:26911008

  15. Nitrogen Removal from Water Resource Recovery Facility Secondary Effluent Using a Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenping

    2016-03-01

    Solid-phase denitrification technology can potentially be used to remove nitrogen compounds, such as total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), from wastewater. In this study, the authors made use of an internal-circulation baffled biofilm reactor in which filamentous bamboo acted as a biocarrier for the removal of nitrogen (N) from water resource recovery facility (WRRF) secondary effluent. A laboratory-scale experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy and mechanisms of N removal from the WRRF secondary effluent operated in continuous-flow mode. Results indicated that total nitrogen and NO3(-)-N removal rates reached 66.58 to 75.23% and 75.6 to 85.6%, respectively. Infrared spectrum analysis indicated biodegradation in the filamentous bamboo. A comparison of this method with the use of filamentous plastics as biocarriers indicated that higher NO3(-)-N removal (as volumetric loading) and lower nitrite nitrogen accumulation rates were obtained when filamentous bamboo was used as a biocarrier. A NO3(-)-N removal volumetric loading of 2.09 mg/L·h was reached when using bamboo as a single solid carbon source. These results confirm that filamentous bamboo can be used as an alternative to inert biocarriers in WRRF secondary effluent treatment systems. PMID:26931533

  16. Impact of influent wastewater quality on nitrogen removal rates in multistage treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Magdalena; Jóźwiakowski, Krzysztof; Ghrabi, Ahmed; Masi, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen removal in treatment wetlands is influenced by many factors, and the presence of electron donors (biodegradable organic matter) and electron acceptors (nitrate ions) is the main limiting one; for obtaining these conditions, multistage treatment wetlands (MTWs) are required, where an extensive nitrification can be obtained in the first stages under aerobic conditions leaving then to the following anoxic/anaerobic stages the duty of the denitrification. Most of the biodegradable organic matter is however oxidised in the first stages, and therefore, the inlet to the denitrification beds is usually poor of easily degradable carbon sources. This study is comparing the long-term performances obtained at several MTWs operating in Europe (North and South) and North Africa in order to understand if there is a significant avail in making use of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio during the design phase for ensuring proper performances in terms of N overall removal. The statistic analysis performed in this study have shown that MTWs are capable to ensure sufficient removal of both organic and nutrients even in unfavourable proportions of macronutrients (C and N). The usual assumptions for conventional biological treatment systems concerning adequate C/N ratios seem to be dubious in case of wastewater treatment in MTWs. PMID:25300181

  17. Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Singh, Jasdeep; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Ali, Muntjeer; Rose, Vipin; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems. PMID:27054722

  18. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor.

    PubMed

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode. PMID:26496630

  19. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode. PMID:26496630

  20. How to perform digital removal of faeces.

    PubMed

    Peate, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Rationale and key points This article provides practitioners with information about how to perform digital removal of faeces in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner, promoting privacy and dignity. Passing faecal matter is essential to enable the elimination of waste. For some people, however, defecation is not possible without some form of intervention; this could be the administration of oral medication or an enema, insertion of suppositories or digital removal of faeces. ▶ Bowel care is a fundamental aspect of patient care. ▶ Digital removal of faeces should be performed by a practitioner competent in this skill. ▶ Digital removal of faeces is an invasive procedure and should only be carried out when necessary following holistic patient assessment. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you think this article will improve your practice. 2. How the patient receiving the care you delivered might have felt. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27275913

  1. [Advanced nitrogen removal using innovative denitrification biofilter with sustained-release carbon source material].

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Li, Peng; Zuo, Jian-e; Yuan, Lin; Li, Zai-xing

    2013-09-01

    An innovative denitrification biofilter was developed with polycaprolactone (PCL) as the carbon source and biofilm carrier. The performance of nitrogen removal was investigated with biologically treated effluent from secondary clarifier, and the results indicated that a maximum TN removal efficiency of 98.9% was achieved under the following conditions: influent total nitrogen (TN) concentration 30.0 mg x L(-1), denitrification load 54.0 mg (L x h)(-1), operating temperature 20. 1-22.0 degrees C, hydraulic retention time 0. 5 h; the total organic carbon (TOC) in effluent was 6.5-8.4 mg x L(-1), which was increased by 2.0-3.0 mg x L(-1) compared with that in the influent; the suspended solids (SS) concentration was less than 4.0 mg x L(-1) during operation; nearly 84.2% of the total released organic carbon which was used as electron donor in the denitrification process, was derived in the presence of microbes. The surface of the PCL pellets was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), it was shown that thick biofilm was formed on the surface of pellets, and the main microbial species were Bacillus and Trichobacteria. PMID:24289000

  2. Single-sludge nitrogen removal model: Calibration and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Argaman, Y.; Papkov, G. ); Ostfeld, A. ); Rubin, D. )

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work was to calibrate and verify a modified version of a mathematical model of a single-sludge system for nitrification and denitrification. The new model is based on long-term experimental results, and the main modifications are related to the biological oxygen demand removal kinetics and biomass activity expressions. The model consists of 22 equations with 54 parameters, including 19 kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients. Experiments were performed on four bench-scale units and one pilot plant fed with domestic wastewater. Six sets of runs were carried out under different operational conditions. In the calibration procedure, a mathematical algorithm was implemented, in which an optimal set of coefficients was selected. Several coefficients were directly determined experimentally. Model verification was based on the comparison of experimental results with the values predicted by the mathematical model using a fixed set of model coefficients for each set of runs. From the verification results, the model is considered to be a useful one for the design of a new treatment system and operation of an existing one.

  3. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  4. Co-optimisation of phosphorus and nitrogen removal in stormwater biofilters: the role of filter media, vegetation and saturated zone.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Bonnie J; Fletcher, Tim D; Cook, Perran L M; Hatt, Belinda E

    2014-01-01

    Biofilters have been shown to effectively treat stormwater and achieve nutrient load reduction targets. However, effluent concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus typically exceed environmental targets for receiving water protection. This study investigates the role of filter media, vegetation and a saturated zone (SZ) in achieving co-optimised nitrogen and phosphorus removal in biofilters. Twenty biofilter columns were monitored over a 12-month period of dosing with semi-synthetic stormwater. The frequency of dosing was altered seasonally to examine the impact of hydrologic variability. Very good nutrient removal (90% total phosphorus, 89% total nitrogen) could be achieved by incorporating vegetation, an SZ and Skye sand, a naturally occurring iron-rich filter medium. This design maintained nutrient removal at or below water quality guideline concentrations throughout the experiment, demonstrating resilience to wetting-drying fluctuations. The results also highlighted the benefit of including an SZ to maintain treatment performance over extended dry periods. These findings represent progress towards designing biofilters which co-optimise nitrogen and phosphorus removal and comply with water quality guidelines. PMID:24804674

  5. Effects of Aeration Cycles on Nitrifying Bacterial Populations and Nitrogen Removal in Intermittently Aerated Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Cesar; Head, Melanie A.; Ridenoure, Jennifer A.; Cheng, Jay J.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the lengths of aeration and nonaeration periods on nitrogen removal and the nitrifying bacterial community structure were assessed in intermittently aerated (IA) reactors treating digested swine wastewater. Five IA reactors were operated in parallel with different aeration-to-nonaeration time ratios (ANA). Populations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were monitored using 16S rRNA slot blot hybridizations. AOB species diversity was assessed using amoA gene denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus mobilis were the dominant AOB and Nitrospira spp. were the dominant NOB in all reactors, although Nitrosospira and Nitrobacter were also detected at lower levels. Reactors operated with the shortest aeration time (30 min) showed the highest Nitrosospira rRNA levels, and reactors operated with the longest anoxic periods (3 and 4 h) showed the lowest levels of Nitrobacter, compared to the other reactors. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Nm107 was detected in all reactors, regardless of the reactor's performance. Close relatives of Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11, and Nitrosospira multiformis were occasionally detected in all reactors. Biomass fractions of AOB and effluent ammonia concentrations were not significantly different among the reactors. NOB were more sensitive than AOB to long nonaeration periods, as nitrite accumulation and lower total NOB rRNA levels were observed for an ANA of 1 h:4 h. The reactor with the longest nonaeration time of 4 h performed partial nitrification, followed by denitrification via nitrite, whereas the other reactors removed nitrogen through traditional nitrification and denitrification via nitrate. Superior ammonia removal efficiencies were not associated with levels of specific AOB species or with higher AOB species diversity. PMID:16332848

  6. Nutrient removal and microbial granulation in an anaerobic process treating inorganic and organic nitrogenous wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Kim, H C

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable anaerobic nitrogen removal and microbial granulation were investigated by using a laboratory anaerobic granular sludge bed reactor, treating synthetic (inorganic and organic) wastewater and piggery waste. From inorganic synthetic wastewater, lithoautotrophic ammonium oxidation to nitrite/nitrate was observed by an addition of hydroxylamine. Also, the results revealed that the Anammox intermediates (particularly, hydrazine) contents in the substrate would be one of the important parameters for success of the anaerobic nitrogen removal process. The results from organic synthetic wastewater show that if the Anammox organism were not great enough in the startup of the process, denitritation and anaerobic ammonification would be a process prior to the Anammox reaction. The anaerobic ammonium removal from the piggery waste was performed successfully, probably due to the Anammox intermediates contained in the substrate. This reactor shows a complex performance including the Anammox reaction and HAP crystallization, as well as having partial denitritation occurring simultaneously. From the activity test, the maximum specific N conversion rate was 0.1 g NH4-N/g VSS/day (0.77 g T-N/g VSS/day), indicating that potential denitritation is quite high. The NO2-N/NH4-N ratio to Anammox is 1.17. The colour of the biomass treating the piggery waste changed from black to dark red. It was also observed that the red-colored granular sludge had a diameter of 1-2 mm. The settleability assessment of the granular sludge revealed that the granular sludge had a good settleability even though it was worse than that of seed granular sludge. PMID:15537009

  7. [Application of new biological nitrogen removal technologies in full-scale treatment of landfill leachate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei-Ying; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liang, Yan-Zhen; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2007-03-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficiency of the high concentration of ammonium nitrogen in landfill leachate, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and hybrid biofilm reactor (HBR) were introduced to the full-scale treatment of Datianshang landfill leachate. The efficiencies of nitrogen removal and the status of microorganism of the two biological treatment processes were analyzed. To achieve ANAMMOX and partial nitritation process, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in HBR was controlled and the effluent of HBR was recycled to the inlet of the ABR in a large proportion. The full-scale operation results showed that when the concentration of influent ammonium nitrogen was at 336.24 - 685.09 mg/L, the anaerobic granule sludge and the ANAMMOX bacteria were observed and the average ammonium nitrogen removal rate reached 34.9% in ABR after the start-up period of 60 days. The population of ammonium oxidizing bacteria and the average ammonium nitrogen removal rate in HBR reached 6.4 x 10(7) cells/mL and 95.1%, respectively, after 30 days of ABR stable running process. The final effluent ammonium nitrogen concentration was under 25 mg/L and the removal rate of total nitrogen was above 80% after the ABR-HBR combined processes treatment. It was suggested that using of advance environmental biotechnology to improve the capacity of the conventional leachate treatment plant was advisable, especially for those low efficiency facilities working improperly. PMID:17633642

  8. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation and its contribution to nitrogen removal in China’s coastal wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Deng, Fengyu; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human activities have caused substantial enrichment of reactive nitrogen in China’s coastal wetlands. Although anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), the process of oxidizing ammonium into dinitrogen gas through the reduction of nitrite, is identified as an important process for removing reactive nitrogen, little is known about the dynamics of anammox and its contribution to nitrogen removal in nitrogen-enriched environments. Here, we examine potential rates of anammox and associate them with bacterial diversity and abundance across the coastal wetlands of China using molecular and isotope tracing techniques. High anammox bacterial diversity was detected in China’s coastal wetlands and included Candidatus Scalindua, Kuenenia, Brocadia, and Jettenia. Potential anammox rates were more closely associated with the abundance of anammox bacteria than to their diversity. Among all measured environmental variables, temperature was a key environmental factor, causing a latitudinal distribution of the anammox bacterial community composition, biodiversity and activity along the coastal wetlands of China. Based on nitrogen isotope tracing experiments, anammox was estimated to account for approximately 3.8–10.7% of the total reactive nitrogen removal in the study area. Combined with denitrification, anammox can remove 20.7% of the total external terrigenous inorganic nitrogen annually transported into China’s coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:26494435

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation and its contribution to nitrogen removal in China’s coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Deng, Fengyu; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2015-10-01

    Over the past several decades, human activities have caused substantial enrichment of reactive nitrogen in China’s coastal wetlands. Although anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), the process of oxidizing ammonium into dinitrogen gas through the reduction of nitrite, is identified as an important process for removing reactive nitrogen, little is known about the dynamics of anammox and its contribution to nitrogen removal in nitrogen-enriched environments. Here, we examine potential rates of anammox and associate them with bacterial diversity and abundance across the coastal wetlands of China using molecular and isotope tracing techniques. High anammox bacterial diversity was detected in China’s coastal wetlands and included Candidatus Scalindua, Kuenenia, Brocadia, and Jettenia. Potential anammox rates were more closely associated with the abundance of anammox bacteria than to their diversity. Among all measured environmental variables, temperature was a key environmental factor, causing a latitudinal distribution of the anammox bacterial community composition, biodiversity and activity along the coastal wetlands of China. Based on nitrogen isotope tracing experiments, anammox was estimated to account for approximately 3.8-10.7% of the total reactive nitrogen removal in the study area. Combined with denitrification, anammox can remove 20.7% of the total external terrigenous inorganic nitrogen annually transported into China’s coastal wetland ecosystems.

  10. Biodegradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shen-Yi; Lu, Li-An; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2016-06-01

    This study conducted a completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a continuous anoxic upflow bioreactor to treat synthetic wastewater with TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) ranging from 200 to 1000mg/L. The intermediates were analyzed for understanding the metabolic pathway of TMAH biodegradation in CANON process. In addition, (15)N-labeled TMAH was used as the substrate in a batch anoxic bioreactor to confirm that TMAH was converted to nitrogen gas in CANON process. The results indicated that TMAH was almost completely biodegraded in CANON system at different influent TMAH concentrations of 200, 500, and 1000mg/L. The average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen were higher than 90% during the experiments. Trimethylamine (TMA) and methylamine (MA) were found to be the main biodegradation intermediates of TMAH in CANON process. The production of nitrogen gas with (15)N-labeled during the batch anaerobic bioreactor indicated that CANON process successfully converted TMAH into nitrogen gas. PMID:26879202

  11. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal by a newly-isolated alkalitolerant microorganism, Serratia marcescens W5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Yan, Jingquan; Fan, Bing; Cha, Dongsu; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Yubei

    2016-07-01

    A new microbe, Serratia marcescens W5 was successfully isolated. Its feasibility in purification of excessively nitrogen-containing wastewater was evaluated using inorganic nitrogen media. Single factor tests showed that W5 exhibited high ammonium removal rates (above 80%) under different culture conditions (pH 7-10, C/N ratios of 6-20, 15-35°C, 0-2.5% of salinity, respectively). Besides various organic carbon sources, W5 was able to utilize calcium carbonate with 28.05% of ammonium removed. Further experiments indicated that W5 was capable of resisting high-strength ammonium (1200mg/L) with the maximum removal rate of 514.13mgL(-1)d(-1). The nitrogen removal pathway of W5 was also tested, showing that both nitrite and nitrate were efficiently removed only in the presence of ammonium, with hydroxylamine as intermediate, which was different from the conventional nitrogen removal pathway. All the results verified that W5 was a good candidate for the purification of excessively nitrogenous wastewater. PMID:27043057

  12. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  13. Long-term study on the impact of temperature on enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sayi-Ucar, N; Sarioglu, M; Insel, G; Cokgor, E U; Orhon, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The study involved experimental observation and performance evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system treating municipal wastewater for nutrient removal for a period 500 days, emphasizing the impact of high temperature on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The MBR system was operated at relatively high temperatures (24-41 °C). During the operational period, the total phosphorus (TP) removal gradually increased from 50% up to 95% while the temperature descended from 41 to 24 °C. At high temperatures, anaerobic volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake occurred with low phosphorus release implying the competition of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) with polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Low dissolved oxygen conditions associated with high wastewater temperatures did not appreciable affected nitrification but enhanced nitrogen removal. Dissolved oxygen levels around 1.0 mgO2/L in membrane tank provided additional denitrification capacity of 6-7 mgN/L by activating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. As a result, nearly complete removal of nitrogen could be achieved in the MBR system, generating a permeate with no appreciable nitrogen content. The gross membrane flux was 43 LMH corresponding to the specific permeability (K) of 413 LMH/bar at 39 °C in the MBR tank. The specific permeability increased by the factor of 43% at 39 °C compared to that of 25 °C during long-term operation. PMID:26204227

  14. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. Y1 isolated from coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, YuXiang; Hu, Tingting; Song, Yujie; Chen, Hongping; Lv, YongKang

    2015-11-01

    A strain of Acinetobacter sp. Y1, which exhibited an amazing ability to remove ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, was isolated from the activated sludge of a coking wastewater treatment plant. The aim of this work was to study the ability, influence factors and possible pathway of nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. Y1. Results showed that maximum removal rate of NH4(+)-N by the strain was 10.28 mg-N/L/h. Carbon source had significant influence on the growth and ammonium removal efficiencies of strain Y1. Pyruvate, citrate and acetate were favourable carbon sources for the strain. Temperature, pH value and shaking speed could affect the growth and nitrogen removal ability. Nitrate or nitrite could be used as a sole nitrogen source for the growth and removed efficiently by the strain. N2 levels increased to 53.74%, 50.21% and 55.13% within 36 h when 100 mg/L NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N or NO3(-) -N was used as sole nitrogen source in the gas detection experiment. The activities of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO), nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), which are key enzymes in heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification, were all detectable in the strain. Consequently, a possible pathway for ammonium removal by the strain was also suggested. PMID:25910961

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from tertiary wastewater in an osmotic membrane photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-04-01

    An osmotic membrane photobioreactor (OMPBR) was designed and operated for 162days for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris. The removal efficiency for NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and PO4(3-)-P reached as high as 95%, 53% and 89%, whereas the maximum removal rates were 3.41 mg/L-day, 0.20 mg/L-day and 0.8 mg/L-day, respectively. The microalgae exhibited high tendency to aggregate and attached to the bioreactor and membrane surfaces, and total biomass accumulation in the OMPBR was over 5 g/L. Salt accumulation and biofouling had adverse effects on membrane filtration, but the performance could be recovered through periodic backwashing of the membranes. Extracellular polymeric substances characterization indicated higher fraction of polysaccharides as compared to proteins. The biomass in the OMPBR accumulated higher levels of carbohydrates and chlorophyll. These results indicate the suitability of OMPBR in wastewater treatment and in high-density microalgae cultivation. PMID:26859325

  16. The feasibility of using a two-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal process to treat sewage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Liang; Yi, Peng; Wang, Junmin; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of using a two-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal process to treat sewage was examined in this study. The obtained results showed that total nitrogen (TN) could be efficiently removed by 88.38% when influent TN and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 45.87 and 44.40 mg/L, respectively. In the first stage, nitritation was instantly achieved by the bioaugmentation strategy, and can be maintained under limited oxygen condition (below 0.2mg/L). The ratio of nitrite to ammonium in the effluent of the nitritation reactor can be controlled at approximate 1.0 by adjusting aeration rate. In the second stage, anammox was realized in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, where the total nitrogen removal rate was 0.40 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) under limited-substrate condition. Therefore, the organic matter in sewage can be firstly concentrated in biomass which could generate biogas (energy). Then, nitrogen in sewage could be removed in a two-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal process. PMID:21719278

  17. Autotrophic nitrogen removal in one lab-scale vertical submerged biofilm reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhiwei; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Wenhong; Yang, Shangyuan; Du, Ping

    In this study, the process performance of a new vertical submerged biofilm reactor for complete autotrophic ammonia removal was investigated using synthetic wastewater. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the flexibility of the reactor, achieve partial autotrophic nitrification with influent ammonium nitrogen ranging from 40 to 280 mg L -1, and achieve a stable half partial autotrophic nitrification by controlling hydraulic retention time (HRT) and alkalinity. A very low concentration of nitrate was observed in the effluent during nitrification. Then autotrophic denitrification revealed Anammox bacteria were present and active in the central anaerobic parts of the bioreactor which was inoculated with a mixed microbial consortium from activated sludge. The results of this study demonstrated that autotrophic denitrification processes can coexist with heterotrophic denitrifying processes in the same environment even if Anammox bacteria were less competitive than heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria.

  18. 40 CFR Table Jj-4 to Subpart Jj of... - Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal... Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-4 Table JJ-4 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation Type of solids separation Volatile solids removal (decimal)...

  19. 40 CFR Table Jj-4 to Subpart Jj of... - Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal... Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-4 Table JJ-4 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation Type of solids separation Volatile solids removal (decimal)...

  20. 40 CFR Table Jj-4 to Subpart Jj of... - Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal... Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-4 Table JJ-4 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation Type of solids separation Volatile solids removal (decimal)...

  1. 40 CFR Table Jj-4 to Subpart Jj of... - Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal... Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-4 Table JJ-4 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation Type of solids separation Volatile solids removal (decimal)...

  2. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens, also referred to as bioretention systems, are designed primarily to infiltrate stormwater flow and reduce surface runoff and peak flows to receiving streams. Additionally, they are known to remove stressors from urban stormwater runoff, including oil and grease, pho...

  3. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  4. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  5. Nitrification-denitrification in waste stabilisation ponds: a mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in maturation ponds.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Read, L F; Mara, D D; Newton, R J; Curtis, T P; Davenport, R J

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale primary maturation pond was spiked with (15)N-labelled ammonia ((15)NH(4)Cl) and (15)N-labelled nitrite (Na(15)NO(2)), in order to improve current understanding of the dynamics of inorganic nitrogen transformations and removal in WSP systems. Stable isotope analysis of delta(15)N showed that nitrification could be considered as an intermediate step in WSP, which is masked by simultaneous denitrification, under conditions of low algal activity. Molecular microbiology analysis showed that denitrification can be considered a feasible mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in WSP, which may be supported either by ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) or by methanotrophs, in addition to nitrite-oxidising bacteria (NOB). However, the relative supremacy of the denitrification process over other nitrogen removal mechanisms (e.g., biological uptake) depends upon phytoplanktonic activity. PMID:20220235

  6. Removal of COD and nitrogen from animal food plant wastewater in an intermittently-aerated structured-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wosiack, Priscila Arcoverde; Lopes, Deize Dias; Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, Márcia Helena; Foresti, Eugenio; Granato, Daniel; Barana, Ana Cláudia

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a continuous flow structured-bed reactor in the simultaneous removal of total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent from an animal food plant. The reactor had an intermittent aeration system; hydraulic retention time (HRT) of one day; temperature of 30 °C; and recirculation ratio of five times the flow. An experimental central composite rotational delineation (CCRD) type design was used to define the aeration conditions and nitrogen load (factors) to be studied. Response surface methodology was used to analyse the influence of the factors above the results, the removal of TN and COD. It was observed that the aeration factor showed the greatest significance for the results and that the affluent TKN concentration did not have a significant effect, at a 95% level of confidence, on COD removal. Throughout the experiment, the COD/N ratio remained between 3.2 and 3.8. The best results for COD and TN removal, 80% and 88%, respectively, were obtained with 158 min of aeration on a cycle of 180 min and 255 mg L(-1) of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in the substrate. PMID:25725386

  7. Heterogeneity of aquatic sediment significantly increases nitrogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, nitrate loads to rivers and coasts have increased dramatically and contributed to eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal waters. A major sink for nitrate in the environment is denitrification in aquatic sediments. Here, I show that nitrate removal rates are as much as 100 times more efficient in heterogeneous than equivalent homogeneous aquatic sediments. Numerical experiments quantify nitrate removal from groundwater discharging through shallow columns of heterogeneous aquatic sediment. The steady groundwater flow equation was coupled to the advection-dispersion-reaction equations for dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Bimodal sediments composed of sand and clay were simulated using TPROGS for a wide range of clay fractions. Small (centimeter-scale) sedimentary structures were intended to represent infilled burrows or clay rip-up clasts. Clay structures were assigned a relatively high organic carbon content (2%). The local source of DOC fuels oxygen consumption in clay structures and promotes restricted zones of denitrification in otherwise aerobic sediments. As a result, redox transformations do not strictly depend on residence times but rather on distributions of organic carbon in aquatic sediments. Furthermore, bimodal sand and clay deposits are more efficient than either clean sand or homogeneous sandy-clay at removing nitrate. These results help explain observations of efficient nitrate removal in relatively sandy, oxygenated aquatic sediments when small organic-rich structures are present. The results also suggest that models of reactive transport in homogeneous sediment underestimate biogeochemical transformation rates relative to heterogeneous sediment. Similarly, laboratory-derived denitrification rates on homogenized cores are likely underestimated relative to intact cores.

  8. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material. PMID:19850316

  9. Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation of three surface waters was conducted with aluminum salt and/or cationic polymer to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate removed equal or slightly lower amounts of DON as compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). At aluminum sulfate dosages up to 5mg per mg DOC, the cationic polymer improved DON removal by an additional 15% to 20% over aluminum sulfate alone. At very high aluminum sulfate dosages (>8 mg aluminum sulfate per mg DOC), however, the cationic polymer addition negligibly increased DON removal. Molecular weight fractionation before and after coagulation experiments indicated that cationic polymer addition can increase the removal of all molecular weight fractions of DON with the highest molecular weight fraction (>10,000 Da) being preferentially removed. Results indicated that the DON added as part of the cationic polymer was almost completely removed at optimum aluminum sulfate and polymer doses. PMID:17023020

  10. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal: Unacceptable performance. 359... REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage....

  11. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3... Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in grade/pay level or remove an employee for... employee whose reduction in grade/pay level or removal is proposed under this section is entitled to—...

  12. [Short or Long-Term Influence of Phenol on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency of ANAMMOX Sludge].

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-bing; Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Liang; Cui, Jian-hong; Xu, Shan-shan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of phenol concentration on nitrogen removal efficiency in ANAMMOX sludge were studied in short or long-term. The nitrogen removal rate decreased rapidly with the increase of concentration of phenol in short-term. When the phenol concentration was above 600 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N was lower than 6% and the removal rate of TN was only about 10%. The long-term experimental results showed when the phenol concentration was below 100 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N can reach 99%, which indicated that ANAMMOX bacteria have a process of adaptation to the low concentration of phenol. However, when the phenol concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and TN was only 23.59% and 50.3%, the activity in sludge was significantly inhibited which was similarly to the short-term and the activity of denitrifying bacteria was significantly higher than ANAMMOX bacteria. As an organic carbon source, phenol can activated denitrification reaction and finally plays a dominant role in the system. However, the high concentration of phenol (1 000 mg x L(-1)) also has an inhibitory effect on denitrification bacteria. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of phenol to ANAMMOX activity was 71.57 mg x L(-1) by fitting. After 18 days' recovery, the stoichiometric ratios of nitrogen were changed, although the NH4(+) -N was basicly removed. The ratio of removed NH4(+) -N, reomved NO2(-) -N and produced NO3(-) -N was 1: 0.86: 0.2. Our results showed that the concentration of phenol should be controlled within a reasonable range, so that the reactor can achieve simultaneous removal of phenol and nitrogen. PMID:26841611

  13. Simultaneous nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness removal from reverse osmosis concentrate by microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-05-01

    While reverse osmosis (RO) is a promising technology for wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate (ROC) treatment and disposal are important issues to consider. Conventional chemical and physical treatment methods for ROC present certain limitations, such as relatively low nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies as well as the requirement of an extra process for hardness removal. This study proposes a novel biological approach for simultaneous removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions from the ROC of municipal wastewater treatment plants by microalgal cultivation and algal biomass production. Two microalgae strains, Chlorella sp. ZTY4 and Scenedesmus sp. LX1, were used for batch cultivation of 14-16 days. Both strains grew well in ROC with average biomass production of 318.7 mg/L and lipid contents up to 30.6%, and nitrogen and phosphorus could be effectively removed with efficiencies of up to 89.8% and 92.7%, respectively. Approximately 55.9%-83.7% Ca(2+) could be removed from the system using the cultured strains. Mg(2+) removal began when Ca(2+) precipitation ceased, and the removal efficiency of the ion could reach up to 56.0%. The most decisive factor influencing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) removal was chemical precipitation with increases in pH caused by algal growth. The results of this study provide a new biological approach for removing nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness from ROC. The results suggest that microalgal cultivation presents new opportunities for applying an algal process to ROC treatment. The proposed approach serves dual purposes of nutrient and hardness reduction and production of lipid rich micro-algal biomass. PMID:26954575

  14. Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmin; Lu, Lun; Zheng, Xiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Liang, Shuang; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Xiuwen

    2014-10-01

    Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs), named HSFCW1 (three-stage, without step-feeding), HSFCW2 (three-stage, with step-feeding), HSFCW3 (five-stage, without step-feeding) and HSFCW4 (five-stage, with step-feeding) were designed to investigate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and step-feeding on nitrogen removal. High removal of 90.9% COD, 99.1% ammonium nitrogen and 88.1% total nitrogen (TN) were obtained simultaneously in HSFCW4 compared with HSFCW1-3. The excellent TN removal of HSFCW4 was due to artificial aeration provided sufficient DO for nitrification and the favorable anoxic environment created for denitrification. Step-feeding was a crucial factor because it provided sufficient carbon source (high COD: nitrate ratio of 14.3) for the denitrification process. Microbial activities and microbial abundance in HSFCW4 was found to be influenced by DO distribution and step-feeding, and thus improve TN removal. These results suggest that artificial aeration combined with step-feeding could achieve high nitrogen removal in HSFCWs. PMID:25069093

  15. Autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite in a sponge-bed trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Guillén, J A; Jayawardana, L K M C B; Lopez Vazquez, C M; de Oliveira Cruz, L M; Brdjanovic, D; van Lier, J B

    2015-01-01

    Partial nitritation in sponge-bed trickling filters (STF) under natural air circulation was studied in two reactors: STF-1 and STF-2 operated at 30°C with sponge thickness of 0.75 and 1.50cm, respectively. The coexistence of nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria was obtained and attributed to the favorable environment created by the reactors' design and operational regimes. After 114days of operation, the STF-1 had an average NH4(+)-N removal of 69.3% (1.17kgN/m(3)sponged) and a total nitrogen removal of 52.2% (0.88kgN/m(3)sponged) at a Nitrogen Loading Rate (NLR) of 1.68kgN/m(3)sponged and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 1.71h. The STF-2 showed an average NH4(+)-N removal of 81.6 % (0.77kgN/m(3)sponged) and a total nitrogen removal of 54% (0.51kgN/m(3)sponged), at an NLR of 0.95kgN/m(3)sponged and HRT of 2.96h. The findings suggest that autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite in STF systems is a feasible alternative. PMID:25863209

  16. Effects of Invasive-Plant Management on Nitrogen-Removal Services in Freshwater Tidal Marshes.

    PubMed

    Alldred, Mary; Baines, Stephen B; Findlay, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Establishing relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function is an ongoing endeavor in contemporary ecosystem and community ecology, with important practical implications for conservation and the maintenance of ecosystem services. Removal of invasive plant species to conserve native diversity is a common management objective in many ecosystems, including wetlands. However, substantial changes in plant community composition have the potential to alter sediment characteristics and ecosystem services, including permanent removal of nitrogen from these systems via microbial denitrification. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping and removing invasive plants is needed to manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. We monitored small-scale removals of Phragmites australis over four years to determine their effects on potential denitrification rates relative to three untreated Phragmites sites and adjacent sites dominated by native Typha angustifolia. Sediment ammonium increased following the removal of vegetation from treated sites, likely as a result of decreases in both plant uptake and nitrification. Denitrification potentials were lower in removal sites relative to untreated Phragmites sites, a pattern that persisted at least two years following removal as native plant species began to re-colonize treated sites. These results suggest the potential for a trade-off between invasive-plant management and nitrogen-removal services. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping versus removing invasive plants is needed to adequately manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. PMID:26914688

  17. Effects of Invasive-Plant Management on Nitrogen-Removal Services in Freshwater Tidal Marshes

    PubMed Central

    Alldred, Mary; Baines, Stephen B.; Findlay, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Establishing relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function is an ongoing endeavor in contemporary ecosystem and community ecology, with important practical implications for conservation and the maintenance of ecosystem services. Removal of invasive plant species to conserve native diversity is a common management objective in many ecosystems, including wetlands. However, substantial changes in plant community composition have the potential to alter sediment characteristics and ecosystem services, including permanent removal of nitrogen from these systems via microbial denitrification. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping and removing invasive plants is needed to manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. We monitored small-scale removals of Phragmites australis over four years to determine their effects on potential denitrification rates relative to three untreated Phragmites sites and adjacent sites dominated by native Typha angustifolia. Sediment ammonium increased following the removal of vegetation from treated sites, likely as a result of decreases in both plant uptake and nitrification. Denitrification potentials were lower in removal sites relative to untreated Phragmites sites, a pattern that persisted at least two years following removal as native plant species began to re-colonize treated sites. These results suggest the potential for a trade-off between invasive-plant management and nitrogen-removal services. A balanced assessment of costs associated with keeping versus removing invasive plants is needed to adequately manage simultaneously for biodiversity and pollution targets. PMID:26914688

  18. Enhanced vadose zone nitrogen removal by poplar during dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ausland, Hayden; Ward, Adam; Licht, Louis; Just, Craig

    2015-01-01

    A pilot-scale, engineered poplar tree vadose zone system was utilized to determine effluent nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium concentrations resulting from intermittent dosing of a synthetic wastewater onto sandy soils at 4.5°C. The synthetic wastewater replicated that of an industrial food processor that irrigates onto sandy soils even during dormancy which can leave groundwater vulnerable to NO3(-) contamination. Data from a 21-day experiment was used to assess various Hydrus model parameterizations that simulated the impact of dormant roots. Bromide tracer data indicated that roots impacted the hydraulic properties of the packed sand by increasing effective dispersion, water content and residence time. The simulated effluent NO3(-) concentration on day 21 was 1.2 mg-N L(-1) in the rooted treatments compared to a measured value of 1.0 ± 0.72 mg-N L(-1). For the non-rooted treatment, the simulated NO3(-) concentration was 4.7 mg-N L(-1) compared to 5.1 ± 3.5 mg-N L(-1) measured on day 21. The model predicted a substantial "root benefit" toward protecting groundwater through increased denitrification in rooted treatments during a 21-day simulation with 8% of dosed nitrogen converted to N2 compared to 3.3% converted in the non-rooted test cells. Simulations at the 90-day timescale provided similar results, indicating increased denitrification in rooted treatments. PMID:26030360

  19. Membrane biofilm reactors for nitrogen removal: state-of-the-art and research needs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong Hyuk; Cicek, Nazim; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2009-01-01

    Historical developments up-to-date and operational challenges of membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) were reviewed. A database of international, peer-reviewed journal articles regarding MBfR research from 1984 to 2008 was established and analyzed with a total of 107 papers. MBfR studies began to evolve in the early 1980s, since then the number of published papers increased steadily. After 2000, geographic locations where the research was conducted widened beyond North America and Europe to Asia. Research studies were divided into 4 categories and reviewed according to their main research focuses. In spite of the short history of MBfRs, studies have shown promising potential, possibly extending their application beyond nitrogen removal and organics removal. The MBfR research branched out to new fields including autotrophic denitrification. There are some important aspects of MBfRs that pose significant challenges to the application of this technology on a commercial scale in the near-future. The main challenge revolves around biofilm thickness and activity control. Further laboratory and demonstration scale studies on some of the proposed strategies for biofilm control are needed. Ultimately, more field studies with real wastewater should be performed to evaluate the resilience of the process in the face of flow and strength fluctuations, establishing optimum operational strategies. PMID:19934494

  20. [Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic water by Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wen-ming; Wang, Pei-fang; Hou, Jun

    2007-05-01

    Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi, a native kind of floating vegetation resembling Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., is widespread in ditches, ponds and rivers of Taihu Lake Basin. Its growth habits indicate its potential use in aquatic ecological restoration in Taihu Lake Basin. The removal effects of Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi on nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic water were further studied in indoor experiment, as well as in field observation. The results of indoor experiment show that in summer, the removal rate for total nitrogen was 60%, which is 1.6, 1.9 and 2.8 times greater than that of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., and control, respectively, and the removal rate for total phosphorus was about 25%, which is 0.3 times lower than that of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms., but 0.9 and 4 times higher than that of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., and control, in winter, the removal rates for total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 23% and 20%, 2.3 and 1 times higher than that of control; Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi also has good removal effects for ammonia and nitrite. And the results of field observation in Linzhuanggang River, Yixing City, show that the removal rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in July to October were 10.2%-19.6% and 23.4%-41.6% in the reach with Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi, while only 0.1%-1.6% and 3.7%-5.6% in control reach. Based on its good purifying effect on nitrogen and phosphorus in indoor experiment and field observation, the indigene Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi is recommended as one species of aquatic vegetation in phytoremediation for eutrophic water in rivers of Tailu Lake Basin. PMID:17633164

  1. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture. PMID:21644158

  2. [Effect of gas-lift device on nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor ].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Da-lini; Huang, Yong; Chen, Zong-heng; Yuan, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The effect of air-lift device on the nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor was studied by increasing the substrate concentration to improve nitrogen load rate and inoculate ANAMMOX sludge. The results showed that the effluent recirculation was achieved by using nitrogen gas produced from the ANAMMOX process as power in the air-lift room. With the increase of nitrogen removal rate, the rate of effluent recirculation was increased, which diluted influent substrate concentration and alleviated the inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria,. After 183 d operation, the effluent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 46. 3 mg L-1 and 53.21 mg.L-1, and the nitrogen removal rate was kept stable at 28.3 kg (m3.d)-1, when the influent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 700 mg.L-1 and 840 mgL-1, respectively. The effluent recirculation system formed by gas-lift devices is an economic and effective solution to the inhibition caused by high substrate concentration in traditional reactor, meanwhile, the power consumption of the external reflux pump was reduced. PMID:25518664

  3. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the secondary effluent in tertiary denitrifying biofilters combined with micro-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Nan; Shi, Yunhong; Wu, Guangxue; Hu, Hongying; Guo, Yumei; Wu, Yihui; Wen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Effective control of nitrogen and phosphorus in secondary effluent can reduce or avoid the eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Two denitrifying biofilters (DNBFs) packed with different sizes of quartz sands combined with micro-coagulation were operated for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the secondary effluent. The quartz sand size in one DNBF was 2-4 mm (DNBFS), and in the other was 4-6 mm (DNBFL). In both DNBFs, methanol was used as the electron donor and different organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios were applied. Under C/N ratios of 1.5, 1.25, and 0.75 g/g, the nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) removal percentages were 73%, 77%, and 50% in DNBFS, and 43%, 25%, and 21% in DNBFL; the effluent total phosphorus concentrations were 0.15, 0.14, and 0.18 mg/L in DNBFS, and 0.29, 0.35, and 0.24 mg/L in DNBFL. The performance of both biofilters was quite stable within a backwashing cycle. The NO3(-)-N reduction rates were 1.31, 1.10, and 0.48 mg/(L·min) in DNBFS, and 0.97, 0.27, and 0.10 mg/(L·min) in DNBFL. For biomass detached from both biofilters, their denitrifying activities were similar. Biofilm biomass in DNBFS was higher than that in DNBFL, inducing a high denitrification efficiency in DNBFS. PMID:27232413

  4. [Nitrogen removal and N2O emission characteristics during the shortcut simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-ling; Li, Ping; Wu, Jin-hua; Wang, Xiang-de

    2013-05-01

    Complete simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was achieved in an air lift circulation bioreactor. Based on this condition, the system could be switched to shortcut SND as the free ammonia (FA) concentration was increased with higher influent pH. The nitrogen removal and N2O emission characteristics of the shortcut SND process were investigated and those of the complete SND process were also observed as control. In the shortcut SND process, the average total nitrogen removal and average SND efficiency reached 71.9% and 80.9%, which was 18.0 and 16.8 percents higher than those in the complete SND process, respectively. In addition, the total nitrogen removal rate in the shortcut SND process was 0.11 mg x (L x min)(-1), 1.4 times as high as that in the complete SND process. Although higher nitrogen removal efficiency was obtained in the shortcut SND process, the mean N2O conversion rate reached 57.1% and the average N2O accumulated emission amount was approximately 4 times higher than that in the complete SND process. The results also indicated that the increase of NO2- -N concentration in the reactor should be responsible for the remarkable enhancement of N2O emission. PMID:23914537

  5. Oxygen demand, nitrogen and copper removal by free-water-surface and subsurface-flow constructed wetlands under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Lim, P E; Wong, T F; Lim, D V

    2001-05-01

    This study was conducted to: (1) assess the role of wetland vegetation in the removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen under tropical conditions, (2) estimate the uptake of nitrogen and copper by wetland plants and (3) investigate the speciation of Cu in wetland media among four operationally defined host fractions, namely exchangeable, carbonate, reducible and organically bound. Four laboratory-scale wetland units, two free-water-surface (FWS) and two subsurface-flow (SF) with one of each planted with cattails (Typha augustifolia), were fed with primary-treated sewage and operated at nominal retention times of 0.6-7 days. The influent and effluent BOD/COD and nitrogen concentrations were monitored to assess the performance of the wetland units for various mass loading rates. At the end of the study, all cattail plants were harvested and analyzed for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Four other wetland units, which were identical to the first four, were fed with domestic wastewater spiked with copper in increasing concentrations. Copper speciation patterns in the sand layer were determined at the end of the study. The results showed that wetland vegetation did not play an important role in oxygen demand removal but were capable of removing about 22% and 26% of the nitrogen input in the FWS and SF wetland units, respectively. Mass balance analysis indicated that less than 1% of copper introduced was taken up by the cattails. Copper speciation patterns in the sand media showed that the exchangeable fraction contributed 30-57% and 63-80% of the nonresidual copper in the planted and unplanted FWS wetlands, respectively. For SF units, the percentages were 52-62% and 59-67%, respectively. This indicates that large amount of copper in the media were potentially remobilizable. PMID:11392762

  6. Effect of inoculum and sulfide type on simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry and microbial mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wei, Benping; Chen, Ziai; Deng, Liangwei; Song, Li; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Yi; Pu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yunhong

    2015-12-01

    Four reactors were initiated to study the effect of inoculum and sulfide type on the simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry (Ssu-Nir) process. Anaerobic sludge, aerobic sludge, and water were used as inocula, and Na2S and biogas were used as a sulfide substrate, respectively. Additionally, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to explore the bacterial diversity. The results showed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 42.2-84.4 %) were dominant in Ssu-Nir process and led to the excellent performance. Aerobic sludge was more suitable for inoculation of the Ssu-Nir process because it is better for rapidly enriching dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 54.4 %), denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (40.0 %) and denitrifiers (23.9 %). Lower S(2-) removal efficiency (72.6 %) and NO3 (-) removal efficiency (<90 %) of the Ssu-Nir process were obtained using biogas as a sulfide substrate than when Na2S was used. For the Ssu-Nir process with biogas as the sulfide substrate, limiting H2S absorption caused a high relative abundance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Thiobacillus (84.8 %) and Thiobacillus sayanicus (39.6 %), which in turn led to low relative abundance of denitrifiers (1.6 %) and denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (24.4 %), low NO3 (-) removal efficiency, and eventually poor performance. PMID:26286512

  7. [Effect of Elodea nuttallii-immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria on Nitrogen Removal Mechanism in an Inflow River, Gonghu Bay].

