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Sample records for nixt sounding rocket

  1. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1996-01-01

    During the past year the changeover from the normal incidence X ray telescope (NIXT) program to the new TXI sounding rocket program was completed. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronic and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated X ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The h-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program were published this year.

  2. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The following two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, are presented: (1) 'The Solar X-ray Corona,' - an introduction to the physics of the solar corona, with a major portion concerning a summary of results from the series of NIXT sounding rocket flights; and (2) 'Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure.'

  3. Sounding rockets in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, G. C.; Cooper, G. W.; Peterson, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    Sounding rockets are versatile tools for scientists studying the atmospheric region which is located above balloon altitudes but below orbital satellite altitudes. Three NASA Nike-Tomahawk sounding rockets were launched from Siple Station in Antarctica in an upper atmosphere physics experiment in the austral summer of 1980-81. The 110 kg payloads were carried to 200 km apogee altitudes in a coordinated project with Arcas rocket payloads and instrumented balloons. This Siple Station Expedition demonstrated the feasibility of launching large, near 1,000 kg, rocket systems from research stations in Antarctica. The remoteness of research stations in Antarctica and the severe environment are major considerations in planning rocket launching expeditions.

  4. Analysis of the 23 June 1988 flare using NIXT multilayer X-ray images. [normal incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon; Herant, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Results obtained during the June 23, 1988 flight of the normal incidence X-ray telescope (NIXT) sounding rocket payload are reported. The telescope primary is 25 cm in diameter, in a 750 cm e.f.l. (f/30) Ritchey-Chretien configuration, with multilayer coatings on the optics designed to image the Fe XVI and Mg X coronal emission lines near 63.5 A. Images of the onset phase of a large (M8) Solar flare were recorded during the flight on a modified T-max 400 film manufactured by Kodak. Some of the results obtained by comparison of the NIXT data with ground-based observations of the sun obtained simultaneously to the flight are also reported.

  5. The United States sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The United States sounding rocket program is discussed. The program is concerned with the fields of solar physics, galactic astronomy, fields and particles, ionospheric physics, aeronomy, and meteorology. Sounding rockets are described with respect to propulsion systems, gross weight, and capabilities. Instruments used to conduct ionospheric probing missions are examined. Results of previously conducted sounding rocket missions are included.

  6. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    The solar corona, and the coronae of solar-type stars, consist of a low-density magnetized plasma at temperatures exceeding 10(exp 6) K. The primary coronal emission is therefore in the UV and soft X-ray range. The observed close connection between solar magnetic fields and the physical parameters of the corona implies a fundamental role for the magnetic field in coronal structuring and dynamics. Variability of the corona occurs on all temporal and spatial scales - at one extreme, as the result of plasma instabilities, and at the other extreme driven by the global magnetic flux emergence patterns of the solar cycle.

  7. Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Sounding Rocket Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the H-225K hybrid rocket motor, produced by the American Rocket Company, is given. The H-225K motor is presented in terms of the following topics: (1) hybrid rocket fundamentals; (2) hybrid characteristics; and (3) hybrid advantages.

  8. NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

  9. Atom Interferometry on Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, S. T.; Lachmann, M. D.; Becker, D.; Grosse, J.; Popp, M. A.; Wang, J. B.; Wendrich, T.; Rasel, E. M.; Quantus Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Atom interferometry in microgravity offers the possibility to perform high precision measurements of inertial forces complementary to experiments based on classical test masses. The ultimate goal is to perform these quantum measurements in space on board dedicated satellite missions. To reach this, a series of pathfinder microgravity experiments with cold atoms were build. The latest installment of these are conducted on sounding rockets. Here we give a short motivation of atom interferometry in space, an overview of the techniques used, and an introduction of the current mission MAIUS- 1.

  10. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  11. NASA sounding rockets, 1958 - 1968: A historical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The development and use of sounding rockets is traced from the Wac Corporal through the present generation of rockets. The Goddard Space Flight Center Sounding Rocket Program is discussed, and the use of sounding rockets during the IGY and the 1960's is described. Advantages of sounding rockets are identified as their simplicity and payload simplicity, low costs, payload recoverability, geographic flexibility, and temporal flexibility. The disadvantages are restricted time of observation, localized coverage, and payload limitations. Descriptions of major sounding rockets, trends in vehicle usage, and a compendium of NASA sounding rocket firings are also included.

  12. Sound from apollo rockets in space.

    PubMed

    Cotten, D; Donn, W L

    1971-02-12

    Low-frequency sound has been recorded on at least two occasions in Bermuda with the passage of Apollo rocket vehicles 188 kilometers aloft. The signals, which are reminiscent of N-waves from sonic booms, are (i) horizontally coherent; (ii) have extremely high (supersonic) trace velocities across the tripartite arrays; (iii) have nearly identical appearance and frequencies; (iv) have essentially identical arrival times after rocket launch; and (v) are the only coherent signals recorded over many hours. These observations seem to establish that the recorded sound comes from the rockets at high elevation. Despite this high elevation, the values of surface pressure appear to be explainable on the basis of a combination of a kinetic theory approach to shock formation in rarefied atmospheres with established gas-dynamics shock theory. PMID:17734781

  13. NASA Sounding Rocket Program educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspeaker, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NASA Sounding Rocket Program engages in a host of student flight projects providing unique and exciting hands-on student space flight experiences. These projects include single stage Orion missions carrying "active" high school experiments and "passive" Explorer School modules, university level Orion and Terrier-Orion flights, and small hybrid rocket flights as part of the Small-scale Educational Rocketry Initiative (SERI) currently under development. Efforts also include educational programs conducted as part of major campaigns. The student flight projects are designed to reach students ranging from Kindergarteners to university undergraduates. The programs are also designed to accommodate student teams with varying levels of technical capabilities - from teams that can fabricate their own payloads to groups that are barely capable of drilling and tapping their own holes. The program also conducts a hands-on student flight project for blind students in collaboration with the National Federation of the Blind. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.

  14. Vibroacoustic studies on sounding rocket bulkheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comrie, Jeffrey L.; Korde, Umesh A.

    2012-04-01

    The natural frequency coupling of 2 components of a sounding rocket system is studied, the forward bulkhead (commonly referred to as the "bulkhead" or "BH") and the payload cavity within the fairing. The bulkhead was modeled as a thin, flat, circular plate with a clamped boundary condition. The payload cavity was modeled as a column of air with closed ends contained by the rocket fairing. Both components were studied individually, and added together to obtain a coupled effect. The components were studied in terms of theoretical calculations and understanding, while testing the theory against experiments conducted in the laboratory. When appreciable differences between theory and experimental results were within reason for the individual components, the coupled system was tested. This methodology enabled a "piecewise" approach to studying and acquiring natural frequency shifting of the sounding rocket model through coupling. Experimental work for frequency tuning of the bulkhead through internal pressure modulation is presented. Guidelines for improvement of the vibroacoustic response through structural redesign and frequency tuning of sounding rockets are detailed.

  15. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    During the period December 1976 through February 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center, two special soundings were taken at Antigua, West Indies, and at the Churchill Research Range, monthly activities were initiated to establish stratospheric ozone climatology. This report presents the data results and flight profiles for the period covered.

  16. Program Computes Sound Pressures at Rocket Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogg, Gary; Heyman, Roy; White, Michael; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Launch Vehicle External Sound Pressure is a computer program that predicts the ignition overpressure and the acoustic pressure on the surfaces and in the vicinity of a rocket and launch pad during launch. The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) that gathers input data from the user. These data include the critical dimensions of the rocket and of any launch-pad structures that may act as acoustic reflectors, the size and shape of the exhaust duct or flame deflector, and geometrical and operational parameters of the rocket engine. For the ignition-overpressure calculations, histories of the chamber pressure and mass flow rate also are required. Once the GUI has gathered the input data, it feeds them to ignition-overpressure and launch-acoustics routines, which are based on several approximate mathematical models of distributed sources, transmission, and reflection of acoustic waves. The output of the program includes ignition overpressures and acoustic pressures at specified locations.

  17. Esrange activities: Sounding rockets, balloons and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helger, A.

    1980-06-01

    The range facilities are described in detail for the prospective user, including instrumentation launch capabilities, support facilities, and costs. High performance sounding rockets such as Aries and Nike BB can now, thanks to guidance systems, be launched above 500 km allowing the exploration of higher regions and longer observation time. Microgravity experiments using sounding rockets are successfully carried out from the range. Land recovery is necessary in this case. Since 1978 Esrange has been operating a Landsat remote sensing satellite receiving station as part of ESA's ground station network, Earthnet. Additional installations for reception and processing of SPOT and Landsat (D) data are planned. A satellite tracking and control station is envisaged in the near future.

  18. A Half Century of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.

    2015-09-01

    One of the earliest and most successful sounding rocket activities in Europe, was the development of the Skylark system. The requirement for high altitude space research and the approaching International Geophysical Year in 1957-58, motivated the British to develop a sounding rocket system. After considerable investigation of the requirements for the propulsion system, the Raven motor and the necessary basic components and instrumentation of a payload system were developed. The first Skylark was launched on the 13th of February, 1957. This paper describes the development of the Skylark system, the advances in technology of its payload systems and their application in solar and stellar astronomy, upper atmosphere and microgravity research and technological proving of space systems.

  19. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  20. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  1. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  2. Encyclopedia: Satellites and Sounding Rockets, August 1959 - December 1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Major space missions utilizing satellites or sounding rockets managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center between August 1959 and December 1969 were documented. The information was presented in the following form: (1) description of each satellite project where Goddard was responsible for the spacecraft or the successful launch or both, with data such as launch characteristics, objectives, etc.; (2) description of each Goddard sounding rocket project, with the following data: sounding rocket type, vehicle number, experimental affiliation, and type of experiment; (3) brief description of current sounding rockets and launch vehicles; (4) table of tracking and data acquisition stations. Summary tables are also provided.

  3. The DXL and STORM sounding rocket mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas E.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Collado-Vega, Yaireska M.; Collier, Michael R.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, K. D.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Lepri, Susan T.; McCammon, Dan; Morgan, Kelsey; Porter, F. Scott; Prasai, Krishna; Read, Andy M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve F.; Sibeck, David G.; Snowden, Steven L.; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) sounding rocket experiment is to distinguish the soft X-ray emission due to the Local Hot Bubble (LHB) from that produced via Solar Wind charge exchange (SWCX). Enhanced interplanetary helium density in the helium focusing cone provides a spatial variation to the SWCX that can be identified by scanning through the focusing cone using an X-ray instrument with a large grasp. DXL consists of two large proportional counters refurbished from the Aerobee payload used during the Wisconsin All Sky Survey. The counters utilize P-10 fill gas and are covered by a thin Formvar window (with Cyasorb UV-24 additive) supported on a nickel mesh. DXL's large grasp is 10 cm2 sr for both the 1/4 and 3/4 keV bands. DXL was successfully launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico on December 12, 2012 using a Terrier Mk70 Black Brant IX sounding rocket. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) instrument is a prototype soft X-ray camera also successfully own on the DXL sounding rocket. STORM uses newly developed slumped micropore (`lobster eye') optics to focus X-rays onto a position sensitive, chevron configuration, microchannel plate detector. The slumped micropore optics have a 75 cm curvature radius and a polyimide/aluminum filter bonded to its surface. STORM's large field-of-view makes it ideal for imaging SWCX with exospheric hydrogen for future missions. STORM represents the first flight of lobster-eye optics in space.