    PubMed

    Han, Hua-yang; Li, Zheng-kui; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Qian

    2016-04-15

    Undisturbed sediment cores and surface water from Qinshui River in Gonghu Bay were collected to carry out a simulation experiment in our laboratory. The remediation effect of Elodea nuttallii-Immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria (INCB) was applied in the polluted inflow river. The denitrification rate, ANAMMOX rate and nitrogen microorganism diversity were measured by ¹⁵N isotope pairing technology and high-throughput sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA. The TN, NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N concentrations were reduced by 72.03%, 46.67% and 76.65% in the treatment with addition of Elodea nuttallii and INCB in our laboratory experiment. Meanwhile, denitrification bacteria and ANAMMOX bacteria had synergistic effect with each other. The denitrification and ANAMMOX rates were increased by 165 µmol (m² · h)⁻¹ and 269.7 µmol · (m² · h)⁻¹, respectively. The diversities of denitrification and ANAMMOX bacteria also increased in our experiment. From the level of major phylum, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobbacteria and Bacteroidetes all increased significantly. The results showed that the Elodea nuttallii-INCB assemblage technology could increase the bio-diversity of nitrogen cycling bacteria and promote the ability of nitrogen removal in Qinshui River. PMID:27548961

  8. New concepts of microbial treatment processes for the nitrogen removal: effect of protein and amino acids degradation.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Alejandro; Calderón, Kadiya; González-López, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    High concentrations of proteins and amino acids can be found in wastewater and wastewater stream produced in anaerobic digesters, having shown that amino acids could persist over different managements for nitrogen removal affecting the nitrogen removal processes. Nitrogen removal is completely necessary because of their implications and the significant adverse environmental impact of ammonium such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic life on the receiving bodies. In the last decade, the treatment of effluents with high ammonium concentration through anammox-based bioprocesses has been enhanced because these biotechnologies are cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. However, it has been shown that the presence of important amounts of proteins and amino acids in the effluents seriously affects the microbial autotrophic consortia leading to important losses in terms of ammonium oxidation efficiency. Particularly the presence of sulfur amino acids such as methionine and cysteine has been reported to drastically decrease the autotrophic denitrification processes as well as affect the microbial community structure promoting the decline of ammonium oxidizing bacteria in favor of other phylotypes. In this context we discuss that new biotechnological processes that improve the degradation of protein and amino acids must be considered as a priority to increase the performance of the autotrophic denitrification biotechnologies. PMID:26856581

  9. [Effect of microbial aggregation state on nitrous oxide emission in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification nitrogen removal process].

    PubMed

    Yin, Qian-Ting; Li, Ping; Wu, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xiang-De

    2011-07-01

    In order to realize efficient nitrogen removal and N2O emission reduction, air lift circulation bioreactors were applied to study the relationship between activated sludge aggregation state and N2O emission characters on the basis of high nitrogen removal performance. The nitrification/denitrification activity of different microbial aggregates was evaluated by key enzyme action ratio method. Combined with correlative theoretical analysis, the optimal aggregation state with efficient nitrogen removal and N2O emission reduction was selected. According to the results, different activated sludge aggregation state in SND would lead to significant difference of N2O emission amount (> or = 40%). The smaller aggregates (< or = 0.9 mm) with moderate compactness could keep high SND efficiency (> or = 70%) and achieved N2O emission reduction. In experimental defined system, the optimal diameter of aggregates was in the range of 0.45-0.9 mm, which could obtain higher nitrification activity [ammonia-oxidizing bacteria activity was 0.17 mg x (g x min) (-1), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria activity was 0.74 mg x (g x min) (-1)] and denitrification activity [NO3(-) -N consumption rate was 0.47 mg x (g x min) (-1), NO2(-) -N consumption rate was 0.22 mg x (g x min) (-1)]. Compared to the control group, N2O accumulated emission amount in the reactor with aggregates of 0.45-0.9 mm could be realized reduction more than 32.55%. PMID:21922830

  10. Application and kinetic evaluation of upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal from wastewater by Anammox process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The lab-scale upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor was successfully operated for the treatment of synthetic wastewater with high nitrogen load by Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process. During the entire period of operation, the reactor temperature was kept at 35±1°C. The operational strategy consisted of both increasing the ammonium and nitrite concentrations from 60 to 700mgN/L and from 80 to 920 mgN/L, respectively and decreasing the hydraulic retention time from 24 to 6 h, at each step. The highest achieved removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite were 91 and 93%, respectively. Consequently, due to their acceptable performance for nitrogen removal in previous researches, modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order models were used in this study. According to the experiment results, the model validity testing showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a little more appropriate for the description of nitrogen removal in the reactor, even though both models gave high correlation coefficients (R2=0.999). PMID:23414202

  11. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1986-10-07

    A method is described of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from an exhaust gas, the method comprising: contacting the exhaust gas with a liquid absorbent including a metal chelate for oxide of nitrogen absorption and a solution of sulfite and bisulfite ions for oxide of sulfur absorption; regenerating the liquid absorbent capacity for oxide of sulfur gases by electrodialysis in a cell containing at least two bipolar membranes, an anion selective membrane and compartments bounded by the membranes; stripping oxides of nitrogen from the liquid absorbent into a gas flow to regenerate the capacity of the liquid absorbent for oxide of nitrogen gases; and recycling the regenerated liquid absorbent into contact with the exhaust gas.

  12. Estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen content using continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjun; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    In quantitative analysis of spectral data, noises and background interference always degrades the accuracy of spectral feature extraction. Continuum-removal analysis enables the isolation of absorption features of interest, thus increasing the coefficients of determination and facilitating the identification of more sensible absorption features. The purpose of this study was to test continuum-removal methodology with Visual-NIR spectral data of tomato leaf. Through analyzing the correlation between continuum-removal spectrum and nitrogen content, 15 characteristics parameters reflected changing tendency of nitrogen content were chosen, which is at 335, 405, 500, 520, 540, 550, 560, 580, 620, 640, 683, 704, 720, 736 and 770 nm. Finally, the variance inflation analysis and stepwise regression method was used to develop the prediction model of the nitrogen content of tomato leaf. The result showed that the predicted model, which used the values of continuum-removal spectrum at 335 and 720nm as input variables, had high predictive ability, with R2 of 0.755. The root mean square errors of prediction using a leave-one-out cross validation method were 0.513. These results suggest that the continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis has better potential to diagnose tomato growth in greenhouse.

  13. Simultaneous removal of aniline, nitrogen and phosphorus in aniline-containing wastewater treatment by using sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Hongyu; Shang, Yu; Yang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    The high removal efficiencies of traditional biological aniline-degrading systems always lead to accumulation of ammonium. In this study, simultaneous removal of aniline, nitrogen and phosphorus in a single sequencing batch reactor was achieved by using anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) operational process. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN, TP were over 95.80%, 83.03%, 87.13%, 90.95%, respectively in most cases with 250mgL(-1) of initial aniline at 6h cycle when DO was 5.5±0.5mgL(-1). Aniline was able to be completely degraded when initial concentrations were less than 750mgL(-1). When DO increased, the removal rate of NH4(+)-N and TP slightly increased along with the moderate decrease of removal efficiencies of TN. The variation of HRT had obvious influence on removal performance of pollutants. The system showed high removal efficiencies of aniline, COD and nutrients during the variation of operating conditions, which might contribute to disposal of aniline-rich industrial wastewater. PMID:26906036

  14. Achieving complete nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anammox and methane-dependent denitrification: A model-based study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes enables the complete nitrogen removal from wastewater by utilizing the methane produced on site from anaerobic digesters. This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and methane-dependent denitrification in membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs). A mathematical model was applied to describe the microbial interactions among Anammox bacteria, DAMO archaea, and DAMO bacteria. The model sufficiently described the batch experimental data from an MBfR containing an Anammox-DAMO biofilm with different feeding nitrogen compositions, which confirmed the validity of the model. The effects of process parameters on the system performance and microbial community structure could therefore be reliably evaluated. The impacts of nitritation produced NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio, methane supply, biofilm thickness and total nitrogen (TN) surface loading were comprehensively investigated with the model. Results showed that the optimum NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio produced from nitritation for the Anammox-DAMO biofilm system was around 1.0 in order to achieve the maximum TN removal (over 99.0%), independent on TN surface loading. The corresponding optimal methane supply increased while the associated methane utilization efficiency decreased with the increase of TN surface loading. The cooperation between DAMO organisms and Anammox bacteria played the key role in the TN removal. Based on these results, the proof-of-concept feasibility of a single-stage MBfR coupling nitritation-Anammox-DAMO for complete nitrogen removal was also tested through integrating the model with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) processes whilst controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the simulated system. The maximum TN removal was found to be achieved at the bulk DO concentration

  15. Enhanced long-term organics and nitrogen removal and associated microbial community in intermittently aerated subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Haiming

    2016-08-01

    The long-term enhanced removal efficiency of organics and nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) with and without intermittent aeration for decentralized domestic wastewater was evaluated, and the function of intermittent aeration on microbial community was also investigated in this study. The high and long-term 95.6% COD, 96.1% NH4(+)-N and 85.8% TN removal efficiencies were achieved in experimental intermittently aerated SSF CW compared with non-aerated SSF CW. Aerated SSF CWs also exhibited the excellent removal performance when comparatively comparing with other strategies and techniques applied in CWs. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that associated microbial abundance significantly increased owing to intermittent aeration. These results indicated intermittent aeration CWs might be an effective and sustainable strategy for wastewater treatment in rural areas, but require further full-scale investigation in future. PMID:27246456

  16. Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, Sari; Luste, Sami; Valentín, Lara; Rintala, Jukka

    2006-05-01

    On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10 degrees C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20 degrees C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50-60% of nitrogen and 40-70% of total COD (CODt). Complete nitrification was achieved, but denitrification was restricted by lack of carbon. Nitrogen removal was achieved in a single reactor by applying intermittent aeration. Continuous and sequencing batch operation provided similar nitrogen and COD removal, wherefore simpler continuous feeding may be preferred for on-site applications. Combination of pre-treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) -septic tank and MBBR removed over 92% of CODt, 99% of biological oxygen demand (BOD7), and 65-70% of nitrogen. PMID:16647521

  17. Simultaneous sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide removal by calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids.

    PubMed

    Nelli, C H; Rochelle, G T

    1998-09-01

    At conditions typical of a bag filter exposed to a coal-fired flue gas that has been adiabatically cooled with water, calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids were exposed to a dilute, humidified gas stream of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a packed-bed reactor. A prior study found that NO2 reacted readily with surface water of alkaline and non-alkaline solids to produce nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO). With SO2 present in the gas stream, NO2 also reacted with S(IV), a product of SO2 removal, on the exterior of an alkaline solid. The oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by oxygen reduced the availability of S(IV) and lowered removal of NO2. Subsequent acidification of the sorbent by the removal of NO2 and SO2 facilitated the production of NO. However, the conversion of nitrous acid to sulfur-nitrogen compounds reduced NO production and enhanced SO2 removal. A reactor model based on empirical and semi-empirical rate expressions predicted rates of SO2 removal, NO2 removal, and NO production by calcium silicate solids. Rate expressions from the reactor model were inserted into a second program, which predicted the removal of SO2 and NOx by a continuous process, such as the collection of alkaline solids in a baghouse. The continuous process model, depending upon inlet conditions, predicted 30-40% removal for NOx and 50-90% removal for SO2. These results are relevant to dry scrubbing technology for combined SO2 and NOx removal that first oxidizes NO to NO2 by the addition of methanol into the flue duct. PMID:9775761

  18. Nitrogen removal from wastewater through microbial electrolysis cells and cation exchange membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of water resources to nutrients led to progressively stricter standards for wastewater effluents. Modification of the conventional procedures to meet the new standards is inevitable. New technologies should give a priority to nitrogen removal. In this paper, ammonium chloride and urine as nitrogen sources were used to investigate the capacity of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) configured by cation exchange membrane (CEM) for electrochemical removal of nitrogen over open-and closed-circuit potentials (OCP and CCP) during biodegradation of organic matter. Results obtained from this study indicated that CEM was permeable to both organic and ammonium nitrogen over OCP. Power substantially mediated ammonium migration from anodic wastewater to the cathode, as well. With a urine rich wastewater in the anode, the maximum rate of ammonium intake into the cathode varied from 34.2 to 40.6 mg/L.h over CCP compared to 10.5-14.9 mg/L.h over OCP. Ammonium separation over CCP was directly related to current. For 1.46-2.12 mmol electron produced, 20.5-29.7 mg-N ammonium was removed. Current also increased cathodic pH up to 12, a desirable pH for changing ammonium ion to ammonia gas. Results emphasized the potential for MEC in control of ammonium through ammonium separation and ammonia volatilization provided that membrane characteristic is considered in their development. PMID:24533446

  19. Effective Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Surface Water Using Constructed Comprehensive Floating Remediation Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Bai, S.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the chief pollutants of our aquatic systems which may be resulted from different contamination sources and could cause serious environmental and ecological problems. For example, nitrate contamination of the water systems from agricultural practices may be contributing to the eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, degrading water quality and aquatic habitats. Effective approaches for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from our aquatic systems, particularly from surface water, is called for imminently. An in-situ remediation measure by constructed floating remediation islands has been developed and tested through the field experiments recently. Four pilot-scale settings with the different components and structures were constructed and operated in parallel in which a new type of the constructed floating remediation islands with multi-layers of substrate fillers, called the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island, was included. The contaminated water taken directly from a river containing richly nitrogen and phosphorus was used for those experiments. The experiment results obtained from the four different experiment settings were examined. It was noticed that the degradation rates of both nitrogen and phosphorus in water in the setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was greater than those in others. The mean removal rate of phosphorous in the experiment setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was considerably higher than the removal rates of phosphorous in the other three experiment settings.

  20. Nitrogen removal from digested black water by one-stage partial nitritation and anammox.

    PubMed

    Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F; van der Linden, Davy; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2009-07-01

    This study assessed the technical feasibility to treat digested black water from vacuum toilets (> 1000 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) in a lab-scale oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor. After an adaptation period of 2.5 months, a stable nitrogen removal rate of ca. 700 mg N L(-1) d(-1) was reached over the subsequent 5 months. Suppression of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria at free ammonia levels above 3 mg N L(-1) resulted in a nitrogen removal efficiency of 76%. The favorable ratios of both organic and inorganic carbon to nitrogen guaranteed endured anammox activity and sufficient buffering capacity, respectively. Quantitative FISH showed that aerobic and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and AnAOB) made up 43 and 8% of the biofilm, respectively. Since a part of the AerAOB was probably present in anoxic biofilm zones; their specific ammonium conversion was very low, in contrast to the high specific AnAOB activity. DGGE analysis showed that the dominant AerAOB and AnAOB species were resistant to the transition from synthetic medium to digested black water. This study demonstrates high-rate nitrogen removal from digested black water by one-stage partial nitritation and anammox, which will allow a significant decrease in operational costs compared to conventional nitrification/ denitrification. PMID:19673303

  1. Biological nitrogen removal from industrial wastewater discharged from metal recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Nakamura, Y; Tsuneda, S

    2001-01-01

    The wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of acids and alkalis such as nitric acid and aqueous ammonia, and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by using a circulating bioreactor system equipped with an anaerobic packed bed and an aerobic three-phase fluidized bed. As a result of acclimating microorganisms with change of the hydraulic residence time, this system effectively removed nitrogen from diluted wastewater (T-N: from 2,000 to 4,000 g/m3), such that the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent met the sewage discharge control criteria in Japan (240 g/m3). The removal ratio of total nitrogen was 90% to 98% and that of ammonia was 80% to 92%. In addition, the characteristic equations for biological treatment were applied to this system on the assumption that both reactions of denitrification in the anaerobic reactor and nitrification in the aerobic reactor can be approximated to a first-order reaction. This simplified approach successfully led to a new analytical method for simulating the optimum volume ratio of anaerobic reactor to aerobic reactor for minimizing the total hydraulic residence time. PMID:11547981

  2. Formation and removal of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Ma, Jinxing; Zheng, Junjian; Wang, Pan; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-08-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has become a growing concern due to its contribution to eutrophication and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) formation. However, information of DON in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is very limited. In this study, occurrence, transformation and fate of DON in an MBR system were systematically investigated. MBR sludge showed a larger hydrolysis rate of particle organic nitrogen (PON) and also a higher transformation rate of DON to nitrate compared to conventional activated sludge (CAS). For long-term experiments, MBR achieved higher DON removal efficiency at low temperature than CAS; however, at high temperature, the effluent DON concentrations were almost the same in both systems. Batch tests on DON biodegradability showed that DON concentration increased and large molecular weight DON accumulated after 3-h aeration at low temperature, while DON concentration continuously decreased with the increase of aeration time at high temperature. The obtained results provide insights in DON removal in MBRs for meeting increasingly stringent regulations in terms of nitrogen removal. PMID:25911287

  3. Nitrogen removal during leachate treatment: comparison of simple and sophisticated systems.

    PubMed

    Vasel, J L; Jupsin, H; Annachhatre, A P

    2004-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) have become common in treating municipal wastewaters. Applied to leachates treatment MBR were also successful with pilot scale experiments and full-scale facilities as well. We succeeded previously in designing an efficient nitrification-denitrification process with an ethylene glycol byproduct as carbon source for denitrification. Moreover, an unexpectedly high inert COD removal efficiency was also observed in the full-scale MBR facility thereby making it possible to increase the operating time of the final GAC (Granulated Activated Carbon) adsorber. Since MBR are very sophisticated systems. Simpler and "lower" cost systems can also be considered. For example it is possible to nitrify leachates from sanitary landfill using a simple infiltration-percolation technique with a low energy cost. To validate previously published laboratory experiments, a semi industrial-scale pilot installation was installed at the Montzen landfill site (Belgium). The process is based on infiltration-percolation through a granular bed. This well known process was modified to increase the load, notably by changing the support medium, adding an electric fan that is run intermittently and maintaining temperatures greater than 15 degrees C. The new material is a type of granular calcium carbonate with a large specific surface area. These technical improvements enabled the system to nitrify up to 0.4 kg NH4+-N/m3 of reactor bed per day at a hydraulic load of 0.35 m.d(-1), with an ammonia removal rate in the range of 80 to 95%. Despite the high ammonia nitrogen inlet concentrations, this system exhibits remarkable nitrification efficiency. Moreover, these performances are achieved in a batch mode system without recirculation or dilution processes. If complete nitrification is needed, it can be obtained in a second in series of bioreactors. The system can be classified as a low cost process. An international patent is pending. Possible performances of those systems

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF NITROGEN REMOVAL BY RAPID INFILTRATION. VOLUME 1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment performance of three rapid infiltration basins receiving primary treated municipal wastewater is evaluated for optimum total nitrogen control using a series of manual operational techniques and by remote control computer operation. Three types of loading sequences were ...

  5. Anammox bacteria community and nitrogen removal in a strip-like wetland in the riparian zone.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yuansheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ziyuan; Tian, Binghui

    2011-01-01

    A strip-like wetland was constructed in the riparian zone for investigation of ammonium nitrogen (NH(3)-N) removal in the Peach River. An inner zeolite layer was set in the wetland to adsorb NH(3)-N and further to remove total nitrogen (TN). An oxygen-deficient condition with dissolved oxygen of 0.87-1.60 mg L(-1) was observed in the zeolite layer, which benefits anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria survival. The community structure of anammox bacteria was analyzed in the zeolite layer. The analysis shows that the anammox bacterial sequences are grouped into three known distinct clusters: Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. The intensified test driven by artificial pumping shows that average removal rates of NH(3)-N and TN are 41.6 mg m(-3)d(-1) and 63.2 mg m(-3)d(-1), respectively. The normal test driven by natural hydrodynamics also verifies that NH(3)-N removal mainly happens in the zeolite layer. Microbial mechanism of TN removal in the wetland involves both the autotrophic and heterotrophic process. These results suggest that the strip-like RW can be a cost-effective approach for NH(3)-N removal and can potentially be extended to similar rivers as no extra energy is required to maintain the wetland operation. PMID:21644147

  6. Effect of spray aeration on organics and nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Song, Xin-Shan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Hui

    2014-12-01

    The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen by four lab-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (V-SFCWs). The emergent plants employed were Canna indica. Five-month experiments showed that the planted and aerated system largely reduced the COD by 95%, NH4 by 88% and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83%. It outperformed the unplanted or simple aerated system and was much better than non-aerated system. The study provided a strong evidence to support widespread research and application of spray aeration as a low-cost and energy-efficient aeration technology in V-SFCWs. PMID:25259785

  7. [Isolation of heterotrophic nitrifiers which can tolerate high concentration of ammonia-nitrogen and the optimization of their nitrogen removal efficiency in wastewater].

    PubMed

    Si, Wen-Gong; Lü, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Chao

    2011-11-01

    The removal capabilities and tolerance of high concentration of ammonia-nitrogen of heterotrophic nitrifiers were studied. Methods included multi-point sampling, domestication, gradient dilution of domestication liquid, color indicator as rapid nitrification detection and isolation from streaking plate were conducted to screen heterotrophic nitrifiers. The strains were identified according to the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. After inoculating the strains into ammonia-nitrogen wastewater, changes of nitrogen compounds were measured in order to understand their denitrification characteristics. The denitrification efficiency was optimized by improving the C/N ratio, changing the compatibility of the strains and mixing the compatible strains with the domesticated bacterial suspension. Finally 8 high-efficiency heterotrohic nitrifiers were obtained, and named as N1-N8 respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 8 strains belonged to Comamonas genus, Rhodococcus genus, Pseudomonos genus, Arthrobacter genus and Paracoccus genus, respectively. When the initial concentration of ammonia nitrogen was 256.9 mg x L(-1) and the C/N was 5.5 of the artificial wastewater, the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen by the strains were about 65%-80%, and the stain N4 was the best. When the C/N ratio of the wastewater increased to 8.0, the ammonia nitrogen removal rates of the strains correspondingly increased to about 80% -90%. As the strains compatibility, the denitrification rate of N4 + N5 + N6 was 88.2% in the artificial wastewater with initial ammonia nitrogen concentration was 261.1 mg x L(-1) and initial C/N ratio was 5.5, which was higher than that of any single strain. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate could reach to 99.8% when N4 + N5 + N6 were combined with the domesticated bacterial suspension. In the artificial wastewater, when the initial ammonia nitrogen increased to 446.9 mg x L(-1) and the C/N ratio decreased to 3.2, the ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the mixed

  8. [Coating modification of anthracite substrates in vertical-flow constructed wetlands by LDHs synthesized from different metal compounds and the nitrogen removal efficiencies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Ling; Guo, Lu; Chen, Jun-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Xu, Lu; Chen, Qiao-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Xiao

    2014-08-01

    As one kind of vertical-flow constructed wetlands substrates, anthracite was selected in this experiment. LDHs (layered double hydroxides) were synthesized in alkaline conditions by co-precipitation of different kinds of metal compounds, such as CaCl2, ZnCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, CoCl3. The synthesized LDHs were in-situ coated onto the surface of anthracite substrate to achieve the aim of modification. Simulated test columns were constructed to study the nitrogen removal efficiency of the urban sewage using the original anthracite substrates and 9 kinds of modified anthracite substrates. The results showed that: LDHs synthesized by all the 9 different kinds of methods could effectively modify the anthracite substrate by in-situ coating. With Mg2+ involved in the synthesis of modified substrates, good TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed. The modified anthracite substrates coated with MgCo-LDHs had the optimal performance with average TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of higher than 80% and 85%, respectively. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by the modified anthracite substrates coated by LDHs reacted with Mg2+ and Fe3+ were also high. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by modified anthracite substrates coated with CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs were higher than 85%. PMID:25340214

  9. Modeling High Rate Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal in a Vertical Flow Alum Sludge based Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, Lordwin; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-05-01

    Increased awareness of the impacts of diffuse pollution and their intensification has pushed forward the need for the development of low-cost wastewater treatment techniques. One of such efforts is the use of novel DASC (Dewatered Alum Sludge Cakes) based constructed wetlands (CWs) for removing nutrients, organics, trace elements and other pollutants from wastewater. Understanding of the processes in CWs requires a numerical model that describes the biochemical transformation and degradation processes in subsurface vertical flow (VF) CWs. Therefore, this research focuses on the development of a process-based model for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal to achieve a stable performance by using DASC as a substrate in CWs treatment system. An object-oriented modelling tool known as "STELLA" which works based on the principle of system dynamics is used for the development of P and N model. The core objective of the modelling work is oriented towards understanding the process in DASC-based CWs and optimizes design criteria. The P and N dynamic model is developed for DASC-based CWs. The P model developed exclusively for DASC-based CW was able to simulate the effluent P concentration leaving the system satisfactorily. Moreover, the developed P dynamic model has identified the major P pathways as adsorption (72%) followed by plant uptake (20%) and microbial uptake (7%) in single-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CW. Similarly, P dynamic simulation model was developed to simulate the four-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CWs. It was found that simulated and observed values of P removal were in good agreement. The fate of P in all the four stages clearly shows that adsorption played a pivotal role in each stage of the system due to the use of the DASC as a substrate. P adsorption by wetland substrate/DASC represents 59-75% of total P reduction. Subsequently, plant uptake and microbial uptake have lesser role regarding P removal (as compared to adsorption).With regard

  10. Nitrogen removal in a SBR operated with and without pre-denitrification: effect of the carbon:nitrogen ratio and the cycle time.

    PubMed

    Mees, Juliana Bortoli Rodrigues; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Gomes, Benedito Martins; Boas, Márcio Antonio Vilas

    2014-01-01

    The effects of cycle time (CT) (8, 12 and 16h) and C/N ratio (3, 6 and 9) on nitrogen removal efficiencies in a bench top sequencing batch reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater were investigated under different operating conditions: in condition 1, the reaction comprises an aerobic/anoxic phase and in condition II, the reaction comprises anoxic I/aerobic/anoxic II phases (with pre-denitrification). The greatest percentages of nitrogen removal were obtained in the CT range from 12 to 16 h and C/N ratios from 3 to 6, with mean efficiency values of 80.76% and 85.57% in condition I and 90.99% and 91.09% in condition II. Although condition II gave a higher removal of total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ - N + NO2- - N + NO3- - N) than condition I, only condition I showed statistically significant and predictive regression for all the steps of nitrogen removal. PMID:24600848

  11. Optimization of electrochemical reaction for nitrogen removal from biological secondary-treated milking centre wastewater.

    PubMed

    Won, Seung-Gun; Jeon, Dae-Yong; Rahman, Md Mukhlesur; Kwag, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Chang-Six

    2016-01-01

    In order to remove the residual nitrogen from the secondary-treated milking centre wastewater, the electrochemical reaction including NH4-N oxidation and NOx-N reduction has been known as a relatively simple technique. Through the present study, the electrochemical reactor using the Ti-coated IrO2 anode and stainless steel cathode was optimized for practical use on farm. The key operational parameters [electrode area (EA) (cm(2)/L), current density (CD) (A/cm(2)), electrolyte concentration (EC) (mg/L as NaCl), and reaction time (RT) (min)] were selected and their effects were evaluated using response surface methodology for the responses of nitrogen and colour removal efficiencies, and power consumption. The experimental design was followed for the central composite design as a fractional factorial design. As a result of the analysis of variance, the p-values of the second-order polynomial models for three responses were significantly fit to the empirical values. The nitrogen removal was significantly influenced by CD, EC, and RT (p < .05), whereas colour removal was significantly governed by EA, CD, RT, the interaction of EA and EC (p < .05). For higher efficiency of nitrogen removal over 90%, the combination of [EA, 20 cm(2)/L; CD, 0.044 A/cm(2); EC, 3.87 g/L as NaCl; RT, 240 min] was revealed as an optimal operational condition. The investigation on cathodic reduction of NOx-N may be required with respect to nitrite and nitrate separately as a future work. PMID:26582173

  12. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wen; Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua; Russel, Christian

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. [Effect of reed rhizosphere on nitrogen and COD removal efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen removal efficiency was investigated in three subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with and without reed. Root bag made of nylon sieve with 300 mesh was used to enwrap the reed root in one of reed CWs to distinguish reed rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere. The CWs with root bag enwrapped reed root (hereinafter called as mesh CWs) and other CWs were fed with artificial ammonium-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the COD and N removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs, and C and nitrogen removal occurred concurrently along the stream way. When C/N ratio of influent was 5, the removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N in control CWs, reed CWs and mesh CWs were 66.2%, 94.2% and 82.2%, respectively. TN removal efficiencies were 67.2%, 90.7% and 76.1% respectively. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phenomenon in this study was also observed. The removal efficiency of organic carbon was different from nitrogen removal efficiency, mesh CWs showed the highest COD removal efficiency with 80.9%, while control CWs and reed CWs were 72.2% and 56.2%, respectively. C/N ratio of wastewater throughout the bed was more than 5 in three CWs, which indicated carbon source supply was enough for denitrification. The oxidation-reduction position (ORP) and concentration of total organic carbon in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were detected. The ORP in the front of mesh CWs's rhizosphere was much higher than that in control CWs and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, which were 11-311 mV and 62-261 mV, respectively. Root exudates also showed the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, the TOC of them were 21.3-54.6 mg x L(-1) and 6.65-12.0 mg x L(-1). Due to the higher ORP and concentration of TOC, the nitrogen removal efficiency in plant CWs was much higher than that in control CWs. PMID:19256373

  14. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of soil nitrogen removal by catch crops based on growth and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutake, D.; Kondo, K.; Yamane, S.; Kitano, M.; Mori, M.; Fujiwara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A new methodology for comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of nitrogen (N) removal from greenhouse soil by catch crop was proposed in relation to its growth and water use. The N removal is expressed as the product of five parameters: net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, water use efficiency for N removal, and water requirement for growth. This methodology was applied to the data of a greenhouse experiment where corn was cultivated under three plant densities. We analyzed the effect of plant density and examined the effectiveness of the methodology. Higher plant densities are advantageous not only for total N removal but also for water use efficiency in N removal and growth because of the large specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, and decreased soil evaporation. On the other hand, significant positive or negative linear relationships were found between all five parameters and N removal. This should improve the understanding of the N removal mechanisms and the interactions among its components. We show the effectiveness of our analytical methodology, which can contribute to identifying the optimum plant density according to the field situations (available water amount, soil N quantity to be removed) for practical catch crop cultivation.

  16. Autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification for simultaneous removal of nitrogen, sulfur and organic matter.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Lorna; Aguirre, Juan P; Muñoz, Maria A; Barahona, Andrea; Huiliñir, Cesar; Montalvo, Silvio; Borja, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the startup and operation of a laboratory-scale hybrid UASB-Anaerobic Filter Reactor (UASFB) of 1 L volume, kept at 30°C, in order to carry out a simultaneous autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification process. First, the heterotrophic and autotrophic populations were separately enriched, with specific cultures and subsequently the UASFB was inoculated with 2 g L(-1) of volatile suspended solids (VSS), with a ratio of 1.5:1 (autotrophs: heterotrophs). The influent or synthetic wastewater used was composed of: Na2S2O3·5H2O, CH3COOK, NaNO3, NaHCO3, K2HPO4, NH4Cl and saline solution. The concentrations varied depending on the organic loading rate (OLR), nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and sulfur loading rate (SLR) applied. In the UASFB reactor, two experimental conditions were tested and assessed: (i) COD/N ratio of 3.6 and SLR of 0.75 kg S m(-3) d(-1); and (ii) COD/N ratio of 5.8 and SLR of 0.25 kg S m(-3) d(-1). The results obtained demonstrated that an inoculum coming from an anaerobic reactor was able to carry out the process, obtaining a maximum nitrate removal of 85.3% in the first stage of operation and 99.5% in the second stage. The recovery of sulfur in form of sulfate in the effluent did not present a tendency to stabilize during the measured time, with a maximum thiosulfate removal of 32.5%, when the SLR was lowered to 0.25 kg S m(-3) d(-1). The maximum organic matter elimination, measured as COD, was 75.8%, which indicates the relatively good performance and behavior of the heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:27093220

  17. A DO- and pH-based early warning system of nitrification inhibition for biological nitrogen removal processes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seil; Choi, Il; Lim, Byung Jin; Kim, Hyunook

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, more than 80% of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with capacities of 500 m3·d-1 or more are capable of removing nitrogen from wastewater through biological nitrification and denitrification processes. Normally, these biological processes show excellent performance, but if a toxic chemical is present in the influent to a WWTP, the biological processes (especially, the nitrification process) may be affected and fail to function normally; nitrifying bacteria are known very vulnerable to toxic substances. Then, the toxic compound as well as the nitrogen in wastewater may be discharged into a receiving water body without any proper treatment. Moreover, it may take significant time for the process to return back its normal state. In this study, a DO- and pH-based strategy to identify potential nitrification inhibition was developed to detect early the inflow of toxic compounds to a biological nitrogen removal process. This strategy utilizes significant changes observed in the oxygen uptake rate and the pH profiles of the mixed liquor when the activity of nitrifying bacteria is inhibited. Using the strategy, the toxicity from test wastewater with 2.5 mg·L-1 Hg2+, 0.5 mg·L-1 allythiourea, or 0.25 mg·L-1 chloroform could be successfully detected. PMID:23443381

  18. A DO- and pH-Based Early Warning System of Nitrification Inhibition for Biological Nitrogen Removal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seil; Choi, Il; Lim, Byung Jin; Kim, Hyunook

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, more than 80% of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with capacities of 500 m3·d−1 or more are capable of removing nitrogen from wastewater through biological nitrification and denitrification processes. Normally, these biological processes show excellent performance, but if a toxic chemical is present in the influent to a WWTP, the biological processes (especially, the nitrification process) may be affected and fail to function normally; nitrifying bacteria are known very vulnerable to toxic substances. Then, the toxic compound as well as the nitrogen in wastewater may be discharged into a receiving water body without any proper treatment. Moreover, it may take significant time for the process to return back its normal state. In this study, a DO- and pH-based strategy to identify potential nitrification inhibition was developed to detect early the inflow of toxic compounds to a biological nitrogen removal process. This strategy utilizes significant changes observed in the oxygen uptake rate and the pH profiles of the mixed liquor when the activity of nitrifying bacteria is inhibited. Using the strategy, the toxicity from test wastewater with 2.5 mg·L−1 Hg2+, 0.5 mg·L−1 allythiourea, or 0.25 mg·L−1 chloroform could be successfully detected. PMID:23443381

  19. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  20. Integrating landfill bioreactors, partial nitritation and anammox process for methane recovery and nitrogen removal from leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Faqian; Su, Xiaomei; Kang, Tingting; Wu, Songwei; Yuan, Mengdong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Xiayun; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-06-01

    A new process consisting of a landfill bioreactor, partial-nitritation (PN) and the anammox process has been developed for landfill leachate treatment. In this study, the landfill bioreactor exhibited excellent performance in methane-rich biogas recovery, with a specific biogas yield of 0.47 L gas g‑1 COD and methane percentages of 53–76%. PN was achieved in the aerobic reactor by high free ammonia (101 ± 83 mg NH3 L‑1) inhibition for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and the desired PN effluent composition (effluent nitrite: ammonium ratio of 1.1 ± 0.3) was controlled by adjusting the alkalinity concentration per unit of ammonium oxidized to approximately 14.3 mg CaCO3 mg‑1 N in the influent. The startup of anammox process was successfully achieved with a membrane bioreactor in 160 d, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 216 mg N L‑1 d‑1 was attained for real landfill leachate treatment. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the cell-specific anammox activity was approximately 68–95 fmol N cell‑1 d‑1, which finally led to the stable operation of the system.

  1. Integrating landfill bioreactors, partial nitritation and anammox process for methane recovery and nitrogen removal from leachate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faqian; Su, Xiaomei; Kang, Tingting; Wu, Songwei; Yuan, Mengdong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Xiayun; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    A new process consisting of a landfill bioreactor, partial-nitritation (PN) and the anammox process has been developed for landfill leachate treatment. In this study, the landfill bioreactor exhibited excellent performance in methane-rich biogas recovery, with a specific biogas yield of 0.47 L gas g(-1) COD and methane percentages of 53-76%. PN was achieved in the aerobic reactor by high free ammonia (101 ± 83 mg NH3 L(-1)) inhibition for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and the desired PN effluent composition (effluent nitrite: ammonium ratio of 1.1 ± 0.3) was controlled by adjusting the alkalinity concentration per unit of ammonium oxidized to approximately 14.3 mg CaCO3 mg(-1) N in the influent. The startup of anammox process was successfully achieved with a membrane bioreactor in 160 d, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 216 mg N L(-1) d(-1) was attained for real landfill leachate treatment. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the cell-specific anammox activity was approximately 68-95 fmol N cell(-1) d(-1), which finally led to the stable operation of the system. PMID:27279481

  2. Integrating landfill bioreactors, partial nitritation and anammox process for methane recovery and nitrogen removal from leachate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Faqian; Su, Xiaomei; Kang, Tingting; Wu, Songwei; Yuan, Mengdong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Xiayun; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    A new process consisting of a landfill bioreactor, partial-nitritation (PN) and the anammox process has been developed for landfill leachate treatment. In this study, the landfill bioreactor exhibited excellent performance in methane-rich biogas recovery, with a specific biogas yield of 0.47 L gas g−1 COD and methane percentages of 53–76%. PN was achieved in the aerobic reactor by high free ammonia (101 ± 83 mg NH3 L−1) inhibition for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and the desired PN effluent composition (effluent nitrite: ammonium ratio of 1.1 ± 0.3) was controlled by adjusting the alkalinity concentration per unit of ammonium oxidized to approximately 14.3 mg CaCO3 mg−1 N in the influent. The startup of anammox process was successfully achieved with a membrane bioreactor in 160 d, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 216 mg N L−1 d−1 was attained for real landfill leachate treatment. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the cell-specific anammox activity was approximately 68–95 fmol N cell−1 d−1, which finally led to the stable operation of the system. PMID:27279481

  3. The catalytic removal of ammonia and nitrogen oxides from spacecabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gully, A. J.; Graham, R. R.; Halligan, J. E.; Bentsen, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations were made on methods for the removal of ammonia and to a lesser extent nitrogen oxides in low concentrations from air. The catalytic oxidation of ammonia was studied over a temperature range of 250 F to 600 F and a concentration range 20 ppm to 500 ppm. Of the catalysts studied, 0.5 percent ruthenium supported on alumina was found to be superior. This material is active at temperatures as low as 250 F and was found to produce much less nitrous oxide than the other two active catalysts, platinum on alumina and Hopcalite. A quantitative design model was developed which will permit the performance of an oxidizer to be calculated. The ruthenium was found to be relatively insensitive to low concentrations of water and to oxygen concentration between 21 percent and 100 percent. Hydrogen sulfide was found to be a poison when injected in relatively large quantities. The adsorption of ammonia by copper sulfate treated silica gel was investigated at temperatures of 72 F and 100 F. A quantitative model was developed for predicting adsorption bed behavior.

  4. Effects of intermittent loading on nitrogen removal in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Margaret G; Yelderman, Joe C; Potterton, Tina; Doyle, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Removal of CBOD(5) and nitrogen from septic tank effluent was evaluated in four horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) wetlands. An intermittently loaded cell was compared to a continuously loaded control cell, with both treatments receiving the same weekly volume. The intermittent cell was rapidly drained and "rested" for 24-hr, then refilled in steps, twice weekly. Two media with different particle sizes but similar porosities were also compared. The two media, light weight expanded shale and gravel, were both continuously loaded. As hypothesized, the wetland cell that was intermittently loaded had higher dissolved oxygen, greater ammonia removal, and greater nitrate production than the continuously loaded cells. Areal NH(3)-N removal for the intermittently loaded cell was 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1) compared to 0.47 g m(-2) d(-1) for the control. Ammonia removal was also higher in continuously loaded gravel cells than in cells with expanded shale. Ammonia-N removal was an order of magnitude lower in a similar SSF wetland that had been in operation for 3 years. However, CBOD(5), total suspended solids, and total nitrogen did not vary substantially among the treatments. PMID:20962402

  5. An EGSB-SBR based process for coupling methanogenesis and shortcut nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cui; Zhang, Daijun; He, Qiang; Lu, Peili; Ai, Hainan

    2013-01-01

    An integrated process consisting of an anaerobic/anoxic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed by a mode of sequencing batch operation, in which methanogenesis, denitrification and anammox were coupled in EGSB with methanogenesis first, then denitrification and anammox simultaneously, and partial nitrification occurred in SBR for providing nitrite to EGSB. This process extended the application of the anammox process to the treatment of wastewater containing high concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. When the volumetric exchange ratio between EGSB and SBR was controlled at 57% with the influent pH at 6-8, 74.38-83.65% of NH(4)(+)-N, 72.68-83.12% of total nitrogen (TN) and 88.34-98.86% of COD were removed in a range of 200-4,500 mg/L COD and 40-90 mg/L NH(4)(+)-N respectively. TN removal by anammox and shortcut denitrification was 26.35-58.64 and 0-32.80% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The results showed that the contribution of anammox gradually decreased with an increase in the C/N ratio of influent, whereas the reverse was true for shortcut denitrification. The COD removal by methanogenesis was 70.89-98.79% of the removed COD, and increased with increasing C/N ratio. PMID:24135114

  6. Efficiency promotion and its mechanisms of simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in stormwater biofilters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijun; Xu, Peng; Cao, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yiyong; Song, Chunlei

    2016-10-01

    Stromwater biofilter technology was greatly improved through adding iron-rich soil, plant detritus and eutrophic lake sediment. Significant ammonium and phosphate removal efficiencies (over 95%) in treatments with iron-rich soil were attributed to strong adsorption capability resulting in high available phosphorus (P) in media, supporting the abundance and activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers as well as shaping compositions, which facilitated nitrogen (N) removal. Aquatic and terrestrial plant detritus was more beneficial to nitrification and denitrification by stimulating the abundance and activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers respectively, which increased total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies by 17.6% and 22.5%. In addition, bioaugmentation of nitrifiers and denitrifiers from eutrophic sediment was helpful to nutrient removal. Above all, combined application of these materials could reach simultaneously maximum effects (removal efficiencies of P, ammonium and TN were 97-99%, 95-97% and 60-63% respectively), suggesting reasonable selection of materials has important contribution and application prospect in stormwater biofilters. PMID:27428301

  7. Selective Removal of Nitrogen from Quinoline and Petroleum by Pseudomonas ayucida IGTN9m

    PubMed Central

    Kilbane, John J.; Ranganathan, Rajaram; Cleveland, Lisa; Kayser, Kevin J.; Ribiero, Claudia; Linhares, Monica M.

    2000-01-01

    Enrichment culture experiments employing soil and water samples obtained from petroleum-contaminated environments succeeded in the isolation of a pure culture possessing the ability to utilize quinoline as a sole nitrogen source but did not utilize quinoline as a carbon source. This culture was identified as Pseudomonas ayucida based on a partial 16S rRNA gene sequence, and the strain was given the designation IGTN9m. Examination of metabolites using thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry suggests that P. ayucida IGTN9m converts quinoline to 2-quinolinone and subsequently to 8-hydroxycoumarin. Resting cells of P. ayucida IGTN9m were shown to be capable of selectively removing about 68% of quinoline from shale oil in a 16-h treatment time. These results suggest that P. ayucida IGTN9m may be useful in petroleum biorefining for the selective removal of organically bound nitrogen from petroleum. PMID:10653737

  8. Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, Belinda E.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Deletic, Ana

    2009-02-01

    SummaryBiofiltration systems are a recommended and increasingly popular technology for stormwater management; however there is a general lack of performance data for these systems, particularly at the field scale. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of three field-scale biofiltration systems in two different climates. Biofilters were shown to effectively attenuate peak runoff flow rates by at least 80%. Performance assessment of a lined biofilter demonstrated that retention of inflow volumes by the filter media, for subsequent loss via evapotranspiration, reduced runoff volumes by 33% on average. Retention of water was found to be most influenced by inflow volumes, although only small to medium storms could be assessed. Vegetation was shown to be important for maintaining hydraulic capacity, because root growth and senescence countered compaction and clogging. Suspended solids and heavy metals were effectively removed, irrespective of the design configuration, with load reductions generally in excess of 90%. In contrast, nutrient retention was variable, and ranged from consistent leaching to effective and reliable removal, depending on the design. To ensure effective removal of phosphorus, a filter medium with a low phosphorus content should be selected. Nitrogen is more difficult to remove because it is highly soluble and strongly influenced by the variable wetting and drying regime that is inherent in biofilter operation. The results of this research suggest that reconfiguration of biofilter design to manage the deleterious effects of drying on biological activity is necessary to ensure long term nitrogen removal.

  9. Biological nitrogen removal from plating wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor packed with granular sulfur.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jinyoung; Hwang, Yongwoo; Kim, Junbeum; Kwak, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Recent toughened water quality standards have necessitated improvements for existing sewer treatment facilities through advanced treatment processes. Therefore, an advanced treatment process that can be installed through simple modification of existing sewer treatment facilities needs to be developed. In this study, a new submerged membrane bioreactor process packed with granular sulfur (MBR-GS) was developed and operated to determine the biological nitrogen removal behaviors of plating wastewater containing a high concentration of NO3(-). Continuous denitrification was carried out at various nitrogen loading rates at 20 °C using synthetic wastewater, which was comprised of NO3(-) and HCO3(-), and actual plating wastewater, which was collected from the effluent water of a plating company called 'H Metals'. High-rate denitrification in synthetic plating wastewater was accomplished at 0.8 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.9 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day. The denitrification rate further increased in actual plating wastewater to 0.91 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.11 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day. Continuous filtration was maintained for up to 30 days without chemical cleaning with a transmembrane pressure in the range of 20 cmHg. Based on stoichiometry, SO4(2-) production and alkalinity consumption could be calculated theoretically. Experimental alkalinity consumption was lower than the theoretical value. This newly proposed MBR-GS process, capable of high-rate nitrogen removal by compulsive flux, is expected to be applicable as an alternative renovation technique for nitrogen treatment of plating wastewater as well as municipal wastewater with a low C/N ratio. PMID:27533855

  10. Electroflotation clarifier to enhance nitrogen removal in a two-stage alternating aeration bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kangwoo; Chung, Chong Min; Kim, Yun Jung; Hoffmann, Michael R; Chung, Tai Hak

    2013-01-01

    Stringent water treatment criteria and rapidly growing pollutant loads provoke the demand for retrofitting wastewater treatment plants towards a higher capacity. In this study, we assess a two stage alternating aeration (AA) bioreactor equipped with electroflotation (EF) clarifier, for nitrogen removal within a short hydraulic retention time (HRT). The EF under steady solids loading required a minimum unit height and gas: solids ratio of 0.006 for efficient clarification. The separated sludge blanket was further thickened with retaining stability when the cyclic solids loading was smaller than 1.0 kg m(-2). In the continuous operation of the bioreactor, the returned activated sludge concentration increased to more than 18,000 mg L(-1), while the effluent suspended solids concentration was lowered below 5 mg L(-1). Under influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentration of 300/30 mg L(-1), the TIN removal efficiency was near 70% with cycle time ratios of 0.17 and 0.27. Under higher influent COD concentration of 500mg L(-1), TIN removal efficiency was found to be 73.4% at a carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 10 and even higher (80.4%) at a C:N ratio of 16.6. The increased mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (> 6000 mg L(-1)) under the high COD loading were efficiently maintained by using the EF clarifier. The results of this study demonstrate that an EF clarifier with a HRT of less than 1 h can support reliable nitrogen removal in the AA process that has a HRT of 6 h, even under increasing influent loadings. PMID:24527640

  11. A possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills by microbial-pumping-iron behavior.

    PubMed

    Long, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Du, Yao; Feng, Huan; Fang, Yuan; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-06-15

    Nitrogen pollution from landfills needs urgent treatment. A batch experiment was designed to explore the possible in situ nitrogen removal in landfills based on the hypothesis of microbial-pumping-iron behavior, namely anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. The results confirm that a simultaneous Fe(ii) oxidation, accompanied by nitrate (NO3(-)-N) reduction and dissimilatory Fe(iii) reduction, can happen in aged municipal solid waste (AMSW). This phenomenon can last at least 10 years after landfilling. Organics is an important intermediate medium in that process. The dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle has the potential of denitrification without ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) accumulation. AMSW with deposited ages of 1-3 years is a good choice to enhance this redox cycle behavior coupled with denitrification. Conversely, AMSW with longer deposited ages (8-10 years) has a quicker iron cycle and a smaller NH4(+)-N accumulation. This suggests a possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills. PMID:27194007

  12. Ammonia-based intermittent aeration control optimized for efficient nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Bunce, Ryder; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the development of an intermittently aerated pilot-scale process (V = 0.45 m(3) ) operated for optimized efficient nitrogen removal in terms of volume, supplemental carbon and alkalinity requirements. The intermittent aeration pattern was controlled using a strategy based on effluent ammonia concentration set-points. The unique feature of the ammonia-based aeration control was that a fixed dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point was used and the length of the aerobic and anoxic time (anoxic time ≥25% of total cycle time) were changed based on the effluent ammonia concentration. Unlike continuously aerated ammonia-based aeration control strategies, this approach offered control over the aerobic solids retention time (SRT) to deal with fluctuating ammonia loading without solely relying on changes to the total SRT. This approach allowed the system to be operated at a total SRT with a small safety factor. The benefits of operating at an aggressive SRT were reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) for nitrogen removal. As a result of such an operation, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) out-selection was also obtained (ammonia oxidizing bacteria [AOB] maximum activity: 400 ± 79 mgN/L/d, NOB maximum activity: 257 ± 133 mgN/L/d, P < 0.001) expanding opportunities for short-cut nitrogen removal. The pilot demonstrated a total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rate of 95 ± 30 mgN/L/d at an influent chemical oxygen demand: ammonia (COD/NH4 (+) -N) ratio of 10.2 ± 2.2 at 25°C within the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 h and within a total SRT of 5-10 days. The TIN removal efficiency up to 91% was observed during the study, while effluent TIN was 9.6 ± 4.4 mgN/L. Therefore, this pilot-scale study demonstrates that application of the proposed on-line aeration control is capable of relatively high nitrogen removal without supplemental carbon and alkalinity addition at a low HRT. PMID:26058705

  13. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountaintop removal: Performance standards. 824.11 Section 824.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-MOUNTAINTOP REMOVAL § 824.11...

  14. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m(3). During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327-183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5-0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater by the green alga Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changfu; Yu, Xiaoqing; Lv, Hong; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. A freshwater microalga Chlorella sp. was investigated for its ability to remove both nitrogen and phosphorus from influent and effluent wastewaters which were diluted in four different proportions (namely, 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%). Chlorella sp. grew fastest under 50% influent and effluent wastewaters culture conditions, and showed an maximum cell density (4.25 x 10(9) ind 1(-1) for influent wastewater and 3.54 x 109 ind l(-1) for effluent wastewater), indicating the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus greatly influenced algal growth. High removal efficiency for total nitrogen (17.04-58.85%) and total phosphorus (62.43-97.08%) was achieved. Further, more than 83% NH4-N in 75%, 50%, 25% influent wastewater, 88% NOx-N in effluent wastewater and 90% PO4-P in all treatments were eliminated after 24 days of incubation. Chlorella sp. grew well when PO4-P concentration was very low, indicating that this might be not the limiting factor to algal growth. Our results suggest the potential importance of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae cultivation as biofuel production feedstock. PMID:24620613

  16. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  17. Nitrous oxide production during nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in lab-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuhong; Peng, Yi; Wu, Changyong; Akio, Takigawa; Peng, Yongzhen

    2008-01-01

    The production of N2O during nitrogen removal from real domestic wastewater was investigated in a lab-scale aerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor with a working volume of 14 L. The results showed that the total N2O-N production reached higher than 1.87 mg/L, and up to 4% of removed nitrogen was converted into N2O. In addition, N2O led to a much higher greenhouse effect than CO2 during aerobic reaction phase, this proved that N2O production could not be neglected. The N2O-N production during nitrification was 1.85 mg/L, whereas, during denitrification, no N2O was produced, nitrification was the main source of N2O production during nitrogen removal. Furthermore, during denitrification, the dissolved N2O at the end of aeration was found to be further reduced to N2. Denitrification thus had the potential of controlling N2O production. PMID:18763555

  18. Temporary Storage or Permanent Removal? The Division of Nitrogen between Biotic Assimilation and Denitrification in Stormwater Biofiltration Systems

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Emily G. I.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Russell, Douglas G.; Grace, Michael R.; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.; Evrard, Victor; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of stormwater treatment systems requires continuous pollutant removal without substantial re-release. Hence, the division of incoming pollutants between temporary and permanent removal pathways is fundamental. This is pertinent to nitrogen, a critical water body pollutant, which on a broad level may be assimilated by plants or microbes and temporarily stored, or transformed by bacteria to gaseous forms and permanently lost via denitrification. Biofiltration systems have demonstrated effective removal of nitrogen from urban stormwater runoff, but to date studies have been limited to a ‘black-box’ approach. The lack of understanding on internal nitrogen processes constrains future design and threatens the reliability of long-term system performance. While nitrogen processes have been thoroughly studied in other environments, including wastewater treatment wetlands, biofiltration systems differ fundamentally in design and the composition and hydrology of stormwater inflows, with intermittent inundation and prolonged dry periods. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to investigate biofilter nitrogen processes using the stable isotope tracer 15NO3− (nitrate) over the course of one inflow event. The immediate partitioning of 15NO3− between biotic assimilation and denitrification were investigated for a range of different inflow concentrations and plant species. Assimilation was the primary fate for NO3− under typical stormwater concentrations (∼1–2 mg N/L), contributing an average 89–99% of 15NO3− processing in biofilter columns containing the most effective plant species, while only 0–3% was denitrified and 0–8% remained in the pore water. Denitrification played a greater role for columns containing less effective species, processing up to 8% of 15NO3−, and increased further with nitrate loading. This study uniquely applied isotope tracing to biofiltration systems and revealed the dominance of assimilation in stormwater

  19. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system. PMID:21634169

  20. Nitrogen removal from recycled landfill leachate by ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    He, P.J. . E-mail: solidwaste@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Shao, L.M.; Guo, H.D.; Li, G.J.; Lee, D.J.

    2006-07-01

    A three-compartment system, comprising a landfill column with fresh municipal solid waste, a column with a well-decomposed refuse layer as methane producer, and a sequential batch reactor as ex situ nitrifying reactor, was employed to remove nitrogen from municipal solid waste leachate. Since food waste comprised a major portion of refuse collected in Shanghai, an intense hydrolysis reaction occurred and caused the rapid accumulation of ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total organic carbon in the leachate. This paper discusses the role of the three mentioned units and the design and operation of the proposed system. With most NH{sub 3}-N being converted to nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}{sup -}-N) or nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N) by the nitrifying reactor, and with the well-decomposed refuse layer transforming most dissolved organic compounds to CO{sub 2}, carbonates and methane, it was found that the fresh refuse column could efficiently denitrify the hydrolyzed nitrogen to N{sub 2} gas. The role of the three mentioned units and comments on the design and operation of the proposed system are also discussed.

  1. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  2. Numerical modeling of nitrogen removal processes in biofilters with simultaneous nitritation and anammox.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shun; Tao, Wendong

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a simple numerical model for nitrogen removal in biofilters, which was designed to enhance simultaneous nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is the first attempt to simulate anammox together with two-step nitrification in natural treatment systems, which may have different kinetic parameters and temperature effects from conventional bioreactors. Prediction accuracy was improved by adjusting kinetic coefficients over the startup period of the biofilters. The maximum rates of nitritation and nitrite oxidation increased linearly over time during the startup period. Simulations confirmed successful enhancement of simultaneous nitritation and anammox (SNA) in the biofilters, with anammox contributing 35% of ammonium removal. Effluent ammonium concentration was affected by influent ammonium concentration and the maximum nitritation rate, and was insensitive to the maximum nitrite oxidation rate and anammox substrate factor. Ammonium removal via SNA was likely limited by biomass of aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the biofilters. The developed model is a promising tool for studying the dynamics of nitrogen removal processes including SNA in natural treatment systems. PMID:23202559

  3. Combined carbon and nitrogen removal from acetonitrile using algal-bacterial bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Jacinto, Marco; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-06-01

    When compared with Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Selenastrum capricornutum, C. sorokiniana presented the highest tolerance to acetonitrile and the highest O(2) production capacity. It also supported the fastest acetonitrile biodegradation when mixed with a suitable acetonitrile-degrading bacterial consortium. Consequently, this microalga was tested in symbiosis with the bacterial culture for the continuous biodegradation of acetonitrile at 2 g l(-1) in a stirred tank photobioreactor and in a column photobioreactor under continuous illumination (250 microE m(-2) s(-1)). Acetonitrile removal rates of up to 2.3 g l(-1) day(-1) and 1.9 g l(-1) day(-1) were achieved in the column photobioreactor and the stirred-tank photobioreactor, respectively, when operated at the shortest retention times tested (0.4 days, 0.6 days, respectively). In addition, when the stirred-tank photobioreactor was operated with a retention time of 3.5 days, the microbial culture was capable of assimilating up to 71% and nitrifying up to 12% of the NH(4) (+) theoretically released through the biodegradation of acetonitrile, thus reducing the need for subsequent nitrogen removal. This study suggests that complete removal of N-organics can be combined with a significant removal of nitrogen by using algal-bacterial systems and that further residual biomass digestion could pay-back part of the operation costs of the treatment plant. PMID:15666149

  4. High-rate nitrogen removal by the Anammox process with a sufficient inorganic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachun; Zhang, Li; Fukuzaki, Yasuhiro; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This study focused on high-rate nitrogen removal by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process with a sufficient inorganic carbon (IC) source. Experiments were carried out in an up-flow column Anammox reactor fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater for 110 days. The IC source was added into the influent tank in the form of bicarbonate. The results confirmed the positive impact of inorganic matter on stimulating Anammox activity. After the addition of sufficient IC, the nitrogen removal rate sharply increased from 5.2 to 11.8 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1) within only 32 days. NO(2)-N inhibition was not observed even at NO(2)-N concentrations greater than 460 mgN/L, indicating the enriched Anammox consortium adapted to high NO(2)-N concentrations. The ratio of NO(2)-N removal, NO(3)-N production and NH(4)-N removal for the reactor was correspondingly changed from 1.21:0.21:1 to 1.24:0.18:1. Simultaneously, the sludge volume index of the Anammox granules decreased markedly from 36.8 to 21.5 mL/g, which was attributed to the implementation of proper operational strategy. In addition, DNA analysis revealed that a shift from the KSU-1 strain to the KU2 strain occurred in the Anammox community. PMID:20709538

  5. Removal of Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel Engine Exhaust by Plasma Assisted Molecular Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajanikanth, B. S.; Ravi, V.

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports the studies conducted on removal of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust using electrical discharge plasma combined with adsorbing materials such as molecular sieves. This study is being reported for the first time. The exhaust is taken from a diesel engine of 6 kW under no load conditions. The characteristic behavior of a pulse energized dielectric barrier discharge reactor in the diesel exhaust treatment is reported. The NOx removal was not significant (36%) when the reactor without any packing was used. However, when the reactor was packed with molecular sieves (MS -3A, -4A & -13X), the NOx removal efficiency was increased to 78% particularly at a temperature of 200 °C. The studies were conducted at different temperatures and the results were discussed.

  6. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    PubMed

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6 mS cm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C. appressa, C. bichenoviana and J. usitatus did not survive ≥10.4 mS cm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F. nodosa and J. kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ≥10.4 mS cm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ≥10 mS cm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ≤10 mS cm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. PMID:26150068

  7. [Removal efficiency of nitrogen in aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Wang, Hao-Yun; Song, Ni; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2011-01-01

    In order to adjust the dissolved oxygen in the traditional subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) and increase the purification efficiency of sewage water, the traditional SFCWs were divided into different sections with enhanced functions. Different kinds of aerobic/anaerobic SFCWs were designed to study the influence of ratio and location of aerobic/anaerobic, artificial aeration and other factors on the nitrogen in effluent. The purification efficiency of the water in this study was compared with that in traditional SFCWs. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and TN in traditional SFCWs were 18.4% and 40.6% but 99.7% and 50.7% in aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic SFCWs with aeration (O-A-O SFCWs with aeration) treatment. Aeration in the front and in the rear, and anaerobic treatment in the middle was used in this treatment. Removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in O-A-O SFCWs with aeration treatment was 100%, while that of O-A-O SFCWs without aeration was about 50%. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+) -N in new SFCWs with aeration in the front and in the rear were increased by 82.81% and 17.91% but 73.16% in the middle. It shows that aeration can significantly improve the removal efficiency of nitrogen, especially NH4(+)-N. Aeration in the front and back can greatly improve the removal efficiency NH4(+)-N and TN. But aeration resulting to oxygen-rich environment is not conducive to the denitrification, which will be an important factor of limiting the TN removal efficiency. PMID:21404680

  8. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... employee whose reduction in grade/pay level or removal is proposed under this section is entitled to—...

  9. Influence of environmental factors on removal of oxides of nitrogen by a photocatalytic coating.

    PubMed

    Cros, Clement J; Terpeluk, Alexandra L; Crain, Neil E; Juenger, Maria C G; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from combustion processes have elevated concentrations in large urban areas. They cause a range of adverse health effects, acid rain, and are precursors to formation of other atmospheric pollutants, such as ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and inorganic aerosols. Photocatalytic materials containing a semi-conductor that can be activated by sunlight, such as titanium dioxide, have been studied for their ability to remove NOx. The study presented herein aims to elucidate the environmental parameters that most influence the NOx removal efficiency of photocatalytic coatings in hot and humid climate conditions. Concrete samples coated with a commercially available photocatalytic coating (a stucco) and an uncoated sample have been tested in a reactor simulating reasonable summertime outdoor sunlight, relative humidity and temperature conditions in southeast Texas. Two-level full factorial experiments were completed on each sample for five parameters. It was found that contact time, relative humidity and temperature significantly influenced both NO and NO₂removal. Elevated concentrations of organic pollutants reduced NO removal by the coating. Ultra-violet light intensity did not significantly influence removal of NO or NO₂, however, ultra-violet light intensity was involved in a two-factor interaction that significantly influenced removal of both NO and NO₂. PMID:26211635

  10. [Effect of Intermittent Aeration on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Huai-zheng; Zhen, Bao-chong; Liu, Zhen-dong

    2016-03-15

    One-stage vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat effluent from grit chamber in municipal wastewater treatment plant. The CW was divided into aerobic zone and anoxic zone by means of raising the effluent level and installing a perforated pipe. Two parameters (the ratio of aeration time and nonaeration time, aeration cycle) were optimized in the experiment to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. The results suggested that the removal rates of COD and NH₄⁺-N increased while TN showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing ratio. When the ratio was 3:1, the C/N value in the anoxic zone was 4. 8. And the TN effluent concentration was 15.8 mg · L⁻¹ with the highest removal rate (62.1%), which was increased by 12.7% compared with continuous aeration. As the extension of the aeration cycle, the DO effluent concentration as well as the removal rates of COD and NH: -N declined gradually. The TN removal rate reached the maximum (65.5%) when the aeration cycle was 6h. However, the TN removal rate dropped rapidly when the cycle exceeded the hydraulic retention time in the anoxic zone. PMID:27337890

  11. Effect of solids retention time on antibiotics removal performance and microbial communities in an A/O-MBR process.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Jia, Renyong; Feng, Fan; Xie, Kang; Li, Haixiang; Jing, Danfeng; Xu, Xiaotian

    2012-02-01

    The effect of solids retention time on reactor performance and microbial community composition in anoxic/aerobic membrane bioreactors (A/O-MBR) were investigated in this study. Experimental results showed high removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants. Antibiotics removal efficiencies were obviously affected by SRT changes. Longer SRT (above 30days) was proved to be suitable operational condition for antibiotics removal. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis revealed that bacteria belong to Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant species during wastewater treatment and antibiotics removal. SRT significantly influenced the relative numbers of nitrifying bacteria. Removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) decreased when SRT was 3days, because nitrogen loading exceeded the denitrification ability of the reactors. Unlike tet C and tet E genes, sulfa antibiotics resistance gene presented a decreasing tendency with the decrease of SRT, and finally affected sulfa antibiotics removal efficiencies. PMID:22197076

  12. A New Developed Airlift Reactor Integrated Settling Process and Its Application for Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Nitrogen Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Chaohai

    2013-01-01

    This study presented the performance of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process using a new developed hybrid airlift reactor which integrated the activated sludge reaction process in the airlift reactor and the sludge settling separation process in the clarifier. The proposed reactor was started up successfully after 76 days within which the COD and total nitrogen removal rate can reach over 90% and 76.3%, respectively. The effects of different COD/N and DO concentrations on the performance of reactor were investigated. It was found that the influent COD/N maintained at 10 was sufficient for SND and the optimum DO concentration for SND was in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 mg L−1. Batch test demonstrated that both macroscopic environment caused by the spatial DO concentration difference and microscopic environment caused by the stratification of activated sludge may be responsible for the SND process in the reactor. The hybrid airlift reactor can accomplish SND process in a single reactor and in situ automatic separation of sludge; therefore, it may serve as a promising reactor in COD and nitrogen removal fields. PMID:23935415

  13. A new developed airlift reactor integrated settling process and its application for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Chaohai

    2013-01-01

    This study presented the performance of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process using a new developed hybrid airlift reactor which integrated the activated sludge reaction process in the airlift reactor and the sludge settling separation process in the clarifier. The proposed reactor was started up successfully after 76 days within which the COD and total nitrogen removal rate can reach over 90% and 76.3%, respectively. The effects of different COD/N and DO concentrations on the performance of reactor were investigated. It was found that the influent COD/N maintained at 10 was sufficient for SND and the optimum DO concentration for SND was in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 mg L(-1). Batch test demonstrated that both macroscopic environment caused by the spatial DO concentration difference and microscopic environment caused by the stratification of activated sludge may be responsible for the SND process in the reactor. The hybrid airlift reactor can accomplish SND process in a single reactor and in situ automatic separation of sludge; therefore, it may serve as a promising reactor in COD and nitrogen removal fields. PMID:23935415

  14. Nitrogen Removal by a Nitritation-Anammox Bioreactor at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ziye; Lotti, Tommaso; de Kreuk, Merle; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Kruit, Jans; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nitritation-anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) bioreactors are designed to treat wastewaters with high ammonium concentrations at mesophilic temperatures (25 to 40°C). The implementation of this technology at ambient temperatures for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater following carbon removal may lead to more-sustainable technology with energy and cost savings. However, the application of nitritation-anammox bioreactors at low temperatures (characteristic of municipal wastewaters except in tropical and subtropical regions) has not yet been explored. To this end, a laboratory-scale (5-liter) nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor was adapted to 12°C in 10 days and operated for more than 300 days to investigate the feasibility of nitrogen removal from synthetic pretreated municipal wastewater by the combination of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox. The activities of both anammox and AOB were high enough to remove more than 90% of the supplied nitrogen. Multiple aspects, including the presence and activity of anammox, AOB, and aerobic nitrite oxidizers (NOB) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, were monitored to evaluate the stability of the bioreactor at 12°C. There was no nitrite accumulation throughout the operational period, indicating that anammox bacteria were active at 12°C and that AOB and anammox bacteria outcompeted NOB. Moreover, our results showed that sludge from wastewater treatment plants designed for treating high-ammonium-load wastewaters can be used as seeding sludge for wastewater treatment plants aimed at treating municipal wastewater that has a low temperature and low ammonium concentrations. PMID:23417008

  15. [Carbon/nitrogen Removal and Bacterial Community Structure Change in an A/O Activated Sludge System Under Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Guo-hua; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Jun-yan; Qi, Lu; Wang, Hong-chen

    2015-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen removal performance and microbial community structure under different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (3, 2, 1 and 0. 5 mg . L -1) in an anoxic/oxic (A/O) system were investigated. The results showed that the A/O activated sludge system still had an excellent performance in removing carbon and nutrient under low DO condition (0. 5 mg . L-1). The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH4+ -N) and total nitrogen (TN) were 89. 7%, 98. 3% and 88. 0% respectively. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial community structure changed greatly under different DO conditions. However, there was still a high bacterial diversity even at low DO level, which ensured the functional stability of the A/O system. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic tree, bacterial communities were observed to be very abundant, and Proteobacteria was identified as the dominant bacteria. PMID:26489332

  16. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Qi; Li Daping Tao Yong; Wang Xiaomei; He Xiaohong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jinlian; Guo Weiqiang; Wang Lan

    2009-04-15

    Ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification represents a novel approach to nitrogen management at landfills. Simultaneous ammonia and organics removal was achieved in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results showed that the maximum nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) was 0.65 g N l{sup -1} d{sup -1} and 3.84 g COD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. The ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 99% and 57%, respectively. In the run of the CSTR, free ammonia (FA) inhibition and low dissolved oxygen (DO) were found to be key factors affecting nitrite accumulation. In situ denitrification was studied in a municipal solid waste (MSW) column by recalculating nitrified leachate from CSTR. The decomposition of MSW was accelerated by the recirculation of nitrified leachate. Complete reduction of total oxidized nitrogen (TON) was obtained with maximum TON loading of 28.6 g N t{sup -1} TS d{sup -1} and denitrification was the main reaction responsible. Additionally, methanogenesis inhibition was observed while TON loading was over 11.4 g N t{sup -1} TS d{sup -1} and the inhibition was enhanced with the increase of TON loading.

  17. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Xing, Wei; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Lei; Wang, Yajiao; Lin, Jia

    2013-09-01

    A lab-scale membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor was used to investigate hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. After start-up, the bioreactor had been operated for 165 days by stepwise increasing influent loading rates at 30 and 15°C. The results indicated that this bioreactor could achieve relatively high nitrogen removal efficiencies. The denitrification rates reached 0.250 and 0.230 kg N/(m(3)d) at 30 and 15°C respectively. The total nitrogen concentration in effluent was entirely below 2.0 mg/L at the steady operation state. The average increase of total organic carbon in effluent was approximately 0.41 mg/L, suggesting the risk of organic residue can be completely controlled. Dissolved oxygen (DO) did not show obviously negative effects on hydrogenotrophic denitrification. There was only slight decrease of DO concentration in effluent, which demonstrated almost all of the hydrogen was used for nitrate reduction. PMID:23890978

  18. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from black water: calcium addition as a requirement for settleability.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Black (toilet) water contains half of the organic load in the domestic wastewater, as well as the major fraction of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. When collected with vacuum toilets, the black water is 25 times more concentrated than the total domestic wastewater stream, i.e. including grey water produced by laundry, showers etc. A two-stage nitritation-anammox process was successfully employed and removed 85%-89% of total nitrogen in anaerobically treated black water. The (free) calcium concentration in black water was too low (42 mg/L) to obtain sufficient granulation of anammox biomass. The granulation and retention of the biomass was improved considerably by the addition of 39 mg/L of extra calcium. This resulted in a volumetric nitrogen removal rate of 0.5 gN/L/d, irrespective of the two temperatures of 35 °C and 25 °C at which the anammox reactors were operated. Nitrous oxide, a very strong global warming gas, was produced in situations of an incomplete anammox conversion accompanied by elevated levels of nitrite. PMID:20822793

  19. Effect of nitrogen doping on titanium carbonitride-derived adsorbents used for arsenic removal.

    PubMed

    Han, Jisun; Lee, Soonjae; Choi, Keunsu; Kim, Jinhong; Ha, Daegwon; Lee, Chang-Gu; An, Byungryul; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Choi, Jae-Woo; Kang, Shinhoo

    2016-01-25

    Arsenic in water and wastewater is considered to be a critical contaminant as it poses harmful health risks. In this regard, to meet the stringent regulation of arsenic in aqueous solutions, nitrogen doped carbon-based materials (CN) were prepared as adsorbents and tested for the removal of arsenic ion from aqueous solutions. Nitrogen-doped carbon (CNs) synthesized by chlorination exhibited well-developed micro- and small meso-pores with uniform pore structures. The structure and characteristics of the adsorbents thus developed were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the CNs developed, CN700 exhibited high adsorption capacity for arsenic (31.08 mg/g). The adsorption efficiency for arsenic ion was confirmed to be affected by pyrrolic nitrogen and micro-pores. These results suggest that CNs are useful adsorbents for the treatment of arsenic, and in particular, CN700 demonstrates potential for application as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic heavy metals from wastewater and sewage. PMID:26479190

  20. Biochar Addition to Stormwater Treatment Media for Enhanced Removal of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Jin, J.; Tian, J.; Chiu, P.; Guo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater management systems, such as bioretention facilities, require substantial land area and are often ineffective in removing nitrogen. This project seeks to improve nitrogen removal in bioretention media by modifying the hydraulic and treatment characteristics of the infiltration medium with biochar addition. A commercial wood biochar pyrolyzed from Southern Yellow Pine at 500°C was used. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that biochar addition to a typical bioretention medium (soil-mix: 4% saw dust, 88% sand, 8% clay) increased ammonium sorption at typical stormwater concentrations (2 mg/L) by a factor of 6, total porosity by 16.6%, and water retention at most matric potentials. The effect of the biochar-amended medium on nitrate removal was evaluated in pilot-scale experiments. Side-by-side experimental cells (91 cm dia., 1.2 m deep) were constructed to treat stormwater runoff from a parking lot. The control cell contained 100% soil mix while the biochar cell contained 4% biochar and 96% soil-mix by mass. Treatment media were 76.2 cm in depth and overlain by 5.1 cm of wood mulch in both cells, with a water table maintained at the bottom of the treatment zones. Cells were instrumented with TDR moisture sensors, pressure transducers, and redox and temperature sensors. Two pilot-scale experiments were conducted that included a bromide tracer and nitrate with a hydraulic loading of 5.5cm/h for 24 h in early spring and 36 h in summer. Effluent was continuously sampled for nitrogen compounds during these tests. Tracer tests and TDR measurements showed that biochar increased the average volumetric water content of the vadose zone by 14.7% and the mean residence time by 12.6%. For the spring field test at 14°C, nitrate in the control cell effluent increased by 6.1% but decreased by 43.5% for the biochar cell. For the summer field test at 22°C, 30.6% and 84.7% of influent nitrate was removed in the control and biochar cells, respectively. In the summer

  1. Storm water pollutant removal performance of compost filter socks.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Cardoso-Gendreau, F A; Codling, E; Sadeghi, A M; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks (FS) as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. The objectives of this study were to determine if FS with or without the addition of a flocculation agent to the FS system can significantly remove (i) suspended clay and silt particulates, (ii) ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NO(3)-N), (iii) fecal bacteria, (iv) heavy metals, and (v) petroleum hydrocarbons from storm water runoff. Five separate (I-V) 30-min simulated rainfall-runoff events were applied to soil chambers packed with Hartboro silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) or a 6-mm concrete veneer on a 10% slope, and all runoff was collected and analyzed for hydraulic flow rate, volume, pollutant concentrations, pollutant loads, and removal efficiencies. In corresponding experiments, runoff was analyzed for (i) size of sediment particles, (ii) NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, (iii) total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli, (iv) Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and (v) gasoline, diesel, and motor oil, respectively. Results showed that: (i) FS removed 65% and 66% of clay (<0.002 mm) and silt (0.002-0.05 mm), respectively; (ii) FS removed 17%, and 11% of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, respectively and when NitroLoxx was added to the FS, removal of NH(4)-N load increased to 27%; (iii) total coliform and E. coli removal efficiencies were 74 and 75%, respectively, however, when BactoLoxx was added, removal efficiency increased to 87 and 99% for TC and 89 and 99% for E. coli, respectively; (iv) FS removal efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 37 to 72%, and, when MetalLoxx was added, removal efficiency ranged from 47 to 74%; and (v) FS removal efficiency for the three petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 43 to 99% and the addition of PetroLoxx increased motor oil and gasoline removal

  2. Combination of herbivore removal and nitrogen deposition increases upland carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart W; Johnson, David; Quin, Samuel L O; Munro, Kyle; Pakeman, Robin J; van der Wal, René; Woodin, Sarah J

    2015-08-01

    Ecosystem carbon (C) accrual and storage can be enhanced by removing large herbivores as well as by the fertilizing effect of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. These drivers are unlikely to operate independently, yet their combined effect on aboveground and belowground C storage remains largely unexplored. We sampled inside and outside 19 upland grazing exclosures, established for up to 80 years, across an N deposition gradient (5-24 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) and found that herbivore removal increased aboveground plant C stocks, particularly in moss, shrubs and litter. Soil C storage increased with atmospheric N deposition, and this was moderated by the presence or absence of herbivores. In exclosures receiving above 11 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) , herbivore removal resulted in increased soil C stocks. This effect was typically greater for exclosures dominated by dwarf shrubs (Calluna vulgaris) than by grasses (Molinia caerulea). The same pattern was observed for ecosystem C storage. We used our data to predict C storage for a scenario of removing all large herbivores from UK heathlands. Predictions were made considering herbivore removal only (ignoring N deposition) and the combined effects of herbivore removal and current N deposition rates. Predictions including N deposition resulted in a smaller increase in UK heathland C storage than predictions using herbivore removal only. This finding was driven by the fact that the majority of UK heathlands receive low N deposition rates at which herbivore removal has little effect on C storage. Our findings demonstrate the crucial link between herbivory by large mammals and atmospheric N deposition, and this interaction needs to be considered in models of biogeochemical cycling. PMID:25930662

  3. Computational Prediction of Cryogenic Micro-nano Solid Nitrogen Particle Production Using Laval Nozzle for Physical Photo Resist Removal-cleaning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Abe, Haruto; Ochiai, Naoya

    The fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic single-component micro-nano solid nitrogen (SN2) particle production using super adiabatic Laval nozzle and its application to the physical photo resist removal-cleaning technology are investigated by a new type of integrated measurement coupled computational technique. As a result of present computation, it is found that high-speed ultra-fine SN2 particles are continuously generated due to the freezing of liquid nitrogen (LN2) droplets induced by rapid adiabatic expansion of transonic subcooled two-phase nitrogen flow passing through the Laval nozzle. Furthermore, the effect of SN2 particle diameter, injection velocity, and attack angle to the wafer substrate on resist removal-cleaning performance is investigated in detail by integrated measurement coupled computational technique.