  4. Field refurbishment of recoverable sounding rocket payloads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needleman, H. C.; Tackett, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Sounding rocket payload field refurbishment has been shown to be an effective means for obtaining additional scientific data with substantial time and monetary savings. In a recent campaign three successful missions were flown using two payloads. Field refurbished hardware from two previously flown and recovered payloads were field integrated to form a third payload. Although this operational method may result in compromises in the refurbished system, it allows for quick turn around when the mission requires it. This paper describes the recent success of this approach with the Dudley Observatory Nike-Apache micrometeorite collection experiments launched from Kiruna, Sweden, in October 1972.

  5. Operation Argus. Sounding rocket measurements - Project Jason

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.L.; Allen, L.; Dennis, J.L.; Welch, J.A.; Walton, R.B.

    1984-08-31

    The general objective was to measure the distribution of beta particles originating from the Argus shots and subsequently trapped in the earth's magnetic field. This was accomplished with the aid of high-altitude sounding rockets containing radiation counters. The flux of high-energy electrons was measured as a function of: (1) magnetic latitude from 23 to 39 degrees; (2) altitude from sea level to 900 km; (3) electron energy; (4) time after the nuclear explosion; and (5) angular distribution with respect to magnetic field.

  6. Digital attitude control for NASA sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Carlos

    1998-11-01

    Various configurations of Solar Pointing Control Systems have been used for NASA sounding rockets since an initial flight in December of 1967. Until now, these attitude control systems have used an analog controller. The demand for a more advanced attitude control system with better performance and flexibility leads to the testing of a digital control system. Computer aided design was used to develop the control equations and an embedded controller is used to implement these equations. The analog control system pointing performance was degraded by electrical noise and offsets getting into the sensor signals. The solution to this problem was to isolate the sun sensor from payload electrical nose and ground loops. To accomplish this the sun sensor output was digitized and the data was sent to the control system using a fiber optical cable. This control system was flown on Naval Research Laboratories rocket 36.140 and had less than 0.5 arc-second peak-to-peak jitter during the flight. With further refinements the digital system is expected to attain jitter of less than 0.2 arc- seconds peak-to-peak.

  7. Atom Interferometry on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Dennis; Seidel, Stephan; Lachmann, Maike; Rasel, Ernst; Quantus Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The universality of free fall is one of the fundamental postulates of our description of nature. The comparison of the free fall of two ultra-cold clouds of different atomic species via atom interferometry comprises a method to precisely test this assumption. By performing the experiments in a microgravity environment the sensitivity of such an atom interferometric measurement can be increased. In order to fully utilize the potential of these experiments the usage of a Bose-Einstein condensate as the initial state of the atom interferometer is necessary. As a step towards the transfer of such a system in space an atom optical experiment is currently being prepared as the scientific payload for a sounding rocket mission. This mission is aiming at the first demonstration of a Bose-Einstein condensate in space and using this quantum degenerate matter as a source for atom interferometry. The launch of the rocket is planned for 2015 from ESRANGE. This first mission will be followed by two more that extend the scientific goals to the creation of degenerate mixtures in space and simultaneous atom interferometry with two atomic species. Their success would mark a major advancement towards a precise measurement of the universality of free fall with a space-born atom interferometer. This research is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under grant number DLR 50 1131-37.

  8. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most importantly, sounding rockets remain the only way to explore the tenuous regions of the Earth’s atmosphere (the upper stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower ionosphere/thermosphere) above balloon altitudes (˜40km) and below satellite orbits (˜160km). They can lift remote sensing telescope payloads with masses up to 400kg to altitudes of 350km providing observing times of up to 6min above the blocking influence of Earth’s atmosphere. Though a number of sounding rocket research programs exist around the world, this article focuses on the NASA Sounding Rocket Program, and particularly on the astrophysical and solar sounding rocket payloads.

  9. Thermal Electron Results from the CAPER Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Pollock, Craig J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experiment Rocket (CAPER) sounding rocket launched on January 21, 1999 at 06:13:30 UT into the cusp. Ion outflows and strong electric fields were present. We will present the preliminary results of the thermal electron detector, TECHS that was on this payload.

  10. Terrier-Black Brant Sounding Rocket Microacceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacpura, Thomas; Acevedo, Julio

    1998-01-01

    On September 10, 1997 a Terrier-Black Brant Sounding Rocket was launched to support the Lewis Research Center DARTFire combustion experiment at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The sounding rocket also carried two microacceleration measurement systems to support the DARTFire experiment by measuring the microacceleration environment. The SAMS-FF system and a SAMS-type triaxial sensor head (TSH) were flown. The SAMS-FF system consisted of a variable frequency, digital output TSH and a roll rate sensor. Data from the two systems were analyzed and compared. Data will be presented from both systems in order to characterize the sounding rocket microacceleration environment. The data collected demonstrated that a sounding rocket is a viable vehicle for conducting space experiments that require a quiet, dedicated microacceleration environment.

  11. CIV Interferometer for a Solar Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.; West, E. A.; Davis, J. M.; Rees, D.

    2007-01-01

    A sounding rocket instrument consisting of two vacuum ultraviolet Fabry-Perot filters in series would allow high-spectral resolution over an extended field of view for solar observations of the transition region between the chromosphere and the corona.

  12. Launch of 2014 RockOn Sounding Rocket

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students and teachers designed experiments which were included in the payload of the RockOn sounding rocket, seen here launching from NASA Wallops Flight Facility on June 26, 2014, at 7:21 a.m. EDT...

  13. The C-REX Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Mark; Larsen, Miguel; Hampton, Donald; Dhadly, Manbharat; Ahrns, Jason; Aruliah, Anasuya; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Barker, Barrett; Kiene, Andrew; Sigernes, Fred; Lorentzen, Dag

    2015-04-01

    On November 24, 2014, NASA launched a Black-Brant 12 sounding rocket from Andoya Space Center out over the Greenland Sea and into the ionospheric footprint of Earth's geomagnetic cusp. Roughly ten minutes later, ten barium/strontium tracer clouds were released into the thermosphere, at heights ranging from 190 to 420 km, and dispersed into a 3D volume extending over many tens of km around the main trajectory. Subsequent motions of the ionized barium and neutral barium/strontium components of the clouds were determined by photographic triangulation, using cameras based at Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, and aboard a NASA aircraft flying just south of Svalbard. For reasons that are currently not understood, there is a permanent enhancement in the neutral mass density in this part of Earth's thermosphere, which is expected to cause small but important and currently unpredictable perturbations to the orbits of spacecraft flying through it. Work in progress will use the C-REX photographic triangulations to measure winds and ion motion at multiple locations inside this density enhancement. By combining these very localized results with larger scale maps of wind derived from UCL's SCANDI interferometer and ion drifts measured by the EISCAT Svalbard radar, we hope to understand the flows that are responsible for creating and sustaining the thermospheric density anomaly.

  14. Sounding rocket experiment on capillary channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, U.; Fechtmann, C.; Dreyer, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    This paper is concerned with flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. The channels consist of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. In the case of steady flow the capillary pressure of the free surface balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the adjusted volumetric flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces. In order to investigate this type of flow an experiment aboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-41 was performed. The aim of the investigation was to achieve the profiles of the free liquid surfaces and to determine the maximum flow rate of the steady flow. For this purpose a new approach to the critical flow condition by enlarging the channel length was applied. The paper gives a review of the experimental set-up and the preparation of the flight procedures. Furthermore the experiment performance is described and the typical appearance of the flow indicated by its surface profiles is presented.

  15. Transition of sounding-rocket experiments to Shuttle/Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, C. G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of the feasibility of using instruments of the type flown on balloons, sounding rockets, satellites, and Skylab ATM have led to the conclusion that sounding rocket instruments could be useful for conducting science experiments from space, both in their own right and in providing supporting data to other instruments observing the same object. Some engineering aspects of extending the viewing time from minutes to days are examined.

  16. Maxus: A new German/Swedish sounding rocket programme and Esrange - Your partner in satellite operations, sounding rockets and balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig; Lundahl, Kaj; Wikstrom, Alf

    1992-08-01

    The Swedish space-operations center Esrange is described in terms of operational and data-acquisition support for rocket, satellite, and balloon programs, and the Maxus sounding rocket is presented. Located in northern Sweden the Esrange operations center offers good geographical position for polar-orbiting satellites. The Maxus rocket is capable of launching 700 kg of microgravity payloads to about 900 km for experiments lasting 14-15 min.

  17. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  18. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  19. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.

    PubMed

    Gurkin, L W

    1992-10-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours. PMID:11537652

  20. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  2. Sounding rocket activities of Japan in 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Nobuaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Takumi, Abe; Yuichi, Tsuda; Yamagami, Takamasa

    2005-08-01

    In October 2003, a new space agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) was reorganized and started as a primary space agency to promote all space activities in Japan. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) belonged to JAXA and continued to promote space science and technologies using unique scientific satellites, sounding rockets and balloons. This paper summarizes sounding rocket and ballooning activities of ISAS in the fiscal year of 2003 and 2004, associated with satellite launch programs. In this time period, three sounding rockets and nineteen balloons were launched by ISAS. One of the sounding rocket, S-310-35 was an international collaboration between Japan and Norway, which was launched from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR), Andenes, Norway, so as to study the upper atmospheric dynamics and energetics associated with the auroral energy in the polar lower thermosphere. Through the combination with the national researchers and the cooperation with international organizations, ISAS will keep its own flight opportunities and be able to obtain many new scientific findings.

  3. X-ray astronomy experiments from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Saul

    1987-01-01

    During the past fourteen years, the M.I.T. X-ray Astronomy sounding rocket group has designed, fabricated, and flown five different scientific sounding rocket payloads. These experiment payloads were launched on a total of twelve sounding rocket flights of which only one failed because of rocket problems. Eight of these flights yielded astronomical data that resulted in a total of twelve publications. The bulk of this research was supported by NASA Grant NGR 22-009-730 X-Ray Astronomy Experiments Sounding Rockets. The fifth and final experiment payload conceived and built under this Grant (the Wide Field Soft X-ray Camera: WFSXC) served as the prototype for the British Wide Field Camera (WFC) experiment to be launched on the ROSAT mission. The five experiment payloads and the results obtained from these experiments are briefly described. In the case of the WFSXC, which served principally as an engineering prototype for a major space mission, a number of papers written by British collaborators which describe the ROSAT Wide Field Camera are presented.

  4. Upper Atmosphere Sounding Rocket Projects at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Sjolander, Krister; Abrahamsson, Mattias

    Swedish Space Corporation, SSC has a long tradition of developing and launching scientific sounding rockets from Esrange Space Center with the aim to study the different layers of the atmosphere and near space. Now a new era has started with an initiative from the Swedish National Space Board, SNSB. The sounding rocket and atmospheric balloon activities will be vitalised with a national program offering the scientific community yearly rocket launches and balloon flights. The three upcoming sounding rocket missions that have recently started are: O-STATES O STATES (Oxygen transformation in the thermosphere) is a research project at the Meteorological Institute of Stockholm University with Prof. Jörg Gumbel, as responsible researcher. The payload comprises two instrument modules with totally 7 instruments for studying oxygen in its various forms. The payload will be launched twice on two sounding rockets at the same launch campaign, in different atmospheric conditions. This provides a cost-effective mission with a large research exchange. The launches from Esrange Space Center are preliminary scheduled to take place in August 2014 with an apogee of approximately 250 km. SPIDER SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) is a research project at Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm with Nicholay Ivchenko as responsible researcher. The mission includes up to 10 subsidiary payloads ejected from the main payload to measure the structure of the electrostatic turbulence in the ionosphere. The measurements take place entirely in the subsidiary payloads, which are completely autonomous and recovered individually after the flight. The launch from Esrange Space Center is preliminary scheduled to take place in March 2015 with a desired apogee of approximately 140 km. LEEWAVES LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric Vertical Structure) is a research project at the Meteorological

  5. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. S.; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Sanders, W. T.