  4. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. PMID:24784452

  5. Nitrogen Removal in Aerobic Granular Sludge SBR: Real-time Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangjuan; Gao, Dawen

    2010-11-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granules was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentration on biological nitrogen removal for synthetic sewage treatment, and the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as on-line control parameters in such systems were investigated. The results showed that DO concentrations had significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. High DO concentration improved the nitrification causing volumetric NH4+-N removal increased and shortened the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between on-line control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrients (COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N) variations in aerobic granules when DO was 2.5 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L. However it is difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0 mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5 mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing.

  6. Characterization of microbial community in nitrogen removal process of metallurgic wastewater by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, S; Noda, N; Miyano, T; Tsuneda, S; Hirata, A; Inamori, Y

    2002-01-01

    The metallurgic wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitric acid and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by a circulating bioreactor system equipped with an anoxic packed bed and an aerobic fluidized bed. The anoxic packed bed of this system was found to effectively remove nitrite and nitrate from the wastewater by denitrification at a removal ratio of 97%. As a result of denitrification activity tests at various NaCl concentrations, the sludge obtained from the anoxic packed bed exhibited accumulation of nitrite at 5.0 and 8.4% NaCl concentrations, suggesting that the reduction of nitrite is the key step in the denitrification pathway under hypersaline conditions. The microbial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments revealed that the community diversity varied in accordance with water temperature, nitrate-loading rate and ionic strength. When particular major DGGE bands were excised, reamplified and directly sequenced, the dominant species in the anoxic packed bed were affiliated with the beta and gamma subclasses of the class Proteobacteria such as Alcaligenes defragrans and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. PMID:12523738

  7. Nitrogen removal capability through simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by Bacillus sp. LY.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; He, Yi Liang; Zhang, Xiao Fan

    2010-04-01

    The heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification capabilities of Bacillus sp. LY were investigated under the aerobic condition. The results indicate that Bacillus sp. LY is not only a heterotrophic nitrifier, but also an aerobic denitrifier. Experiments were carried out in an attempt to determine and quantify the contribution of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification to total N removal. By taking the nitrogen balance under the culture condition of 41.1 mg/L of initial NH(4+)-N at a C/N ratio of 15 in 96 h, 8.0% of the initial NH(4)+-N still remained in the medium in the forms of hydroxylamine, nitrite, nitrate and organic N; 40.5% of NH(4+)-N was converted to biomass and 45.9% of NH(4+)-N was estimated to be finally removed in the formation of N2. This conversion of ammonium to N2 with the intermediate formation of N2O under the aerobic condition was confirmed by gas chromatography. Single step nitrogen removal by simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification has great potential in wastewater treatment. PMID:20450115

  8. Pilot-scale evaluation of anammox-based mainstream nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; Hu, Z; Kartal, B; de Kreuk, M K; van Erp Taalman Kip, C; Kruit, J; Hendrickx, T L G; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal in the mainstream wastewater treatment process is suggested to be a prerequisite of energy autarkic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process at mainstream conditions is still under development. Lower operating temperature and ammonium concentration, together with required high nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to face in order to reach this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the evaluation of the process in a plug-flow granular sludge-based pilot-scale reactor (4 m3) continuously fed with the actual effluent of the A-stage of the WWTP of Dokhaven, Rotterdam. The one-stage partial nitritation-anammox system was operated for more than 10 months at 19±1°C. Observed average N-removal and ammonium conversion rates were comparable or higher than those of conventional N-removal systems, with 182±46 and 315±33 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand was also oxidized in the system with an average removal efficiency of 90%. Heterotrophic biomass grew preferentially in flocs and was efficiently washed out of the system. Throughout the experimentation, the main bottleneck was the nitritation process that resulted in nitrite-limiting conditions for the anammox conversion. Anammox bacteria were able to grow under mainstream WWTP conditions and new granules were formed and efficiently retained in the system. PMID:25411102

  9. Optimization of operation conditions for the startup of aerobic granular sludge reactors biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Holliger, Christof

    2014-08-01

    The transformation of conventional flocculent sludge to aerobic granular sludge (AGS) biologically removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (COD, N, P) is still a main challenge in startup of AGS sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBRs). On the one hand a rapid granulation is desired, on the other hand good biological nutrient removal capacities have to be maintained. So far, several operation parameters have been studied separately, which makes it difficult to compare their impacts. We investigated seven operation parameters in parallel by applying a Plackett-Burman experimental design approach with the aim to propose an optimized startup strategy. Five out of the seven tested parameters had a significant impact on the startup duration. The conditions identified to allow a rapid startup of AGS-SBRs with good nutrient removal performances were (i) alternation of high and low dissolved oxygen phases during aeration, (ii) a settling strategy avoiding too high biomass washout during the first weeks of reactor operation, (iii) adaptation of the contaminant load in the early stage of the startup in order to ensure that all soluble COD was consumed before the beginning of the aeration phase, (iv) a temperature of 20 °C, and (v) a neutral pH. Under such conditions, it took less than 30 days to produce granular sludge with high removal performances for COD, N, and P. A control run using this optimized startup strategy produced again AGS with good nutrient removal performances within four weeks and the system was stable during the additional operation period of more than 50 days. PMID:24784454

  10. Energy efficient treatment of A-stage effluent: pilot-scale experiences with shortcut nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Seuntjens, D; Bundervoet, B L M; Mollen, H; De Mulder, C; Wypkema, E; Verliefde, A; Nopens, I; Colsen, J G M; Vlaeminck, S E

    2016-01-01

    Energy autarky of sewage treatment plants, while reaching chemical oxygen demand (COD) and N discharge limits, can be achieved by means of shortcut N-removal. This study presents the results of a shortcut N-removal pilot, located at the biological two-'stage (high/low rate) wastewater treatment plant of Breda, The Netherlands. The pilot treated real effluent of a high-rate activated sludge (COD/N = 3), fed in a continuous mode at realistic loading rates (90-100 g N/(m(3)·d)). The operational strategy, which included increased stress on the sludge settling velocity, showed development of a semi-granular sludge, with average particle size of 280 μm (ø(4,3)), resulting in increased suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The process was able to remove part of the nitrogen (51 ± 23%) over nitrite, with COD/N removal ratios of 3.2 ± 0.9. The latter are lower than the current operation of the full-scale B-stage in Breda (6.8-9.4), showing promising results for carbon-efficient N-removal, while producing a well settling sludge (SVI(30) < 100 mL/g). PMID:27148716

  11. Simultaneous effective carbon and nitrogen removals and phosphorus recovery in an intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor integrated system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Geng, Yi-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Recovering nutrients, especially phosphate resource, from wastewater have attracted increasing interest recently. Herein, an intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a mesh filter was developed for simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorous removal, followed by phosphorus recovery from the phosphorus-rich sludge. This integrated system showed enhanced performances in nitrification and denitrification and phosphorous removal without excess sludge discharged. The removal of COD, TN and total phosphorus (TP) in a modified MBR were averaged at 94.4 ± 2.5%, 94.2 ± 5.7% and 53.3 ± 29.7%, respectively. The removed TP was stored in biomass, and 68.7% of the stored phosphorous in the sludge could be recovered as concentrated phosphate solution with a concentration of phosphate above 350 mg/L. The sludge after phosphorus release could be returned back to the MBR for phosphorus uptake, and 83.8% of its capacity could be recovered. PMID:26541793

  12. [Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

    2008-04-01

    Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed. PMID:18637335

  13. Performances of toluene removal by activated carbon derived from durian shell.

    PubMed

    Tham, Y J; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Abdullah, A M; Shamala-Devi, A; Taufiq-Yap, Y H

    2011-01-01

    In the effort to find alternative low cost adsorbent for volatile organic vapors has prompted this research in assessing the effectiveness of activated carbon produced from durian shell in removing toluene vapors. Durian shells were impregnated with different concentrations of H3PO4 followed by carbonization at 500 °C for 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared durian shell activated carbon (DSAC) was characterized for its physical and chemical properties. The removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC was performed using different toluene concentrations. Results showed that the highest BET surface area of the produced DSAC was 1404 m2/g. Highest removal efficiency of toluene vapors was achieved by using DSAC impregnated with 30% of acid concentration heated at 500 °C for 20 min heating duration. However, there is insignificant difference between removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC and different toluene concentrations. The toluene adsorption by DSAC was better fitted into Freundlich model. PMID:20884200

  14. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic-aerobic circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR).

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Nakhla, G; Zhu, J; Patel, A

    2004-06-01

    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) in municipal wastewater treatment to remove carbonaceous substrates and nutrients, has recently become increasingly popular worldwide due to increasingly stringent regulations. Biological fluidized bed (BFB) technology, which could be potentially used for BNR, can provide some advantages such as high efficiency and a compact structure. This work shows the results of simultaneous elimination of organic carbon and nitrogen using a circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR, which has been developed recently for chemical engineering processes. The CFBBR has two fluidized beds, running as anoxic and aerobic processes to accomplish simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, with continuous liquid recirculation through the anoxic bed and the aerobic bed. Soluble COD concentrations in the effluent ranging from 4 to 20 mg l(-1) were obtained at varying COD loading rates; ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged in excess of 99% at a minimum total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.0 hours over a temperature range of 25 degrees C to 28 degrees C. Effluent nitrate nitrogen concentration of less than 5 mg l(-1) was achieved by increasing effluent recycle rate. No nitrite accumulation was observed either in the anoxic bed or in the aerobic bed. The system was able to treat grit chamber effluent wastewater at a HRT of 2.0 hours while achieving average effluent BOD, COD, NH3-N, TKN, nitrates, total phosphate, TSS and VSS concentrations of 10 mg l(-1), 18 mg l(-1), 1.3 mg l(-1), 1.5 mg l(-1), 7 mg l(-1), 2.0 mg l(-1), 10 mg l(-1) and 8 mg l(-1) respectively. The CFBBR appears to be not only an excellent alternative for conventional activated sludge type BNR technologies but also capable of processing much higher loadings that are suitable for industrial applications. PMID:15369290

  15. CFD simulation and optimization of membrane scouring and nitrogen removal for an airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wei, Yuansong; Zheng, Xiang; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xing; Liu, Jibao; Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yu, Dawei; Fan, Yaobo

    2016-11-01

    Cost-effective membrane fouling control and nitrogen removal performance are of great concern in airlift external circulation membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating sub-models of bio-kinetics, oxygen transfer and sludge rheology was developed for the cost-effective optimization of a lab-scale AEC-MBR. The model was calibrated and validated by extensive measurements of water velocities and water quality parameters in the AEC-MBR. The validated results demonstrated that the optimized height of gas-liquid dispersion was at around 300mm. The shear stress on membrane surface was equalized and had an average value of 1.2Pa under an air flowrate of 1.0m(3)h(-1). The model further revealed that the high nitrogen removal efficiency (>90%) was achieved due to the high recirculation ratio driven by airlift force without destroying the oxygen deprivation and enrichment in the anoxic and oxic zone, respectively. PMID:27540633

  16. Intensified organics and nitrogen removal in the intermittent-aerated constructed wetland using a novel sludge-ceramsite as substrate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Lv, Jialong; Lu, Shaoyong; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Suqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a novel sludge-ceramsite was applied as main substrate in intermittent-aerated subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) for treating decentralized domestic wastewater, and intensified organics and nitrogen removal in different SSF CWs (with and without intermittent aeration, with and without sludge-ceramsite substrate) were evaluated. High removal of 97.2% COD, 98.9% NH4(+)-N and 85.8% TN were obtained simultaneously in the intermittent-aerated CW system using sludge-ceramsite substrate compared with non-aerated CWs. Moreover, results from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the intermittent-aerated CW system with sludge-ceramsite substrate was enhanced, thus indicating that the application of intermittent aeration and sludge-ceramsite plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. These results suggest that a combination of intermittent aeration and sludge-ceramsite substrate is reliable to enhance the treatment performance in SSF CWs. PMID:26832393

  17. Model-based operational guidelines of a bioprocess for biological nitrogen removal and complete stabilisation of anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Morras, M; Larrea, L; García-Heras, J L

    2014-07-01

    The concept of one-stage reactor system for biological nitrogen removal over nitrite of ammonium high loaded sidestreams is going to be applied to remove nitrogen from anaerobically digested sewage sludge and to achieve its complete stabilisation. Dealing with sludge, the organic matter needed to denitrify is present in the inflow as particulate substrate, which requires a hydrolysis step. The latter implies high anoxic hydraulic retention time (HRT). During both aerobic and anoxic phases, ammonium is released which implies the need to enlarge aerobic HRT. Both effects lead to a total HRT higher than those for nitrification-denitrification of wastewater with soluble substrate. The purpose of this paper is to define, by computer simulation, a set of theoretical criteria, which will be applied later to the operation of a pilot-scale post-aeration reactor to be located in a Spanish WWTP. These criteria will be defined by simulating the reactor performance under different operating conditions. As a conclusion, some operation guidelines have been established for the above-mentioned scenario in terms of aerobic and anoxic retention time, dissolved oxygen concentration and effluent requirements (NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-)). PMID:24374969

  18. Effect of granule size on autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Volcke, E I P; Picioreanu, C; De Baets, B; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-10-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal through sequential partial nitritation and anammox reactions can be achieved in biofilm reactors by controlling the oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid in such a way that nitrite oxidizers are outcompeted by anammox bacteria. In the case of granular sludge reactors, the granule size may influence the optimal range of oxygen concentration, as has been confirmed in the present study by means of numerical simulations. The range of oxygen concentrations for which combined partial nitritation and anammox conversion is established becomes broader for larger particles and with increasing influent ammonium concentrations. At the same time the likelihood of nitrite accumulation in the reactor effluent also increases. PMID:21046957

  19. Elemental sulfur formation and nitrogen removal from wastewaters by autotrophic denitrifiers and anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunshuang; Zhao, Dongfeng; Yan, Laihong; Wang, Aijie; Gu, Yingying; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-09-01

    Elemental sulfur (S(0)) formation from and nitrogen removal on sulfide, nitrate and ammonium-laden wastewaters were achieved by denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) reactor with autotrophic denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria. The sulfide to nitrate ratio is a key process parameter for excess accumulation of S(0) and a ratio of 1.31:1 is a proposed optimum. The Alishewanella, Thauera and Candidatus Anammoximicrobium present respectively the autotrophic denitrifiers and anammox bacteria for the reactor. DEAMOX is demonstrated promising biological process for treating organics-deficient (S+N) wastewaters with excess S(0) production. PMID:26022701

  20. Distribution of Nitrosomonas europaea and Paracoccus denitrificans Immobilized in Tubular Polymeric Gel for Nitrogen Removal

    PubMed Central

    Uemoto, Hiroaki; Saiki, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    To improve the cooperative removal of nitrogen by Nitrosomonas europaea and Paracoccus denitrificans, we controlled their distribution in a tubular gel. When ethanol was supplied inside the tubular gel as an electron donor, their distributions overlapped in the external region of the gel. By changing the electron donor from ethanol to gaseous hydrogen, the distribution of P. denitrificans shifted to the inside of the tube and was separated from that of N. europaea. The separation resulted in an increase of the oxidation rate of ammonia by 25%. PMID:10653756

  1. Composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation properties of dissolved organic nitrogen in composting leachates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Gao, Ru-Tai; Tan, Wen-Bing; Cui, Dong-Yu; Yuan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in composting leachates. Results showed that the leachate-derived DON comprised proteinaceous compounds and amines, and most of them were integrated into the fulvic- and humic-like substances. Neutral, basic, acidic, hydroxylic, aromatic, and sulfuric amino acids all were detected in the influent leachates. However, most of them were removed by the biological and physical processes, and only neutral amino acids were detected in the effluent. The DON was not the main contributor to the redox capability of the leachate dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, it exhibited a strong capability for metal complexation. The amines formed strong complexes with the metals Mo, Co, Cr, and Ni, while the proteinaceous matter interacted with the metals Cr and Ni. PMID:25282175

  2. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  3. Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus From Reject Water Using Chlorella vulgaris Algae After Partial Nitrification/Anammox Process.

    PubMed

    Gutwinski, Piotr; Cema, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater containing nutrients like ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphates have been identified as the main cause of eutrophication in natural waters. Therefore, a suitable treatment is needed. In classical biological processes, nitrogen and phosphorus removal is expensive, especially due to the lack of biodegradable carbon, thus new methods are investigated. In this paper, the new possibility of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in side stream after the partial nitrification/Anammox process is proposed. Research was carried out in a lab-scale vertical tubular photobioreactor (VTR) fed with real reject water, from dewatering of digested sludge, after partial nitrification/Anammox process from lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured every three days. The average nitrogen and phosphorus loads were 0.0503 ± 0.036 g N g(vss)/d and 0.0389 ± 0.013 g P g(vss)/d accordingly. Results have shown that microalgae were able to efficiently remove nitrogen and phosphorus. The average nitrogen removal was 36.46% and phosphorus removal efficiency varied between 93 and 100%. PMID:26803028

  4. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PMID:19923760

  5. Experimental analysis of a nitrogen removal process simulation of wastewater land treatment under three different wheat planting densities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Chen, Jia-Jun; Tian, Kai-Ming; Lu, Yan

    2002-07-01

    Nitrogen contaminant transport, transformation and uptake simulation experiments were conducted in green house under three different planting density of winter wheat. They were Group A, planting density of 0.0208 plants/cm2, Group B, 0.1042 plants/cm2, and Group C, 0.1415 plants/cm2. The capacity and ratio of nitrogen removal were different on three kinds of conditions of wastewater land treatment. From analysis of wastewater treatment capacity, wastewater concentration and irrigation intensity for Group C were suitable and nitrogen quantity added was 2 times of that for Group B, 2.6 times for Group A while nitrogen residue was only 7.06%. Hence, wastewater irrigation and treatment design with purpose of waste water treatment should select the design with maximum capacity, optimal removal ratio and least residue in soil, which was closely related to crop planting density, crop growth status and also background nitrogen quantity in soil. PMID:12211980

  6. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2014-03-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P < 0.05) under both conditions. Water-insoluble fractions (F) obtained under natural conditions stimulated NRE to a significant extent, promoting rates by about 30%. Among acidic, neutral and basic fractions, a pronounced stimulatory effect was also observed for the neutral fractions from HZ1 and WX3 under both conditions, whereas the acidic fractions from WX3 displayed an inhibitory effect. Analysis of the active fractions using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere. PMID:24271005

  7. Optimized aeration strategies for nitrogen and phosphorus removal with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2013-10-15

    Biological wastewater treatment by aerobic granular sludge biofilms offers the possibility to combine carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal in a single reactor. Since denitrification can be affected by suboptimal dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and limited availability of COD, different aeration strategies and COD loads were tested to improve N- and P-removal in granular sludge systems. Aeration strategies promoting alternating nitrification and denitrification (AND) were studied to improve reactor efficiencies in comparison with more classical simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) strategies. With nutrient loading rates of 1.6 gCOD L(-1) d(-1), 0.2 gN L(-1) d(-1), and 0.08 gP L(-1) d(-1), and SND aeration strategies, N-removal was limited to 62.3 ± 3.4%. Higher COD loads markedly improved N-removal showing that denitrification was limited by COD. AND strategies were more efficient than SND strategies. Alternating high and low DO phases during the aeration phase increased N-removal to 71.2 ± 5.6% with a COD loading rate of 1.6 gCOD L(-1) d(-1). Periods of low DO were presumably favorable to denitrifying P-removal saving COD necessary for heterotrophic N-removal. Intermittent aeration with anoxic periods without mixing between the aeration pulses was even more favorable to N-removal, resulting in 78.3 ± 2.9% N-removal with the lowest COD loading rate tested. P-removal was under all tested conditions between 88 and 98%, and was negatively correlated with the concentration of nitrite and nitrate in the effluent (r = -0.74, p < 0.01). With low COD loading rates, important emissions of undesired N2O gas were observed and a total of 7-9% of N left the reactor as N2O. However, N2O emissions significantly decreased with higher COD loads under AND conditions. PMID:23948562

  8. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from ammonium at low applied voltage in a single-compartment microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lixia; Li, Daping; Su, Wentao; Tao, Yong; Qian, Junwei

    2012-07-01

    A new approach was developed to achieve autotrophic nitrogen removal from ammonium at low applied voltage in a single-compartment 3-dimensional microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MEC consisted of anodic and cathodic electrodes, on which nitrifying and denitrifying biofilms, respectively, were attached. Nitrogen removal can be enhanced at an applied voltage in the MEC. Besides, the nitrogen removal efficiency gradually increased from 70.3% to 92.6% with the increase of applied voltage from 0.2 to 0.4V, as well as the maximum current was varied from 4.4 to 14 mA. The corresponding coulombic efficiency also increased from 82% to 94.4%, indicating that the increasing applied voltage could enhance electron extraction from ammonium during its oxidative removal. The DO was found to be a critical factor which affected the nitrogen removal in this MEC system. These results demonstrated that the MEC process was applicable to achieve autotrophic nitrogen removal from wastewater containing ammonium. PMID:22572551

  9. Removal of organics and nutrients from food wastewater using combined thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Moonil

    2011-10-15

    A process combining pilot-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) was developed to treat organics and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from food wastewater. The thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion process was investigated without adjusting the pH of the wastewater for the pre-acidification process. The digested food wastewater was treated using the SBNR process without supplemental carbon sources or alkalinity. Under these circumstances, the combined system was able to remove about 99% of COD, 88% of TN, and 97% of TP. However, considerable amounts of nutrients were removed due to chemical precipitation processes between the anaerobic digestion and SBNR. The average TN removal efficiency of the SBNR process was about 74% at very low C/N (TCOD/TN) ratio of 2. The SBNR process removed about 39% of TP from the digested food wastewater. Conclusively, application of the combined system improved organic removal efficiency while producing valuable energy (biogas), removed nitrogen at a low C/N ratio, and conserved additional resources (carbon and alkalinity). PMID:21849203

  10. Completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite in lab-scale constructed wetlands: evidence from a mass balance study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangzhi; Austin, David

    2007-06-01

    A mass-balance study was carried out to investigate the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in vertical flow wetlands. Landfill leachate containing low BOD, but a high concentration of ammonia, was treated in four wetland columns under predominately aerobic conditions. Influent total nitrogen in the leachate consisted mainly of ammonia with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, and negligible organic nitrogen. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (<12%). Net nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Correlations between pH, nitrite and nitrate concentrations indicated the removal of nitrogen under study conditions did not follow the conventional, simplistic, chemistry of autotrophic nitrification. Through mass-balance analysis, it was found that CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen-removal Over Nitrite) was responsible for the transformation of nitrogen into gaseous form, thereby causing the loss of nitrogen mass. The results show that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating wastewater that contains high ammonia and low BOD. PMID:17349669

  11. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for... rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C of part 430...

  12. Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus removal by enhanced coagulation and microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, Marina; Pagilla, Krishna

    2010-10-01

    Plants aiming to achieve very low effluent nutrient levels (<3 mg N/L for N, and <0.1 mg P/L for P) need to consider removal of effluent fractions hitherto not taken into account. Two of these fractions are dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved non-reactive phosphorus (DNRP) (mainly composed of organic phosphorus). In this research, enhanced coagulation using alum (at doses commonly employed in tertiary phosphorus removal) followed by microfiltration (using 0.22 μm pore size filters) was investigated for simultaneous effluent DON and dissolved phosphorus (DP) fractions removal. At an approximate dose of 3.2 mg Al(III)/L, corresponding to 1.5 Al(III)/initial DON-N and 3.8 Al(III)/initial DP-P molar ratios, maximum simultaneous removal of DON and DP was achieved (69% for DON and 72% for DP). At this dose, residual DON and DP concentrations were found to be 0.3 mg N/L and 0.25 mg P/L, respectively. Analysis of the trends of removal revealed that the DNRP removal pattern was similar to that commonly reported for dissolved reactive phosphorus. Since this study involved intensive analytical work, a secondary objective was to develop a simple and accurate measurement protocol for determining dissolved N and P species at very low levels in wastewater effluents. The protocol developed in this study, involving simultaneous digestion for DON and DNRP species, was found to be very reliable and accurate based on the results. PMID:20643469

  13. A novel shortcut nitrogen removal process using an algal-bacterial consortium in a photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Han; Ergas, Sarina J; van der Steen, Peter

    2015-12-15

    Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine manure centrate was investigated in a photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR) with alternating light and dark periods. Microalgal photosynthesis was shown to provide enough oxygen for complete nitritation during the light period. With addition of an organic carbon source during the dark period, the reactor removed over 90% total nitrogen (TN) without aeration other than by mixing. Overall, 80% of the TN removal was through nitritation/denitritation and the rest was due to biomass uptake. The high concentrations of ammonia and nitrite and low dissolved oxygen concentration in the PSBR effectively inhibited nitrite oxidizing bacteria, resulting in stable nitritation. The hybrid microalgal photosynthesis and shortcut nitrogen removal process has the potential to substantially reduce aeration requirements for treatment of anaerobic digestion side streams. The PSBR also produced well settling biomass with sludge volume index of 62 ± 16 mL mg(-1). PMID:26378730

  14. Nitrogen transformation and removal in low-order restored urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, A. K.; McMillan, S. K.; Clinton, S.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid urbanization of watersheds in the Southeast United States has placed many stressors on low-order streams, including but not limited to high peak flows, reduced biodiversity of plant and animal species, water quality impairments and eutrophication. Urban stream restoration projects seek to mitigate these effects as well as minimize property damage from flooding. Engineered structures such as riffles and steps operate in multiple capacities to enhance ecological function by providing grade control, habitat, and reaeration. These structures may enhance the capacity for low-order urban streams to act as nitrogen sinks by encouraging hyporheic flow, providing substrate for biofilm colonization and trapping carbon. It has been shown that low-order streams with low specific discharge (Q/w) are uniquely positioned to transform and remove nitrogen where a greater proportion of water is exposed to biologically active sediment. This study is currently investigating the seasonal importance and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in restored and unrestored reaches of low-order streams in Charlotte, NC, USA. Carbon quality and quantity, hydrologic conductivity, transient storage, denitrification and uptake rates were measured at several intervals in the summer and fall of 2010. High flows from storm events appear to significantly affect benthic denitrification rates; a three-fold increase was observed both immediately following and four days after a peak flow event. A greater understanding of denitrifying communities' recovery from flood disturbance is needed to fully restore ecological function to urban streams.

  15. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes and associated contribution to nitrogen removal in sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fengyu; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Chen, Fei; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2015-08-01

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), play an important role in controlling the nitrate dynamics and fate in estuarine and coastal environments. We investigated potential rates of denitrification, ANAMMOX, and DNRA in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary via slurry incubation experiments combined with isotope-tracing techniques to reveal their respective contributions to total nitrate reduction in this hypereutrophic estuarine ecosystem. Measured rates of denitrification, ANAMMOX, and DNRA ranged from 0.06 to 4.51 µmol N kg-1 h-1, 0.01 to 0.52 µmol N kg-1 h-1, and 0.03 to 0.89 µmol N kg-1 h-1, respectively. These potential dissimilatory nitrate reduction process rates correlated significantly with salinity, sulfide, organic carbon, and nitrogen. Denitrification contributed 38-96% total nitrate reduction in the Yangtze Estuary, as compared to 3-45% for DNRA and 1-36% for ANAMMOX. In total, the denitrification and ANAMMOX processes removed approximately 25% of the external inorganic nitrogen transported annually into the estuary. In contrast, most external inorganic nitrogen was retained in the estuary and contributes substantially to the severe eutrophication of the Yangtze Estuary.

  16. Predation of nitritation-anammox biofilms used for nitrogen removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Carolina; Persson, Frank; Hermansson, Malte

    2015-11-01

    Predation is assumed to be a major cause of bacterial mortality in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Grazing on the slowly growing autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AMX) may result in loss of biomass, which could compromise nitrogen removal by the nitritation-anammox process. However, predation, particularly of anaerobic AMX, is unknown. We investigated the presence of protozoa, AOB and AMX and the possible predation in nitritation-anammox biofilms from several WWTPs. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), predator and prey were localized in intact biofilm cryosections. Different broad morphological types of protozoa were found at different biofilm depths. Large variations in abundance of protozoa were seen. One reactor showed a predation event of amoeba-like protozoa, forming grazing fronts reaching deep biofilm regions that were dominated by the anaerobic AMX. Both AOB and AMX were grazed by the amoeba, as revealed by FISH-CLSM. Hence, even AMX, living in the deeper layers of stratified biofilms, are subjected to predation. Interestingly, different colocalization was observed between the amoeba-like protozoa and two different Ca. Brocadia AMX sublineages, indicating different grazing patterns. The findings indicate that predation pressure can be an important factor regulating the abundance of AOB and AMX, with implications for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26472578

  17. Nitrogen removal over nitrite by aeration control in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m-3·d-1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

  18. Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite by Aeration Control in Aerobic Granular Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m−3·d−1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

  19. The regional and global significance of nitrogen removal in lakes and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J.A.; Maranger, R.J.; Alexander, R.B.; Giblin, A.E.; Jacinthe, P.-A.; Mayorga, E.; Seitzinger, S.P.; Sobota, D.J.; Wollheim, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased the transport of biologically available nitrogen (N) through watersheds to potentially sensitive coastal ecosystems. Lentic water bodies (lakes and reservoirs) have the potential to act as important sinks for this reactive N as it is transported across the landscape because they offer ideal conditions for N burial in sediments or permanent loss via denitrification. However, the patterns and controls on lentic N removal have not been explored in great detail at large regional to global scales. In this paper we describe, evaluate, and apply a new, spatially explicit, annual-scale, global model of lentic N removal called NiRReLa (Nitrogen Retention in Reservoirs and Lakes). The NiRReLa model incorporates small lakes and reservoirs than have been included in previous global analyses, and also allows for separate treatment and analysis of reservoirs and natural lakes. Model runs for the mid-1990s indicate that lentic systems are indeed important sinks for N and are conservatively estimated to remove 19.7 Tg N year-1 from watersheds globally. Small lakes (<50 km2) were critical in the analysis, retaining almost half (9.3 Tg N year -1) of the global total. In model runs, capacity of lakes and reservoirs to remove watershed N varied substantially at the half-degree scale (0-100%) both as a function of climate and the density of lentic systems. Although reservoirs occupy just 6% of the global lentic surface area, we estimate they retain ~33% of the total N removed by lentic systems, due to a combination of higher drainage ratios (catchment surface area:lake or reservoir surface area), higher apparent settling velocities for N, and greater average N loading rates in reservoirs than in lakes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of NiRReLa suggests that, on-average, N removal within lentic systems will respond more strongly to changes in land use and N loading than to changes in climate at the global scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science

  20. [Effect of Different Purple Parent Rock on Removal Rates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organics in Landscape Water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-jiao; Liu, Xiao-chen; Li, Zhen-lun; Shi, Wen-hao; Yang, Shan

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the impacts of physicochemical properties of purple parent rock on the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in landscape water systems, four types of purple parent rocks including Peng-lai-zhen Formation (S1) , Sha-xi-miao Formation (S2) , Fei-xian-guan Formation (S3) and Sui-ning Formation (S4) , which distribute widely in Chongqing, were selected and autoclaved, and added to unsterile landscape water collected from Chong-de Lake in Southwest University, and the landscape water only was used as control. And several indicators such as total nitrogen and phosphorus and so on of every disposal were investigated periodically. The results indicated that: (1) The highest removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and Ammonia nitrogen were observed in Sl, which were 45.1%, 62.3% and 90%, respectively; the highest removal rate of COD was 94.5% in S4; the ammonia nitrogen content in the purple parent rocks was not obviously changed before and after the experiments, which indicated that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on purple parent rock surface was not the main reason for the decrease of ammonia nitrogen in water. (2) Arsenate had inhibitory effect on the sulfate-reducing bacteria, while copper and magnesium had promoting effect on gram-negative bacteria. (3) The microbial diversity was positively correlated to total nitrogen in water. (4) Based on the PCA analyses of microbial community structure and environmental factors, the mineral elements released from parent rock affected the structure and composition of microbial community in the test water, and then influenced the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in water systems. PMID:26314110

  1. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Hornek, R; Kroiss, H

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720,000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration treatment (SRT approximately 6d; 36 degrees C) after anaerobic digestion the organic content of the anaerobically well digested sludge can be decreased by 16%. Investigations on site showed that during digested sludge post-aeration anoxic phases for denitrification are needed to provide stable process conditions. In this way the pH value can be kept in a more favourable range for micro-organisms and concrete structures. Additionally, inhibition of the biological process due to nitrite accumulation can be avoided. By optimising the aeration/pause ratio approximately 45% of total nitrogen in digested sludge can be removed. This significantly improves nitrogen removal efficiency at the wastewater treatment plant. NH(4)-removal occurs mainly through nitritation and denitritation with an efficiency of 98%. The costs/benefit analysis shows that post-aeration of digested sludge results in an increase of total annual costs for wastewater treatment of only 0.84%, corresponding to 0.19 Euro/pe/a. Result of molecular biological analyses (DGGE) indicate that all four ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species present in activated sludge can survive anaerobic digestion, but only two of them can adapt in the digested sludge post-aeration tanks. Additionally, in the post-aerated digested sludge a further ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species was identified. PMID:18235180

  2. Suitability of constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds in wastewater treatment: nitrogen transformation and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senzia, M. A.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mayo, A. W.

    It is estimated that 90% of sewage in cities in developing countries are today discharged untreated into water bodies. In Tanzania, pollution of rivers such as Karanga, Njoro and Rao in Moshi; Mirongo in Mwanza and Themi in Arusha is the cause of frequent disease outbreaks in communities downstreams. Solutions to effluent crisis can be found by its proper treatment and disposal. The principal objective of wastewater treatment is to allow effluents to be disposed without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the ecology of receiving water bodies. Field investigations were made on pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) units located downstream of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Six units filled with gravel of 6-25 mm diameters in equal proportion, which gave an initial hydraulic conductivity of 86 m/d were used. While four units covering surface area of 40.7 m 2 each, were located downstream of primary facultative pond, the other two units with surface area 15.9 m 2 each were located downstream of maturation pond. An attempt was made to compare the output of mathematical models for Phragmites and Typha macrophytes located downstream of primary facultative pond. Based on total inflow nitrogen of 1.457 gN/m 2 d, while Phragmites has shown a removal of 54%, Typha had a removal of 44.2%. Furthermore, while the system downstream of primary facultative pond has accretion as a major pathway, accounting for 19.1% of inflow nitrogen, the system downstream of maturation pond has denitrification as its major removal mechanism accounting for 20.5%. In this paper, a comparison of land required by CW and WSP based on the amount of water to be treated is made.

  3. Factors controlling aquatic dissolved inorganic nitrogen removal and export in suburban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineau, M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R.; Daley, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Human activity has accelerated the nitrogen (N) cycle and enriched the landscape with N which can result in eutrophication, especially in coastal zones where N is typically limiting. N exported to coastal zones is a function of both N loading to aquatic systems and N removal in transit through the river network. To determine drivers of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) removal and export from suburban river networks, we compared 2 well-studied suburban New-England watersheds. The Lamprey River watershed (474 km2) in NH has a mean population density of 53 inhabitants per km2 and feeds into the Great Bay estuary which is designated as N impaired. The Ipswich River (400 km2) in MA has a much higher population density with 302 inhabitants per km2 and feeds into the Plum Island estuary, which is not N impaired. Median (2000 - 2009) watershed DIN export was 171 kg km-2 y-1 for the Ipswich and 77 kg km-2 y-1 for the Lamprey. We used the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES) to evaluate the relative importance of anthropogenic N loading and river network DIN processing in determining N export from these watersheds. FrAMES is a spatially distributed and time varying coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical model for river networks. We hypothesized that greater N export relative to population density in the Lamprey watershed was due in part to less aquatic N processing caused by interactions among: 1. The distribution of development/sources in the watershed (i.e. mean flow path length N has to travel), and 2. The area and distribution of intact fluvial wetlands in the watershed. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of these factors in limiting aquatic N removal in the Lamprey river watershed. Our results suggest that the distribution of loading within a river system has important influence on nutrient export to coastal zones.

  4. Enhanced capacitive deionization performance of graphene by nitrogen doping.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingtao; Pan, Likun; Liu, Yong; Lu, Ting; Sun, Zhuo

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was fabricated via a simple thermal treatment of graphene oxide in an ammonia atmosphere. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of NG were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrosorption performance of NG in NaCl solution was studied and compared with pristine graphene (PG). The results show that due to its high specific surface area, increased specific capacitance and low charge transfer resistance, NG exhibits high electrosorption capacity of 4.81 mg g(-1) when the initial solution conductivity is 100 μS cm(-1), which are much higher than those of PG (3.85 mg g(-1)). PMID:25617614

  5. The impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on biological nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial community shifts in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Cui, Fuyi; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Dongmei; Xu, Yongpeng; Li, Huiting; Yang, Xiaonan

    2014-04-01

    The potential impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on nitrogen removal from wastewater in activated sludge was investigated using a sequencing batch reactor. The addition of 2-50 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs did not adversely affect nitrogen removal. However, when the activated sludge was exposed to 100-200 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs, the effluent total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 36.5 % and 20.3 %, respectively, which are markedly lower than the values observed in the control test (80 %). Further studies showed that the decrease in biological nitrogen removal induced by higher concentrations of TiO2 NPs was due to an inhibitory effect on the de-nitrification process. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that 200 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs significantly reduced microbial diversity in the activated sludge. The effect of light on the antibacterial activity of TiO2 NPs was also investigated, and the results showed that the levels of TiO2-dependent inhibition of biological nitrogen removal were similar under both dark and light conditions. Additional studies revealed that different TiO2 concentrations had a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity, and this effect was most likely the result of decreased microbial activity. PMID:23660752

  6. [Effect of the subsurface constructed wetland evolution into free surface flow constructed wetland on the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphor in wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Jun; Xie, Jian-Ping; Huang, Yu-Ming

    2012-11-01

    Many previous studies demonstrated that the performance of the subsurface constructed wetlands (SSCW) for wastewater treatment was superior to that of the free flow surface constructed wetlands (FFSCW). However, our results indicated that the performance of FFSCW derived from the evolution of SSCW due to clogging for COD, TOC, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphor (TP) removal was higher than those of SSCW with the same substrate and plant. The laboratory culture experiments were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constructed wetland evolution on the organic matter mineralization, nitrification/denitrification as well as removal of nitrogen and phosphor. It was shown that, after evolution of SSCW into FFSCW, the mineralization rate for organic matter (as TOC) was 1.82 mg x h(-1), and it was 1.49 mg x h(-1) for SSCW. The removal efficiency for NO3(-) was 96.8%, and it was 58.1% for SSCW. The abiotic denitrification removal efficiency was 40%, and it was 28.2% for SSCW. In addition, the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of the substrate after evolution for phosphor (as P) was 160 mg x kg(-1), and it was 140 mg x kg(-1) for SSCW substrate. The organic coverage of the substrate was found to be beneficial to phosphor removal. The nitrification ability decreased after evolution. These results suggest the important effect of constructed wetland evolution on its performance. PMID:23323410

  7. The effect of aeration and non-aeration time on simultaneous organic, nitrogen and phosphorus removal using an intermittent aeration membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Salim, M R; Khor, S L

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was fed with synthetic wastewater to investigate the possibility of simultaneous removal of organic, nitrogen and phosphorus by intermittent aeration. The MBR consists of two compartments using a microfiltration membrane with 0.2 microm pore size and a surface area of 0.35 m2. Hydraulic retention time was set at 24 hours and solid retention time 25 days. MLSS concentration in the reactor was in the range of 2,500-3,800 mg/L. The MLSS internal recycling ratio was maintained at 100% influent flow rate. Intermittent aeration was applied in this study to provide an aerobic-anaerobic cycle. Three stages of operations were conducted to investigate the effect of aeration and non-aeration on simultaneous organic and nutrient removal. In Stage 1, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 90/150 min and 150/90 min in the first and second compartment, the removal efficiency was 97%, 94% and 70% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. In Stage 2, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 60/120 min and 120/60 min in the first and second compartment, the removal efficiency was 97%, 96% and 71% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. In Stage 3, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 120/120 min and 120/120 min in compartment 1 and 2, the removal efficiency was 98%, 96% and 78% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. Results show that longer non-aeration time in the second compartment provided better performances of biological phosphorus removal. PMID:12448469

  8. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  9. [ORP in the Main Anoxic Stage as the Control Parameter for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Single Sludge System with a Continuous Flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ling; Song, Tie-hong; Yin, Bao-yong; Li Jing-wen; Li, Zi-qi; Yu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    To optimize the performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, based on test results and mass balance, the feasibility of control for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the single sludge system with a continuous flow using ORP in the main anoxic stage (ORPm) was investigated, meanwhile, the objective laws of conversion for nitrogen and phosphorus under different ORPm were expounded. During the experiments, nitration liquid internal circulation flow rate was controlled as the variable. The OPRm was controlled by PLC automatically, and the other operation parameters remained unchanged. The experiments tested six different ORPs in main anoxic stage affecting nitrogen and phosphorus removal, i.e., -143, -123, -105, -95, -72, and -57 mV. The ammonia concentration changed a little in effluent under the condition of different ORP.s, however, the TN and TP concentrations changed obviously. When the ORPm was controlled as -95 mV, the active sludge reached the maximal nitrogen and phosphorus removal with the continuous flow. According to mass balance calculation, when ORPm increased from -143 mV to -57 mV, (1) In the main anoxic stage, nitrate nitrogen reaction rates were 214. 40, 235. 16, 241. 16, 244. 02, 240. 90 and 233. 65 mg.h-1, respectively; the amount of total nitrogen conversions were 244. 92, 255. 85, 328. 04, 347. 45, 336. 42 and 320. 60 mg.h-1, respectively; both reaction rates reached the peak at the ORPm of -95 mV; (2)Phosphorus release rates in anaerobic stage were -214. 12, -228. 64, -259. 26, -264.54, -256.92 and -252.84 mg.h-1, respectively; total phosphorus absorption rates were 252. 15, 275.85, 332. 25, 338. 10, 336. 15 and 324. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, and phosphorus absorption rates were 30. 27, 62. 14, 124. 58, 154. 41, 150. 41 and 138. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, in the main anoxic stage; phosphorus absorption rates reached the peak when ORPm was -95 mV. The experiments revealed that ORPm could be used as the control parameter of nitrogen and phosphorus

  10. Removal of Nitrogen and Pathogens in Agricultural or Urban Channles using Engineered Streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Treating non-point source pollution is one of our greatest challenges in environmental hydrology. Previous efforts in agricultural or urban settings have focused on removing sources or implementing distributed best management practices (BMPs) throughout a watershed. However, for stream pollution, the most efficient point of treatment would be within the stream itself, which integrates flows from the entire watershed. Engineered streambed modifications in urban or agricultural streams and constructed channels have the potential to mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Geomedia designed to treat water pollutants and achieve an optimal residence time via hydraulic conductivity modifications are termed biohydrochemical enhancement structures for stream water treatment (BEST). BEST modules can efficiently drive interchange, attenuating nutrients and pathogens (and can be designed to remove other pollutants such as phosphorus, metals or trace organics). Numerical models, combined with data from bench-top and 2D experiments, demonstrate effective contaminant removal potential for practical applications. Nitrogen and pathogens could be attenuated within a series of BEST on the order of 50 m of stream length, and at a favorable cost compared to traditional BMPs, suggesting that BEST could be an effective best management practice for constructed stormwater channels (particularly outlets of detention ponds) or channels carrying irrigation return flows. New results from a constructed stream demonstrate the real-world applicability of the BEST system.