    2000-04-01

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight.

  6. A hybrid rocket engine design for simple low cost sounding rocket use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubelich, Mark; Rowland, John; Reese, Larry

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary test results on a nitrous oxide/HTPB hybrid rocket engine suitable for powering a small sounding rocket to altitudes of 50-100 K/ft are presented. It is concluded that the advantage of the N2O hybrid engine over conventional solid propellant rocket motors is the ability to obtain long burn times with core burning geometries due to the low regression rate of the fuel. Long burn times make it possible to reduce terminal velocity to minimize air drag losses.

  7. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, A. F.; Otterbein, M.

    1987-08-01

    Sounding rocket projects in astronomy, aeronomy, magnetospheric research, material sciences, and life sciences under microgravity are described. Balloon projects in astronomy and aeronomy are presented. Satellite projects including AMPTE, SOHO, Cluster, San Marco-D, HELIOS, Giotto, Ulysses, CRAF, ISOPHOT, Rosat, and the Gamma Ray Observatory are mentioned.

  8. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  9. Lyman alpha coronagraph research sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ultraviolet light coronagraph was developed and successfully flown on three rocket flights on 13 April 1979, 16 February 1980 and 20 July 1982. During each of these flights, the Ultraviolet Light Coronagraph was flown jointly with the White Light Coronagraph provided by the High Altitude Observatory. Ultraviolet diagnostic techniques and instrumentation for determining the basic plasma parameters of solar wind acceleration regions in the extended corona were developed and verified and the understanding of the physics of the corona through the performance, analysis and interpretation of solar observations advanced. Valuable UV diagnostics can be performed in the absence of a natural solar eclipse.

  10. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  11. Flip-Flop Recovery System for sounding rocket payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of the Flip-Flop Recovery System, which protects sensitive forward-mounted instruments from ground impact during sounding rocket payload recovery operations, are discussed. The system was originally developed to reduce the impact damage to the expensive gold-plated forward-mounted spectrometers in two existing Taurus-Orion rocket payloads. The concept of the recovery system is simple: the payload is flipped over end-for-end at a predetermined time just after parachute deployment, thus minimizing the risk of damage to the sensitive forward portion of the payload from ground impact.

  12. Theory of prediction of solar eclipse as observed from a sounding rocket using rocket trajectory and eclipse ephemeris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarvey, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of determining various solar eclipse variables as observed from a sounding rocket for various rocket trajectories. By applying the methods described to a set of trajectories, a set of boundary conditions, launch azimuth, quadrant elevation, and launch time may be selected to optimize any aspect of eclipse observation within the constraints imposed by rocket performance.

  13. Universal Data Handling System for Sounding Rockets and Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, G.

    2015-09-01

    Data handling systems (DHS) used in service systems and experiment modules on sounding rockets and balloons have traditionally been different in design. A study was performed in 2012 at SSC to evaluate the feasibility of a common system usable across different platforms. The outcome was the “Unified DHS system”. The new DHS is very modular in design and can easily be adapted to different mission scenarios.

  14. Workshop on the Suborbital Science Sounding Rocket Program, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the sounding rocket program is described, with its importance to space science stressed, especially in providing UARS correlative measurements. The program provided opportunities to do innovative scientific studies in regions not other wise accessible; it was a testbed for developing new technologies; and its key attributes were flexibility, reliability, and economy. The proceedings of the workshop are presented in viewgraph form, including the objectives of the workshop and the workshop agenda.

  15. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  16. The FOXSI sounding rocket: Latest analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ramsey, Brian; Han, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations are a linchpin for studying particle acceleration and hot thermal plasma emission in the solar corona. Current and past indirectly imaging instruments lack the sensitivity and dynamic range needed to observe faint HXR signatures, especially in the presences of brighter sources. These limitations are overcome by using HXR direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is a state of the art solar telescope that develops and applies these capabilities.The FOXSI sounding rocket has successfully flown twice, observing active regions, microflares, and areas of the quiet-Sun. Thanks to its far superior imaging dynamic range, FOXSI performs cleaner hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy than previous instruments that use indirect imaging methods like RHESSI.We present a description of the FOXSI rocket payload, paying attention to the optics and semiconductor detectors calibrations, as well as the upgrades made for the second flight. We also introduce some of the latest FOXSI data analysis, including imaging spectroscopy of microflares and active regions observed during the two flights, and the differential emission measure distribution of the nonflaring corona.

  17. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  18. Development of the Hawk/Nike Hawk sounding rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new sounding rocket family, the Hawk and Nike-Hawk Vehicles, have been developed, flight tested and added to the NASA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Stable. The Hawk is a single-stage vehicle that will carry 35.6 cm diameter payloads weighing 45.5 kg to 91 kg to altitudes of 78 km to 56 km, respectively. The two-stage Nike-Hawk will carry payloads weighing 68 kg to 136 kg to altitudes of 118 km to 113 km, respectively. Both vehicles utilize the XM22E8 Hawk rocket motor which is available in large numbers as a surplus item from the U.S. Army. The Hawk fin and tail can hardware were designed in-house. The Nike tail can and fin hardware are surplus Nike-Ajax booster hardware. Development objectives were to provide a vehicle family with a larger diameter, larger volume payload capability than the Nike-Apache and Nike-Tomahawk vehicles at comparable cost. Both vehicles performed nominally in flight tests.

  19. ARIM-1: The Atmospheric Refractive Index Measurements Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, B. Ian (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the ARIM-1 sounding rocket mission, whose goal is to study atmospheric turbulence in the tropopause region of the atmosphere, is presented. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks who were enrolled in a Space Systems Engineering course. The implementation of the ARIM-1 mission will be carried out by students participating in the Alaska Student Rocket Program (ASRP), with a projected launch date of August 1997. The ARIM-1 vehicle is a single stage sounding rocket with a 3:1 ogive nose cone, a payload diameter of 8 in., a motor diameter of 7.6 in., and an overall height of 17.0 ft including the four fins. Emphasis is placed on standardization of payload support systems. The thermosonde payload will measure the atmospheric turbulence by direct measurement of the temperature difference over a distance of one meter using two 3.45-micron 'hot-wire' probes. The recovery system consists of a 6 ft. diameter ribless guide surface drogue chute and a 33 ft. diameter main cross parachute designed to recover a payload of 31 pounds and slow its descent rate to 5 m/s through an altitude of 15 km. This document discusses the science objectives, mission analysis, payload mechanical configuration and structural design, recovery system, payload electronics, ground station, testing plans, and mission implementation.

  20. The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) Sounding Rocket Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, Donald M.; Deforest, Craig; Slater, David D.; Thomas, Roger J.; Ayres, Thomas; Davis, Michael; de Pontieu, Bart; Diller, Jed; Graham, Roy; Michaelis, Harald; Schuele, Udo; Warren, Harry

    2016-03-01

    We present a summary of the solar observing Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket program including an overview of the design and calibration of the instrument, flight performance, and preliminary chromospheric results from the successful November 2014 launch of the RAISE instrument. The RAISE sounding rocket payload is the fastest scanning-slit solar ultraviolet imaging spectrograph flown to date. RAISE is designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100-200ms, with arcsecond spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2km/s. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (first-order 1205-1251Å and 1524-1569Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10Hz, recording up to 1800 complete spectra (per detector) in a single 6-min rocket flight. This opens up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. RAISE is designed to observe small-scale multithermal dynamics in Active Region (AR) and quiet Sun loops, identify the strength, spectrum and location of high frequency waves in the solar atmosphere, and determine the nature of energy release in the chromospheric network.

  1. Dual sounding rocket observations of low-altitude electrostatic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Mozer, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    Two sounding rockets were used to simultaneously place two payloads on nearly the same magnetic field lines in the late-evening auroral zone. The dc electric field measurements obtained by the payloads imply a parallel potential of several kV below the higher payload, probably occurring between the two payloads. No possible resistive mechanism in observed in the 100 Hz-10 kKz band which could support the parallel field; this implies the existence of resistance-generating turbulence which are either at other frequencies, or of a type not measured by the probes, or localized parallel potentials not coincident with the payload trajectories.

  2. The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will describe the objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the unique optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. A sounding rocket payload has been developed to test the feasibility of magnetic field measurements in the Sun's transition region. The optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic sensitive lines formed in the transition region (CIV at 1550 A and MgII at 2800 A). This paper will concentrate on the polarization properties SUMI's toroidal varied-line-space (TVLS) gratings and its system level testing as we prepare to launch in the Summer of 2008.

  3. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  4. Ion Flow Measurements from the JOULE Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangalli, L.; Knudsen, D.; Pfaff, R.; Burchil, J.; Larsen, M.; Clemmons, J.; Steigies, C.

    2006-12-01

    The JOULE sounding rocket mission was designed to investigate structured Joule dissipation in the auroral ionosphere. JOULE was launched March 27, 2003 from Poker Flat, Alaska, during a substorm. The mission included two instrumented rockets and two chemical release (TMA) rockets. One of the instrumented payloads carried a Suprathermal Ion Imager (SII) that measured 2-D (energy/angle) distributions of the core (0- 8 eV) ion population at a rate of 125 per second. SII measured one component of the ion drift velocitiy perpendicular to the magnetic field and the field-aligned component of the ion drift velocity. We present results showing good agreement between ion drifts measured perpendicular to the geomagnetic field and those inferred from an ěc E×ěc B measurement, with signs of ion demagnetization as the payload reached the upper E region. Also, the SII shows evidence of downward field-aligned ion flows at altitudes of 140-170 km within a region of enhanced auroral precipitation.

  5. Optical Design of the RAISE Sounding Rocket Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.; Hassler, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) is a recently selected sounding rocket program to investigate the dynamics and heating of the outer solar atmosphere on time scales as short as looms. Its optical design represents the first in a new class of two-reflection W / E W imaging spectrometers with Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) gratings. Due to the remarkable imaging properties of such gratings, RAISE will measure spectra simultaneously over four different wavelength bands (1205-1243 & 1524-1559 A in first order, 602.5-621.5 & 762.0-779.5 A in second), with an unprecedented combination of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. These spectral regions include many bright, well-resolved lines covering the temperature range from the low chromosphere up to the 2 MK Fe XI1 corona. The RAISE optical design features an extremely fast beam (f/7.0) and a minimum number of reflections, which together allow enough throughput to provide high quality spectral data even at its very short exposure times. Moreover, by operating with high magnification (x4.25), the RAISE spectrometer can most effectively utilize the full length and width available in the sounding rocket payload. First launch of this exciting new instrument is scheduled for 2006 June 21.

  6. Summary of the 1957-1982 UK scientific research sounding rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delury, J. T.

    1983-06-01

    The Skylark, Petrel, Fulmar and Skua sounding rockets are described and over 750 flights using these rockets are summarized. Astrophysical and solar-terrestrial physics phenomena; the magnetosphere; space plasmas; and neutral winds were studied. Rockets were also used for X-ray astronomy.