  11. Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; He, Feng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-05-01

    Microbial nitrogen (N) removal pathways in planted (Canna indica L.) and unplanted integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems (IVCWs) were investigated. Results of, molecular biological and isotope pairing experiments showed that nitrifying, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria were distributed in both down-flow and up-flow columns of the IVCWs. Further, the N transforming bacteria in the planted IVCWs were significantly higher than that in the unplanted ones (p<0.05). Moreover, the potential nitrification, anammox, and denitrification rates were highest (18.90, 11.75, and 7.84nmolNg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in the down-flow column of the planted IVCWs. Significant correlations between these potential rates and the absolute abundance of N transformation genes further confirmed the existence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) processes in the IVCWs. The anammox process was the major N removal pathway (55.6-60.0%) in the IVCWs. The results will further our understanding of the microbial N removal mechanisms in IVCWs. PMID:26897412

  12. Impact of fine mesh sieve primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; Razafimanantsoa, V A; Andriamiarinjaka, M A; Otis, C L; Sahu, A K; Bilstad, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effect of selective particle removal during primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Two small MBBR pilot plants were operated in parallel, where one train treated 2 mm screened municipal wastewater and the other train treated wastewater that had passed through a Salsnes Filter SF1000 rotating belt sieve (RBS) with a 33 µs sieve cloth. The SF1000 was operated without a filter mat on the belt. The tests confirmed that, for the wastewater characteristics at the test plant, Salsnes Filter primary treatment with a 33 µs RBS and no filter mat produced a primary effluent that was close to optimum. Removal of organic matter with the 33 µs sieve had no negative effect on the denitrification process. Nitrification rates improved by 10-15% in the train with 33 µs RBS primary treatment. Mass balance calculations showed that without RBS primary treatment, the oxygen demand in the biological system was 36% higher. Other studies have shown that the sludge produced by RBS primary treatment is beneficial for biogas production and will also significantly improve sludge dewatering of the combined primary and biological sludge. PMID:26819389

  13. Nitrogen removal by granular nitritation-anammox in an upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D; Sung, Shihwu; Zhang, Husen; He, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The nitritation-anammox process has been a promising nitrogen removal technology towards sustainable wastewater treatment, but its application in treating domestic wastewater with relatively low ammonium concentrations (mainstream) remains a great challenge. In this study, an innovative lab-scale upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (UMABR) was employed to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 70 mg N L(-1) ammonium. With a DO level at 0.6 ± 0.1 mg O2 L(-1) and HRT of 32 h, the effluent ammonium concentration was 4.8 ± 2.0 mg N L(-1). Increasing the nitrogen loading rate from 52.4 to 104.8 g N m(-3) d(-1) with stepwise decreasing HRT from 32 to 16 h resulted in an average TN removal efficiency of 81% without nitrite accumulation. The average observed NO3(-)-N (residue)/NH4(+)-N (consumed) ratio of 8% was below the "theoretical ratio" of 13% and further reduction of nitrate residue needs to be addressed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high-throughput sequencing analyses showed the coexistence of anammox bacteria and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both biofilm and granular samples. Anammox bacteria accounted for up to 63.3% of the microbial community of the granules, with Candidatus Jettenia being the distinctly dominant anammox genus. In contrast, the biofilm contained abundant Nitrosomonadaceae (AOB, 33.1%). In addition, the brown-yellow granules exhibited a more balanced community structure with anammox bacteria and AOB accounting for 33.7% and 18.2%, respectively, which may contribute to the long-term operation of single-stage nitritation-anammox process. These results demonstrate that the nitritation-anammox UMABR could potentially be used for nitrogen removal from mainstream in some specific regions with relatively warm temperature. PMID:26921710

  14. Biological nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from municipal wastewater using different variations of the activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    Munirathinam, K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to obtain operation and design information necessary for the successful functioning of municipal wastewater treatment plants to accomplish carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal. Investigations were carried out on continuous flow bench-scale pilot systems using municipal wastewater. The continuous flow studies involved a one-stage nitrifying system, a three-stage nitrifying-denitrifying system, and a combined biological nitrogen-phosphorus removal system. The first two systems were operated simultaneously. These systems were operated under different sludge retention times and food-to-microorganism ratios. The hydraulic flow rates were carefully controlled throughout all experiments. These data were then used to evaluate the systems for organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal.

  15. Phycoremediation of landfill leachate with chlorophytes: Phosphate a limiting factor on ammonia nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Paskuliakova, Andrea; Tonry, Steven; Touzet, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The potential of microalgae to bioremediate wastewater has been reported in numerous studies but has not been investigated as extensively for landfill leachate, which may be attributed to its complex nature and toxicity. In this study we explored if microalgal phycoremediation could constitute an alternative biological treatment option for landfill leachate management in regions with temperate climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of microalgae species at relatively low temperature (15 °C) and light intensity (14:10 h, light: dark, 22 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for reduction in energy inputs. Four chlorophyte strains originating from the North-West of Ireland were selected and used in batch experiments in order to evaluate their ability to reduce total ammonia nitrogen, oxidised nitrogen and orthophosphate in landfill leachate. The Chlamydomonas sp. strain SW15aRL isolated from raw leachate achieved the highest level of pollutant reduction whereby a decrease of 51.7% of ammonia nitrogen was observed in 10% raw leachate (∼100 mg l(-1) NH4(+)-N) by day 24 in experiments without culture agitation. However, in the experiment conducted with 10% raw leachate supplemented with phosphate, a decrease of 90.7% of ammonia nitrogen was obtained by day 24 while also achieving higher biomass production. This series of experiments pointed to phosphorus being a limiting factor in the microalgae based phycoremediation of the landfill leachate. The effective reduction of ammonia nitrogen in landfill leachate can be achieved at lower temperature and light conditions. This was attained by employing native species adapted to such conditions and by improving nutrient balance. PMID:27161884

  16. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... by an attorney or other representative. (3) A reasonable time to answer orally and in writing. (4)...

  17. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... by an attorney or other representative. (3) A reasonable time to answer orally and in writing. (4)...

  18. Foil bearing performance in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.; Saville, Marshall; Gu, Alston

    1993-01-01

    Space transfer vehicles and other power and propulsion systems require long-life turbopumps. Rolling-element bearings used in current turbopumps do not have sufficient life for these applications. Process fluid foil bearings have established long life, with exceptional reliability, over a wide range of temperatures and fluids in many high-speed turbomachinery applications. However, actual data on bearing performance in cryogenic fluids has been minimal. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems and Equipment (ASE) have attempted to characterize the leaf-type compliant foil bearing in oxygen and nitrogen. The work performed under a joint internal research and development program between Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ASE demonstrated that the foil bearing has load capacities of at least 266 psi in liquid oxygen and 352 psi in liquid nitrogen. In addition, the bearing demonstrated a direct damping coefficient of 40 to 50 lb-sec/in. with a damping ratio of .7 to 1.4 in. liquid nitrogen using a bearing sized for upper-stage turbopumps. With the results from this testing and the years of successful use in air cycle machines and other applications, leaf-type compliant foil bearings are ready for testing in liquid oxygen turbopumps.

  19. Aerobic granulation and nitrogen removal with the effluent of internal circulation reactor in start-up of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Si, Wei; Zhang, Yongfang; Qiao, Zhuangming; Yao, Zhenxing; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Guodong; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated with the effluent of internal circulation (IC) reactor in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as seeding sludge. N removal was investigated in the start-up of aerobic granulation process. Initially, the phenomenon of partial nitrification was observed and nitrite accumulation rates (NO(2) (-)-N/NO (x) (-) -N) were between 84.6 and 99.1 %. It was potentially caused by ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the seeding activated sludge, high external environmental temperature (~32 °C) and free ammonia (FA) concentration. After 50 days' running, the aerobic granules-based bioreactor demonstrated perfect performance in simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, and average removal efficiencies were maintained above 93 and 96 %, respectively. The maximum nitrogen removal efficiency of 83.1 % was achieved after the formation of aerobic granules. The average diameter of mature aerobic granular sludge mostly ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Furthermore, one typical cyclic test indicated that pH and DO profiles could be used as effective parameters for biological reactions occurring in the aerobic/anoxic process. The obtained results could provide further information on the cultivation of aerobic granular sludge with practical wastewater, especially with regard to nitrogen-rich industrial wastewater. PMID:22562444

  20. Tribological performance of surfaces enhanced by texturing and nitrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Derong; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Zhenbo; Luo, Qin; Wu, Zhong; Liu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel texturing technology by means of electrodepositon is introduced. Textured surface covered with small bumps with the average size of 28 μm in diameter and 10 μm in height was fabricated. The trough around the bumps acts as the pocket to trap the debris. The nitrogen implantation was used to enhance the tribological properties of textured surfaces. The effects of implanted energy and dose on the structures of coating and tribological performances of textured surfaces were studied. The results show that the formation of Cr2N or CrN depends on the implanted dose. After nitrogen ion implantation, the friction coefficient of textured surface reduced and the wear resistance of textured surface was improved. The wear resistance enhances with increase of implanted dose, and has little to do with implanted energy.

  1. Microbial fuel cell assisted nitrate nitrogen removal using cow manure and soil.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ankisha; Vaishnava, Monika; Chhabra, Meenu

    2016-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are emerging wastewater treatment systems with a proven potential for denitrification. In this study, we have developed a high-rate denitrifying MFC. The anode consisted of cow manure and fruit waste and the cathode consisted of cow manure and soil. The initial chemical oxygen demand (COD)/nitrate nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N) was varied from 2 to 40 at the cathode while keeping the anode ratio fixed at 100. NO3 (-)-N removal rate of 7.1 ± 0.9 kg NO3 (-)-N/m(3) net cathodic compartment (NCC)/day was achieved at cathode COD/NO3 (-)-N ratio 7.31 with the current density of 190 ± 9.1 mA/m(2) and power density of 31.92 ± 4 mW/m(2) of electrode surface area. We achieved an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 410 ± 20 mV at initial cathodic NO3 (-)-N of 0.345 g/l. The cathode COD/NO3 (-)-N ratio had a significant influence on MFC's OCV and nitrate removal rate. Lower OCV (<150 mV) and NO3 (-)-N removal rates were observed at COD/NO3 (-)-N ratio >12 and <7. Experiments done at different cathode pH values indicated that the optimum pH for denitrification was 7. Under optimized biochemical conditions, nitrate removal rate of 6.5 kg NO3 (-)-N/m(3) net cathodic compartment (NCC)/day and power density of 210 mW/m(2) were achieved in a low resistance MFC. The present study thus demonstrates the utility of MFCs for the treatment of high nitrate wastes. PMID:26755171

  2. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff. PMID:26077503

  3. Comparison of the MBBR denitrification carriers for advanced nitrogen removal of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Wang, Haiyan; Hang, Qianyu; Deng, Yangfan; Liu, Kai; Li, Chunmei; Zheng, Shengzhi

    2015-09-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were used to remove the residual NO3(-)-N of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and the MBBR carriers for denitrification were compared. The results showed that high denitrification efficiency can be achieved with polyethylene, polypropylene, polyurethane foam, and haydite carriers under following conditions: 7.2 to 8.0 pH, 24 to 26 °C temperature, 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT), and 25.5 mg L(-1) external methanol dosage, while the WWTP effluent total nitrogen (TN) was between 2.6 and 15.4 mg L(-1) and NO3(-)-N was between 0.2 and 12.6 mg L(-1). The MBBR filled with polyethylene carriers had higher TN and NO3(-)-N removal rate (44.9 ± 19.1 and 83.4 ± 13.0%, respectively) than those with other carriers. The minimum effluent TN and NO3(-)-N of polyethylene MBBR were 1.6 and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively, and the maximum denitrification rate reached 23.0 g m(-2) day(-1). When chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio dropped from 6 to 4, the NO3(-)- N and TN removal efficiency decreased significantly in all reactors except for that filled with polyethylene, which indicated that the polyethylene MBBR can resist influent fluctuation much better. The three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix analysis showed that all the influent and effluent of MBBRs contain soluble microbial products (SMPs)-like organics and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which can be removed better by MBBRs filled with haydite and polyethylene carriers. The nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ)-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis suggested that the dominant bacteria in polyethylene MBBR are the key denitrificans. PMID:25953607

  4. Nitrogen Addition as a Result of Long-Term Root Removal Affects Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term field litter manipulation site was established in a mature coniferous forest stand at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA in 1997 in order to address how detrital inputs influence soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Soils at this site are Andisols and are characterized by high carbon (C) and low nitrogen (N) contents, due largely to the legacy of woody debris and extremely low atmospheric N deposition. Detrital treatments include trenching to remove roots, doubling wood and needle litter, and removing aboveground litter. In order to determine whether five years of detrital manipulation had altered organic matter quantity and lability at this site, soil from the top 0-5 cm of the A horizon was density fractionated to separate the labile light fraction (LF) from the more recalcitrant mineral soil in the heavy fraction (HF). Both density fractions and whole soils were incubated for one year in chambers designed such that repeated measurements of soil respiration and leachate chemistry could be made. Trenching resulted in the removal of labile root inputs from root exudates and turnover of fine roots and active mycorrhizal communities as well as an increase of available N by removing plant uptake. Since 1999, soil solution chemistry from tension lysimeters has shown greater total N and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux to stream flow in the trenched plots relative to the other detrital treatments. C/N ratio and C content of both light and heavy fractions from the trenched plots were greater than other detrital treatments. In the lab incubation, over the course of a year C mineralization from these soils was suppressed. Cumulative DOC losses and CO2 efflux both were significantly less in soils from trenched plots than in other detrital treatments including controls. After day 150 of the incubation, leachates from the HF of plots with trenched treatments had a DOC/DON ratio significantly

  5. Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal

    DOEpatents

    Comolli, Alfred G.

    1991-01-01

    A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

  6. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  7. Isolation of aluminum-tolerant bacteria capable of nitrogen removal in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Kai

    2016-05-15

    Four strains of bacteria capable of withstanding 20mM concentration of aluminum were isolated from activated sludge in a bioreactor. 16S rRNA identification and morphological characteristics indicated that these strains were Chryseobacterium sp. B1, Brevundimonas diminuta B3, Hydrogenophaga sp. B4, and Bacillus cereus B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the position and interrelationships of these bacteria. B. diminuta B3 and Hydrogenophaga sp. B4 could achieve nitrate nitrogen removal of 94.0% and 76.8% within 36h of its initial concentration of 148.8 and 151.7mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, B3 and B4 could degrade ammonia with little nitrite accumulation. Results of this study provide more information about aluminum-resistant bacteria and laid the foundation for aluminum salt when it is simultaneously used for chemical precipitation. PMID:27038879

  8. Nitrogen removal characteristics analyzed with gas and microbial community in thermophilic aerobic digestion for piggery waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Lee, H W; Kim, S W; Lee, S Y; Park, Y K; Han, J H; Choi, S I; Yi, Y S; Yun, Z

    2004-01-01

    In order to characterize the nitrogen conversion characteristics in a thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) system, a laboratory study has been conducted with the analysis of effluent gas and microbial community in the sludge samples. The lab TAD system was operated with HRT of 3 days and 60 degrees C. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, it has been found that about 2/3 of the daily load of nitrogen was converted to the gaseous form of nitrogen whereas cellular transformation and unmetabolized nitrogen accounted for about 1/3. Among the gaseous nitrogen transformation, significant amount of influent nitrogen had been converted to N2 gas (29% of influent N) and N2O (9% of influent N). Ammonia conversion was only 28% of influent N. The detection of N2O gas is a clear indication of the biological nitrogen reduction process in the thermophilic aerobic digester. No conclusive evidence for the existence of aerobic deammonification has been found. The microbial community analysis showed that thermophilic bacteria such as Bacillus thermocloacae, Bacillus sp. and Clostridial groups dominated in this TAD reactor. The diverse microbial community in TAD sludge may play an important role in removing both strong organics and nitrogen from piggery waste. PMID:15137444

  9. High-rate nitrogen removal from livestock manure digester liquor by combined partial nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Yamamoto, Taichi; Misaka, Motoki; Isaka, Kazuichi; Sumino, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    In this study, combination of a partial nitritation reactor, using immobilized polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carriers, and a continuous stirred granular anammox reactor was investigated for nitrogen removal from livestock manure digester liquor. Successful nitrite accumulation in the partial nitritation reactor was observed as the nitrite production rate reached 2.1 kg-N/m(3)/day under aerobic nitrogen loading rate of 3.8 kg-N/m(3)/day. Simultaneously, relatively high free ammonia concentrations (average 50 mg-NH(3)/l) depressed the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria with nitrate concentration never exceeding 3% of TN concentration in the effluent of the partial nitritation reactor (maximum 35.2 mg/l). High nitrogen removal rates were achieved in the granular anammox reactor with the highest removal rate being 3.12 kg-N/m(3)/day under anaerobic nitrogen loading rate of 4.1 kg-N/m(3)/day. Recalcitrant organic compounds in the digester liquor did not impair anammox reaction and the SS accumulation in the granular anammox reactor was minimal. The results of this study demonstrated that partial nitritation-anammox combination has the potential to successfully remove nitrogen from livestock manure digester liquor. PMID:19578828

  10. Root stimulated nitrogen removal: only a local effect or important for water treatment?

    PubMed

    Münch, Ch; Kuschk, P; Röske, I

    2005-01-01

    Plants in constructed wetlands serve as carriers for attached microbial growth. They mainly transfer oxygen and release exsudates to the root zone. In consequence of this an area around the roots, called the rhizosphere exists, in which bacteria are stimulated by root growth. The goals were to ascertain whether stimulating the microbial cenosis only has a local effect on the rhizoplane, and to establish the importance of this stimulation for the water purification process in the root zone. Observations were carried out in a laboratory batch reactor filled with sand and planted with reeds (Phragmites australis). A small section was separated with gauze to avoid root growth outside this zone. The reactor was incubated with an artificial waste water containing a high concentration of ammonium. Samples were taken at intervals of 10 mm away from the gauze. The chemical and physical conditions and enzyme activities in soil sections at different distances from the roots affecting the efficiency of nitrogen removal were characterized. An influence was detectable by several parameters up to a specific root distance. Indirect parameters such as the total bacterial number and the DNA amount seem to be affected up to a distance of 50 mm from the root whereas the oxygen amount and DOC are unaffected at a distance exceeding 20-30 mm. This is an initial indication that improved nitrogen removal is also possible in the wider root surroundings. In view of the average root-to-root distance of 35 mm, the root-influenced area could therefore be expanded to the whole rooted zone in a constructed wetland. The influence on bacteria by roots is not just a local effect but may also play an important role in the whole purification process. PMID:16042258

  11. Ammonia-nitrogen removal from urban drainage using modified fresh empty fruit bunches: A case study in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricky, L. N. S.; Shahril, Y.; Nurmin, B.; Zahrim, AY

    2016-06-01

    Highly concentration of ammonia nitrogen in urban drainage could pollute the river and give pungent smell. The strong pungent odours that coming out from the urban drainage may degrade the image a city and could possibly reduce the present of tourist. To minimize the presence of pungent odours, the ammonia nitrogen can be removed from the urban drainage by applying proper adsorbent. In this study, an adsorbent produced through chemical modification of fresh empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers has been carried out. The maximum adsorption capacity is between 0.01-0.60 mg/g. The finding also shows that the retention time is vital when designing ammonia nitrogen filter.

  12. DEAMOX--new biological nitrogen removal process based on anaerobic ammonia oxidation coupled to sulphide-driven conversion of nitrate into nitrite.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Gladchenko, Marina; Mulder, Arnold; Versprille, Bram

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports about the successful laboratory testing of a new nitrogen removal process called DEAMOX (DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation) for treatment of typical strong nitrogenous wastewater such as baker's yeast effluent. The concept of this process combines the recently discovered anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) reaction with autotrophic denitrifying conditions using sulphide as an electron donor for the production of nitrite from nitrate within an anaerobic biofilm. To generate sulphide and ammonia, a Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor was used as a pre-treatment step. The UASB effluent was split and partially fed to a nitrifying reactor (to generate nitrate) and the remaining part was directly fed to the DEAMOX reactor where this stream was mixed with the nitrified effluent. Stable process performance and volumetric nitrogen loading rates of the DEAMOX reactor well above 1000 mgN/l/d with total nitrogen removal efficiencies of around 90% were obtained after long-term (410 days) optimisation of the process. Important prerequisites for this performance are appropriate influent ratios of the key species fed to the DEAMOX reactor, namely influent N-NO(x)/N-NH(4) ratios >1.2 (stoichiometry of the anammox reaction) and influent S-H(2)S/N-NO(3) ratios >0.57 mgS/mgN (stoichiometry of the sulphide-driven denitrification of nitrate to nitrite). The paper further describes some characteristics of the DEAMOX sludge as well as the preliminary results of its microbiological characterisation. PMID:16893559

  13. Tertiary nitrogen removal for municipal wastewater using a solid-phase denitrifying biofilter with polycaprolactone as the carbon source and filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Yajiao; Zhao, Jian; Tang, Lei; Li, Zaixing

    2016-04-15

    Tertiary nitrogen removal technologies are needed to reduce the excess nitrogen that is discharged into sensitive aquatic ecosystems. An integrated solid-phase denitrification biofilter (SDNF) was developed with dual media to remove nitrate and suspended solids (SS) from the secondary effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Biodegradable polymer pellets of polycaprolactone (PCL) served as the biofiltration medium and carbon source for denitrification. Long-term continuous operation of the SDNF was conducted with real secondary effluent to evaluate the denitrification performance and effects of influent nitrate loading rates (NLR) and operating temperatures. The results indicated that both nitrate and SS were effectively removed. The SDNF had a strong tolerance for fluctuations in influent NLR, and a maximum denitrification rate of 3.80 g N/(L·d) was achieved. The low temperature had a significant impact on nitrogen removal, yet the denitrification rate was still maintained at a relative high level to as much as 1.23 g N/(L·d) even at approximately 8.0 °C in winter. Nitrite accumulation and excessive organics residue in the effluent were avoided throughout the whole experiment, except on occasional days in the lag phase. The observed biomass yield was calculated to be 0.44 kgVSS/kgPCL. The microbial diversity and community structure of the biofilm in the SDNF were revealed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The special carbon source led to an obvious succession of microbial community from the initial inoculum (activated sludge from aerobic tanks), and included a decrease in microbial diversity and a shift in the dominant groups, which were identified to be members of the family Comamonadaceae in the SDNF. The SDNF developed in this study was verified to be an efficient technology for tertiary nitrogen removal from secondary effluent. PMID:26897042

  14. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, A G; Vangsgaard, A K; Sin, G; Smets, B F

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from nitrogen species measurements to systematically guide start-up and normal operation efforts (instead of trial and error). The procedure is successfully applied to laboratory-scale SBRs for start-up and maintained operation over an 8-month period. This analysis can serve as a strong decision-making tool to take appropriate actions with respect to reactor operation to accelerate start-up or ensure high-rate N removal via the nitritation-anammox pathway. PMID:23925177

  15. Effect of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio on nitrogen removal from shrimp production waste water using sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dhiriti; Hassan, Komi; Boopathy, Raj

    2010-10-01

    The United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) introduced a new technology for shrimp farming called recirculating raceway system. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. However, this system produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate due to 40% protein diet for the shrimp at a high density of 1,000 shrimp per square meter. The high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (greater than 25 ppm) are toxic to shrimp and cause high mortality. So treatment of this wastewater is imperative in order to make shrimp farming viable. One simple method of treating high-nitrogen wastewater is the use of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). An SBR is a variation of the activated sludge process, which accomplishes many treatment events in a single reactor. Removal of ammonia and nitrate involved nitrification and denitrification reactions by operating the SBR aerobically and anaerobically in sequence. Initial SBR operation successfully removed ammonia, but nitrate concentrations were too high because of carbon limitation in the shrimp production wastewater. An optimization study revealed the optimum carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 10:1 for successful removal of all nitrogen species from the wastewater. The SBR operated with a C:N ratio of 10:1 with the addition of molasses as carbon source successfully removed 99% of ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite from the shrimp aquaculture wastewater within 9 days of operation. PMID:20835881

  16. Growth and nutrient removal properties of the diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex under different nitrogen sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, Panneerselvam; Manimaran, Kuppusamy; Sampathkumar, Pitchai; Rameshkumar, Lakshmanan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of the marine diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex for the removal of macronutrients from different wastewater, the growth and nitrate-phosphate removal properties were studied with nitrate, ammonium and urea nitrogen sources. Three separate experiments were conducted using modified F/2 medium with 12.35 mg L-1 total nitrogen and 1.12 mg L-1 total phosphorous (simulating the typical concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in secondary effluent) as growth medium. The maximum cell densities of C. curvisetus and C. simplex were 7.16 ± 0.34 × 104 cells mL-1 in {{NO}}3^{ - } and 3.88 ± 0.32 × 105 cells mL-1 in urea, respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a per cell was 1.7 and 4.7 pg for C. simplex and C. curvisetus, cultured with urea and nitrate, respectively. The high protein contents of 4.7 pg cell-1 in C. simplex with urea and 19.7 pg cell-1 in C. curvisetus nitrate nitrogen sources were found. The higher cell density and protein content of both species from urea and nitrate nitrogen sources ( p < 0.05) have shown that these were utilized by microalgae and were converted to protein. The C. simplex and C. curvisetus showed maximum removal efficiencies of nitrate by 97.86 and 91.62 % and phosphate by 98.5 and 100 %, respectively when urea used as nitrogen source than ammonia. The results indicated the C. simplex was more efficient than C. curvisetus and suitable for the removal of macronutrients when cultured with urea and nitrate nitrogen sources.

  17. Nitrogen removal efficiency and microbial community analysis of ANAMMOX biofilter at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Taotao, Zeng; Dong, Li; Huiping, Zeng; Shuibo, Xie; Wenxin, Qiu; Yingjiu, Liu; Jie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An upflow anaerobic biofilter (AF) was developed to investigate anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) efficiency in treating low-strength wastewater at ambient temperature (15.3-23.2 °C). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to investigate treatment effects on the microbial community. Stepwise decreases in influent ammonia concentration could help ANAMMOX bacteria selectively acclimate to low-ammonia conditions. With an influent ammonia concentration of 46.5 mg/L, the AF reactor obtained an average nitrogen removal rate of 2.26 kg/(m³ day), and a removal efficiency of 75.9%. polymerase chain reaction-DGGE results showed that microbial diversity in the low matrix was greater than in the high matrix. Microbial community structures changed when the influent ammonia concentration decreased. The genus of functional ANAMMOX bacteria was Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, which remained stationary across study phases. Visual observation revealed that the relative proportions of ANAMMOX bacteria decreased from 41.6 to 36.3% across three study phases. The AF bioreactor successfully maintained high activity due to the ANAMMOX bacteria adaptation to low temperature and substrate conditions. PMID:25768219

  18. Computation of Bond Dissociation Energies for Removal of Nitrogen Dioxide Groups in Certain Aliphatic Nitro Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Ju-Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Xiang, Shi-Kai

    2006-04-01

    Bond dissociation energies for removal of nitrogen dioxide groups in 10 aliphatic nitro compounds, including nitromethane, nitroethylene, nitroethane, dinitromethane, 1-nitropropane, 2-nitropropane, 1-nitrobutane, 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, nitropentane, and nitrohexane, are calculated using the highly accurate complete basis set (CBS-Q) and the three hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 with 6-31G** basis set. By comparing the computed bond dissociation energies and experimental results, we find that the B3LYP/6-31G** and B3PW91/6-31G** methods are incapable of predicting the satisfactory bond dissociation energy (BDE). However, B3P86/6-31G** and CBS-Q computations are capable of giving the calculated BDEs, which are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental data. Nevertheless, since CBS-Q computational demands increase rapidly with the number of containing atoms in molecules, larger molecules soon become prohibitively expensive. Therefore, we suggest to take the B3P86/6-31G** method as a reliable method of computing the BDEs for removal of the NO2 groups in the aliphatic nitro compounds.

  19. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-07-15

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed. PMID:20233637

  20. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semicontinuous cultures using artificial wastewater and a simulated light and temperature cycle.

    PubMed

    Voltolina, Domenico; Gómez-Villa, Herlinda; Correa, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    Semicontinuous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus in artificial wastewater were maintained with 30% and 40% daily dilutions and under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, with temperatures of 25.5 and 17 degrees C during light and dark hours. Under this regime, the production of organic biomass was 39.3 and 25.2 mg l(-1)d(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions, and 24.9 and 16.7 mg l(-1)d(-1) of single-cell proteins. Most of the nitrogen removal took place during the light hours, with daily totals of 9.27 and 8.45 mg l(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions. With the former, 43.7% of the nitrogen removed was recycled by the microalgae into proteins and other organic nitrogen cell contents, but this efficiency decreased to 26.4% when the dilutions were raised to 40%. PMID:15474938

  1. Riparian nitrogen dynamics in a humid tropical watershed: ammonium removal from groundwater at the stream/aquifer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, R. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have documented the ability of riparian zones to remove dissolved nitrogen from groundwater before subsurface flow paths deliver it to surface water. Few studies have moved beyond describing biogeochemical patterns and demonstrated in-situ pathways of nitrogen removal. In this study we adapt push-pull methods commonly used to measure in-situ denitrification, in order to explore possible pathways of ammonium removal in the Rio Icacos watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Earlier studies have shown that this watershed has a distinctive pattern of nitrogen biogeochemistry along groundwater flow paths through the soil catena; hillslope groundwater carries nitrate concentrations of up to 1 mg N/l and little ammonium, while riparian groundwater carries ammonium concentrations of up to 1.5 mg N/l and little nitrate. Ammonium concentrations in streams are uniformly low. The pathway of ammonium removal was investigated by modified push-pull tests with ammonium additions. A dosing solution of 10 l ambient groundwater was extracted, amended with 32 mg/l NH4-N and a bromide tracer and bubbled with SF6 to maintain anoxic conditions, and then re-injected into a minipiezometer. Minipiezometers were placed 75 cm depth and 30-100 cm distance from the edge of the stream channel. The dosing solution was allowed to incubate between 2 and 6 hr, then withdrawn and sampled at regular intervals. Ammonium removal for each time point was calculated as the difference between the tracer recovery (sample concentration/initial concentration) and the ammonium recovery. Ammonium removal at all time points ranged from 7% to 14%. No nitrate was detected either before or during push-pulls, indicating that nitrification (without tightly coupled denitrification) could not account for the observed ammonium removal. Consistent anoxic conditions and a sulfidic smell also indicate that oxygen needed for nitrification is not prevalent in the aquifer. Future studies with isotopic tracers

  2. Removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and heavy metals using a sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of landfill leachates at 10-30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Gladchenko, Marina; Epov, Andrey; Appanna, Vasu

    2003-01-01

    As a first step of treatment of landfill leachates (total chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 1.43-3.81 g/L; total nitrogen: 90-162 mg/L), performance of laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors was investigated under mesophilic (30 degrees C), submesophilic (20 degrees C), and psychrophilic (10 degrees C) conditions. Under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of about 0.3 d, when the average organic loading rates (OLRs) were about 5 g of COD/(L.d), the total COD removal accounted for 81% (on average) with the effluent concentrations close to the anaerobic biodegradability limit (0.25 g of COD/L) for mesophilic and submesophilic regimes. The psychrophilic treatment conducted under an average HRT of 0.34 d and an average OLR of 4.22 g of COD/(L.d) showed a total COD removal of 47%, giving effluents (0.75 g of COD/L) more suitable for subsequent biologic nitrogen removal. All three anaerobic regimes used for leachate treatment were quite efficient for elimination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) by concomitant precipitation in the form of insoluble sulfides inside the sludge bed. The application of aerobic/ anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step for psychrophilic anaerobic effluents was acceptable for elimination of biodegradable COD and nitrogen approaching the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. PMID:12794293

  3. Aerobic/anoxic post-treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge as an alternative to biological nitrogen removal from reject water.

    PubMed

    Morras, Mikel; Dosta, J; García-Heras, J L

    2015-05-01

    Stabilisation and biological nitrogen removal (BNR) of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were studied in a post-aeration reactor at pilot scale working under alternating anoxic-aerobic conditions. Digested sludge came from a two-stage anaerobic digestion (thermophilic + mesophilic). The best post-aerator performance was achieved when working at an HRT of 10 days (4 days aerobic; dissolved oxygen of 1.8 mg L(-1)) and VS content in the feed no lower than 6.7 g L(-1). Free ammonia concentration values in the effluent above 1.5 mg N L(-1) (around 150 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) at pH 7) were necessary to promote the BNR over nitrite. Removal efficiencies up to 80 % NH4 (+)-N, 50-55 % total nitrogen and 15-20 % VS were recorded in this study, with no external addition of chemicals. A nitrogen mass balance revealed that the high percent of NH4 (+)-N assimilated in heterotrophic growth was counteracted with that released in ammonification and fermentation, leading to a NH4 (+)-N removal mainly related to biological nitritation/denitritation. PMID:25407727

  4. Altitude-scale variation in nitrogen-removal bacterial communities from municipal wastewater treatment plants distributed along a 3600-m altitudinal gradient in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lihua; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Linqiong

    2016-07-15

    Microbial ecological information on the nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been of considerable importance as a means for diagnosing the poor performance of nitrogen removal. In this study, the altitude-scale variations in the quantitative relationships and community structures of betaproteobacteria ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (βAOB) and nitrite-reducing bacteria containing the copper-containing nitrite reductase gene (nirK-NRB) and the cytochrome cd1-containing nitrite reductase gene (nirS-NRB) were investigated in 18 municipal WWTPs distributed along a 3660-masl altitude gradient in China. An altitude threshold associated with the proportions of NRB to total bacteria, NRB to βAOB and nirK-NRB to nirS-NRB was detected at approximately 1500m above sea level (masl). Compared with the stable proportions below 1500masl, the proportions exhibited a pronounced decreasing trend with increased altitude above 1500masl. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the trend was significantly driven by altitude as well as multiple wastewater and operational variables. The community structure dissimilarity of βAOB, nirK-NRB and nirS-NRB showed significant and positive correlations with altitudinal distance between WWTPs. Redundancy analyses indicated that the variation in community structures above 1500masl were predominantly associated with wastewater, followed by operation and altitude. In summary, although the variations of nitrogen-removal bacterial community in WWTPs were driven dominantly by wastewater and operational variables, altitude was also an important variable influencing the quantitative relationships and community structures of nitrogen-removal bacteria in WWTPs particularly above 1500masl. PMID:27054491

  5. Influence of COD/sulfate ratios on the integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Zhao, Youkang; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dezhi; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Tan, Wenbo; Xu, Xijun; Zhou, Xu; Lee, Duu-Jung; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    An integrated reactor system was developed for the simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen from sulfate-laden wastewater and for elemental sulfur (S°) reclamation. The system mainly consisted of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), an EGSB for denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR), a biological aerated filter for nitrification and a sedimentation tank for sulfur reclamation. This work investigated the influence of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/sulfate ratios on the performance of the system. Influent sulfate and ammonium were fixed to the level of 600 mg SO(4)(2-) L⁻¹ and 120 mg NH(4)(+) L⁻¹, respectively. Lactate was introduced to generate COD/SO(4)(2-) = 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 3:1, 3.5:1 and 4:1. The experimental results indicated that sulfate could be efficiently reduced in the SR-CR unit when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, and sulfate reduction was inhibited by the growth of methanogenic bacteria when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 3.5:1 and 4:1. Meanwhile, the Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios affected the S(0) reclamation efficiency in the DSR unit. When the influent COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, appropriate Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios could be achieved to obtain a maximum S° recovery in the DSR unit. For the microbial community of the SR-CR unit at different COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios, 16S rRNA gene-based high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the diversity and potential function of the dominant species. PMID:25768217

  6. Condensing economizers: Thermal performance and particulate removal efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, Wai Lin ); Park, N. )

    1992-02-01

    Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This project has involved a study of these specifically for application to coal-water mixture fuels although the results can be extended to other fuels. experimental studies to evaluate thermal performance and removal of particulates across indirect contract economizers have been performed. The test arrangement incorporates oil firing with the injection of flyash into the flue gas to simulate coal combustion products. Water sprays into the combustion products are used to achieve variable flue gas moisture content and a variable amount of condensation in the economizers. The economizers are tubular with flue gas on the outside of the tubes. Tube surfaces are plastic coated to prevent corrosion. The gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance has been compared with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed and predicted removal efficiencies as a functions of particle diameter are presented. It is is shown that inertial impaction is the dominant mechanism and particle removal efficiencies up to 89% have been realized.

  7. Pathways regulating the removal of nitrogen in planted and unplanted subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V; Tsiknia, Myrto; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Single-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) are characterized by a low potential for N removal. Understanding the pathways regulating N cycling as well as their dependence on environmental variables might improve the potential of CWs for N removal and results in more accurate simulation tools. In this study we employed qPCR targeting marker functional genes (amoA, nirK, nirS, clade I and II nosZ) or microorganisms (anammox) regulating key pathways of N cycling to unravel their relative importance. Furthermore, the influence of plant species on treatment performance was studied. Our findings indicated nitrification-denitrification as the principal route of N removal in CWs, while anammox did not have a strong contribution. Evidence was also arisen that ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) contributed on NH3 oxidation. Overall, plant species had a weak effect on the abundance of N functional genes (amoA of AOA), but it strongly affected the performance of CWs in terms of N removal in the following order: unplanted < Phragmites communis < Typha latifolia. These findings suggest that plant species stimulate N removal by upregulating the rates that the responsible biochemical pathways operate, probably by increasing O2 supply. In addition, our study revealed differences in indicators linked to N2O emissions. The abundance of clade II nosZ genes remained low across the season scaling down a strong contribution in the reduction of the emitted N2O. The increasing ratios of nosZ/Σnir and nirS/nirK with the progress of season indicate a shift in the composition of denitrifiers towards strains with a lower genetic potential for N2O release. Similar trends were observed among the treatments but the mechanisms differed. The planted treatments stimulated an increase in the ΣnosZ/Σnir ratio, while the unplanted an increase in the nirS/nirK ratio. PMID:27379728

  8. Carbon and nitrogen removal from glucose-glycine melanoidins solution as a model of distillery wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Phuong Thu, Le; Michèle, Besson

    2016-06-01

    Sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater contains melanoidins, which are dark brown recalcitrant nitrogenous polymer compounds. Studies were carried out in batch mode to evaluate Pt and Ru supported catalysts in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) process of a synthetic melanoidins solution, prepared by stoichiometric reaction of glucose with glycine. The addition of a catalyst slightly improved TOC removal compared with the non-catalytic reaction, and especially promoted the conversion of ammonium produced from organically-bound nitrogen in melanoidins to molecular nitrogen and nitrate. The selectivity to N2 attained 89% in the presence of the Pt catalysts in the reaction conditions used (TOC=2200mgL(-1), TN=280mgL(-1), 0.5g catalyst loaded with 3% metal, 210°C, 70bar total air pressure). To avoid leaching of the active metal by organically-bound nitrogen, the reaction was very efficiently performed in a two-step reaction consisting in WAO to convert nitrogen into ammonium, before the introduction of a catalyst. PMID:26900982

  9. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

    2001-08-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

  10. Nitrate removal in deep sediments of a nitrogen-rich river network: A test of a conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Bartsch, Lynn A.

    2012-06-01

    Many estimates of nitrogen removal in streams and watersheds do not include or account for nitrate removal in deep sediments, particularly in gaining streams. We developed and tested a conceptual model for nitrate removal in deep sediments in a nitrogen-rich river network. The model predicts that oxic, nitrate-rich groundwater will become depleted in nitrate as groundwater upwelling through sediments encounters a zone that contains buried particulate organic carbon, which promotes redox conditions favorable for nitrate removal. We tested the model at eight sites in upwelling reaches of lotic ecosystems in the Waupaca River Watershed that varied by three orders of magnitude in groundwater nitrate concentration. We measured denitrification potential in sediment core sections to 30 cm and developed vertical nitrate profiles to a depth of about 1 m with peepers and piezometer nests. Denitrification potential was higher on average in shallower core sections. However, core sections deeper than 5 cm accounted for 70% on average of the depth-integrated denitrification potential. Denitrification potential increased linearly with groundwater nitrate concentration up to 2 mg NO3-N/L, but the relationship broke down at higher concentrations (>5 mg NO3-N/L), a pattern that suggests nitrate saturation. At most sites groundwater nitrate declined from high concentrations at depth to much lower concentrations prior to discharge into the surface water. The profiles suggested that nitrate removal occurred at sediment depths between 20 and 40 cm. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were much higher in deep sediments than in pore water at 5 cm sediment depth at most locations. The substantial denitrification potential in deep sediments coupled with the declines in nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in upwelling groundwater suggest that our conceptual model for nitrate removal in deep sediments is applicable to this river network. Our results suggest that nitrate removal rates can

  11. Ammonium nitrogen removal from the permeates of anaerobic membrane bioreactors: economic regeneration of exhausted zeolite.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiaosi; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2014-08-01

    This study revealed that ammonium exchange of natural zeolite could be an economical method of nitrogen removal from the permeates of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). It was found that the mass ratio of Na+ to Zeolite - NH4+ - N significantly affected regeneration efficiency (RE), not simply NaCI concentration. Batch experiments showed that the mass ratio of 750g Na+/g Zeolite - NH4+ - N was required to achieve RE over 90% in 2h at pH 9. However, the alkaline regeneration at pH 12 significantly decreased the mass ratio down to 4.2 in batch tests. It was confirmed that the alkaline regeneration only needed NaCl 10 g/L (the mass of Na+ to Zeolite - NH4+ - N of 4.2) for RE of 85% in 2 h of reaction time in continuous column tests. Economic analysis showed that this alkaline regeneration decreased chemical costs over 10 times as compared with a conventional regeneration method. A significant bottleneck of zeolite processes would be the requirement of substituting exhausted zeolite with virgin one, due to the reductions of ammonium exchange capacity and RE. PMID:24956795

  12. BTEX biodegradation and its nitrogen removal potential by a newly isolated Pseudomonas thivervalensis MAH1.

    PubMed

    Qu, Dan; Zhao, Yongsheng; Sun, Jiaqiang; Ren, Hejun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are of great environmental concern because of their widespread occurrence in groundwater and soil, posing an increasing threat to human health. The aerobic denitrifying BTEX-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas thivervalensis MAH1 was isolated from BTEX-contaminated sediment under nitrate-reducing conditions. The degradation rates of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene by strain MAH1 were 4.71, 6.59, 5.64, and 2.59 mg·L⁻¹day⁻¹, respectively. The effects of sodium citrate, nitrate, and NaH2PO4 on improving BTEX biodegradation were investigated, and their optimum concentrations were 0.5 g·L⁻¹, 100 mg·L⁻¹, and 0.8 mmol·L⁻¹, respectively. Moreover, MAH1, which has nirS and nosZ genes, removed ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite at 2.49 mg NH(4)(+)-N·L⁻¹·h⁻¹, 1.50 mg NO(3)(-)-N·L⁻¹·h⁻¹, and 0.83 mg NO(2)(-)-N·L⁻¹·h⁻¹, respectively. MAH1 could help in mitigating the pollution caused by nitrogen amendments for biostimulation. This study highlighted the feasibility of using MAH1 for the bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated sites. PMID:26221863

  13. Effect of salinity on nitrous oxide emission in the biological nitrogen removal process for industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tsuneda, Satoshi; Mikami, Makio; Kimochi, Yuzuru; Hirata, Akira

    2005-03-17

    The effects of wastewater salinity on both nitrogen removal efficiency and N2O emission rate were investigated in a single nitrification process, a single denitrification process and an anoxic-oxic activated sludge process. In the single nitrification process, by increasing the salt concentration from 1.0 to 2.0 wt%, the N2O conversion ratio in the steady state increased by 2.2 times, from 0.22 to 0.48%. In the single denitrification process, a minimal change in the N2O conversion ratio was observed in the steady state even when the salt concentration was increased from 3.0 to 5.0 wt%. From the results of the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process, it was found that a salt concentration increase from 1.6 to 3.0 wt% significantly increases the N2O conversion ratio from 0.7 to 13%. It is suggested that an increase in salt concentration markedly influences N2O emission both directly and indirectly via the inhibition of N2O reductase activity. The indirect inhibition is due to the high concentration of dissolved oxygen which is transported from the oxic tank to the anoxic tank through the circulated liquid. Thus, the salt concentration should be maintained below 3.0% to suppress N2O emission in an anoxic-oxic activated sludge process. PMID:15752853

  14. Anammox-based technologies for nitrogen removal: Advances in process start-up and remaining issues.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based process has been recognized as efficient, cost-effective and low energy alternative to the conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than one hundred full-scale anammox plants have been installed and operated for treatment of NH4(+)-rich wastewater streams around the world, and the number is increasing rapidly. Since the discovery of anammox process, extensive researches have been done to develop various anammox-based technologies. However, there are still some challenges in practical application of anammox-based treatment process at full-scale, e.g., longer start-up period, limited application to mainstream municipal wastewater and poor effluent water quality. This paper aimed to summarize recent status of application of anammox process and researches on technological development for solving these remaining problems. In addition, an integrated system of anammox-based process and microbial fuel cell is proposed for sustainable and energy-positive wastewater treatment. PMID:26196404

  15. Effect of inorganic carbon on nitrogen removal and microbial communities of CANON process in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yu, Boyang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Haojing; Wang, Chaonan; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was adopted for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process. Inorganic carbon (IC) was step-wise decreased to analyze the IC influence on nitrogen removal and microbial communities, finally IC was elevated to study its recovery capability. The bioactivities of functional organisms were detected by batch experiments. Results showed that the bioactivity and biodiversity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) both decreased due to the IC shortage, while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria bioactivity showed a contrary result. When the concentration ratio of IC to nitrogen (IC/N) decreased to 1.0, the nitrogen removal sharply deteriorated, which then recovered when the ratio increased to 2.5. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that Nitrosomonas sp. of AOB and Candidatus Brocadia fulgida of AAOB could survive in the condition of IC deficit. The prominent IC/N ratio for high-rate and stable CANON was between 1.5-2.0. PMID:26706724

  16. The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

  17. The feasibility of an up-flow partially aerated biological filter (U-PABF) for nitrogen and COD removal from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chen; Peng, Tong; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Hu, Qili; Hao, Chunbo

    2016-10-01

    An up-flow partially aerated biological filter (U-PABF) was developed to study the removal of nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from synthetic domestic wastewater. The removal of NH4(+)-N was primarily attributed to adsorption in the zeolite U-PABF and to bioprocesses in the ceramic U-PABF. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5.2h, the ceramic U-PABF achieved a good performance and the NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen (TN), and COD removal efficiency reached 99.08±8.79%, 72.83±0.68%, and 89.38±1.04%, respectively. The analysis of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N, and TN at different depths revealed the simultaneous existence of nitrification-denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in ceramic U-PABF. Illumina pyrosequencing confirmed the existence of Planctomycetes, which are responsible for anammox. The results indicated that the nitrification-denitrification and anammox all contributed to the high removal of NH4(+)-N, TN, and COD in the U-PABF. PMID:27372011

  18. Treatment of a slaughterhouse wastewater: effect of internal recycle rate on chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Fongsatitkul, P; Wareham, D G; Elefsiniotis, P; Charoensuk, P

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the ability of an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2/O) system to treat a slaughterhouse wastewater. The system employed two identical continuous-flow reactors (101 total liquid volume each) running in parallel with the main operational variable, being the internal recycle (IR) rate. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) performance was evaluated as the IR flowrate was increased from a Q of 151d(-1) to 4Q at a system hydraulic retention time of 16 h and a solids retention time of 10 d. The COD:TKN and COD:TP ratios were 8.2:1 and 54:1, which supported both nitrogen and phosphorus removal. For all IR multiples of Q, the COD removal was in excess of 90%. The TKN removal showed a modest improvement (a 4-5% increase, depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO)) as the IR doubled from Q to 2Q, but no further increase was observed at the 4Q IR rate. The TP removal reached its optimum (around 85%-89% (again depending on the DO)) at the 2Q rate. PMID:22439562

  19. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen during biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Lin, Huirong; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Shenghua; Zhao, Chengmei

    2013-04-01

    Due to its potential to form toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is considered as one of the most important parameters in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study describes a comprehensive investigation of variations in DON levels in orbal oxidation ditches. The results showed that DON increased gradually from 0.71 to 1.14 mg I(-1) along anaerobic zone, anoxic zone, aerobic zone 1 and aerobic 2. Molecular weight fractionation of DON in one anaerobic zone and one aerobic zone (aerobic zone 2) was performed. We found that the proportion of small molecular weight (<6 kDa) decreased and large molecular weight (> 20 kDa) showed opposite trend. This variation may have been caused due to the release of different types of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during biological processes. These SMPs contained both tryptophan protein-like and aromatic protein-like substances, which were confirmed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis. PMID:24620601

  20. Landscape-level estimation of nitrogen removal in coastal Louisiana wetlands: potential sinks under different restoration scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Branoff, Benjamin; Meselhe, Ehab; McCorquodale, Alex; Dortch, Mark; Steyer, Gregory D.; Visser, Jenneke; Wang, Hongqing

    2013-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is the primary anthropogenic contributor to the largest zone of hypoxic bottom waters in North America. Although biologically mediated processes such as denitrification (Dn) are known to act as sinks for inorganic nitrogen, it is unknown what contribution denitrification makes to landscape-scale nitrogen budgets along the coast. As the State of Louisiana plans the implementation of a 2012 Coastal Master Plan (MP) to help restore its wetlands and protect its coast, it is critical to understand what effect potential restoration projects may have in altering nutrient budgets. As part of the MP, a spatial statistical approach was developed to estimate nitrogen removal under varying scenarios of future conditions and coastal restoration project implementation. In every scenario of future conditions under which MP implementation was modeled, more nitrogen (NO3- was removed from coastal waters when compared with conditions under which no action is taken. Overall, the MP increased coast-wide average nitrogen removal capacity (NRC) rates by up to 0.55 g N m−2 y−1 compared with the “future without action” (FWOA) scenario, resulting in a conservative estimate of up to 25% removal of the annual NO3- + NO2- load of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya rivers (956,480 t y−1). These results are spatially correlated, with the lower Mississippi River and Chenier Plain exhibiting the greatest change in NRC. Since the implementation of the MP can maintain, and in some regions increase the NRC, our results show the need to preserve the functionality of wetland habitats and use this ecosystem service (i.e. Dn) to decrease eutrophication of the GOM.

  1. Operational strategy for nitrogen removal from centrate in a two-stage partial nitrification--anammox process.

    PubMed

    Kosari, S F; Rezania, B; Lo, K V; Mavinic, D S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the operational strategy for nitrogen removal in a two-stage, partial nitrification (PN) process coupled with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. The process was used to remove ammonium from centrate obtained from a full-scale, wastewater treatment plant in British Columbia, Canada. The PN, which was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), successfully converted approximately 49.5 +/- 1.0% of ammonium to nitrite. The operation of SBR under higher dissolved oxygen in combination with slow feeding resulted in significant reduced HRT without nitrate accumulation. Partially nitrified centrate was further treated in Anammox reactors, where the mixture of ammonium and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas. Anammox treatment was carried out in two different types of Anammox reactors: a moving bed hybrid reactor and an up-flow fixed-bed biofilm reactor. The hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4-N, versus the 48.3% NH4-N removed in the up-flow fixed-bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the hybrid and up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactors averaged 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively. This study also illustrated that in both Anammox reactors, better ammonium removal was achieved when the nitrite to ammonium ratio is between 1.35 and 1.45. As such, alkalinity was found to neither control nor limit the Anammox reaction. PMID:24701906

  2. Study on nitrogen removal enhanced by shunt distributing wastewater in a constructed subsurface infiltration system under intermittent operation mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Haibo; Sun, Tieheng; Wang, Xin

    2011-05-15

    Subsurface wastewater infiltration system is an efficient and economic technology in treating small scattered sewage. The removal rates are generally satisfactory in terms of COD, BOD(5), TP and SS removal; while nitrogen removal is deficient in most of the present operating SWIS due to the different requirements for the presence of oxygen for nitrification and denitrification processes. To study the enhanced nitrogen removal technologies, two pilot subsurface wastewater infiltration systems were constructed in a village in Shenyang, China. The filled matrix was a mixture of 5% activated sludge, 65% brown soil and 30% coal slag in volume ratio for both systems. Intermittent operation mode was applied in to supply sufficient oxygen to accomplish the nitrification; meanwhile sewage was supplemented as the carbon source to the lower part in to denitrify. The constructed subsurface wastewater infiltration systems worked successfully under wetting-drying ratio of 1:1 with hydraulic loading of 0.081 m(3)/(m(2)d) for over 4 months. Carbon source was supplemented with shunt ratio of 1:1 and shunt position at the depth of 0.5m. The experimental results showed that intermittent operation mode and carbon source supplementation could significantly enhance the nitrogen removal efficiency with little influence on COD and TP removal. The average removal efficiencies for NH(3)-N and TN were 87.7 ± 1.4 and 70.1 ± 1.0%, increased by 12.5 ± 1.0 and 8.6 ± 0.7%, respectively. PMID:21402440

  3. Municipal wastewater treatment by biofiltration: comparisons of various treatment layouts. Part 1: assessment of carbon and nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Paffoni, Catherine; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Guérin, Sabrina; Azimi, Sam; Gasperi, Johnny; Moilleron, Régis; Pauss, André

    2012-01-01

    One of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the Paris conurbation (240,000 m(3)/d) has been studied over several years in order to provide technical and economical information about biological treatment by biofiltration. Biofiltration systems are processes in which carbon and nitrogen pollution of wastewater are treated by ascendant flow through immersed fixed cultures. This paper, focused on technical information, aims: (1) to compare performances of the three biological treatment layouts currently used in biofiltration systems: upstream denitrification (UD), downstream denitrification (DD) and combined upstream-downstream denitrification (U-DD) layouts; and (2) to describe in detail each treatment step. Our study has shown that more than 90% of the carbon and ammoniacal pollution is removed during biological treatment, whatever the layout used. Nitrate, produced during nitrification, is then reduced to atmospheric nitrogen. This reduction is more extensive when the denitrification stage occurs downstream from the treatment (DD layout with methanol addition), whereas it is only partial when it is inserted upstream from the treatment (UD layout - use of endogenous carbonaceous substrate). So, the UD layout leads to a nitrate concentration that exceeds the regulatory threshold in the effluent, and the treatment must be supplemented with a post-denitrification step (U-DD layout). Our work has also shown that the optimal ammonium-loading rate is about 1.1-1.2 kg N-NH(4)(+) per m(3) media (polystyrene) and day. For denitrification, the optimal nitrate-loading rate is about 2.5 kg N per m(3) media (expanded clay) and day in the case of DD with methanol, and is about 0.25 kg N-NO(3)(-) per m(3) media and day in the case of UD with exogenous carbonaceous substrate. PMID:22508136

  4. Phosphorus removal performance of acid mine drainage from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruihua, Li; Lin, Zhu; Tao, Tao; Bo, Liu

    2011-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in Yunfu iron sulfide mine contain Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) up to 8000, 1700 and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater with 10mg/L of total phosphorus (TP) concentration and second municipal effluent with 3.5-4.0mg/L of TP concentration were conducted with the AMD by jar tests. Dosage of the AMD and initial pH of water are the two most important parameters affecting the performance of phosphorus removal of the AMD. The optimal phosphorus removal efficiency and residual iron ions (TFe) concentration are 97.0% and 3.0mg/L, respectively, at 1.61 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 8.03 for synthetic wastewater, and 92.1% and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, for second municipal effluent at 1.41 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 7.3. Resultant heavy metal concentration in effluents and precipitate was very low, and the risk of resultant heavy metal contamination was very small. The phosphorus removal performance of the AMD was much similar to that of ferric sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS), and better than that of FeSO(4). And residual TFe concentration in treated water arising from utilization of the AMD was similar to that of FeSO(4), and higher than that of FS and PFS. The AMD could be used as coagulant for phosphorus removal from wastewater directly due to the presence of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) largely. PMID:21514994

  5. Simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in an anoxic-oxic activated sludge system under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Ahn, Dae Hee; Lee, Dae Sung

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated a bench-scale anoxic-oxic activated sludge system for integrated removal of COD and nitrogen. The experimental unit includes four chambers and continuous feeding in first chamber without recycle of nitrified liquid from aerobic to anoxic chamber unlike the conventional anoxic-oxic process. Recycled excessive sludge was used for the purpose of recycling nitrified mixed liquor. Synthetic wastewater with average loading rates of 0.53 kg COD/m(3)/d and 0.067 kg NH4(+)-N/m(3)/d was fed to the reactor system at hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 24 and 18 h. The results of 100 days operation showed high removal efficiencies of organic matter of about 97% as total COD and more than 99% removal of ammonia-nitrogen. In anoxic-oxic operation phase, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal was about 66% by pre-denitrification. Moreover, the solid liquid separation through final clarifier was excellent without any suspended solid in the effluent. PMID:24768910

  6. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application. PMID:27140818

  7. Removal of nitrogen by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification of a phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24.

    PubMed

    Li, Chune; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Xin; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; He, Ruoxue; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri YG-24 exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability. Single factor experiments showed that both heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification occurred with sodium citrate as carbon source and lower C/N ratio of 8. High average NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N removal rates of 8.75, 7.51 and 7.73 mg L(-1)h(-1) were achieved. The application of strain YG-24 in wastewater samples resulted in TN, NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and P removal efficiencies of 85.28%, 88.13%, 86.15%, 70.83% and 51.21%. Sequencing and quantitative amplification by real-time PCR of napA, nirS and ppk showed that nitrogen removal pathway of strain YG-24 was achieved through heterotrophic ammonium nitrification coupled with fast nitrite denitrification (NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N and then to gaseous nitrogen) directly. These results demonstrated the strain as a suitable candidate to simultaneously remove both nitrogen and phosphate in wastewater treatment. PMID:25668754

  8. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  9. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  10. Effect of HRT on nitrogen removal in a coupled HRP and unplanted subsurface flow gravel bed constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, A. W.; Mutamba, J.

    This paper discusses the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on nitrogen removal in a coupled high rate pond (HRP) and a gravel bed subsurface constructed wetland (SSCW) wastewater treatment plant. A pilot plant consisting of a high rate pond (HRT) coupled to an unplanted gravel bed subsurface constructed wetland (SSCW) was used to investigate nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater at the University of Dar es Salaam. The influent, which is predominantly of domestic origin, was drawn from the facultative pond unit of the university’s waste stabilisation pond system. The pilot plant’s HRP unit, which was 0.6 m deep, was designed to nitrify the influent while SSCW unit, which was filled to 10 cm above water level with 19-mm diameter aggregates, was predominantly anoxic and promoted denitrification. The study was conducted at two different operational settings. In Phase 1, both the HRP and the SSCW units had a retention time of 5 days. During Phase 2, the hydraulic retention time in HRP was increased to 8 days while the retention time of the SSCW unit was maintained at 5 days. Samples were collected daily for laboratory analysis of influent and effluent wastewater quality. All experiments were conducted in accordance with Standard Methods. The results showed that improved nitrogen removal occurred with increase in hydraulic time of the HRP unit. In Phase 1 an average nitrogen removal of 33% was achieved while removal efficiency improved to 43% in Phase 2. It was also revealed that the HRP can effectively be used to promote nitrification and the unplanted gravel bed subsurface constructed wetland can be used as a denitrifying unit.

  11. Load maximization of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor for nitrogen removal from synthetic municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2008-03-01

    A novel liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB) configured with anoxic and aerobic columns and lava rock as the biofilm carrier was used to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Four different empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.82, 0.65, 0.55, and 0.44 h were examined to optimize nutrient removal capability of the system. The LSCFB demonstrated tertiary effluent quality organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Effluent characteristics of the LSCFB were soluble biological oxygen demand (SBOD)10 mg l(-1) and total nitrogen (TN)<10 mg l(-1) at organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 kg m(-3)d(-1) and nitrogen loading rate of 0.54 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). Remarkably low yields of 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.21 g VSS g(-1)COD were observed at OLR of 2.6, 3.2, 4.1 and 5.3 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), where increment of biomass growth and detachment rate were also experienced with increasing OLR. However the system demonstrated only 30% phosphorus removal, and mass balances along the anoxic and aerobic columns showed biological phosphorus removal in the system. Organic mass balance showed that approximately 40% of the influent COD was utilized in the anoxic column and the remaining COD was oxidized in the aerobic column. The system is very efficient in nitrification-denitrification, with more than 90% nitrification of ammonium and overall nitrogen removal in the LSCFB was 70+/-11% even at an EBCT of 0.44 h. PMID:18262217

  12. Assessing performance of manufactured treatment devices for the removal of phosphorus from urban stormwater.

    PubMed

    Sample, David J; Grizzard, Thomas J; Sansalone, John; Davis, Allen P; Roseen, Robert M; Walker, Jane

    2012-12-30

    Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in urban runoff can be controlled through a variety of nonstructural and structural controls commonly known as best management practices (BMPs). Manufactured treatment devices (MTDs) are structural BMPs that may be used in portions of a site, often when space is limited. MTDs use a variety of technologies to achieve potentially greater treatment efficiency while reducing spatial requirements. However, verifying the performance of MTDs is difficult because of the variability of runoff water quality, the variability in treatment technologies, and the lack of standardized protocols for field testing. Performance testing of MTDs has focused almost exclusively upon removal of sediment; however MTDs are now being applied to the task of removing other constituents of concern, including nutrients such as phosphorus. This paper reviews current methods of assessing treatment performance of MTDs and introduces the Virginia Technology Assessment Protocol (VTAP), a program developed to evaluate the removal of phosphorus by MTDs. The competing goals of various stakeholders were considered when developing the VTAP. A conceptual framework of the tradeoffs considered is presented; these tradeoffs require compromise among the competing interests in order that innovation proceeds and benefits accrue. The key strengths of VTAP are also presented and compared with other existing programs. PMID:23079117

  13. Long-term nitrogen compound removal trends of a hybrid subsurface constructed wetland treating milking parlor wastewater throughout its 7 years of operation.

    PubMed

    Harada, J; Inoue, T; Kato, K; Izumoto, H; Zhang, X; Sakuragi, H; Wu, D; Ietsugu, H; Sugawara, Y

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the nitrogen compound removal efficiency of a hybrid subsurface constructed wetland, which began treating milking parlor wastewater in Hokkaido, northern Japan, in 2006. The wetland's overall removal rates of total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium (NH4(+)-N) improved after the second year of operation, and its rate of organic nitrogen (Org-N) removal was stable at 90% efficiency. Only nitrate (NO3(-)-N) levels were increased following the treatment. Despite increased NO3(-)-N (maximum of 3 mg-N/L) levels, TN removal rates were only slightly affected. Removal rates of TN and Org-N were highest in the first vertical bed. NH4(+)-N removal rates were highest in the second vertical bed, presumably due to water recirculation and pH adjustment. Concentrations of NO3(-)-N appeared when total carbon (TC) levels were low, which suggests that low TC prevented complete denitrification in the second vertical bed and the final horizontal bed. In practice, the beds removed more nitrogen than the amount theoretically removed by denitrification, as calculated by the amount of carbon removed from the system. This carbon-nitrogen imbalance may be due to other nitrogen transformation mechanisms, which require less carbon. PMID:26942522

  14. Denitrification and biofilm growth in a pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers for biological nitrogen removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhong; Wu, Guangxue; Wei, Nan; Hu, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Tertiary denitrification is an effective method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. A pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers was operated for tertiary denitrification with ethanol as the organic carbon source. Long-term performance, biokinetics of denitrification and biofilm growth were evaluated under filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr. The pilot-scale biofilter removed nitrate from the secondary effluent effectively, and the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) removal percentage was 82%, 78% and 55% at the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. At the filtration velocities of 6 and 10 m/hr, the nitrate removal loading rate increased with increasing influent nitrate loading rates, while at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr, the removal loading rate and the influent loading rate were uncorrelated. During denitrification, the ratio of consumed chemical oxygen demand to removed NO3-N was 3.99-4.52 mg/mg. Under the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, the maximum denitrification rate was 3.12, 4.86 and 4.42 g N/(m2·day), the half-saturation constant was 2.61, 1.05 and 1.17 mg/L, and the half-order coefficient was 0.22, 0.32 and 0.24(mg/L)1/2/min, respectively. The biofilm biomass increased with increasing filtration velocity and was 2845, 5124 and 7324 mg VSS/m2 at filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. The highest biofilm density was 44 mg/cm3 at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr. Due to the low influent loading rate, biofilm biomass and thickness were lowest at the filtration velocity of 6m/hr. PMID:26040729

  15. Treating low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater in simultaneous nitrification-endogenous denitrification and phosphorous removal (SNDPR) systems by strengthening anaerobic intracellular carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Shuying; Xue, Tonglai; Li, Baikun; Dai, Xian; Peng, Yongzhen

    2015-06-15

    A novel simultaneous nitrification denitrification and phosphorous removal-sequencing batch reactor (SNDPR-SBR) enriched with PAOs (phosphorus accumulating organisms), DPAOs (denitrifying PAOs), and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) at the ratio of 2:1:1 was developed to achieve the simultaneous nutrient and carbon removal treating domestic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio (≤3.5). The SNDPR system was operated for 120 days at extended anaerobic stage (3 h) and short aerobic stage at low oxygen concentration (2.5 h) with short sludge retention time (SRT) of 10.9 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14.6 h. The results showed that at the stable operating stage, the average effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PO4(3-)-P concentrations were 47.2 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 77.7%, and the SND efficiency reached 49.3%. Extended anaerobic stage strengthened the intracellular carbon (mainly poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB) storage, efficiently utilized the organic substances in wastewater, and provided sufficient carbon sources for denitrification and phosphorus uptake without external carbon addition. Short aerobic stage at low oxygen concentration (dissolved oxygen (DO): 1 ± 0.3 mg L(-1)) achieved a concurrence of nitrification, endogenous denitrification, denitrifying and aerobic phosphorus uptake, and saved about 65% energy consumption for aeration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that P removal was mainly performed by aerobic PAOs while N removal was mainly carried out by denitrifying GAOs (DGAOs), even though DPAOs were also participated in both N and P removal. PMID:25875928

  16. Trophic complexity in aqueous systems: bacterial species richness and protistan predation regulate dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Fetzer, Ingo; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2016-02-24

    Loading of water bodies with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) affects their integrity and functioning. Microbial interactions mitigate the negative effects of high nutrient loads in these ecosystems. Despite numerous studies on how biodiversity mediates ecosystem functions, whether and how diversity and complexity of microbial food webs (horizontal, vertical) and the underlying ecological mechanisms influence nutrient removal has barely been investigated. Using microbial microcosms accommodating systematic combinations of prey (bacteria) and predator (protists) species, we showed that increasing bacterial richness improved the extent and reliability of DOC and DTN removal. Bacterial diversity drove nutrient removal either due to species foraging physiology or functional redundancy, whereas protistan diversity affected nutrient removal through bacterial prey resource partitioning and changing nutrient balance in the system. Our results demonstrate that prey-predator diversity and trophic interactions interactively determine nutrient contents, thus implying the vital role of microbial trophic complexity as a biological buffer against DOC and DTN. PMID:26888033

  17. Dynamics of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus removal and their interactions in a tidal operated constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Shubiao; Dong, Renjie

    2015-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the potential of tidal flow operated constructed wetland application for the removal dynamics of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Near-complete removal of organic matter was achieved with a constant removal efficiency of 95%, irrespective of TOC influent loadings ranged from 10 g/m(2) · d to 700 g/m(2) · d. High NH4(+)-N removal at 95% efficiency under influent loading of 17 g/m(2) · d, was stably obtained and was not negatively influenced by increasing influent organic carbon loading rate. Increased influent TOC loading (350 g/m(2) · d to 700 g/m(2) · d) significantly enhanced denitrification capacity and increased TN removal from 30% to 95%. Under tidal flow operation, a higher carbon supply (C/N = 20) for complete TN removal was demonstrated as comparing to that observed in traditional CWs approaches. In addition, the removal of phosphorus was strongly influenced by organic loadings. However, further investigations are needed to elucidate the detailed mechanism that would explain the role of organic loading in phosphorus removal. PMID:25585144

  18. A novel design for anaerobic chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal from leachate in a semiaerobic landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkyu; Yang, GoSu

    2002-10-01

    The removal capacity of carbon and nitrogen from an artificial leachate was evaluated by using laboratory-scale columns, and a design was proposed to remove nitrogen more efficiently from a semiaerobic landfill. Five columns (i.e., two artificial municipal waste columns under anaerobic and semiaerobic conditions, an artificial construction waste column under semiaerobic conditions, and two crushed stone columns under anaerobic and semiaerobic conditions) were used. The influent load rates of organics [g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3 x day], NH4+, NO3- and aeration conditions for the columns were varied, and the removal capacities of the columns for COD, NH4+-N, and NO3--N were measured. Among the packed column materials, crushed stone was shown to be most effective in removing COD, NH4+ N, and NO3--N from artificial leachate. Average removal rates of crushed column under the semiaerobic condition (column D) for COD and NH4+-N were estimated at about 150 g COD/m3 x day and 20 g COD/m3 x day, while those of crushed column under anaerobic condition (column E) for COD and NO3--N at about 400 and 150 g COD/m3 x day, respectively. It also was found that denitrification and nitrification reactions in column D occurred at the same time, and the ratio of denitrification to nitrification was estimated to be about 80%. Therefore, an anaerobic structure, which could be attached to the bottom of a main pipe in a semiaerobic landfill, is suggested to remove nitrogen and organic substances more effectively. PMID:12418726

  19. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation. PMID:26818608

  20. Kinetic and spectroscopic study of catalysts for water-gas shift and nitrogen oxide removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kispersky, Vincent Frederick

    Hy variants modeled on Cu. The redox nature of the Cu active site was further investigated in a follow up study isolating the reducing portion of the SCR by removing O 2 from the reaction feed. Cutting off O2 drove the catalyst into a highly reduced state dominated by Cu(I) while removing a reductant drove the Cu into the fully oxidized state. Our research shows that not only is redox a vital part of the SCR reaction on Cu/zeolites, but that the oxidation state of the active site is highly sensitive to the gas environment. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is an industrially important step in H2 generation from steam reforming. I have had the opportunity to contribute to a number of studies in WGS by studying the catalysts in FTIR. We studied numerous catalytic formulations including Fe promoted Pd/Al 2O3 and Au/TiO2. We found that the Fe promoted the WGS rate of the catalyst by a factor of 160 compared to the Fe free Pd/Al 2O3. The reduced Fe promoter efficiently split H2O, typically the role performed by reducible supports, and the nearby noble metal particles provided spillover H2 to maintain the reduced Fe phase necessary to split H2O. Our study of Au/TiO2 involved the development of a modified operando transmission IR cell with ultra-low dead volume allowing for fast switching isotope experiments over the catalyst. The isotope switching experiments showed that only CO adsorbed on Au0 sites was an active surface intermediate at 120°C. Counting the amount of active surface Au atoms for the reaction ruled out the Au particle surface and perimeter atoms as the dominant active sites and confirmed our previous finding that the active site was composed mostly of low coordinated corner Au atoms.

  1. Investigation of possible methods for removal of nitrogen from coal-derived and coal-related materials. [Melt-treated coal; benzylamine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.D.; Vermeulen, T.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the feasibility of removing nitrogen from hydrogenated coal products by oxidation. Solvent-refined coal, melt-treated coal, and nitrogen containing model-compounds were used as substrates. In addition, various zinc containing catalytic systems were screened for their hydrogenation and hydrocracking activity towards quinoline. Results indicate that nitrogen can be removed from some of the model-compounds used. Both iron and cobalt salts effectively catalyzed the oxidation reaction. Very little nitrogen could be removed from the compounds that are the most representative of hydrogenated coal. In addition, very little nitrogen was removed from the hydrogenated coals themselves. None of the zinc salts tested in the hydrogenation portion of the study were effective in catalyzing the rate of hydrogenation of quinoline.

  2. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic lake water by Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wu, Yue-Jin; Yu, Zeng-Liang; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-03-01

    Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy N+ ion implantation was used for the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus from the eutrophic Chaohu Lake, China. The biomass growth, nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities of the implanted I. aquatica were found to be higher than those of I. aquatica without ion implantation. Higher NO3-N and PO4-P removal efficiencies were obtained for the I. aquatica irradiation at 25 keV, 3.9 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2) and 20 keV 5.2 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those of the controls. I. aquatica with ion implantation was directly responsible for 51-68% N removal and 54-71% P removal in the three experiments. The results further confirm that the ion implantation could enhance the growth potential of I. aquatica in real eutrophic water and increase its nutrient removal efficiency. Thus, the low-energy ion implantation for aquatic plants could be considered as an approach for in situ phytoremediation and bioremediation of eutrophic waters. PMID:19147171

  3. Sewage treatment by an UAFB-EGSB biosystem with energy recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Li; Tao, Yu; Cong, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2015-04-01

    A system combined an upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UAFB) and an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) was designed and verified as a success for treating real sewage with simultaneous energy recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal. The impact of temperature (stepwise decreased from 30 °C to 20 °C and 10 °C) was a primary focus, aiming to reveal the response of the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anammox efficiency to the temperature variation. As the temperature decreases, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal rate was 90.6%, 90.0% and 84.7%, respectively; total nitrogen (TN) removal was 69.4%, 48.8%, 38.4%, respectively; NH4(+)-N removal was 91.3%, 74.9%, 65.1%, respectively. Methanogenic activity of UAFB was significantly influenced by low temperatures, while the unavoidable growth of heterotrophic organisms in EGSB also contributed to the sCOD removal, even at 10 °C. Lower working temperature (10/20 °C) limited the growth and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria (AnAOB), but improved the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity. PMID:25625463

  4. Potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Liu, Shufeng; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2016-11-15

    Conventional biological removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas has been severely restricted by the presence of oxygen. This paper presents an efficient alternative for NOx removal at varying oxygen levels using the newly isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 which was capable of aerobic and anoxic denitrification. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO), as the obligatory intermediate, was negligibly accumulated during nitrate and nitrite reduction. Moreover, normal nitrate reduction with decreasing NO accumulation was realized under O2 concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. Reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that high efficient NO removal was attributed to the coordinate regulation of gene expressions including napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase) and cnorB (for NO reductase). Further batch experiments demonstrated the immobilized strain PCN-2 possessed high capability of removing NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at O2 concentration of 0-10%. A biotrickling filter established with present strain achieved high NOx removal efficiencies of 91.94-96.74% at inlet NO concentration of 100-500ppm and O2 concentration of 0-10%, which implied promising potential applications in purifying NOx contaminated flue gas. PMID:27469045

  5. Nitrogen removal from eutrophic water by floating-bed-grown water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wu, Yue-Jin; Yu, Zeng-Liang; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with N(+) ion-beam implantation for removal of nutrient species from eutrophic water. The mutated water spinach was grown on floating beds, and growth chambers were used to examine the growth of three cultivars of water spinach with ion implantation for 14 days in simulated eutrophic water at both high and low nitrogen levels. The specific weight growth rates of three cultivars of water spinach with ion implantation were significantly higher than the control, and their NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N removal efficiencies were also greater than those of the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the nitrogen contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were higher as well. PMID:17524443

  6. Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. PMID:25216301

  7. N2O emission from nitrogen removal via nitrite in oxic-anoxic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Yang, Jiaoling; Gao, Dawen

    2014-03-01

    Bionitrification is considered to be a potential source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which are produced as a by-product during the nitrogen removal process. To investigate the production of N2O during the process of nitrogen removal via nitrite, a granular sludge was studied using a lab-scale sequence batch reactor operated with real-time control. The total production of N2O generated during the nitrification and denitrification processes were 1.724 mg/L and 0.125 mg/L, respectively, demonstrating that N2O is produced during both processes, with the nitrification phase generating larger amount. In addition, due to the N2O-N mass/oxidized ammonia mass ratio, it can be concluded that nitrite accumulation has a positive influence on N2O emissions. Results obtained from PCR-DGGE analysis demonstrate that a specific Nitrosomonas microorganism is related to N2O emission. PMID:25079265

  8. [Effect of High Ammonium on Nitrogen Removal in an Partial Nitritation-ANAMMOX Process with Reflux System].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Cui, Jian-hong; Yuan, Yan; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Liu, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The effect of influent ammonia on nitrogen transformation characteristics and microbial communities in partial nitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation (PN-ANAMMOX) process was studied by using a series of partial nitrification and ANAMMOX process with air-lift reflux device. The results showed that when the influent ammonia concentration was increased to 700 mg x L(-1) and the nitrogen volume load was stabled at 2.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the fluctuation of pH value was very small in aerobic and anaerobic zone. In the aerobic and anaerobic zone, FA concentrations were maintained at 5'mg x L(-1), 10 mg x L(-1), respectively, which did not inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Nitrite produce rate was stabled at 1.5 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in the aerobic zone, and nitrogen removal rate was stabled at 31.49 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in anaerobic zone, the total nitrogen removal rate was stabled at 1.67 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in combined process. When the influent ammonia concentration was increased to 900 mg x L(-1), the FA and FNA concentration were increased in each areas, total nitrogen removal rate was decreased and stabled at 1.52 kg x- ( m3x- d( 1)'. The nitrite was accumulated in the anaerobic zone, and there was no significant inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria. Our findings indicated that the reflux can effectively alleviate the fluctuation of pH in each area, and dilute FA concentration which is toxic to microorganisms. PMID:26841608

  9. Characterization of microbial communities removing nitrogen oxides from flue gas: the BioDeNOx process.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; van Dongen, Udo; Kuenen, J Gijs; Abma, Wiebe; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-10-01