  7. Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

  8. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidotti, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  9. First results from the OGRESS sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McCoy, J.; Miles, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first results from the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa. OGRESS is designed to perform moderate resolution (R~10- 40) spectroscopy of diffuse celestial x-ray sources between 0.3 - 1.2 keV. A wire grid focuser constrains light from diffuse sources into a converging beam that feeds an array of off-plane diffraction gratings. The spectrum is focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. OGRESS launched on the morning of May 2, 2015 and collected data for ~5 minutes before returning via parachute. OGRESS observed the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant with the goal of obtaining the most accurate physical diagnostics thus far recorded. During the flight, OGRESS had an unexpectedly high count rate which manifested as a highly uniform signal across the active area of the detector, swamping the expected spectrum from Cygnus. Efforts are still in progress to identify the source of this uniform signal and to discover if a usable spectrum can be extracted from the raw flight data.

  10. Sounding rocket flight report, MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two-Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP is similar to the thermosphere probe, an ejectable instrument package for studying the variability of the earth's atmospheric parameters. The MUMP 9 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe, a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. These instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch.

  11. Solar X-ray Astronomy Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Several broad objectives were pursued by the development and flight of the High Resolution Soft X-Ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload, followed by the analysis of the resulting data and by comparison with both ground based and space based observations from other investigators. The scientific objectives were: to study the thermal equilibrium of active region loop systems by analyzing the X-ray observations to determine electron temperatures, densities, and pressures; by recording the changes in the large scale coronal structures from the maximum and descending phases of Cycle 21 to the ascending phase of Cycle 22; and to extend the study of small scale coronal structures through the minimum of Cycle 21 with new emphasis on correlative observations.

  12. CANSAT: Design of a Small Autonomous Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Joshua; Duda, Michael; Garnand-Royo, Jeff; Jones, Alexa; Pickering, Todd; Tutko, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), AGI, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Praxis Incorporated, and SolidWorks. Specifically, the 2009 Virginia Tech CanSat Team is funded by BAE Systems, Incorporated of Manassas, Virginia. The objective of the 2009 CanSat competition is to complete remote sensing missions by designing a small autonomous sounding rocket payload. The payload designed will follow and perform to a specific set of mission requirements for the 2009 competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, reviews, and launch.

  13. Sounding Rocket Instrument Development at UAHuntsville/NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Savage, Sabrina; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergei; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Podgorski, William; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of solar sounding rocket instruments developed jointly by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) is an EUV (19.3 nm) imaging telescope which was flown successfully in July 2012. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a Lyman Alpha (121.6 nm) spectropolarimeter developed jointly with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and scheduled for launch in 2015. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrograph is a soft X-ray (0.5-1.2 keV) stigmatic spectrograph designed to achieve 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along the slit.

  14. World Data Center A (rockets and satellites) catalogue of data. Volume 1, part A: Sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A cumulative listing of all scientifically successful rockets that have been identified from various sources is presented. The listing starts with the V-2 rocket launched on 7 March 1947 and contains all rockets identified up to 31 December 1971.

  15. FIRE: Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment: a sounding rocket telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantner, Brennan; Green, James; Beasley, Matthew; Kane, Robert; Lairson, Bruce; Lopez, Heidi; Grove, David; Franetic, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) is a sounding rocket payload telescope designed to image between 900-1100Å. It is scheduled to launch on January 29th, 2011 from the Poker Flats complex in northern Alaska. For its first flight, it will target G191B2B, a white dwarf calibration source, and M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy), the science target, to help determine the number of hot, young O stars, as well as the intervening dust attenuation. FIRE primary consists of a single primary mirror coated in silicon carbide, a 2000Å thick indium filter and a micro-channel plate detector coated with rubidium bromide. Combined, these create a passband of 900-1100Å for the system and reject the hydrogen Lyman-α to approximately a factor of 10-4. To ensure that the filter survives the launch, a small vacuum chamber has been built around it to keep the pressure at 10-8 torr or lower.

  16. Auroral Microphysics Rocket (AMICIST) and Reflight of the Phaze Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy Roger L.

    1998-01-01

    This grant was originally awarded for the flight of the AMICIST sounding rocket. However, upon launch failure of the PHAZE rocket, additional resources were placed in this grant to cover the launch of the PHAZE II rocket. AMICIST was successfully launched from the Poker Flat Range on February 24, 1995, and the PHAZE II was successfully launched also from the Poker Flat Range on February 10, 1997. The major objective of the AMICIST flight was to investigate the bursts of transverse ion acceleration occurring during aurora, commonly known as Lower Hybrid Solitary Structures, with the flight of two scientific payloads to unravel space from time effects. The data clearly showed that the structures of ion acceleration were a spatial phenomena having a scale size transverse to the local magnetic field of about 100 m. On the other hand, structures in the auroral electrons were generally observed on this flight to be temporal features that occurred at the same time at the two payloads separated by a few kilometers. The primary objective of the PHAZE rocket flight was to further study the temporal features of auroral electron precipitation having many electron detectors, some fixed in energy, that could study the distribution function of the auroral electrons on time scales of a fraction of a millisecond. A important paper on this topic has just been submitted for publication which uses the PHAZE data to show that the potential structure (electric field parallel to the magnetic field) that accelerates the auroral electrons within one Earth radius of the ground, is not static, but rather fluctuates with frequencies close to the local proton and hydrogen gyrofrequencies. The fluctuation appears to be an actual turning on and off of the electric field at these frequencies. When the potential is turned off, ambient electrons can enter the region and be accelerated along B when the potential is on creating field- aligned bursts which manifest themselves as flickering aurora seen

  17. The Study on Flexible Carbon Fiber Boom Research for Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Ma, X.; Zheng, L.; Guan, X.

    2015-09-01

    To accommodate the requirements of the sounding rocket that will be launched soon, this paper develops a new boom, which makes six new contributions: its deployment doesn't need proper centrifugal force generated by rocket anymore, suitable for the requirement that the sounding rocket is controlled not to rotate when rising; it is made by the flexible carbon fiber material and thus has a light weight; its deployment is driven by the bending elastic potential energy, more reliable and safer; due to its light weight, the effects on the rocket posture of its deployment are minor; its locking is done by itself but not by the rocket, which effectively avoids the interference of the separation of the rocket arrow and body with its deployment and enhances the reliability of its deployment; its unlocking is done by a fuse, more economic and more reliable.

  18. Ionospheric Results with Sounding Rockets and the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    A review is made of ionospheric data reported since the IGY from rocket and satellite-borne ionospheric experiments. These include rocket results on electron density (RF impedance probe), D-region conductivity (Gerdien condenser), and electron temperature (Langmuir probe). Also included are data in the 1000 kilometer region on ion concentration (ion current monitor) and electron temperature from the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi). The review includes suggestions for second generation experiments and combinations thereof particularly suited for small sounding rockets.

  19. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... addressed to Joshua Bundick, Manager, Poker Flat Research Range EIS, NASA Goddard Space Flight...

  20. Draft Environmental Statement For Physics and Astronomy Sounding Rocket, Balloon, and Airborne Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This document is a draft of an environmental impact statement, evaluating the effect on the environment of the use of sounding rockets, balloons and air borne research programs in studying the atmosphere.

  1. Physico-Chemical Research on the Sounding Rocket Maser 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Abrahamsson, Mattias; Florin, Gunnar

    MASER is a sounding rocket platform for short-duration microgravity experiments, providing the scientific community with an excellent microgravity tool. The MASER programme has been running by SSC from 1987 and has up to 2012 provided twelve successful flights for microgravity missions with 6-7 minutes of microgravity, the g-level is normally below 1x10-5 g. The MASER 13 is planned to be launched in spring 2015 from Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden. The rocket will carry four ESA financed experiment modules. The MASER 13 vehicle will be propelled by the 2-stage solid fuel VSB-30 rocket motor, which provided the 390 kg payload with an apogee of 260 km and 6 and a half minutes of microgravity. Swedish Space Corporation carries out the MASER missions for ESA and the program is also available for other customers. The payload comprise four different experiment modules of which three could be defined as physic-chemical research; XRMON-SOL, CDIC-3, MEDI. It also comprises the Maser Service Module and the recovery system. The Service Module provided real-time 5 Mbps down-link of compressed experiment digital video data from the on-board cameras, as well as high-speed housekeeping telemetry data. XRMON-SOL In this experiment the influence of gravity on the formation of an equiaxed microstructure will be investigated. Special attention will be put on the aspect of nucleation, segregation and impingement. The experiment scope is to melt and solidify an AlCu-alloy sample in microgravity. The solidification will be performed in an isothermal environment. The solidification process will be monitored and recorded with X-ray image during the whole flight, images will also be down-linked to ground for real-time monitoring and possible interaction. CDIC-3 The goal is to study in migrogravity the spatio-temporal dynamics of a chemical front travelling in a thin solution layer open to the air and specifically the respective role of Marangoni and density-related hydrodynamic

  2. Towards a matter wave interferometer on a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoest, Tim; Peters, Achim; Ahlers, Holger; Wicht, Andreas; Vogel, Anika; Wenzlawski, Anderas; Deutsch, Christian; Kajari, Endre; Gaaloul, Naceur; Dittus, Hansjürg; Hartwig, Jonas; Herr, Waldemar; Herrmann, Sven; Reichel, Jakob; Bongs, Kai; Koenemann, Thorben; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, Wojtek; Schiemangk, Max; Müntinga, Hauke; Meyer, Nadine; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Walser, Reinhold; Resch, Andreas; Rode, Christina; Seidel, Stephan; Sengstock, Klaus; Singh, Yeshpal; Schleich, Wolfgang; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rosenbusch, Peter; Wilken, Tobias; Goeklue, Ertan

    Applications of coherent matter waves are high resolution interferometers for measuring inertial and gravitational forces as well as testing fundamental physics, for which they may serve as a laser like source with mesoscopic quantum features. Out of possible applications, the test of the principle of equivalence in the quantum domain is selected as a target with the highest scientific interest on timescales of a microgravity experiment at the ISS or on a free flyer (ATV, FOTON or other satellites). The QUANTUS project demonstrated the technological feasibil-ity of coherent matter waves in microgravity. As a next step, the consortium will prepare and procure a sounding rocket mission to demonstrate technologies for matter wave interferome-try based on the broad experience of former developments with experiments in the droptower. Therefore, the experiment has to withstand strong requirements concerning environmental con-ditions (Temperature, shock, environmental pressure, etc.) and needs to be designed to fit in a 600 l volume (diameter 35 cm, length 160 cm). It is considered as an important step towards the technology required for the ISS and other platforms. These experiments will give further insights on the potential of inertial sensors based on atom interferometers and the technology is for example of interest for applications in earth observation and geodesy. They could replace classical techniques relying on test masses and promise a further improvement in the accuracy of such devices.

  3. Atom Interferometry on Sounding Rockets with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Stephan T.; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike D.; Herr, Waldemar; Rasel, Ernst M.; Quantus Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    One of the fundamental postulates of our description of nature is the universality of free fall, stating that the force exerted upon an object due to gravity is independent of its constitution. A precise test of this assumption is the comparison of the free fall of two ultra-cold clouds of different atomic species via atom interferometry. Since the sensitivity of the measurement is proportional to the square of the propagation time in the interferometer, it can be increased by performing the experiments in microgravity. In order to fully utilize the potential of the experiments the usage of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate as the initial state is necessary, because it is characterized by a small initial size and a low expansion velocity. As a step towards the transfer of such a system into space three sounding rocket missions with atom interferometers are currently being prepared. The launch of the first mission, aimed at the first demonstration of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate in space and an atom interferometer based on it is planned for 2016 from ESRANGE, Sweden. It will be followed by two more missions that extend the scientific goals to the creation of degenerate mixtures and dual-species atom interferometry. This research is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under Grant Number DLR 50 1131-37.

  4. A Sounding Rocket Payload to Test the Weak Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.

    2014-03-01

    We are developing SR-POEM, a payload for detecting a possible violation of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) while on a sounding rocket's free-fall trajectory. We estimate an uncertainty of σ (η) <=10-17 from a single flight. The experiment consists of calibration maneuvers plus eight 120 s drops of the two test masses (TMs). The instrument orientation will be reversed between successive drops, which reverses the signal but leaves most systematic errors unchanged. Each TM comprises three bars and a Y-shaped connector. The six bars are in a hexagonal housing and stand in a plane perpendicular to the symmetry axis (Z axis) of the payload and close to its CM. At a distance of 0.3 m along the Z axis, there is a highly stable plate that holds six of our tracking frequency laser gauges (TFGs), which measure the distances to the bars. The TMs are surrounded by capacitance plates, which allow both measurement and control of TM position and orientation. A central theme of the design is the prevention and correction of systematic error. Temperature stability of the instrument is essential and, during the brief night-time flight, it is achieved passively. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NNX08AO04G.

  5. DAQ: Software Architecture for Data Acquisition in Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Tran, Thanh; Nichols, Heidi; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    A multithreaded software application was developed by Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) to collect a set of correlated imagery, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS data for a Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) sounding rocket flight. The data set will be used to advance Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) technology algorithms being researched at JPL. This paper describes the software architecture and the tests used to meet the timing and data rate requirements for the software used to collect the dataset. Also discussed are the challenges of using commercial off the shelf (COTS) flight hardware and open source software. This includes multiple Camera Link (C-link) based cameras, a Pentium-M based computer, and Linux Fedora 11 operating system. Additionally, the paper talks about the history of the software architecture's usage in other JPL projects and its applicability for future missions, such as cubesats, UAVs, and research planes/balloons. Also talked about will be the human aspect of project especially JPL's Phaeton program and the results of the launch.

  6. Fabrication of X-ray telescopes for sounding rocket flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two X-ray telescopes and two detector systems were fabricated, and one of the telescopes (15 in. diameter, Wolter type I telescope) was flown on two sounding rocket flights. The telescopes were fabricated using the diamond point technique which provided the accurate figure of the mirrors to about a focal plane blur of 0.5 arc minutes. The 15 in. telescope mirrors were polished using standard polishing techniques to remove tooling marks from the diamond turning, then chemically polished to bring the X-ray reflectivity up to nearly the theoretical values. The optical image formed by the 15 in. telescope was found to produce a blur of about 40 arc seconds for a parallel beam of incoming laser light. The first flight of the telescope produced an X-ray image of Capella which indicated that the X-ray image was blurred to the extent of about 2 arc minutes. This additional image degradation was due to a slight error in focusing the X-ray image onto the detector.

  7. Modified modular imaging system designed for a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd J.; Scowen, Paul A.; Beasley, Matthew; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2012-09-01

    We present the design and system calibration results from the fabrication of a charge-coupled device (CCD) based imaging system designed using a modified modular imager cell (MIC) used in an ultraviolet sounding rocket mission. The heart of the imaging system is the MIC, which provides the video pre-amplifier circuitry and CCD clock level filtering. The MIC is designed with standard four-layer FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) with surface mount and through-hole components for ease of testing and lower fabrication cost. The imager is a 3.5k by 3.5k LBNL p-channel CCD with enhanced quantum efficiency response in the UV using delta-doping technology at JPL. The recently released PCIe/104 Small-Cam CCD controller from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc (ARC) performs readout of the detector. The PCIe/104 Small-Cam system has the same capabilities as its larger PCI brethren, but in a smaller form factor, which makes it ideally suited for sub-orbital ballistic missions. The overall control is then accomplished using a PCIe/104 computer from RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc. The design, fabrication, and testing was done at the Laboratory for Astronomical and Space Instrumentation (LASI) at Arizona State University. Integration and flight calibration are to be completed at the University of Colorado Boulder before integration into CHESS.

  8. Test of Re-Entry Systems at Estrange Using Sounding Rockets and Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, C.; Abrahamsson, M.; Florin, G.

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets can provide an ideal in-flight platform for performing re-entry and other high speed tests off different types of vehicles and techniques. They are also ideal platforms for testing different types of recovery systems such as airbrakes and parachutes. This paper expands on some examples of platforms and missions for drop tests from balloons as well as sounding rockets launched from Esrange Space Center, a facility run by Swedish Space Corporation SSC in northern Sweden.

  9. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the need for costly, complex, tracking radars, the German Space Operations Center has set up a research project for GPS based tracking of sounding rockets. As part of this project, a GPS receiver based on commercial technology for terrestrial applications has been modified to allow its use under the highly dynamical conditions of a sounding rocket flight. In addition, new antenna concepts are studied as an alternative to proven but costly wrap-around antennas.

  10. The O-STATES Sounding Rocket Project - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2015, the sounding rocket project O-STATES was conducted from Esrange Space Center (67.9°N, 21.1°E) in northern Sweden. The acronym O-STATES stands for "Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky" and the basic idea is that comprehensive information on the composition, specifically atomic oxygen in the ground state O and first excited state O(1D), and temperature of the lower thermosphere can be obtained from a limited set of optical measurements. Starting point for the analysis are daytime measurements of the O2(b1∑g+ - X3∑g-) Atmospheric Band system in the spectral region 755-780 nm and the O(1D-3P) Red Line at 630 nm. In the daytime lower thermosphere O(1D) is produced by O2 photolysis and the excited O2(b) state is mainly produced by energy transfer from O(1D) to the O2(X) ground state. In addition to O2 photolysis, both electron impact on O and dissociative recombination of O2+ are major sources of O(1D) in the thermosphere. Recent laboratory studies at SRI demonstrate that the O2(b) production populates the vibrational levels v=1 and v=0 in a ratio of ~4. While O2(b, v=0) is essentially unquenched, O2(b, v=1) is subject to collisional quenching that is dominated by O at altitudes above 160 km. Hence, the ratio of the Atmospheric Band emission from O2(b, v=1) and O2(b, v=0) is a measure of the O density. Finally, the spectral shape of the O2 Atmospheric Band is temperature dependent and spectrally resolved measurements of the Atmospheric Bands thus provide a measure of atmospheric temperature. This O2 Atmospheric Band analysis has been advocated as a technique for thermospheric remote sensing under the name Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) Mapping. With O-STATES we want to characterize the GOAT technique by in-situ analysis of the O2 Atmospheric Band airglow and the underlying excitation mechanisms. By performing this dayglow analysis from a rocket payload, detailed local altitude profiles of the relevant emissions and

  11. Hybrid sounding rocket development at the United States Air Force Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydon, M. C.; Simmons, R. J.

    1993-06-01

    The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) has developed a LOx-HTPB (Liquid Oxygen-Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene) powered sounding rocket. USAFA has proven the use of hybrid rockets as a forgiving instrument to teach the fundamentals of aerospace system engineering at the undergraduate level. A rocket motor has been designed which will deliver 1000 lbs. of thrust for 1O-15 seconds and power the vehicle to approximately 20,000 ft. The rocket will be recovered via parachute and system performance will be recorded with an onboard data acquisition system. The main subsystems have been tested successfully and a launch is expected this summer.

  12. Convection measurement package for space processing sounding rocket flights. [low gravity manufacturing - fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on heated fluids of nonconstant accelerations, rocket vibrations, and spin rates, was studied. A system is discussed which can determine the influence of the convective effects on fluid experiments. The general suitability of sounding rockets for performing these experiments is treated. An analytical investigation of convection in an enclosure which is heated in low gravity is examined. The gravitational body force was taken as a time-varying function using anticipated sounding rocket accelerations, since accelerometer flight data were not available. A computer program was used to calculate the flow rates and heat transfer in fluids with geometries and boundary conditions typical of space processing configurations. Results of the analytical investigation identify the configurations, fluids and boundary values which are most suitable for measuring the convective environment of sounding rockets. A short description of fabricated fluid cells and the convection measurement package is given. Photographs are included.

  13. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  14. Optical Design of the MOSES Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a sounding rocket payload now being developed by Montana State University in collaboration with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, and Mullard Space Science Laboratory. The instrument utilizes a unique optical design to provide solar EUV measurements with true 2-pixel resolutions of 1.0 arcsec and 60 mA over a full two-dimensional field of view of 1056 x 528 arcsec, all at a time cadence of 10 s. This unprecedented capability is achieved by means of an objective spherical grating 100 mm in diameter, ruled at 833 gr/mm. The concave grating focuses spectrally dispersed solar radiation onto three separate detectors, simultaneously recording the zero-order as well as the plus and minus first-spectral-order images. Data analysis procedures, similar to those used in X-ray tomography reconstructions, can then disentangle the mixed spatial and spectral information recorded by the multiple detectors. A flat folding mirror permits an imaging focal length of 4.74 m to be packaged within the payload's physical length of 2.82 m. Both the objective grating and folding flat have specialized, closely matched, multilayer coatings that strongly enhance their EUV reflectance while also suppressing off-band radiation that would otherwise complicate data inversion. Although the spectral bandpass is rather narrow, several candidate wavelength intervals are available to carry out truly unique scientific studies of the outer solar atmosphere. Initial flights of MOSES, scheduled to begin in 2004, will observe a 10 Angstrom band that covers very strong emission lines characteristic of both the sun's corona (Si XI 303 Angstroms) and transition-region (He II 304 Angstroms). The MOSES program is supported by a grant from NASA's Office of Space Science.

  15. Observations of the global structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere with sounding rockets and with remote sensing techniques from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.; Nordberg, W.; Prabhakara, C.; Theon, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the techniques involved in determining the global structure of the mesosphere and stratosphere based on sounding rocket observations and satellite remotely sensed measurements.

  16. REM-RED Cosmic Radiation Monitoring Experiment On-Board the REXUS-17 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, B.; Gerecs, A.; Hurtonyne Gyovai, A.; Benyei, D.; Naczi, F.; Hurtony, T.

    2015-09-01

    The cosmic radiation field is not well known up to the altitude of the lower orbiting spacecrafts. There are several ways to measure the cosmic radiation in this altitude; however it is not easy to apply them to a sounding rocket. The easiest way is to use Geiger-Muller (GM) counters to quantify the radiation level. The REMRED rocket experiment performed measurements with active radiation instruments (GM counters) in order to quantify the cosmic radiation field from the Earth's surface up to the maximum altitude of the REXUS rocket (about 90 km). The flight of the REM-RED experiment was carried out on the 1 7th of March 201 5 from the ESRANGE Space Center on-board the REXUS-17 student mission sounding rocket.

  17. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development as well as the on-ground and the in-flight evaluation of a low cost Global Positioning System (GPS) system for real-time tracking of sounding rockets. The flight unit comprises a modified ORION GPS receiver and a newly designed switchable antenna system composed of a helical antenna in the rocket tip and a dual-blade antenna combination attached to the body of the service module. Aside from the flight hardware a PC based terminal program has been developed to monitor the GPS data and graphically displays the rocket's path during the flight. In addition an Instantaneous Impact Point (IIP) prediction is performed based on the received position and velocity information. In preparation for ESA's Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, Kiruna, on 19 Feb. 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. In addition to the ORION receiver, an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver and a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver, both connected to a wrap-around antenna, have been flown on the same rocket as part of an independent experiment provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center. This allows an in-depth verification and trade-off of different receiver and antenna concepts.