    BioDeNOx is an integrated physicochemical and biological process for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases. In this process, the flue gas is purged through a scrubber containing a solution of Fe(II)EDTA2-, which binds the NOx to form an Fe(II)EDTA.NO2- complex. Subsequently, this complex is reduced in the bioreactor to dinitrogen by microbial denitrification. Fe(II)EDTA2-, which is oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA- by oxygen in the flue gas, is regenerated by microbial iron reduction. In this study, the microbial communities of both lab- and pilot-scale reactors were studied using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A pure bacterial strain, KT-1, closely affiliated by 16S rRNA analysis to the gram-positive denitrifying bacterium Bacillus azotoformans, was obtained. DNA-DNA homology of the isolate with the type strain was 89%, indicating that strain KT-1 belongs to the species B. azotoformans. Strain KT-1 reduces Fe(II)EDTA.NO2- complex to N2 using ethanol, acetate, and Fe(II)EDTA2- as electron donors. It does not reduce Fe(III)EDTA-. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed the presence of bacteria closely affiliated with members of the phylum Deferribacteres, an Fe(III)-reducing group of bacteria. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes designed for strain KT-1 and members of the phylum Deferribacteres showed that the latter were more dominant in both reactors. PMID:16204556

  10. Characterization of Microbial Communities Removing Nitrogen Oxides from Flue Gas: the BioDeNOx Process

    PubMed Central

    Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; van Dongen, Udo; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Abma, Wiebe; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    BioDeNOx is an integrated physicochemical and biological process for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases. In this process, the flue gas is purged through a scrubber containing a solution of Fe(II)EDTA2−, which binds the NOx to form an Fe(II)EDTA·NO2− complex. Subsequently, this complex is reduced in the bioreactor to dinitrogen by microbial denitrification. Fe(II)EDTA2−, which is oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA− by oxygen in the flue gas, is regenerated by microbial iron reduction. In this study, the microbial communities of both lab- and pilot-scale reactors were studied using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A pure bacterial strain, KT-1, closely affiliated by 16S rRNA analysis to the gram-positive denitrifying bacterium Bacillus azotoformans, was obtained. DNA-DNA homology of the isolate with the type strain was 89%, indicating that strain KT-1 belongs to the species B. azotoformans. Strain KT-1 reduces Fe(II)EDTA·NO2− complex to N2 using ethanol, acetate, and Fe(II)EDTA2− as electron donors. It does not reduce Fe(III)EDTA−. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed the presence of bacteria closely affiliated with members of the phylum Deferribacteres, an Fe(III)-reducing group of bacteria. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes designed for strain KT-1 and members of the phylum Deferribacteres showed that the latter were more dominant in both reactors. PMID:16204556

  11. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    PubMed Central

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  12. Nitrogen removal in a full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant with activated sludge and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  13. [Rapid Start-up of Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Coupled Phosphorus Removal Process and Its Performing Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Leng, Lu; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Tang, Ya-nan; Wan, Li-hua; Guo, Jun-yuan; Cheng, Qing-feng

    2015-11-01

    In this study, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) coupled Phosphorus removal process through gradually decreasing DO concentration was investigated by treating wastewater with a low COD/TN ratio (C/N = 3 : 1-4: 1) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Successful SND coupled Phosphorus phenomenon occurred after 20d at the DO concentration of 0.50-1.0 mg x L(-1). In the following 40 days, the average removal rates of COD, NH4(+) -N, TN and TP were 84.84% , 93.51%, 77.06% and 85.69%, and the NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N average accumulations in the effluent were only 4.01 mg x L(-1) and 3.17 mg x L(-1), respectively. The AGS had complete forms and good settling performances, and the sludge volume index (SVI) was about 55.22 mL x g(-1) at the end of starting-up stage. The results of different nitrogen sources showed that the removal rate of TN was in the order of NH4(+) -N > NO2(-) -N > NO3(-) -N, and the removal rate of TP was in the order of NO3(-) -N > NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal of wastewater were mainly realized by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal, respectively. PMID:26911007

  14. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Qiming

    2016-08-01

    The mesoporous carbons have been synthesized by using α-D(+)-Glucose, D-Glucosamine hydrochloride or their mixture as carbon precursors and mesoporous silicas (SBA-15 or MCF) as hard templates. The as-prepared products show a large pore volume (0.59-0.97 cm3 g-1), high surface areas (352.72-1152.67 m2 g-1) and rational nitrogen content (ca. 2.5-3.9 wt.%). The results of electrochemical tests demonstrate that both heteroatom doping and suitable pore structure play a decisive role in the performance of supercapacitors. The representative sample of SBA-15 replica obtained using D-Glucosamine hydrochloride only exhibits high specific capacitance (212.8 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and good cycle durability (86.1% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles) in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which is attributed to the contribution of double layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance. The excellent electrochemical performance makes it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  15. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal by an advanced simultaneous sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Wen-juan

    2015-05-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously decrease sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The feasibility of simultaneous enhanced nutrient removal along with sludge reduction as well as the potential for enhanced nutrient removal via this process were further evaluated. The results showed that the denitrification potential of the supernatant of alkaline-treated sludge was higher than that of the influent. The system COD and VFA were increased by 23.0% and 68.2%, respectively, after the return of alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source, and the internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source. A total of 74.5% of phosphorus from wastewater was recovered as a usable chemical crystalline product. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal were improved by 19.6% and 23.6%, respectively, after incorporation of the side-stream system. Sludge minimization and excellent nutrient removal were successfully coupled in the SIPER process. PMID:25735007

  16. [Simultaneous determination of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances in urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhua; Huang, Dongqun; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Shiru; Feng, Shun

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was proposed to simultaneously determine four common nonprotein nitrogen substances, including creatine (Cr), creatinine (Cn), uric acid (Ua) and pseudouridine (Pu) in urine. After proteins being removed by acetone precipitation method, freeze drying and redissolving, the urine samples were analyzed by HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters RP18 Column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, 3.5 microm) in gradient elution mode using 10.0 mmol/L KH2PO4 solution (pH 4.78) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The samples were detected at 220 nm. Rapid separation was achieved within 7 min. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances were obtained in the range of 0.1-250 mg/L. The detection limits were 9.31 (Cr), 26.19 (Cn), 4.70 (Ua), an 6.30 (Pu) microg/L and the recoveries were in the range of 81%-111% with the relative standar deviations of 0.23%-2.78% (n = 3). The results demonstrate that this method is simple, rapid and accurate with good reproducibility, and can provide early diagnosis and preliminary judgment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with renal damage. PMID:24558847

  17. Overview of the Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Small Arsenic Removal Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides information on the performance and cost of primarily four arsenic removal technologies; adsorptive media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and the combination system of iron removal followed by adsorptive media.

  18. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  19. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H C; Pan, Likun

    2015-01-01

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g(-1) in ∼ 500 mg L(-1) NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material. PMID:26063676

  20. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2015-01-01

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g−1 in ∼500 mg L−1 NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material. PMID:26063676

  1. Novel nitrogen doped graphene sponge with ultrahigh capacitive deionization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingtao; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2015-06-01

    As water shortage has become a serious global problem, capacitive deionization (CDI) with high energy efficiency and low cost, is considered as a promising desalination technique to solve this problem. To date, CDI electrodes are mainly made up of porous carbon materials. However, the electrosorption performance obtained by now still cannot meet the demand of practical application. Therefore, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. Here, a novel nitrogen-doped graphene sponge (NGS), with high specific surface area and rationally designed structure was fabricated, and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The results show that NGS exhibits an ultrahigh electrosorption capacity of 21.0 mg g-1 in ˜500 mg L-1 NaCl solution, and to our knowledge, it is the highest value reported for carbon electrodes in similar experimental conditions by now. NGS in this work is expected to be a promising candidate as CDI electrode material.

  2. Nitrogen removal characteristics of a heterotrophic nitrifier Acinetobacter junii YB and its potential application for the treatment of high-strength nitrogenous wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ren, Yong-Xiang; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Si-Qi; Wang, Jun-Ping; Xia, Zhi-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter junii YB was found to exhibit efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability, with the maximum ammonium, nitrite and nitrate removal rate of 8.82, 8.45 and 7.98 mg/L/h, respectively. Meanwhile, ammonium was found to be removed preferentially in the process of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in mixed N-sources. The successful PCR amplification of hao, napA and nirS genes further provided additional evidence of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by strain YB. In addition, orthogonal test showed that dissolved oxygen was the most important determinant of nitrite removal, and the optimal conditions were C/N 15, pH 7.0, 37 °C and 200 rpm. Furthermore, stable nitrogen and organics removal were achieved by one-time dosing of enriched bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor. The inoculation of strain YB significantly improved the denitrification efficiency with minimal accumulation of nitrified products, which demonstrated high potential of the isolate for future practical applications. PMID:26141282

  3. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  4. Nitrogen Removal from Micro-Polluted Reservoir Water by Indigenous Aerobic Denitrifiers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhou, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Han; Zhou, Na; Guo, Lin; Di, Shi-Yu; Zhou, Zi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of micro-polluted source water is receiving increasing attention because of environmental awareness on a global level. We isolated and identified aerobic denitrifying bacteria Zoogloea sp. N299, Acinetobacter sp. G107, and Acinetobacter sp. 81Y and used these to remediate samples of their native source water. We first domesticated the isolated strains in the source water, and the 48-h nitrate removal rates of strains N299, G107, and 81Y reached 33.69%, 28.28%, and 22.86%, respectively, with no nitrite accumulation. We then conducted a source-water remediation experiment and cultured the domesticated strains (each at a dry cell weight concentration of 0.4 ppm) together in a sample of source water at 20–26 °C and a dissolved oxygen concentration of 3–7 mg/L for 60 days. The nitrate concentration of the system decreased from 1.57 ± 0.02 to 0.42 ± 0.01 mg/L and that of a control system decreased from 1.63 ± 0.02 to 1.30 ± 0.01 mg/L, each with no nitrite accumulation. Total nitrogen of the bacterial system changed from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.09 ± 0.01 mg/L, while that of the control system changed from 2.51 ± 0.13 to 1.72 ± 0.06 mg/L. The densities of aerobic denitrification bacteria in the experimental and control systems ranged from 2.8 × 104 to 2 × 107 cfu/mL and from 7.75 × 103 to 5.5 × 105 cfu/mL, respectively. The permanganate index in the experimental and control systems decreased from 5.94 ± 0.12 to 3.10 ± 0.08 mg/L and from 6.02 ± 0.13 to 3.61 ± 0.11 mg/L, respectively, over the course of the experiment. Next, we supplemented samples of the experimental and control systems with additional bacteria or additional source water and cultivated the systems for another 35 days. The additional bacteria did little to improve the water quality. The additional source water provided supplemental carbon and brought the nitrate removal rate in the experimental system to 16.97%, while that in the control system reached only 3.01%, with no nitrite

  5. Simultaneous removal of organic and strong nitrogen from sewage in a pilot-scale BNR process supplemented with food waste.

    PubMed

    Chae, S R; Lee, S H; Kim, J O; Paik, B C; Song, Y C; Park, H S; Shin, H S

    2004-01-01

    As the sewerage system is incomplete, sewage in Korea lacks easily biodegradable organics for nutrient removal. In this country, about 11,400 tons of food waste of high organic materials is produced daily. Therefore, the potential of food waste as an external carbon source was examined in a pilot-scale BNR (biological nutrient removal) process for a half year. It was found that as the supply of the external carbon increased, the average removal efficiencies of T-N (total nitrogen) and T-P (total phosphorus) increased from 53% and 55% to 97% and 93%, respectively. VFAs (volatile fatty acids) concentration of the external carbon source strongly affected denitrification efficiency and EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal) activity. Biological phosphorus removal was increased to 93% when T-N removal efficiency increased from 78% to 97%. In this study, several kinds of PHAs (poly-hydroxyalkanoates) in cells were observed. The observed PHAs was composed of 37% 3HB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate), 47% 3HV (poly-3-hydroxyvalerate), 9% 3HH (poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate), 5% 3HO (poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate), and 2% 3HD (poly-3-hydroxydecanoate). PMID:15137432

  6. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a surface-flow constructed wetland for polluted river water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Wang, Xiaochang; Zheng, Yucong; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal were studied during the 2-year operation of a free water surface flow wetland of 900 m² with hydraulic loading of 0.1 m/d to evaluate its potential to treat water from an urban stream polluted with municipal and industrial wastewater. Attention was focused on the removal of dissolved N and P by harvesting plants (local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis) at the end of each growing season. According to findings, the removals of N and P increased from 47.1% and 17.6%, respectively, in the 1st year to 52.3% and 32.4%, respectively, in the 2nd year. Increments of N and P removal were largely attributable to plant biomass, which increased from an average dry weight of 1.77 kg/m² in the 1st year to 3.41 kg/m² in the 2nd year. The amount of nutrients assimilated by plants in the 2nd year was almost double that of the 1st year. Increasing biomass in the 2nd year also improved redox conditions in the substrate layer, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of N removal. Compared with T. orientalis, P. australis was more competitive and adapted to conditions in the wetland better; it regenerated more vigorously and contributed more to nutrient removal. PMID:25812101

  7. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed, aerobic, and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chien, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory study using a combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) and aerobic and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system was undertaken to explore its capability for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater. When the organic loading rate was maintained at 0.26-0.65 kg TMAH m(-3 )d(-1), the UASB reactor removed 70-100% of TMAH through methanogenesis. When the [Formula: see text] -N loading rate was maintained at 0.73-1.4 kg [Formula: see text]-N m(-3 )d(-1), the aerobic reactor oxidized 31-59% of [Formula: see text]-N to [Formula: see text]-N through nitritation. When the nitrogen loading rate was maintained at 0.42-0.75 kg N m(-3 )d(-1), the anoxic reactor removed 27-63% of nitrogen through anammox. The performance data of the combined reactor system agreed well with the stoichiometric relationships of methanogenesis, nitritation, and anammox. The batch studies showed that a higher initial TMAH concentration of up to 2520 mg L(-1) gave a higher methanogenic activity of up to 16 mL CH4 g(-1) VSS d(-1). An increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 500 mg L(-1) gradually decreased the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; whereas an increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 47 mg L(-1) imposed a marked inhibiting effect on the activity of anammox bacteria. PMID:26583577

  8. Exploring the Shift in Structure and Function of Microbial Communities Performing Biological Phosphorus Removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Liguan; Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Xuxiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor fed mainly by acetate was operated to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). A short-term pH shock from 7.0 to 6.0 led to a complete loss of phosphate-removing capability and a drastic change of microbial communities. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that large proportions of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (accounted for 16% of bacteria) bloomed, including Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organism, causing deteriorated EBPR performance. The EBPR performance recovered with time and the dominant Candidatus Accumulibacter (Accumulibacter) clades shifted from Clade IIC to IIA while GAOs populations shrank significantly. The Accumulibacter population variation provided a good opportunity for genome binning using a bi-dimensional coverage method, and a genome of Accumulibacter Clade IIC was well retrieved with over 90% completeness. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that Accumulibacter clades had different abilities in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation, which shed light on enriching different Accumulibacter populations selectively. PMID:27547976

  9. Exploring the Shift in Structure and Function of Microbial Communities Performing Biological Phosphorus Removal

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Liguan; Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Xuxiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor fed mainly by acetate was operated to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). A short-term pH shock from 7.0 to 6.0 led to a complete loss of phosphate-removing capability and a drastic change of microbial communities. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that large proportions of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (accounted for 16% of bacteria) bloomed, including Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organism, causing deteriorated EBPR performance. The EBPR performance recovered with time and the dominant Candidatus Accumulibacter (Accumulibacter) clades shifted from Clade IIC to IIA while GAOs populations shrank significantly. The Accumulibacter population variation provided a good opportunity for genome binning using a bi-dimensional coverage method, and a genome of Accumulibacter Clade IIC was well retrieved with over 90% completeness. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that Accumulibacter clades had different abilities in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation, which shed light on enriching different Accumulibacter populations selectively. PMID:27547976

  10. Characterization of La/Fe/TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Performance in Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xianping; Chen, Chunfei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Junyu; Yan, Qun; Shi, Huquan; Wang, Chunying

    2015-01-01

    La/Fe/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were synthesized by Sol-Gel method and well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen-physical adsorption, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS). It is interesting that the doped catalysts were in anatase phase while the pure TiO2 was in rutile phase. In addition, the composites possessed better physical chemical properties in photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2: stronger visible-light-response ability, larger specific surface area, and more regular shape in morphology. The photodegradation results of ammonia nitrogen indicate that: the La/Fe/TiO2 had higher catalytic activity to ammonia nitrogen waste water compared pure TiO2 and the other single metal-doped TiO2. pH 10 and 2 mmol/L H2O2 were all beneficial to the removal of ammonia nitrogen by La/Fe/TiO2. However, the common inorganic ions of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, HCO3−/CO32−, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in water all inhibited the degradation of ammonia nitrogen. By balance calculation, at least 20% of ammonia nitrogen was converted to N2 during the 64.6% removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen. PMID:26593929

  11. Characterization of La/Fe/TiO₂ and Its Photocatalytic Performance in Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xianping; Chen, Chunfei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Junyu; Yan, Qun; Shi, Huquan; Wang, Chunying

    2015-11-01

    La/Fe/TiO₂ composite photocatalysts were synthesized by Sol-Gel method and well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen-physical adsorption, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS). It is interesting that the doped catalysts were in anatase phase while the pure TiO₂ was in rutile phase. In addition, the composites possessed better physical chemical properties in photocatalytic activity than pure TiO₂: stronger visible-light-response ability, larger specific surface area, and more regular shape in morphology. The photodegradation results of ammonia nitrogen indicate that: the La/Fe/TiO₂ had higher catalytic activity to ammonia nitrogen waste water compared pure TiO₂ and the other single metal-doped TiO₂. pH 10 and 2 mmol/L H₂O₂ were all beneficial to the removal of ammonia nitrogen by La/Fe/TiO₂. However, the common inorganic ions of Cl(-), NO₃(-), SO₄(2-), HCO₃(-)/CO₃²(-), Na⁺, K⁺, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in water all inhibited the degradation of ammonia nitrogen. By balance calculation, at least 20% of ammonia nitrogen was converted to N₂ during the 64.6% removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen. PMID:26593929

  12. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nitrogen removal within a Rhode Island estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via assimilation, burial, or benthic denitrification. Stu...

  13. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  14. Production of a novel bioflocculant and its flocculation performance in aluminum removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixin; Ma, Fang; Zuo, Huimin

    2016-04-01

    A novel bioflocculant CBF with high flocculating activity, produced by mixed culture of Rhizobium radiobacter F2 and Bacillus sphaericus F6 from soil, was investigated with regard to its production and flocculation performance in Al(III) removal. The most preferred carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio (w/w) for strains F2 and F6 to produce CBF were glucose, urea and 20, respectively. The optimal inoculum size for CBF production was 10 % (v/v). The optimal initial pH, culture temperature and shaking speed were 7-8, 30°C and 140 r/min for 24 h, respectively, under which the flocculating activity of the bioflocculant reached 98.52 %. According to literature review, flocculant dosage, coagulant aid dosage, pH, hydraulic condition of coagulation and sedimentation time are considered as influencing parameters for CBF flocculation performance in Al(III) removal by L16(4(5)) orthogonal design. The optimal conditions for Al(III) removal obtained through analysis and verification experiments were as follows: CBF, 28 mg/L; coagulant aid, 1.5 mL/L; initial pH, 8.0; and hydraulic conditions of coagulation: stir speed, 160 r/min; stir time, 40 s; and sedimentation time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the removal efficiency of Al(III) was 92.95 %. Overall, these findings indicate that bioflocculant CBF offers an effective alternative method of decreasing Al(III) during drinking water treatment. PMID:27002778

  15. Effects of oxygen and carbon content on nitrogen removal capacities in landfill bioreactors and response of microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiqing; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xinghua; Xie, Bing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, landfill bioreactors were tested to treat the recalcitrant leachate-nitrogen and the impacts of relevant operational parameters on its conversion were comprehensively investigated. We found that the highly diverse microbial community in landfill bioreactors could be substantially affected by increasing biodegradable carbon and oxygen content, which led to the whole system's intrinsic nitrogen removal capacity increasing from 50 to 70 %, and meanwhile, the contribution of anammox was detected less than 20 %. The sequencing and q-PCR results showed that microbial community in bioreactor was dominated by Proteobacteria (∼35 %) and Acidobacteria (~20 %) during the whole experiment. The abundance of anammox functioning bacteria (Amx) kept at a stable level (-2.5 to -2.2 log (copies/16S rRNA)) and was not statistically correlated to the abundance of anammox bacteria. However, significant linear correlation (p < 0.05) was determined between the abundance of nirS and Proteobacteria; amoA and AOB. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggested that although oxygen and biodegradable carbon can both impose effects on microbial community structure, only biodegradable carbon content is the determinant in the total nitrogen removal. PMID:27005414

  16. Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Ísis; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Dos Reis, William Lima Santiago; de Oliveira Franco, Marcia

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 ×5 Latin square design following a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal.. PMID:26954147

  17. Mechanistic Determination of Nitrogen Removal By Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems Using 15n Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current levels of nitrogen removal by onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are inadequate, with release of N from OWTS contributing to environmental N pollution, especially in coastal zones where aquatic ecosystems are sensitive to eutrophication. Current mechanistic understand of N removal are limited and mainly attributed to denitrification in the drainfield. Loss of N from N2O production during nitrification, a sparsely researched topic, may be a significant mechanism in advanced OWTS systems that enhance O2 diffusion by sand filter pre-treatment, shallow placement of infiltrative areas and timed dosing controls to prevent drainfield saturation. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N isotope to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of N removal in drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone, P&S) compared to two advanced types of drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and Geomat (GEO), a variation of a SND drainfield. Over the 11 day experiment, dissolved O2 was 1.6 mg/L for P&S and 3.0 mg/L for SND and GEO. Removal of total N was 13.5% for P&S, 4.8% for SND and 5.4% for GEO. 15NH4 labeled nitrogen inputs to drainfields were transformed primarily to 15NO3 in all outputs. Consistent low 15N2O levels were present in P&S, with increasing levels of N2 peaking 48h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting denitrification dominated N removal. By contrast, SND and GEO 15N2O levels rose quickly, peaking 8h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting N loss by nitrification. When the whole system is considered, including sand filter removal, 26 - 27% of total N was removed by the SND and GEO systems, whereas 14% of total N was removed in the P&S system. Our results suggest the SND and GEO systems as a whole are capable of removing a greater mass of N than the P&S system.

  18. Performance and properties of nanoscale calcium peroxide for toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajie; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Zhang, Weixian; Chen, Jiabin

    2013-04-01

    Due to the large diameter and small surface, the contaminant degradation by conventional calcium peroxide (CaO2) is slow with high dosage required. The aggregation of conventional CaO2 also makes it difficult to operate. Nanoscale CaO2 was therefore synthesized and applied to remove toluene in this study. Prepared from nanoscale Ca(OH)2 and H2O2 in the ratio of 1:7, the finely dispersed nanoscale CaO2 particles were confirmed by the scanning electron microscope to be in the range of 100-200nm in size. Compared to their non nanoscale counterparts, the synthesized nanoscale CaO2 demonstrated a superior performance in the degradation of toluene, which could be eliminated in 3d at pH 6. The oxidation products of toluene were analyzed to include benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and three cresol isomers. With the addition of 2-propanol, hydroxyl radicals were indicated as the main reactive oxygen species in the oxidation of toluene by nanoscale CaO2. Superoxide radicals were also investigated as the marker of nanoscale CaO2 in the solution. Our study thus provides an important insight into the application of nanoscale CaO2 in the removal of toluene contaminants, which is significant, especially for controlling the petroleum contaminations. PMID:23466092

  19. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  20. Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

  1. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Sheng, Guo-ping; Wu, Yue-jin; Yu, Zeng-liang; Bañuelos, Gary S; Yu, Han-qing

    2014-01-01

    Severe eutrophication of surface water has been a major problem of increasing environmental concern worldwide. In the present study, economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in floating mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential after ion implantation for removing nutrients in simulated eutrophic water. The specific weight growth rate of L. multiflorum with ion implantation was significantly greater than that of the control, and the peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase activities of the irradiated L. multiflorum were found to be greater than those plants without ion implantation. Higher total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were obtained for the L. multiflorum irradiated with 25 keV 5.2 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2) and 30 keV 4.16 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those in the control and were positively correlated with TN and TP supplied. L. multiflorum itself was directly responsible for 39-49 and 47-58 % of the overall N and P removal in the experiment, respectively. The research results suggested that ion implantation could become a promising approach for increasing phytoremediation efficiency of nutrients from eutrophic water by L. multiflorum. PMID:24809498

  2. Total nitrogen and ammonia removal prediction in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: use of artificial neural networks and development of a design equation.

    PubMed

    Akratos, Christos S; Papaspyros, John N E; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine if artificial neural networks (ANNs) can predict nitrogen removal in horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CWs). ANN development was based on experimental data from five pilot-scale CW units. The proper selection of the components entering the ANN was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA), which identified the main factors affecting TN removal, i.e., porous media porosity, wastewater temperature and hydraulic residence time. Two neural networks were examined: the first included only the three factors selected from the PCA, and the second included in addition meteorological parameters (i.e., barometric pressure, rainfall, wind speed, solar radiation and humidity). The first model could predict TN removal rather satisfactorily (R(2)=0.53), and the second resulted in even better predictions (R(2)=0.69). From the application of the ANNs, a design equation was derived for TN removal prediction, resulting in predictions comparable to those of the ANNs (R(2)=0.47). For the validation of the results of the ANNs and of the design equation, available data from the literature were used and showed a rather satisfactory performance. PMID:18786824

  3. Removal of ammonium-nitrogen from groundwater using a fully passive permeable reactive barrier with oxygen-releasing compound and clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yingzhao; Deng, Wei; Li, Shengpin; Huang, Yuanying; Kong, Xiangke

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully passive permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) and clinoptilolite was proposed for the removal of ammonium-nitrogen from groundwater. The PRB involves a combination of oxygen release, biological nitrification, ion exchange, and bioregeneration. A pilot-scale performance comparison experiment was carried out employing three parallel columns to assess the proposed PRB. The results showed that the PRB achieved nearly complete [Formula: see text] depletion (>99%). [Formula: see text] of 5.23-10.88 mg/L was removed, and [Formula: see text] of <1.93 mg/L and [Formula: see text] of 2.03-19.67 mg/L were generated. Ion exchange and biological nitrification both contributed to [Formula: see text] removal, and the latter played a dominant role under the condition of sufficient oxygen. Biological nitrification favored a delay in sorption saturation and a release of exchange sites. The ORC could sufficiently, efficiently supply oxygen for approximately 120 pore volumes. The clinoptilolite ensured a robust [Formula: see text] removal in case of temporary insufficient biological activities. No external alkalinity sources had to be supplied and no inhibition of aerobic metabolism occurred. The ceramicite had a negligible effect on the biomass growth. Based on the research findings, a full-scale continuous wall PRB was installed in Shenyang, China in 2012. PMID:25700350

  4. Temperature effects on nitrogen cycling and nitrate removal-production efficiency in bed form-induced hyporheic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lizhi; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Wang, Lichun

    2016-04-01

    Hyporheic flow in aquatic sediment controls solute and heat transport thereby mediating the fate of nutrients and contaminants, dissolved oxygen, and temperature in the hyporheic zone (HZ). We conducted a series of numerical simulations of hyporheic processes within a dune with different uniform temperatures, coupling turbulent open channel fluid flow, porous fluid flow, and reactive solute transport to study the temperature dependence of nitrogen source/sink functionality and its efficiency. Two cases were considered: a polluted stream and a pristine stream. Sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influence of stream water [NO3-]/[NH4+]. The simulations showed that in both cases warmer temperatures resulted in shallower denitrification zones and oxic-anoxic zone boundaries, but the trend of net denitrification rate and nitrate removal or production efficiency of the HZ for these two cases differed. For both cases, at high [NO3-]/[NH4+], the HZ functioned as a NO3- sink with the nitrate removal efficiency increasing with temperature. But at low [NO3-]/[NH4+] for the polluted stream, the HZ is a NO3- sink at low temperature but then switches to a NO3- source at warmer temperatures. For the pristine stream case, the HZ was always a NO3- source, with the NO3- production efficiency increasing monotonically with temperature. In addition, although the interfacial fluid flux expectedly increased with increasing temperature due to decreasing fluid viscosity, the total nitrate flux into the HZ did not follow this trend. This is because when HZ nitrification is high, uniformly elevated [NO3-] lowers dispersive fluxes into the HZ. We found that there are numerous confounding and interacting factors that combined to lead to the final temperature dependence of N transformation reaction rates. Although the temperature effect on the rate constant can be considered as the dominant factor, simply using the Arrhenius equation to predict the reaction rate would lead to

  5. Nitrogen export from a boreal stream network following forest harvesting: seasonal nitrate removal and conservative export of organic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelker, J.; Sponseller, R.; Ring, E.; Högbom, L.; Löfgren, S.; Laudon, H.

    2016-01-01

    Clear-cutting is today the primary driver of large-scale forest disturbance in boreal regions of Fennoscandia. Among the major environmental concerns of this practice for surface waters is the increased mobilization of nutrients, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) into streams. But while DIN loading to first-order streams following forest harvest has been previously described, the downstream fate and impact of these inputs is not well understood. We evaluated the downstream fate of DIN and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) inputs in a boreal landscape that has been altered by forest harvests over a 10-year period. The small first-order streams indicated substantial leaching of DIN, primarily as nitrate (NO3-) in response to harvests with NO3- concentrations increasing by ˜ 15-fold. NO3- concentrations at two sampling stations further downstream in the network were strongly seasonal and increased significantly in response to harvesting at the mid-sized stream, but not at the larger stream. DIN removal efficiency, Er, calculated as the percentage of "forestry derived" DIN that was retained within the stream network based on a mass-balance model was highest during the snowmelt season followed by the growing season, but declined continuously throughout the dormant season. In contrast, export of DON from the landscape indicated little removal and was essentially conservative. Overall, net removal of DIN between 2008 and 2011 accounted for ˜ 65 % of the total DIN mass exported from harvested patches distributed across the landscape. These results highlight the capacity of nitrogen-limited boreal stream networks to buffer DIN mobilization that arises from multiple clear-cuts within this landscape. Further, these findings shed light on the potential impact of anticipated measures to increase forest yields of boreal forests, such as increased fertilization and shorter forest rotations, which may increase the pressure on boreal surface waters in the future.

  6. The enhanced removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-product precursors using integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Gao, Naiyun; Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Pilot-scale tests were performed to reduce the formation of a range of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-, N-DBPs), by removing or transforming their precursors, with an integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption (PM-PAC) treatment process before conventional water treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration, abbreviated as CPs). Compared with the CPs, PM-PAC significantly enhanced the removal of DOC, DON, NH3(+)-N, and algae from 52.9%, 31.6%, 71.3%, and 83.6% to 69.5%, 61.3%, 92.5%, and 97.5%, respectively. PM pre-oxidation alone and PAC pre-adsorption alone did not substantially reduce the formation of dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and dichloroacetamide. However, the PM-PAC integrated process significantly reduced the formation of both C-DBPs and N-DBPs by 60-90% for six C-DBPs and 64-93% for six N-DBPs, because PM oxidation chemically altered the molecular structures of nitrogenous organic compounds and increased the adsorption capacity of the DBP precursors, thus highlighting a synergistic effect of PM and PAC. PM-PAC integrated process is a promising drinking water technology for the reduction of a broad spectrum of C-DBPs and N-DBPs. PMID:26065622

  7. Membrane filtration biocathode microbial fuel cell for nitrogen removal and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Hanmin; Ma, Yanjie; Yuan, Guangen; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Rong

    2014-06-10

    Conductive materials with attached biofilms, were used as membrane filtration biocathodes to filter the effluent and supply electrons for denitrification. Stainless steel mesh and carbon felt were employed to fabricate membrane modules, and the two MFC systems were termed as M1 and M2, respectively. High effluent quality was obtained with M1 and M2 in terms of turbidity, COD and ammonium. In M1, no bioelectrochemical denitrification took place, while nitrate decreased from 35.88±4.15 to 27.33±5.32mg-N/L through the membrane in M2, causing a removal efficiency of 23.3±6.5% with respect to cathodic nitrate. The denitrification ceased without electricity. The maximum power densities of M1 and M2 were 121 and 1253mW/m(3), respectively. Micrococcus bacteria and rod-shaped bacteria covered the surface of carbon felt and fewer bacteria were found on stainless steel mesh. According to fluorescence in situ hybridization, the putative bacteria affiliated with Paracoccus genus and Pseudomonas spp. dominated in the interior biofilm on carbon felt for denitrification. Results demonstrate that the carbon felt system can perform bioelectrochemical denitrification to polish the effluent. PMID:24835100

  8. Effect of reflux ratio on COD and nitrogen removals from coke plant wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Shi, X L; Hu, X B; Wang, Z; Ding, L L; Ren, H Q

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic-moving bed biofilm reactor (A1-A2-O-MBBR) system was undertaken to treat coke plant wastewaters from two different factories (wastewater A and B). Wastewater B had higher BOD5/COD ratio and COD/TN ratio than wastewater A. The effects of reflux ratios on COD, TN and NH3-N removals were studied. Results indicated that, with the reflux ratio increased from 2 to 5, COD removals of wastewater A and wastewater B increased from 57.4% to 72.6% and 78.2% to 88.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, TN removals were also increased accompanying reflux ratio rise, from 53.1% to 74.4% for wastewater A and 64.2% to 83.5% for wastewater B. At the same reflux ratio, compared with wastewater A, higher COD and TN removal efficiencies were observed in wastewater B, which had higher BOD5/COD and COD/TN ratio. Reflux ratio had no significant influence on NH3-N removal; 99.0% of the overall NH3-N removal efficiency was achieved by the system for both coke plant wastewaters at any tested reflux ratio. MBBR was effective in NH3-N removal, and about 95% of the NH3-N was removed in the MBBR. PMID:20555197

  9. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  10. Performance evaluation of a novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor for biological nutrient removal treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Díez-Montero, Rubén; De Florio, Loredana; González-Viar, Marta; Herrero, María; Tejero, Iñaki

    2016-06-01

    A novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor, AnoxAn, unifies the non-aerated zones of the biological nutrient removal treatment train in a single upflow reactor, aimed at achieving high compactness and efficiency. The environmental conditions are vertically divided up inside the reactor with the anaerobic zone at the bottom and the anoxic zone above. This contribution presents the performance evaluation of the novel reactor in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from municipal wastewater, coupled with an aerobic hybrid MBR. The overall system achieved total nitrogen and phosphorus removal with average efficiencies of 75% and 89%, respectively. Separate anoxic and anaerobic conditions were maintained in AnoxAn, allowing anaerobic phosphate release and nearly complete anoxic denitrification in the single reactor operating with an HRT of 4.2h. Biomass was retained in the reactor achieving TSS concentration up to 10gL(-1) and partial hydrolysis of influent particulate organic matter. PMID:26970922

  11. Comparison of quasisteady-state performance of the DEAMOX process under intermittent and continuous feeding and different nitrogen loading rates.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Gladchenko, Marina; Mulder, Arnold; Versprille, Bram

    2007-07-01

    The recently developed denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) process combines the anammox reaction with autotrophic denitrifying conditions using sulfide as an electron donor for the production of nitrite from nitrate within an anaerobic biofilm. This paper compares a quasisteady-state performance of this process for treatment of baker's yeast wastewater under intermittent and continuous feeding and increasing nitrogen loading rate (NLR) from 300 till 858 mg N/L/d. The average total nitrogen removal slightly decreased on increasing the NLR: from 86 to 79% (intermittent feeding) and from 87 to 84% (continuous feeding). The better performance under continuous feeding was due to a more complete nitrate removal in the former case whereas the ammonia removal was similar for both feeding regimes under the comparable NLR. A possible explanation can be that, during continuous feeding (simultaneous supply of nitrate and sulfide), there were less mass transfer limitations for sulfide oxidizing denitrifiers presumably located in the outer layer of sludge aggregates. On the contrary, the ammonia oxidisers presumably located inside the aggregates apparently suffered from nitrite mass transfer limitations under both the feedings. The paper further describes some characteristics of the DEAMOX sludge. PMID:17427996

  12. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater. PMID:27363156

  13. Aerobic granular sludge for simultaneous accumulation of mineral phosphorus and removal of nitrogen via nitrite in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Sun, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the aerobic granular sludge process for simultaneous phosphorus (P) accumulation by chemical precipitation and biological nitrogen removal via nitrite. The P-rich granules were successfully incubated in a sequencing batch reactor, in which simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred via nitrite. The average diameter of the P-rich granules was 2.47 mm and the P content in granules was much higher than that in other granular systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Filamentous bacteria (genus Thiothrix) in the granules and the long sludge retention time (30 d) of the granular system played a crucial role in accumulation of precipitated phosphate. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray and the experimental design using response surface methodology confirmed that the main mineral patterns in P-rich granules were Ca-Mg phosphate and whitlockite. PMID:24388958

  14. Integrating the selection of PHA storing biomass and nitrogen removal via nitrite in the main wastewater treatment line.

    PubMed

    Basset, N; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Malamis, S; Dosta, J; Fatone, F

    2016-01-01

    A novel scheme was developed for the treatment of municipal wastewater integrating nitritation/denitritation with the selection of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storing biomass under an aerobic/anoxic, feast/famine regime. The process took place in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the subsequent PHA accumulation in a batch reactor. The carbon source added during the selection and accumulation steps consisted of fermentation liquid from the organic fraction of municipal solids waste (OFMSW FL) (Period I) and OFMSW and primary sludge fermentation liquid (Period II). Selection of PHA storing biomass was successful and denitritation was driven by internally stored PHA during the famine phase. Under optimum conditions of SBR operation ammonia removal was 93%, reaching a maximum nitrite removal of 98%. The treated effluent met the nitrogen limits, while PHA-storing biomass was successfully selected. The maximum accumulation of PHA was 10.6% (wt.) since the nutrients present in the carbon source promoted bacterial growth. PMID:26587791

  15. Understanding the impact of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size and microbial community in a granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Ruyi; Sun, Jing

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size and microbial community in a granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system, three influent nitrogen concentrations were tested while carbon concentration was an unlimited factor. The results show that although ammonium and phosphate were well removed in the tested nitrogen concentration range (20-50 mg L(-1)), granule size, the amount of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and microbial activity were affected significantly. A possible mechanism for the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size is proposed based on the experimental results. The increase in proteins/polysaccharides ratio caused by high influent nitrogen concentration plays a crucial role in granule breakage. The small granule size then weakens simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, which further causes higher nitrate concentration in the effluent and lower amount of PAOs in sludge. Consequently, phosphate concentration in the anaerobic phase decreases, which plays the secondary role in granule breakage. PMID:25496940

  16. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  17. [Optimization Study on the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal of Modified Two- sludge System Under the Condition of Low Carbon Source].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-qiang; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiu-xiang; Zhang, Zhi-bei; Li, Zhi-jun; Xiang, Hai-hong; Wang, Ya-li; Sun, Jian

    2016-04-15

    This paper explored the method of resolving insufficient carbon source in urban sewage by comparing and analyzing denitrification and phosphorus removal (NPR) effect between modified two-sludge system and traditional anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic process under the condition of low carbon source wastewater. The modified two-sludge system was the experimental reactor, which was optimized by adding two stages of micro-aeration (aeration rate 0.5 L · mm⁻¹) in the anoxic period of the original two-sludge system, and multi-stage anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic SBR was the control reactor. When the influent COD, ammonia nitrogen, SOP concentration were respectively 200, 35, 10 mg · L⁻¹, the NPR effect of the experimental reactor was hetter than that of thecontrol reactor with the removal efficiency of TN being 94.8% vs 60.9%, and TP removal being 96.5% vs 75%, respectively. The effluent SOP, ammonia, TN concentration of the experimental reactor were 0.35, 0.50, 1.82 mg · L⁻¹, respectively, which could fully meet the first class of A standard of the Pollutants Emission Standard of Urban Wastewater Treatment Firm (GB 18918-2002). Using the optimized treatment process, the largest amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus removal per unit carbon source (as COD) were 0.17 g · g⁻¹ and 0.048 g · g⁻¹ respectively, which could furthest solve the lower carbon concentration in current municipal wastewater. PMID:27548974

  18. NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL RATES OF SMALL ALGAL TURFS GROWN ON DAIRY MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation and reuse of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from animal manure is increasingly important as producers try to minimize transport of these nutrients from farms. An alternative to land spreading is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure. The specific objective of th...