  18. Spatial and temporal turbulence evolution as inferred from the WADIS sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Asmus, Heiner; Latteck, Ralph; Strelnikova, Irina; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Baumgarten, Gerd; Hildebrand, Jens; Höffner, Josef; Wörl, Raimund; Rapp, Markus; Friedrich, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The WADIS project (Wave propagation and dissipation in the middle atmosphere: energy budget and distribution of trace constituents) aimed at studying waves, their dissipation, and effects on trace constituents. The project comprised two sounding rocket campaigns conducted at the Andøya Space Center (69 °N, 16 °E). One sounding rocket was launched in summer 2013 and one in winter 2015. The WADIS-1 sounding rocket was launched on 27 of June 2013 into Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo (PMSE). Ground based PMSE observations were conducted using the MAARSY VHF- and the EISCAT-Tromsø radars. IAP RMR-lidar observed NLC colocated with PMSE. The WADIS-2 sounding rocket was launched on 5 of March of 2015 and had the same instrumentation on board. ALOMAR RMR- and IAP Fe-lidars and SAURA-MF radar measured mesospheric temperatures and winds throughout the launch window. In-situ measurements delivered high resolution altitude-profiles of neutral and plasma densities, neutral air temperature and turbulence. Extensive turbulence measurements were conducted employing different techniques. In-situ measurements were done on both upleg and downleg, implying that two profiles of each quantity were near simultaneously measured with high altitude resolution at ˜30 km horizontal distance. The measurements with MAARSY cover both up- and downleg parts of the rocket trajectory and the EISCAT-Tromsø radar is located 100 km away of the launch site. We discuss these turbulence measurements and its spatial and time evolution.

  19. Sounding rocket thermal analysis techniques applied to GAS payloads. [Get Away Special payloads (STS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Simplified analytical techniques of sounding rocket programs are suggested as a means of bringing the cost of thermal analysis of the Get Away Special (GAS) payloads within acceptable bounds. Particular attention is given to two methods adapted from sounding rocket technology - a method in which the container and payload are assumed to be divided in half vertically by a thermal plane of symmetry, and a method which considers the container and its payload to be an analogous one-dimensional unit having the real or correct container top surface area for radiative heat transfer and a fictitious mass and geometry which model the average thermal effects.

  20. Making Ultraviolet Spectro-Polarimetry Polarization Measurements with the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program. This paper will concentrate on SUMI's VUV optics, and discuss their spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics. While SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria, there are several areas that will be improved for its second and third flights. This paper will emphasize the MgII linear polarization measurements and describe the changes that will be made to the sounding rocket and how those changes will improve the scientific data acquired by SUMI.

  1. Stage separation study of Nike-Black Brant V Sounding Rocket System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new Sounding Rocket System has been developed. It consists of a Nike Booster and a Black Brant V Sustainer with slanted fins which extend beyond its nozzle exit plane. A cursory look was taken at different factors which must be considered when studying a passive separation system. That is, one separation system without mechanical constraints in the axial direction and which will allow separation due to drag differential accelerations between the Booster and the Sustainer. The equations of motion were derived for rigid body motions and exact solutions were obtained. The analysis developed could be applied to any other staging problem of a Sounding Rocket System.

  2. Sounding rocket research Aries/Firewheel, series 22, issue 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Rocket experiments in ionospheric particle and field research flow in seven programs during the last decade are summarized. Experimental techniques were developed and are discussed including the double-probe field technique. The auroral zone, polar cap, and equatorial spread F were studied.

  3. Engineering aspect of the microwave ionosphere nonlinear interaction experiment (MINIX) with a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    The Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment (MINIX) is a sounding rocket experiment to study possible effects of strong microwave fields in case it is used for energy transmission from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) upon the Earth's atmosphere. Its secondary objective is to develop high power microwave technology for space use. Two rocket-borne magnetrons were used to emit 2.45 GHz microwave in order to make a simulated condition of power transmission from an SPS to a ground station. Sounding of the environment radiated by microwave was conducted by the diagnostic package onboard the daughter unit which was separated slowly from the mother unit. The main design drivers of this experiment were to build such high power equipments in a standard type of sounding rocket, to keep the cost within the budget and to perform a series of experiments without complete loss of the mission. The key technology for this experiment is a rocket-borne magnetron and high voltage converter. Location of position of the daughter unit relative to the mother unit was a difficult requirement for a spin-stabilized rocket. These problems were solved by application of such a low cost commercial products as a magnetron for microwave oven and a video tape recorder and camera.

  4. The role of sounding rocket microgravity experiments within the German Physical Sciences Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Roth, M.; Binnenbruck, H.; Dreier, W.; Forke, R.; Preu, P.

    2005-08-01

    The German Physical Sciences Programme, managed by the German Space Agency DLR, deals with investigations of the effects of weightlessness ("microgravity") on physical and chemical processes and phenomena. The research priorities concern materials design from the melt, fluid flow dynamics, basic mechanisms of combustion processes, and fundamental particle interactions. In retrospect, using different flight opportunities, in total more than 600 microgravity experiments involving German principal investigators in the field of physical sciences were performed till now. It turns out that more than a quarter of them flew on sounding rockets. Among the different rocket types used the TEXUS carrier proved to be the "workhorse" of the huge majority of the German experiments during three decades. Some characteristic examples of facility developments and experimental results are given to highlight the pioneering gain of knowledge using sounding rocket flights.

  5. Spread Across Liquids: The World's First Microgravity Combustion Experiment on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment characterizes how flames spread over liquid pools in a low-gravity environment in comparison to test data at Earth's gravity and with numerical models. The modeling and experimental data provide a more complete understanding of flame spread, an area of textbook interest, and add to our knowledge about on-orbit and Earthbound fire behavior and fire hazards. The experiment was performed on a sounding rocket to obtain the necessary microgravity period. Such crewless sounding rockets provide a comparatively inexpensive means to fly very complex, and potentially hazardous, experiments and perform reflights at a very low additional cost. SAL was the first sounding-rocket-based, microgravity combustion experiment in the world. It was expected that gravity would affect ignition susceptibility and flame spread through buoyant convection in both the liquid pool and the gas above the pool. Prior to these sounding rocket tests, however, it was not clear whether the fuel would ignite readily and whether a flame would be sustained in microgravity. It also was not clear whether the flame spread rate would be faster or slower than in Earth's gravity.

  6. GPS Sounding Rocket Development at NASA with Simultaneous Multi-Payload Tracking Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Martel, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket use which includes the flight unit and a ground station capable of extracting GPS data from sounding rocket telemetry, performing a real time differential solution and graphically displaying the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. Accuracy has been proven to within less than 10 meters. Postprocessing has increased the precision to within 10 - 20 centimeters. The system has been successfully flown several times and delivered to the Sounding Program Office for routine field use. In addition to providing position, velocity and time GPS data has been used on sounding rockets for vehicle performance analysis, effecting a one hundred fold improvement in data time tagging, and steering an optical tracking device to intercept payloads launched from over the horizon. Precise velocity separation information and timing has been provided to multiple payload systems. Future plans include its use for Range Safety and enabling of interferometric techniques. The technology and software developed also has potential application to small satellite navigation and formation flying.

  7. A Sounding Rocket experiment to Validate Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of the Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Stephan, A. W.; Erickson, P. J.; Cook, T.; Mende, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Despite decades of observations and interpretations of ultraviolet airglow, advancing the derivation of physical parameters of the ionosphere and atmosphere beyond the current successes presents difficult challenges due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of the fundamental detailed physics that surrounds the associated airglow emission process. The daytime thermosphere, while better characterized than the ionosphere, is still subject to uncertainties caused by the need for somewhat ad-hoc modeling using a multi-step process that creates the UV airglow emissions. The state of the field for the daytime ionosphere is currently based on only a few dozen profiles obtained from sounding rocket and satellite missions, none of which were designed to obtain the necessary comprehensive set of measurements. We have designed a sounding rocket experiment that will validate extreme and far ultraviolet (EUV/FUV) remote sensing of the ionosphere and thermosphere during day time. The sounding rocket data will be coordinated with simultaneous observations by an Incoherent Scatter Radar which will provide altitude profiles of daytime electron density, ion composition, electron and ion temperatures, and ion drifts due to winds and electric fields as well as neutral temperature profiles. The instruments aboard the sounding rocket will observe full-disk solar EUV and FUV irradiance measurements in the 2 - 131 nm band along with a high speed multi-wavelength photometer package that will provide altitude profiles of thermospheric neutral species along the rocket track. The dayglow instrument will cover 60 - 140 nm spectral range and observe the emissions in a direction perpendicular to the rocket axis, which will point towards the Sun. With these measurements, we hope to answer how well the EUV and FUV dayglow measurements can be used to provide a self-consistent measure of the day time ionosphere-thermosphere space environment.

  8. A three-layer magnetic shielding for the MAIUS-1 mission on a sounding rocket.

    PubMed

    Kubelka-Lange, André; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse, Jens; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rasel, Ernst M; Braxmaier, Claus

    2016-06-01

    Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BECs) can be used as a very sensitive tool for experiments on fundamental questions in physics like testing the equivalence principle using matter wave interferometry. Since the sensitivity of these experiments in ground-based environments is limited by the available free fall time, the QUANTUS project started to perform BEC interferometry experiments in micro-gravity. After successful campaigns in the drop tower, the next step is a space-borne experiment. The MAIUS-mission will be an atom-optical experiment that will show the feasibility of experiments with ultra-cold quantum gases in microgravity in a sounding rocket. The experiment will create a BEC of 10(5) (87)Rb-atoms in less than 5 s and will demonstrate application of basic atom interferometer techniques over a flight time of 6 min. The hardware is specifically designed to match the requirements of a sounding rocket mission. Special attention is thereby spent on the appropriate magnetic shielding from varying magnetic fields during the rocket flight, since the experiment procedures are very sensitive to external magnetic fields. A three-layer magnetic shielding provides a high shielding effectiveness factor of at least 1000 for an undisturbed operation of the experiment. The design of this magnetic shielding, the magnetic properties, simulations, and tests of its suitability for a sounding rocket flight are presented in this article. PMID:27370420

  9. Sounding rocket attitude determination from on board magnetometer and telemetry signal polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, D. P.; Greer, R. G. H.; McDade, I. C.

    1983-06-01

    The attitude of Petrel sounding rockets was determined from on-board magnetometer information and p band telemetry signal strength data from a polarized ground station antenna. Sky background information from the photometric payloads was compared to backgrounds reconstructed from satellite maps to assess the accuracy of the method. The result is consistant with other information available (sky background modulation) within the experimental constraints such as magnetometer calibration and light tables, and does not require extra hardware on the rocket. Accuracy can be improved by machine computation of the phase angles and a closer analysis of the whole flight especially around turnover on reentry.

  10. A normal incidence X-ray telescope sounding rocket payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following major activities on the X-ray telescope: (1) complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components was completed; (2) all rocket skin sections, including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door, were specified; (3) fabrication, curing and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube were completed; (4) an engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment system to a kinematic three-point mount; (5) detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics were completed; and (6) multilayer mirror plates with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A were produced.

  11. Development and demonstration of flueric sounding rocket motor ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is described which established a flueric rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source. An evaluation was made of this concept to determine the margins of the operating range and capabilities of every component of the system. This evaluation included a determination of power supply requirements, ignitor geometry and alinement, ignitor/propellant interfacing and materials and the effects of ambient temperatures and pressure. It was demonstrated that an operator using a simple hand pump for 30 seconds could ignite BKNO3 at a standoff distance of 100 m (330 ft) with the only connection to the ignitor being a piece of plastic pneumatic tubing.

  12. Remote sensing of atmospheric oxygen from a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rocket experiment to investigate mechanisms governing the interactions between two of the fundamental components of the solar-terrestrial system: the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The aim is to characterize the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions resulting from these interactions in terms of physical parameters so that EUV remote sensing can be gainfully employed as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and plasma environment. The payload consists of a high-resolution (about 0.5 A) spectrometer to measure the EUV emissions (980-1360 A) of the earth's dayglow, a moderate resolution (about 15 A) EUV spectrometer (250-1450 A) to measure the solar irradiation responsible for the photoelectron production, and a hydrogen Lyman Alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and geocoronal emissions.

  13. Electron temperature in the cusp as measured with the SCIFER-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, E. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Oksavik, K.; Kintner, P. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Huang, D. H.; Zhang, B. C.; Yang, H. G.; Ogawa, Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is expected that energy deposited by soft auroral electron precipitation in the ionosphere should result in heating of ionospheric electrons in that location, and this heating is an important step in the ion outflow process. We present coordinated observations from the SCIFER-2 sounding rocket in the cusp region overflying optical observing sites in Svalbard. The rocket payload included a sensor which is designed to measure the temperature of thermal electrons. We show that elevated electron temperatures measured in situ are correlated with electron precipitation as inferred from auroral emissions during the 60-120 s preceding the passage of the rocket. This integrated “cooking time” is an important factor in determining the origin and resulting flux of outflowing ions.

  14. Observations of LHR noise with banded structure by the sounding rocket S29 barium-GEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Holmgren, G.; Kintner, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of electrostatic noise near the lower hybrid frequency made by the sounding rocket S29 barium-GEOS is reported. The noise is related to the spin of the rocket and reaches well below the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. Above the altitude of 300 km the noise shows banded structure roughly organized by the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. Simultaneously with the banded structure a signal near the hydrogen cyclotron frequency is detected. This signal is also spin modulated. The character of the noise strongly suggests that it is locally generated by the rocket payload disturbing the plasma. If this interpretation is correct, plasma wave experiments on other spacecrafts are expected to observe similar phenomena.

  15. High-resolution Ion Drift Measurements from the JOULE Sounding Rocket Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangalli, L.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The JOULE sounding rocket mission was designed to investigate structured Joule dissipation in the auroral ionosphere. JOULE was launched March 27, 2003 from Poker Flat, Alaska, into an active substorm. The mission included two instrumented rockets and two chemical release (TMA) rockets in addition to ground-based diagnostics. One of the instrumented payloads carried a Suprathermal Ion Imager (SII) that measured 2-D (energy/angle) distributions of the core (0-8 eV) ion population at a rate of 125 images per second. In this presentation we compare bulk ion drifts derived from the SII with those inferred from DC electric fields. From differences in these two parameters we calculate the local Joule heating rate at a spatial resolution of 8 m.

  16. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange,, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide CIA code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets [Bull, ION-GPS-2000]. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance [Montenbruck et al., ION-GPS-2000]. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly 17g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data will be given in the paper together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  17. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide C/A code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly l7g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached an altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data is given together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  18. Sounding rocket/ground-based observation campaign to study Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Otsuka, Yuichi; Abe, Takumi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Bernhardt, Paul; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Larsen, Miguel; Saito, Akinori; Pfaff, Robert; Ishisaka, Keigo

    2012-07-01

    An observation campaign is under preparation. It is to launch sounding rockets S-520-27 and S-310-42 from Uchinoura Space Center of JAXA, while ground-based instruments measure waves in the ionosphere. The main purpose of the study is to reveal seeding mechanism of Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTID). The MSTID is enhanced in the summer nighttime of the mid-latitude ionosphere. The MSTID is not only a simple reflection of atmospheric waves to the ionosphere, but includes complicated processes including the electromagnetic coupling of the F- and E-regions, and inter-hemisphere coupling of the ionosphere. We will measure ionospheric parameters such as electron density and electric fields together with neutral winds in the E- and F-regions. TMA and Lithium release experiment will be conducted with S-310-42 and S-520-27 rockets, respectively. The observation campaign is planned in summer 2012 or 2013. In the presentation we will overview characteristics of MSTID, and show plan and current status of the project. We also touch results from the sounding rocket S-520-26 that was launched on January 12, 2012. We will show results of the rocket-ground dual-band beacon experiment.

  19. Feasibility study for an AFGL fiber optic data link at WSMR sounding rocket launch area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, H. L.; Terwilliger, D. F.

    1984-10-01

    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of installing a fiber optic data link at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to enhance support of sounding rocket launches for the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Fiber optic cable and associated hardware were purchased and tested with sample video and telemetry signals. Cost estimates were prepared for the installation of a six-fiber optical cable along various routes between three buildings in the WSMR Sounding Rocket Launch Area. Advantages of the various alternatives are described in sufficient detail so that the most cost-effective alternative can be selected in terms of available funds and mission requirements. The estimated costs for the installation of either a simplex or duplex microwave data link are also provided for comparison with the cost of installing fiber optic links.

  20. Utilization of sounding rockets and balloons in the German Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, Peter; Friker, Achim; Frings, Wolfgang; Püttmann, Norbert

    2005-08-01

    Sounding rockets and balloons are important tools of Germany's Space Programme. DLR manages these activities and promotes scientific experiments and validation programmes within (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Observation, (3) Microgravity Research and (4) Re-entry Technologies (SHEFEX). In Space Science the present focus is at atmospheric research. Concerning Earth Observation balloon-borne measurements play a key role in the validation of atmospheric satellite sounders (ENVISAT). TEXUS and MAXUS sounding rockets are successfully used for short duration microgravity experiments. The Sharp Edge Flight Experiment SHEFEX will deliver data from a hypersonic flight for the validation of a new Thermal Protection System (TPS), wind tunnel testing and numerical analysis of aerothermodynamics. Signing the Revised Esrange and Andøya Special Project (EASP) Agreement 2006-2010 in June 2004 Germany has made an essential contribution to the long-term availability of the Scandinavian ranges for the European science community.

  1. Utilization of sounding rockets and balloons in the German space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, Peter; Friker, Achim; Frings, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    Sounding rockets and balloons are important research tools in the German Space Programme. The German Aerospace Center DLR manages and supports major elements of these activities and promotes scientific experiments as well as validation programmes within the following core areas: (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Obervation and (3) Research under Space Conditions ("Microgravity Research"). Multilateral and international cooperation is an essential feature of these activities. In Space Science most activities are performed in the field of atmospheric research at present. Concerning Earth Observation balloon-borne measurements play a key role in the validation of atmospheric satellite sounders (ENVISAT). TEXUS and MAXUS sounding rockets have proven to be extremely useful for short duration microgravity experiments.

  2. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  3. Ultraviolet astronomy instrumentation for sounding rocket and Shuttle/Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an electrographic Schmidt camera for wide-field imaging and objective-spectrographic sky surveys, and with a nebula spectrograph designed to obtain slit spectra of nebulae and other diffuse sources. Each of these ultraviolet astronomy instruments has been successfully used in sounding rocket flights. It is seen that, with some minor modifications, both instruments should be readily adaptable to Spacelab missions.

  4. Determination of sounding rocket position and attitude from radar and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques are described that were used to determine the trajectories and orientations of three sounding rockets instrumented to study the aurora. The radar plot board data were fitted to a near earth expansion of the force of gravity to determine the trajectory. Only onboard magnetometer data were used to determine the attitude of the payload with respect to the earth's magnetic field. Computer programs in the FORTRAN language are available which generate the trajectory and attitude parameters.

  5. A Multiwavelength Study of Coronal Structure: A Simultaneous Observation from NIXT and YOHKOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    Solar soft X-ray images taken simultaneously by the Yohkoh and the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) reveal significantly different coronal structures. Coronal loops are more clearly seen in the Yohkoh images, and the isolated island-like structures seen in the NIXT image have been found to correspond to the footpoints of the Yohkoh loops. The difference is due to the difference in the temperature response of the telescopes: NIXT is sensitive to temperatures ranging from 0.9 to 3 MK, while Yohkoh is more sensitive to temperatures above 2.5 MK. The morphological differences reflect the multi-temperature (1-5 MK) nature of the solar coronal plasmas.

  6. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  7. HF "Swishers" Observed with a Recent Sounding Rocket: A Ray Tracing Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Yoon, P.; Samara, M.

    2005-12-01

    The sounding rocket SIERRA (Sounding of the Ion Energization Region: Resolving Ambiguities) was launched duing a rocket campaign at the Poker Flat, Alaska, rocket range (65.13° W) on January 14, 2002. It reached an apogee of 735 km at approximately 500 s into the flight. A high frequency electric field instrument (HFE) provided by Dartmouth College was included in the payload. The HFE continuously measured the full electric field waveform up to 5 MHz and transmitted it to the ground via a wide band analog telemetry. Among the wavesforms detected by the HFE was a new signature that we term "swishers," time-dispersed signals at 1.2 to 1.6 MHz in which the higher frequencies were observed first and the lower frequencies observed delayed by tens of milliseconds. Several dozen of these waveforms were detected during a 20 second span on the upleg of the flight, when the rocket was in an underdense region (fperocket at a later time. Assuming that the emissions start out as an impulse, this model would result in dispersion qualitatively much like that observed in the SIERRA data. Ray tracing calculations will be done to test this hypothesis and attempt to constrain the modes of the waves and determine the size, location, and motion of their sources.

  8. Validation of MERRA reanalysis upper-level winds over low latitudes with independent rocket sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore Kumar, G.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Baumgarten, G.; Ramkumar, Geetha

    2015-02-01

    An evaluation of upper stratosphere lower mesosphere (USLM) horizontal winds from MERRA reanalysis is performed using rocket sounding observations that span more than 5 years (November 2002-November 2007) over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E). With Rocket sonde profiles as reference, bias and root mean square deviation (RMSD) are computed between 10 hPa and 0.1 hPa (∼30-65 km) on annual and seasonal time scales. The present results reveal that observations and reanalysis correlate reasonably well in zonal winds below 60 km. The detailed comparison showed increasing RMSDs with height reaching largest value at 0.1 hPa. RMSD noted in the zonal winds are larger than in the meridional winds. Positive biases are noted in the zonal winds around 50 km with large values during seasonal transition period that led to 30% overestimation of the stratospheric semiannual amplitude. The meridional winds are not well reproduced in the reanalysis. Possible reasons for the differences between MERRA and rocket soundings are discussed. The present study is the first attempt to validate MERRA reanalysis data with observations in the USLM region. Over all good agreement in the zonal winds between MERRA reanalysis data and RH-200 is very encouraging and vouches for using the MERRA reanalysis zonal winds belowProd. Type: FTP 0.1 hPa, but with caution around 1 hPa.

  9. A compact and robust diode laser system for atom interferometry on a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schkolnik, V.; Hellmig, O.; Wenzlawski, A.; Grosse, J.; Kohfeldt, A.; Döringshoff, K.; Wicht, A.; Windpassinger, P.; Sengstock, K.; Braxmaier, C.; Krutzik, M.; Peters, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a diode laser system optimized for laser cooling and atom interferometry with ultra-cold rubidium atoms aboard sounding rockets as an important milestone toward space-borne quantum sensors. Design, assembly and qualification of the system, combing micro-integrated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser modules and free space optical bench technology, is presented in the context of the MAIUS (Matter-wave Interferometry in Microgravity) mission. This laser system, with a volume of 21 l and total mass of 27 kg, passed all qualification tests for operation on sounding rockets and is currently used in the integrated MAIUS flight system producing Bose-Einstein condensates and performing atom interferometry based on Bragg diffraction. The MAIUS payload is being prepared for launch in fall 2016. We further report on a reference laser system, comprising a rubidium stabilized DFB laser, which was operated successfully on the TEXUS 51 mission in April 2015. The system demonstrated a high level of technological maturity by remaining frequency stabilized throughout the mission including the rocket's boost phase.