  19. Removal of nitrogen from MBT residues by leachate recirculation in combination with intermittent aeration.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoai Nam; Münnich, Kai; Fricke, Klaus; Harborth, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) techniques have been used to reduce the emission potential of waste before placement in landfills for a couple of years, especially in Europe. The main focus of MBT is on the reduction of native organic substances and not on nitrogen compounds. As a result, the concentrations of organic substances in leachate from MBT landfills are considerably reduced in comparison to leachates from municipal solid waste landfills, while the ammonia nitrogen concentrations remain at a high level. From the stabilization of old landfills it is well known that recirculation of leachate and supplementary aeration can reduce emissions to an acceptable level in a comparatively short time. In a series of laboratory-scale tests the efficiency of this technique for MBT residues was investigated under different boundary conditions. While the effect of leachate recirculation is also well known for MBT residues, the additional aeration has so far not been investigated. The results show that this technique has only a limited influence on the reduction of organic carbon compounds. In view of nitrogen compounds, only the additional aeration during recirculation shows a strong effect on the quality of leachate, in which the concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen are reduced by more than 90%. The results indicate that by using simple techniques the long-term emission behavior of MBT residues can be quickly reduced to an acceptable level. PMID:24293068

  20. Floodplain restoration enhances denitrification and reach-scale nitrogen removal in an agricultural stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams of the agricultural Midwest export large quantities of nitrogen, which impairs downstream water quality, most notably in the Gulf of Mexico. The two-stage ditch is a novel restoration practice, in which floodplains are constructed alongside channelized ditches. During hi...

  1. Nitrogen removal from natural gas. Quarterly report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required methane/nitrogen separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeate membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make a membrane denitrogenation process viable. Phase I of this project showed that this target selectivity can be achieved, and that the economics of processes based on this selectivity would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below -20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, high-nitrogen-content streams. The Phase I work demonstrated the potential usefulness of using methane-permeable membranes for the denitrogenation of natural gas. The objective of Phase II is to determine which of the two candidate membranes is the most suitable for scale up to membrane modules for laboratory tests followed by field tests of the process.

  2. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, John V.

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  3. Single stage biological nitrogen removal by nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in biofilm systems.

    PubMed

    Helmer, C; Tromm, C; Hippen, A; Rosenwinkel, K H; Seyfried, C F; Kunst, S

    2001-01-01

    In full scale wastewater treatment plants with at times considerable deficits in the nitrogen balances, it could hitherto not be sufficiently explained which reactions are the cause of the nitrogen losses and which micro-organisms participate in the process. The single stage conversion of ammonium into gaseous end-products--which is henceforth referred to as deammonification--occurs particularly frequently in biofilm systems. In the meantime, one has succeeded to establish the deammonification processes in a continuous flow moving-bed pilot plant. In batch tests with the biofilm covered carriers, it was possible for the first time to examine the nitrogen conversion at the intact biofilm. Depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, two autotrophic nitrogen converting reactions in the biofilm could be proven: one nitritation process under aerobic conditions and one anaerobic ammonium oxidation. With the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, ammonium as electron donor was converted with nitrite as electron acceptor. The end-product of this reaction was N2. Ammonium and nitrite did react in a stoichiometrical ratio of 1:1.37, a ratio which has in the very same dimension been described for the ANAMMOX-process (1:1.31 +/- 0.06). Via the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, it was possible to control the ratio of nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the nitrogen conversion of the biofilm. Both processes were evenly balanced at a DO concentration of 0.7 mg/l, so that it was possible to achieve a direct, almost complete elimination of ammonium without addition of nitrite. One part of the provided ammonium did participate in the nitritation, the other in the anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Through the aerobic ammonium oxidation into nitrite within the outer oxygen supplied layers of the biofilm, the reaction partner was produced for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation within the inner layers of the biofilm. PMID:11379106

  4. Effect of seed sludge on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor for treating piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic activated sludge (AnaS) and aerobic activated sludge (AerS) were used to start up a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR), respectively, and the nitrogen removal in the two reactors were evaluated when treating low C/N ratio manure-free piggery wastewater with a COD/TN ration of about 0.85. With the same hydraulic retention time 8h and TN loading rate (NLR) 0.42kg/(m(3)d), the UMSR (R2) inoculated with AerS could reach its steady state earlier and obtained a better TN removal than that in the UMSR (R1) inoculated with AnaS. However, the accumulated AnaS made R1 show a better capability in bearing shock load and demonstrated an excellent NH4(+)-N and TN removal with a NLR as high as 1.07kg/(m(3)d). Microbial community structure of the accumulated AerS and AnaS were observable different. The decreased proportion of nitrifiers restricted the ammonium oxidation in R2, and resulting in a decrease in TN removal. PMID:27218438

  5. Hydraulic effects on nitrogen removal in a tidal spring-fed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Robert T.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Korhnak, Larry V.

    2015-03-01

    Hydraulic properties such as stage and residence time are important controls on riverine N removal. In most rivers, these hydraulic properties vary with stochastic precipitation forcing, but in tidal rivers, hydraulics variation occurs on a predictable cycle. In Manatee Springs, a highly productive, tidally influenced spring-fed river in Florida, we observed significant reach-scale N removal that varied in response to tidally driven variation in hydraulic properties as well as sunlight-driven variation in assimilatory uptake. After accounting for channel residence time and stage variation, we partitioned the total removal signal into assimilatory (i.e., plant uptake) and dissimilatory (principally denitrification) pathways. Assimilatory uptake was strongly correlated with primary production and ecosystem C:N was concordant with tissue stoichiometry of the dominant autotrophs. The magnitude of N removal was broadly consistent in magnitude with predictions from models (SPARROW and RivR-N). However, contrary to model predictions, the highest removal occurred at the lowest values of τ/d (residence time divided by depth), which occurred at low tide. Removal efficiency also exhibited significant counterclockwise hysteresis with incoming versus outgoing tides. This behavior is best explained by the sequential filling and draining of transient storage zones such that water that has spent the longest time in the storage zone, and thus had the most time for N removal, drains back into the channel at the end of an outgoing tide, concurrent with shortest channel residence times. Capturing this inversion of the expected relationship between channel residence time and N removal highlights the need for nonsteady state reactive transport models.

  6. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions. PMID:23505865

  7. Effect of COD/N ratio on nitrogen removal and microbial communities of CANON process in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Hongzhong; Ye, Changming; Wei, Mingbao; Du, Jingjing

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of COD/N ratio on completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was investigated in five identical membrane bioreactors. The five reactors were simultaneously seeded for 1L CANON sludge and be operated for more than two months under same conditions, with influent COD/N ratio of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4, respectively. DGGE was used to analyze the microbial communities of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) in five reactors. Results revealed the harmonious work of CANON and denitrification with low COD concentration, whereas too high COD concentration suppressed both AOB and AAOB. AOB and AAOB biodiversity both decreased with COD increasing, which then led to worse nitrogen removal. The suppressing threshold of COD/N ratio for CANON was 1.7. CANON was feasible for treating low COD/N sewage, while the high sewage should be converted by anaerobic biogas producing process in advance. PMID:25898093

  8. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Rodelas, Belén; Abbas, Ben A.; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Osorio, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed. PMID:26421306

  9. Assessing carbon and nitrogen removal in a novel anoxic-aerobic cyanobacterial-bacterial photobioreactor configuration with enhanced biomass sedimentation.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Vargas, V A; Guzmán, H O; Soto, R; García, B; García, P A; Muñoz, R

    2014-09-15

    The carbon and nitrogen removal potential of an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration operated with both internal and external recyclings was evaluated under different cyanobacterial-bacterial sludge residence times (9-31 days) during the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratios. Under optimal operating conditions, the two-stage photobioreactor was capable of providing organic carbon and nitrogen removals over 95% and 90%, respectively. The continuous biomass recycling from the settler resulted in the enrichment and predominance of rapidly-settling cyanobacterial-bacterial flocs and effluent suspended solid concentrations lower than 35 mg VSS L(-1). These flocs exhibited sedimentation rates of 0.28-0.42 m h(-1) but sludge volumetric indexes of 333-430 ml/g. The decoupling between the hydraulic retention time and sludge retention time mediated by the external recycling also avoided the washout of nitrifying bacteria and supported process operation at biomass concentrations of 1000-1500 mg VSS L(-1). The addition of additional NaHCO3 to the process overcame the CO2 limitation resulting from the intense competition for inorganic carbon between cyanobacteria and nitrifying bacteria in the photobioreactor, which supported the successful implementation of a nitrification-denitrification process. Unexpectedly, this nitrification-denitrification process occurred both simultaneously in the photobioreactor alone (as a result of the negligible dissolved oxygen concentrations) and sequentially in the two-stage anoxic-aerobic configuration with internal NO3(-)/NO2(-) recycling. PMID:24880959

  10. Investigating the role of co-substrate-substrate ratio and filter media on the performance of anammox hybrid reactor treating nitrogen rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the anammox hybrid reactor (AHR), which combines suspended and attached growth media, for the biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The study was performed in four laboratory-scale AHRs, inoculated with mixed seed culture (1:1). The anammox process was established by feeding the AHR with synthetic wastewater, containing NH(4)-N and NO(2)-N (1:1), at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to a higher ammonium concentration (1200 mg/l) until the pseudo-steady state was attained. Subsequently, the reactors were operated at various HRTs (0.25-3.0 days) to optimize the HRT and nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The study demonstrated that HRT of 1 day, corresponding to 95.1% of nitrogen removal was optimal. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT), whereas the NLR and biomass yield correlated negatively with the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The mass balance of nitrogen showed that a major fraction (79.1%) of the input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas, and 11.25% was utilized in synthesizing the biomass. The filter media in the AHR contributed to an additional 15.4% of ammonium removal and a reduction of 29% in the sludge washout rate. The nitrogen removal kinetics in the AHR followed the modified Stover-Kincannon model, whereas the Lawrence-McCarty model best described the bacterial growth kinetics. The study concludes that the hybrid configuration of the reactor demonstrated promising results and could be suitably applied for industrial applications. PMID:26277220

  11. Nitrogen niches revealed through species and functional group removal in a boreal shrub community.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Hyodo, Fujio; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    Most theories attempting to explain the coexistence of species in local communities make fundamental assumptions regarding whether neighbors exhibit competitive, neutral, or positive resource-use interactions; however, few long-term data from naturally assembled plant communities exist to test these assumptions. We utilized a 13-year experiment consisting of factorial removal of three shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and factorial removal of two functional groups (tree roots and feather mosses) to assess how neighbors affect N acquisition and growth of each of the three shrub species. The removal plots were established on each of 30 lake islands in northern Sweden that form a natural gradient of resource availability. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) the presence of functionally similar neighbors would reduce shrub N acquisition through competition for a shared N resource; (2) the removal of functional groups would affect shrub N acquisition by altering the breadth of their niches; and (3) soil fertility would influence the effects of neighbor removals. We found that the removal of functionally similar neighbors (i.e., other shrub species) usually resulted in higher biomass and biomass N, with the strength of these effects varying strongly with site fertility. Shrub species removals never resulted in altered stable N isotope ratios (delta(15)N), suggesting that the niche breadth of the three shrubs was unaffected by the presence of neighboring shrub species. In the functional group removal experiment, we found positive effects of feather moss removal on V. myrtillus biomass and biomass N, and negative effects on E. hermaphrotium N concentration and V. vitis-idaea biomass and biomass N. Tree root removal also caused a significant shift in foliar delta(15)N of V. myrtillus and altered the delta(15)N, biomass, and biomass N of E. hermaphroditum. Collectively, these results show that the resource acquisition and niche

  12. Removal of nitrogen in different wetland filter materials: use of stable nitrogen isotopes to determine factors controlling denitrification and DNRA.

    PubMed

    Mørkved, P T; Søvik, A K; Kløve, B; Bakken, L R

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory incubations with varying O2 and NO3 concentrations were performed with a range of filter materials used in constructed wetlands (CWs). The study included material sampled from functioning CWs as well as raw materials subjected to laboratory pre-incubation. 15N-tracer techniques were used to assess the rates of denitrification versus dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and the relative role of nitrification versus denitrification in producing N2O. The N2O/(N2 + N2O) product ratio was assessed for the different materials. Sand, shell sand, and peat sustained high rates of denitrification. Raw light-weight aggregates (LWA) had a very low rate, while in LWA sampled from a functioning CW, the rate was similar to the one found in the other materials. The N2O/(N2 + N2O) ratio was very low for sand, shell sand and LWA from functioning CWs, but very high for raw LWA. The ratio was intermediate but variable for peat. The N2O produced by nitrification accounted for a significant percentage of the N2O accumulated during the incubation, but was dependent on the initial oxygen concentration. DNRA was significant only for shell sand taken from a functioning CW, suggesting that the establishment of active DNRA is a slower process than the establishment of a denitrifying flora. PMID:16042244

  13. Nitrogen-Doped Carbonaceous Materials for Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Magdalena; Pietrzak, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous material (brown coal) modified by pyrolysis, activation, and enrichment in nitrogen, with two different factor reagents, have been used as adsorbent of phenol from liquid phase. Changes in the phenol content in the test solutions were monitored after subsequent intervals of adsorption with selected adsorbents prepared from organic materials. Significant effect of nitrogen present in the adsorbent material on its adsorption capacity was noted. Sorption capacity of these selected materials was found to depend on the time of use, their surface area, and pore distribution. A conformation to the most well-known adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir, and Freundlich ones, confirms the formation of mono- and heterolayer solute (phenol) coverage on the surface of the adsorbent applied herein. The materials proposed as adsorbents of the aqueous solution contaminants were proved effective, which means that the waste materials considered are promising activated carbon precursors for liquid phase adsorbents for the environmental protection. PMID:22593671

  14. The CANON system (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen-removal Over Nitrite) under ammonium limitation: interaction and competition between three groups of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Third, K A; Sliekers, A O; Kuenen, J G; Jetten, M S

    2001-12-01

    The CANON system (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Over Nitrite) can potentially remove ammonium from wastewater in a single, oxygen-limited treatment step. The usefulness of CANON as an industrial process will be determined by the ability of the system to recover from major disturbances in feed composition. The CANON process relies on the stable interaction between only two bacterial populations: Nitrosomonas-like aerobic and Planctomycete-like anaerobic ammonium oxidising bacteria. The effect of extended periods of ammonium limitation was investigated at the laboratory scale in two different reactor types (sequencing batch reactor and chemostat). The lower limit of effective and stable nitrogen removal to dinitrogen gas in the CANON system was 0.1 kg N m(-3) day(-1). At this loading rate, 92% of the total nitrogen was removed. After prolonged exposure (> 1 month) to influxes lower than this critical NH4+-influx, a third population of bacteria developed in the system and affected the CANON reaction stoichiometry, resulting in a temporary decrease in nitrogen removal from 92% to 57%. The third group of bacteria were identified by activity tests and qualititative FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation) analysis to be nitrite-oxidising Nitrobacter and Nitrospira species. The changes caused by the NH4+-limitation were completely reversible, and the system re-established itself as soon as the ammonium limitation was removed. This study showed that CANON is a robust system for ammonium removal, enduring periods of up to one month of ammonium limitation without irreversible damage. PMID:11876366

  15. Nitrogen removal by anammox and denitrification in a subtropical seagrass ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salk, K.; Ostrom, N. E.; Erler, D.; Eyre, B.; Carlson-Perret, N.

    2015-12-01

    Anammox is now recognized as a globally important process that may rival denitrification in its removal of inorganic N from aquatic systems. Owing to its fairly recent discovery, however, measurements of anammox in coastal environments are sparse. This study measured the N removal processes, denitrification and anammox, in a seagrass ecosystem in New South Wales, Australia, using a modified version of the isotope pairing technique. This previously published method has yet to be applied to seagrass environments and relies on the measurement of both N2O and N2 to calculate rates of anammox and denitrification. Intact sediment cores were incubated under in situ conditions and amended with 15N-NO3- as a tracer. The role of organic C quality in controlling N removal rates was evaluated through addition of seagrass or phytoplankton detritus. In control cores (i.e., no C addition), the total N removal rate was 0.48 ± 0.22 μmol N m-2 h-1. These are among the lowest rates measured in seagrasses and other coastal areas. N removal rates were stimulated when seagrass detritus was added (3.3 times higher than control) whereas the addition of phytoplankton detritus did not stimulate N removal. This is surprising, as phytoplankton detritus is generally a more labile C source than seagrass detritus. These results indicate that the microbial community responds more quickly to organic matter they are conditioned to process. Regardless of C treatment, anammox made up a greater proportion of N2 production (71 ± 16%) than denitrification (24 ± 13%), in contrast to most other studies. The high proportion of anammox-derived N2 production implies that previous N removal rates measured in other systems without anammox inclusion could be significantly underestimated.

  16. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  17. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  18. Enhanced Removal of Biogenic Hydrocarbons in Power Plant Plumes Constrains the Dependence of Atmospheric Hydroxyl Concentrations on Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Brown, S. S.; Edwards, P.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kim, S. W.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wolfe, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the atmosphere provide one of the main chemical mechanisms for the removal of trace gases. OH plays a central role in determining the atmospheric lifetime and radiative forcing of greenhouse gases like methane. OH also plays a major role in the oxidation of organic trace gases, which can lead to formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. Due to its very short atmospheric lifetime of seconds or less, OH concentrations are extremely variable in space and time, which makes measurements and their interpretation very challenging. Several recent measurements have yielded higher than expected OH concentrations. To explain these would require the existence of unidentified, radical recycling processes, but issues with the measurements themselves are also still being discussed. During the NOAA airborne SENEX study in the Southeast U.S., the biogenic hydrocarbons isoprene and monoterpenes were consistently found to have lower mixing ratios in air masses with enhanced nitrogen oxides from power plants. We attribute this to faster oxidation rates of biogenic hydrocarbons due to increased concentrations of OH in the power plant plumes. Measurements at different downwind distances from the Scherer and Harllee Branch coal-fired power plants near Atlanta are used to constrain the dependence of OH on nitrogen oxides. It is found that OH concentrations were highest at nitrogen dioxide concentrations of 1-2 ppbv and decreased at higher and at lower concentrations. These findings agree with the expected dependence of OH on nitrogen oxide concentrations, but do not appear to be consistent with the reports in the literature that have shown high OH concentrations in regions of the atmosphere with high biogenic emissions and low NOx concentrations that would require unidentified radical recycling processes to be explained.

  19. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented. PMID:22919826

  20. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    PubMed

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. PMID:26024280

  1. Long-term effects of ZnO nanoparticles on nitrogen and phosphorus removal, microbial activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Zheng, Dong; Jin, Chunji; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Xuejiao

    2016-09-01

    The performance, microbial activity, and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated under the long-term exposure of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Low ZnO NPs concentration (less than 5mg/L) had no obvious effect on the SBR performance, whereas the removals of COD, NH4(+)-N, and phosphorus were affected at 10-60mg/L ZnO NPs. The variation trend of nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate was similar to that of microbial enzymatic activity with the increase of ZnO NPs concentrations. The richness and diversity of microbial community showed obvious variations at different ZnO NPs concentrations. ZnO NPs appeared on the surface and cell interior of activated sludge, and the Zn contents in the effluent and activated sludge increased with the increase of ZnO NPS concentration. The present results provide use information to understand the effect of ZnO NPS on the performance of wastewater biological treatment systems. PMID:27262098

  2. Artificial neural network modelling in biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Pradyut; Debsarkar, Anupam; Mukherjee, Somnath; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentration of oxygen-demanding carbonaceous organics and nitrogenous materials (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)) as nutrients emanated from small- to large-scale slaughterhouse units cause depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies and attributes to the threat of eutrophication. Biological treatment of wastewater is a useful tool through ages for the treatment of wastewater owing to its cost-effectiveness, reliability along with its innocuous output features. This paper deals with the treatment of slaughter house wastewater by conducting a laboratory scale batch reactor with different input characterized samples, and the experimental results were explored for the formulation of feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the combined removal of COD and TKN. The ANN modelling was carried out using neural network tool box of MATLAB (version 7.0), with the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. Various trials were examined for the training of the ANN model using the number of neurons in the hidden layer varying from 2 to 30. The mean square error function and regression analysis were also applied for performance analysis of the ANN model. All the input data were logged-in after carrying out detailed experiment in the laboratory with a view to examine the performance of the batch reactor for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The experimental results were used for testing and validating the ANN model. PMID:24701927

  3. The pollution removal and stormwater reduction performance of street-side bioretention basins after ten years in operation.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Terry; Nichols, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the pollution removal and hydrologic performance of five, 10-year old street-side bioretention systems. The bioretention basins were subjected to a series of simulated rainfall events using synthetic stormwater. Four different pollution concentrations were tested on three of the bioretention basins. The four concentrations tested were: A) no pollution; B) typical Australian urban pollutant loads; C) double the typical pollution loads, and; D) five times the typical pollution loads. Tests were also undertaken to determine the levels of contaminant and heavy metals build-up that occurred in the filter media over the 10 year operational life of the bioretention systems. Although highly variable, the overall hydrological performance of the basins was found to be positive, with all basins attenuating flows, reducing both peak flow rates and total outflow volumes. Total suspended solids removal performance was variable for all tests and no correlation was found between performance and dosage. Total nitrogen (TN) removal was positive for Tests B, C and D. However, the TN removal results for Test A were found to be negative. Total phosphorus (TP) was the only pollutant to be effectively removed from all basins for all four synthetic stormwater tests. The study bioretention basins were found to export pollutants during tests where no pollutants were added to the simulated inflow water (Test A). Heavy metal and hydrocarbon testing undertaken on the bioretention systems found that the pollution levels of the filter media were still within acceptable limits after 10 years in operation. This field study has shown bioretention basin pollution removal performance to be highly variable and dependant on a range of factors including inflow pollution concentrations, filter media, construction methods and environmental factors. Further research is required in order to fully understand the potential stormwater management benefits of these systems. PMID:26254078

  4. Combined organic matter and nitrogen removal from a chemical industry wastewater in a two-stage MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Cao, S M S; Fontoura, G A T; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-producing factories generate highly polluting wastewaters containing toxic and hazardous compounds which should be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. In this study, a chemical industry wastewater was treated in a pre-denitrification moving-bed biofilm reactor system subjected to an increasing internal mixed liquor recycle ratio from 2 to 4. Although the influent wastewater characteristics substantially varied over time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon was quite stable and mostly higher than 90%. The highest fraction of the incoming organic matter was removed anoxically, favouring a low COD/N environment in the subsequent aerobic nitrifying tank and thus ensuring stable ammonium removal (90-95%). However, during pH and salt shock periods, nitrifiers were severely inhibited but gradually restored their full nitrifying capability as non-stressing conditions were reestablished. Besides promoting an increase in the maximum nitrification potential of the aerobic attached biomass from 0.34 to 0.63 mg [Formula: see text], the increase in the internal recycle ratio was accompanied by an increase in nitrogen removal (60-78%) and maximum specific denitrification rate (2.7-3.3 mg NOx(-)--N). Total polysaccharides (PS) and protein (PT) concentrations of attached biomass were observed to be directly influenced by the influent organic loading rate, while the PS/PT ratio mainly ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Results of Microtox tests showed that no toxicity was found in the effluent of both the anoxic and aerobic reactors, indicating that the biological process was effective in removing residual substances which might adversely affect the receiving waters' ecosystem. PMID:26086717

  5. [Abundance and Community Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Two Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite Systems].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-feng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Shu-jun; Fan, Xiao-yan; Pan, Kai-ling; Ma, Qian; Yuan, Ya-lin

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, which was thought to be only performed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In recent years, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was also confirmed to take part in ammonia oxidation. The diversity and abundance of AOA have been investigated in various environments, however, little is known regarding the AOA in the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) wastewater treatment process. In this study, the abundance and diversity of AOA were investigated in the biofilm and flocculent activated sludge collected in a lab-scale (L) CANON system and a pilot-scale (P) CANON systems, respectively. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was applied to investigate the abundance of AOA and the diversity of AOA was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing. The qPCR results showed that the average abundance of AOA amoA gene of L and P was 2.42 x 10(6) copies x g(-1) dry sludge and 6.51 x 10(6) copies x g(-1) dry sludge, respectively. The abundance of AOA in biofilm was 10.1-14.1 times higher than that in flocculent activated sludge. For P system, the abundance of AOA in flocculent activated sludge was 1.8 times higher than that in biofilm. The results indicated that the abundance of AOA might be affected by different sludge morphology. The diversity of AOA in P system was extremely limited, only one OTU was observed, which was classified into Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2. The diversity of AOA in L system was higher, eight OTUs were observed, which were classified into five genera: Nitrososphaera subcluster 9, subcluster 8.1, subcluster 4.1, subcluster 1.1 and Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2. The diversity and abundance of AOA were different in CANON systems with different sludge morphology. AOA may play an important role in ammonia oxidation in CANON system. PMID:26592025

  6. Corn residue removal effects on soybean yield and nitrogen dynamics in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerations for using corn residues as a biofuel feedstock should include impacts on subsequent crops in the rotation, in particular soybean. We used the APEX model to assess the impacts of four rates of corn residue removals; 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, across two land types; highly erodible (HEL) an...

  7. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  8. Role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in nitrogen removal from a freshwater aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Bohlke, John Karl; B. Song; C. Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) couples the oxidation of ammonium with the reduction of nitrite, producing N2. The presence and activity of anammox bacteria in groundwater were investigated at multiple locations in an aquifer variably affected by a large, wastewater-derived contaminant plume. Anammox bacteria were detected at all locations tested using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantification of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene transcripts. Anammox and denitrification activities were quantified by in situ 15NO2–tracer tests along anoxic flow paths in areas of varying ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon abundances. Rates of denitrification and anammox were determined by quantifying changes in 28N2, 29N2, 30N2, 15NO3–, 15NO2–, and 15NH4+ with groundwater travel time. Anammox was present and active in all areas tested, including where ammonium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were low, but decreased in proportion to denitrification when acetate was added to increase available electron supply. Anammox contributed 39–90% of potential N2 production in this aquifer, with rates on the order of 10 nmol N2–N L–1 day–1. Although rates of both anammox and denitrification during the tracer tests were low, they were sufficient to reduce inorganic nitrogen concentrations substantially during the overall groundwater residence times in the aquifer. These results demonstrate that anammox activity in groundwater can rival that of denitrification and may need to be considered when assessing nitrogen mass transport and permanent loss of fixed nitrogen in aquifers.

  9. Role of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Nitrogen Removal from a Freshwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard L; Böhlke, J K; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R

    2015-10-20

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) couples the oxidation of ammonium with the reduction of nitrite, producing N2. The presence and activity of anammox bacteria in groundwater were investigated at multiple locations in an aquifer variably affected by a large, wastewater-derived contaminant plume. Anammox bacteria were detected at all locations tested using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantification of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene transcripts. Anammox and denitrification activities were quantified by in situ (15)NO2(-) tracer tests along anoxic flow paths in areas of varying ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon abundances. Rates of denitrification and anammox were determined by quantifying changes in (28)N2, (29)N2, (30)N2, (15)NO3(-), (15)NO2(-), and (15)NH4(+) with groundwater travel time. Anammox was present and active in all areas tested, including where ammonium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were low, but decreased in proportion to denitrification when acetate was added to increase available electron supply. Anammox contributed 39-90% of potential N2 production in this aquifer, with rates on the order of 10 nmol N2-N L(-1) day(-1). Although rates of both anammox and denitrification during the tracer tests were low, they were sufficient to reduce inorganic nitrogen concentrations substantially during the overall groundwater residence times in the aquifer. These results demonstrate that anammox activity in groundwater can rival that of denitrification and may need to be considered when assessing nitrogen mass transport and permanent loss of fixed nitrogen in aquifers. PMID:26401911

  10. Thermal removal of PCDD/Fs from medical waste incineration fly ash--effect of temperature and nitrogen flow rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-long; Lu, Sheng-yong; Yan, Jian-hua; Li, Xiao-dong; Chen, Tong

    2011-06-01

    The fly ash used in this study was collected from a bag filter in a medical waste rotary kiln incineration system, using lime and activated carbon injection followed by their collection as mixed fly ash. Experiments were conducted on fly ash in a quartz tube, heated in a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace, in order to study the effect of temperature and nitrogen flow rate on the removal of PCDD/Fs. Results indicated that in this study PCDD/Fs in the fly ash mostly were removed and desorbed very little into the flue gas under thermal treatment especially when the heating temperature was higher than 350 °C, and dechlorination and destruction reactions took important part in the removal of PCDD/Fs. However, in terms of flow rate, when flow rate was higher than 4 cm s(-1), destruction efficiency of PCDD/Fs decreased dramatically and the main contributors were P(5)CDF, H(6)CDF and H(7)CDF desorbed to flue gas, the PCDD/Fs in the fly ash decreased with enhanced flow rate. PMID:21474161

  11. Nutrient removal by grasses irrigated with wastewater and nitrogen balance for reed canarygrass

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, U.

    2000-04-01

    To develop complementary wastewater treatment systems that increase nutrient reduction and recycling, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three grass species as catch crops for N, P, and K at Aurahammar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the southern part of Sweden. Another objective was also to assess soil accumulation of N, P, and K and the risk of N leaching by drainage. Three grasses--reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.), and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.)--were irrigated with a mixture of treated effluent and supernatant at two levels of intensity [optimum level (equal to evapotranspiration) and over-optimal level] and at two nutrient levels, approximately 150 and 300 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}. There were small differences in dry matter (DM) yield between grass species and no difference in N removal among species. The amount of N removed in harvested biomass to N applied was 0.58 in 1995 and 0.63 in 1996. The amount of N removed increased with increased nutrient load. Applied amounts of P were the same as P in harvested biomass. All species removed K amounts several times greater than applied amounts. Increased nutrient load increased overall K removal. The low amount of mineral N and especially NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in the soil profile in autumn samplings indicate the risk for leaching is small. Soil water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} contents were also low, <2.5 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N L{sup {minus}1} during the growing season, with a mean value of <1 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N L{sup {minus}1}.

  12. Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Codoped Hierarchically Porous Carbon for Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Pharmaceutical Contaminants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayang; Duan, Xiaoguang; Sun, Hongqi; Tade, Moses O; Ang, Ha Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-03-23

    Heteroatom (nitrogen and sulfur)-codoped porous carbons (N-S-PCs) with high surface areas and hierarchically porous structures were successfully synthesized via direct pyrolysis of a mixture of glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and thiourea. The resulting N-S-PCs exhibit excellent adsorption abilities and are highly efficient for potassium persulfate activation when employed as catalysts for the oxidative degradation of sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) solutions. The adsorption capacities of N-S-PC-2 (which contains 4.51 atom % nitrogen and 0.22 atom % sulfur and exhibits SBET of 1608 m(2) g(-1)) are 73, 7, and 3 times higher than those of graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and commercial single-walled carbon nanotube, respectively. For oxidation, the reaction rate constant of N-S-PC-2 is 0.28 min(-1). This approach not only contributes to the large-scale production and application of high-quality catalysts in water remediation but also provides an innovative strategy for the production of heteroatom-doped PCs for energy applications. PMID:26937827

  13. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOEpatents

    Mollot, Darren J.; Bonk, Donald L.; Dowdy, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  14. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOEpatents

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  15. Importance of Anammox to the Nitrogen Removal in Deep Cascadian Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, P.; Penton, C. R.; Devol, A. H.

    2006-12-01

    Anammox is a recently discovered N2 producing pathway where NH4+ is oxidized by NO2- to form N2. Before anammox was discovered in a waste water treatment plant in the mid 1990-ties, denitrification was considered the only removal mechanism for bio-available N in the ocean. In marine sediments, the importance of anammox is suggested to increase with water depth. At the deepest site reported (700 m), anammox account for 67-79 percent of total N2 production. If these estimates are consistent for sediments at depths >700 m, anammox would be responsible for at least 2/3 of the total N2 production in deep sediments which suggest this pathway to be highly significant in global N cycling. We investigated the role of anammox in deep sea sediments of the Cascadian basin using microbiological and biogeochemical techniques. Anammox and denitrification rates were measured at depths 2700-3200 m at eight sites in August 2006. Sediments were collected with a Multicorer and 15N isotope pairing was used together with analyses of solute pore water distribution of inorganic N and O2 to estimate activity rates and distribution of anammox and denitrification in the sediment. Pore water profiles of NO2-, NO3-, NH4+ and O2 at all sites show a removal of ammonium in the suboxic zone that strongly suggest an anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite or nitrate. Minimum ammonium removal rates were estimated to vary between 1.7-31 umol NH4+ m-2 day-1 among the 8 stations. The thickness of the ammonium removal zone suggesting anammox activity increased at sites further off the coast (from 1-11 cm) and correlated to the NO2-+NO3- distribution in the sediment. Preliminary results strongly suggest an extensive anammox activity in these sediments responsible for at least 20-60 percent of total benthic N2 production in the Cascadian basin.

  16. Removal of Fast Flowing Nitrogen from Marshes Restored in Sandy Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Eric L.; Cebrian, Just; Smith, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater flow rates and nitrate removal capacity from an introduced solution were examined for five marsh restoration designs and unvegetated plots shortly after planting and 1 year post-planting. The restoration site was a sandy beach with a wave-dampening fence 10 m offshore. Simulated groundwater flow into the marsh was introduced at a rate to mimic intense rainfall events. Restoration designs varied in initial planting density and corresponded to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the plot area planted. In general, groundwater flow was slower with increasing planting density and decreased from year 0 to year 1 across all treatments. Nevertheless, removal of nitrate from the introduced solution was similar and low for all restoration designs (3–7%) and similar to the unvegetated plots. We suggest that the low NO3− removal was due to sandy sediments allowing rapid flow of groundwater through the marsh rhizosphere, thereby decreasing the contact time of the NO3− with the marsh biota. Our findings demonstrate that knowledge of the groundwater flow regime for restoration projects is essential when nutrient filtration is a target goal of the project. PMID:25353607

  17. Bacterial attachment and removal properties of silicon- and nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Su, Xueju; Wang, Su; Zhang, Xiaoling; Navabpour, Parnia; Teer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Si- and N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with various Si and N contents were deposited on glass slides using magnetron sputter ion-plating and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Surface energy analysis of the DLC coatings revealed that with increasing Si content, the electron acceptor gamma(s)(+) value decreased while the electron donor gamma(s)(-) value increased. The antifouling property of DLC coatings was evaluated with the bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which is one of the most common microorganisms forming biofilms on the surface of heat exchangers in cooling water systems. P. fluorescens had a high value of the gamma(s)(-) component (69.78 mN m(-1)) and a low value of the gamma(s)(+) component (5.97 mN m(-1)), and would be negatively charged with the zeta potential of -16.1 mV. The experimental results showed that bacterial removal by a standardised washing procedure increased significantly with increasing electron donor gamma(s)(-) values and with decreasing electron acceptor gamma(s)(+) values of DLC coatings. The incorporation of 2%N into the Si-doped DLC coatings further significantly reduced bacterial attachment and significantly increased ease of removal. The best Si-N-doped DLC coatings reduced bacterial attachment by 58% and increased removal by 41%, compared with a silicone coating, Silastic T2. Bacterial adhesion strength on the DLC coatings is explained in terms of thermodynamic work of adhesion. PMID:19283517

  18. Characteristics of the bioreactor landfill system using an anaerobic-aerobic process for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Liu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    A sequential upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and air-lift loop sludge blanket (ALSB) treatment was introduced into leachate recirculation to remove organic matter and ammonia from leachate in a lab-scale bioreactor landfill. The results showed that the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process might remove above 90% of COD and near to 100% of NH4+ -N from leachate under the optimum organic loading rate (OLR). The total COD removal efficiency was over 98% as the OLR increased to 6.8-7.7 g/l d, but the effluent COD concentration increased to 2.9-4.8 g/l in the UASB reactor, which inhibited the activity of nitrifying bacteria in the subsequent ALSB reactor. The NO3- -N concentration in recycled leachate reached 270 mg/l after treatment by the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, but the landfill reactor could efficiently denitrify the nitrate. After 56 days operation, the leachate TN and NH4+ -N concentrations decreased to less than 200 mg/l in the bioreactor landfill system. The COD concentration was about 200 mg/l with less than 8 mg/l BOD in recycled leachate at the late stage. In addition, it was found that nitrate in recycled leachate had a negative effect on waste decomposition. PMID:17071082

  19. Chlorination decomposition of struvite and recycling of its product for the removal of ammonium-nitrogen from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Huang, Lingyun; Zhang, Qingrui; Jiang, Yang; Ding, Li

    2015-10-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4⋅6H2O) precipitation is a promising method for ammonium (NH4(+)) removal from the wastewater. However, the high cost incurred with the use of magnesium and phosphate sources hinders the successful application of this method. This paper presents a novel recycling technology of struvite that is based on the chlorination decomposition of struvite. The study results indicated that struvite can be effectively decomposed by sodium hypochlorite and that the solid/liquid ratio of struvite in solution did not affect the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) decomposition efficiency of struvite. Through the analysis of the reaction process, the mechanism of struvite decomposition was proposed to be simultaneous dissolution and oxidation of struvite, and the main component of the decomposition product generated was determined to be newberyite, dissolved HPO4(2-) and Mg(2+), and magnesium phosphate. When the decomposition product was recycled, its pH had to be adjusted for high NH4-N removal. NH4-N of 92% could be removed from landfill leachate when the decomposition product solution pH before recycling was adjusted to 3 and the precipitation pH was maintained at 9. A five-cycle recycling process showed that recycling of struvite chlorination decomposition product was a highly efficient and sustainable method for the removal of NH4-N. An economic evaluation showed that the use of recycled struvite for the five-process cycles by the proposed process could save the cost of chemicals by approximately 34% as compared to the use of pure chemicals. PMID:25465950

  20. Feasibility of enhancing the DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation (DEAMOX) process for nitrogen removal by seeding partial denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shenbin; Peng, Yongzhen; Du, Rui; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    The recently proposed DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation (DEAMOX) process combined anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) with denitrification to convert nitrate to nitrite, which was a promising way for treating wastewater containing nitrate and ammonia. This study investigated the feasibility of establishing DEAMOX process by seeding partial denitrification sludge (NO3(-) → NO2(-)) using sodium acetate as an electron donor in a sequencing batch reactor. Results showed that the DEAMOX process was established successfully and operated stably in 114-days operation. The average effluent total nitrogen concentration was below 5 mg L(-1) and TN removal efficiency reached up to 97% at COD/NO3(-) ratio of 3.0 under initial NH4(+) concentration of 25 mg L(-1) and NO3(-) of 30 mg L(-1). It suggested that the presence of NO2(-) in the system supplied for ANAMMOX and the relatively long sludge retention time (SRT) for denitrifiers were attributed to commendable coexistence of ANAMMOX and denitrifying bacteria. PMID:26829308

  1. Role and significance of extracellular polymeric substances from granular sludge for simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan; Ren, Yuan; Hao, Guoxin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzed the organics and content of metal ions in extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), tightly (TB-EPSs) and loosely (LB-EPSs) bound EPSs of granular sludge with simultaneous removal of organic matters and ammonia nitrogen, studied the dynamic variation of metal ions in EPSs from granular sludge with different particle sizes and the change of zeta potential before and after cation exchange resin (CER) treatment. Results showed, with particle size increasing, the protein content gradually increased, the content of polysaccharide basically unchanged; the content of Ca, Mg, K, Na and Zn also increased, whereas others did not show a consistent regularity. The existence of metal ions reduced zeta potential of EPSs. The existence of metal ions helped to the adhesion among granules, in order to form a granule with bigger particle size. PMID:25575205

  2. Research of the performance of pulse electrohydrodynamics in blockage removal.

    PubMed

    Jevtić, Milenko; Milojković, Ivan; Stojnić, Nedeljko

    2011-01-01

    In line with contemporary trends and seeking to develop new methods and technologies, a new, original technology was explored and designed based on a non-conventional process of electrical pulse discharge in a water chamber, referred to as 'Pulse Electrohydrodynamic Technology' (PELHYDT). The application of the PELHYDT in sewer blockage removal is presented in this paper. Existing machinery can remove two blockages of gully pot connections per hour. Three blockages of pipe conduits are generally removed during an 8-h working day. Applying PELHYDT technology, which allows for high rates of removal of mechanical obstructions, it is possible to achieve operating fluid pressures in the order of 10(3)-10(4) bars, a velocity of 100 m/s, a deformation acceleration of the model material structure of 10(6)-10(7) m/s2, and high-frequency hydraulic shock waves with a frequency of 10(3)-10(4) Hz. The applicability of this efficient technology in sewer blockage removal was proven under laboratory conditions at operating fluid pressures from 50 to 160 bars, which are standard for sewer maintenance. Water velocities generally achieved in sewers using existing flushing technologies range between 1 and 3 m/s and usually do not exceed 9 m/s. PELHYDT creates waves whose velocity is at least 100 m/s, and is therefore about ten times more efficient than existing technologies. PELHYDT generates an electrohydrodynamic wave very quickly, virtually in the form of an explosion. It was proven under laboratory conditions that the application of this technology for blockage removal in practice will not result in any sewer damage. PMID:22053463