  10. Calibration of the Plasma Impedance Probe for the EQUIS II Sounding Rocket Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C.; Carlson, C.

    2004-12-01

    Two Plasma Impedance Probes (PIP) made nighttime measurements of the low latitude ionosphere as part of the EQUIS II sounding rocket campaign. The rockets were launched from Kwajalein on August 7th and 15th and reached 450 km in altitude. These probes operate by sensing the input impedance of an antenna immersed in the ionospheric plasma. Each probe made measurements using two different antenna geometries, a traditional monopole antenna and a patch antenna located on the rocket surface. There are several analytic theories for the impedance of monopole or dipole antenna in a space plasma. There are no analytic theories for a patch antenna. Utah State has developed a Plasma Fluid Finite Difference Time Domain (PF-FDTD) simulation that can be used to model various antenna geometries. Antenna impedance data from both geometries are presented and compared with analytic and the PF-FDTD simulation. Preliminary results of the extraction of electron density, electron neutral collision frequency, and electron temperature along the rocket trajectory are presented.

  11. Electrographic instrumentation for ultraviolet imaging and spectrography. [for sounding rocket astrophysical and upper-atmospheric investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The latest results in the NRL program of far-UV electrographic camera development, and application of these cameras to astrophysical and upper-atmospheric investigations, are presented. A new large electrographic Schmidt camera, of 15 cm aperture and f/2 focal ratio, has been successfully used in two sounding rocket flights, one for direct imagery in the 1230-2000 A wavelength range and the second for objective spectrography in the 950-2000 A range, of stars and nebulae in the Cygnus region of the sky. The camera has an 11 deg field of view and better than 30 arcsec resolution (2 A spectral resolution with 600 line/mm objective grating). A nebular spectrograph, based on a microchannel-intensified electrographic Schmidt camera, is the payload of a May 1979 rocket flight. It will reach emission line features as faint as 5 Rayleighs in 100 second exposures in the 1050-2000 A range, with 5 A spectral resolution.

  12. Plasma wave turbulence due to the wake of an ionospheric sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Katoh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the ionosphere, a rarefied plasma region called "plasma wake" is formed behind a sounding rocket. Based on a one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulation, it was suggested that electron distribution functions in the plasma wake behind spacecraft are different from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function [Singh et al., 1987]. Thus, plasma waves are expected to be generated in the wake of a sounding rocket. Some studies reported plasma waves around the wake of artificial satellites [Keller et al., 1997] and solar system bodies such as Moon [Nakagawa et al., 2003]. Yamamoto (2000) is the first study that focused on plasma waves induced by sounding rockets on the basis of the results of several rocket experiments. He compared the observed wave frequency with the electron number density in the wake and indicated plasma waves could be generated inside the rocket wake. In order to investigate the properties of the waves in more detail (e.g. spin-phase dependence, generation mechanism, etc.), we are now analyzing the data of electron number density and electric fields of plasma waves in mid-latitude ionosphere by an impedance probe and a plasma wave receiver, which were installed on the sounding rocket S-520-26. In the analysis, we have found plasma waves in a frequency range of 1.3-2.4 MHz (hereinafter called Group-A) as well as those in a frequency range between 0.02 MHz to about 0.6 fce (Group-B), and those in a frequency range from about 0.5 fce to 0.9 fce (Group-C), where fce is the electron cyclotron frequency deduced from the IGRF model. The Group-A emissions are similar to the waves observed in previous studies [Yamamoto, 2000]. Comparison with the data of the impedance probe has suggested the Group-A waves are short-wavelength electrostatic waves including upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ESCH) waves. On the other hand, the Group-B and Group-C waves are whistler mode waves. Besides, the analysis with the

  13. Sounding rocket based investigations of HF waves in the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Kristin Lynn

    1999-10-01

    The PHAZE II and Auroral Turbulence II sounding rockets were launched into active, pre-midnight aurora during the February 1997 sounding rocket campaign from Poker Flat, Alaska. Both rockets carried a full complement of plasma intruments including particle detectors and electric field instruments. The high frequency electric field instrument (HFE), flown on both rockets, was designed and built at Dartmouth College. This unusual instrument transmitted the full electric field waveform using a dedicated telemetry link. The unprecedented resolution in both frequency and time yielded the first identifiable observations of several HF wave phenomena. We investigated two of these phenomena, HF chirps in the region when fpe > fce and HF bands at higher altitudes where fpe < fce. HF chirps are extremely narrowband, short-lived emissions which occur when fpe > fce. We propose that these waves are created as Z-modes waves which are quasi- trapped in density cavities. HF bands have long durations and narrowband, constant frequency structure and are observed in regions where the local plasma density is varying. These emissions occur when fpe < fce and the whistler mode connects to the Langmuir mode. They are generated by an electron beam interaction which produces Langmuir waves which then move onto the whistler mode when the local plasma density increases. The HFE also provided a method for determining the local plasma density without relying on Langmuir probes or active plasma experiments. When the frequency cutoff of the background wideband emissions is evident, this cutoff is used as a track of the local plasma frequency, which is dependent on the plasma density. We used this technique to definitively correlate lower hybrid solitary structures with density gradients. The use of the HFE on both flights has allowed us to observe HF wave phenomena which have been inaccessible previously.

  14. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  15. Sounding rocket investigations of whistler, upper hybrid and Langmuir waves in the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, Marilia

    In this thesis data from four sounding rocket experiments (PHAZE II, SIERRA, RACE and HIBAR) are used to explore the high and medium frequency waves seen in the auroral ionosphere. All rockets were launched into active aurora and carried both particle and electric field detectors. The high frequency electric field detectors built at Dartmouth gave us the electric field waveform with very good resolution in both frequency and time and we were able to identify several wave modes finding new insights and describing new features of them in this work. First, the HIBAR rocket encountered two bursts of upper hybrid waves just below fuh = 2fce in association with a density "shoulder" and enhancement, respectively. The observed waves show several bands of frequency structure as well as sub structure while at the same time, the measured electron distribution indicates wave instability for frequencies 1-1.2% percent below the electron cyclotron harmonic. These results agree qualitatively with theoretical work predicting banded structure associated with upper hybrid waves trapped in density enhancements. In the RACE and SIERRA data we see narrowband, short-lived emissions near fpe, reminiscent of the HF "chirps" seen on the PHAZE II rocket (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999). We find that the frequency-time signatures of these phenomena are more varied than implied in the literature and we were able to infer decay times for a number of them. Two specific features associated with the whistler mode, which we call "hooks" and "stripes", were detected with SIERRA. We discuss possible generation mechanisms and test these ideas using ray tracing calculations. The "stripes" are most plausibly consequences of electrostatic whistlers shed by upward moving electron hole features at altitudes above 1000 km. We discuss evidence for this hypothesis. Finally, we computed statistics of the electric field amplitudes of the Langmuir waves observed with the PHAZE 11 rocket and found that they were

  16. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-05-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  17. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  18. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [Black Brant sounding rocket payload zero gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Sherman, A.; Harwell, W.

    1976-01-01

    On October 4, 1974, the International Heat Pipe Experiment was launched aboard a Black Brant sounding rocket from White Sands, New Mexico. The flight provided six min of near zero gravity during which a total of ten separate heat pipe experiments was performed. The fifteen heat pipes tested represent some of the latest American and European technology. This flight provided the first reported zero gravity data on cryogenic and flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes. Additionally, valuable design and engineering data were obtained on several other heat pipe configurations. The payload and several of its experiments are discussed.

  19. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of neutral temperature and oxygen in the mesosphere during the WADIS sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Rapp, Markus; Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Löhle, Stefan; Eberhart, Martin; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Stegman, Jacek; Friedrich, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The WADIS project (Wave propagation and dissipation in the middle atmosphere: energy budget and distribution of trace constituents) aimed at studying waves, their dissipation, and effects on trace constituents. The project comprised two sounding rocket campaigns conducted at the Andøya Space Center (69 °N, 16 °E). One sounding rocket was launched in summer 2013 and one in winter 2015. In-situ measurements delivered high resolution altitude-profiles of neutral temperature and density, as well as plasma and oxygen densities. Atomic oxygen was measured by two different techniques. Airglow photometers operated by MISU measured emissions from excited molecular oxygen at 1.27 um (daytime summer launch) and 762 nm (night-time winter launch), both of which can be used to infer altitude profiles of atomic oxygen. This is a well-proven technique and has been applied to sounding rocket and satellite measurements in the past. Solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX) operated by IRS is a new technique for sounding rockets, which yielded atomic oxygen density profiles with a height resolution better than 10 m. The neutral air density and temperature was measured by the CONE instrument also with very heigh altitude resolution and precision. All these instruments were mounted on the same deck of the sounding rocket and, therefore delivered real common volume measurements. In this paper we present simultaneous in-situ temperature and oxygen density measurements and discuss how variability of these quantities may influence temperature derivations from OH airglow observations at mesopause heights.

  20. The microphysics of particle acceleration in the auroral ionosphere: Why sounding rocket measurements are essential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, Roger L.

    1994-01-01

    Through the combination of attitude controlled, high altitude rockets (altitudes greater than 600 km), high telemetry rates (several megabits/sec), pitch angle imaging particle sensors and interferometric wave measurements giving wavelength in addition to frequency data, the series of TOPAZ flights have uncovered a low altitude acceleration mechanism by which ionospheric ions receive their initial energy transverse to B in order to leave the ionosphere and populate the trapped radiation. The transverse acceleration of oxygen and hydrogen ionospheric ions is the result of Landau resonance of these ions with intense (up to 400 mv/m) lower hybrid waves on the resonance cone within caviton structures. Future work is directed toward trying to measure the size of the solitary wave structures. From a statistical argument, they appear to be the order of 100 m across B and much longer in dimension along B. Important questions remain: are there other low altitude heating mechanisms acting as well; is the dayside ion outflow driven differently. To answer these questions, it is intended to make sounding rocket measurements in the cusp/cleft region. The proposed Norwegian rocket launch facility at Svalbard could play a very important role by providing easy access to the cusp/cleft region.

  1. A sounding rocket attitude determination algorithm suitable for implementation using low cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Mark Christopher

    The development of low-cost sensors has generated a corresponding movement to integrate them into many different applications. One such application is determining the rotational attitude of an object. Since many of these low-cost sensors are less accurate than their more expensive counterparts, their noisy measurements must be filtered to obtain optimum results. This work describes the development, testing, and evaluation of four filtering algorithms for the nonlinear sounding rocket attitude determination problem. Sun sensor, magnetometer, and rate sensor measurements are simulated. A quatenion formulation is used to avoid singularity problems associated with Euler angles and other three-parameter approaches. Prior to filtering, Gauss-Newton error minimization is used to reduce the six reference vector components to four quaternion components that minimize a quadratic error function. Two of the algorithms are based on the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) and two are based on the recently developed unscented Kalman filter (UKF). One of each incorporates rate measurements, while the others rely on differencing quaternions. All incorporate a simplified process model for state propagation allowing the algorithms to be applied to rockets with different physical characteristics, or even to other platforms. Simulated data are used to develop and test the algorithms, and each successfully estimates the attitude motion of the rocket, to varying degrees of accuracy. The UKF-based filter that incorporates rate sensor measurements demonstrates a clear performance advantage over both EKFs and the UKF without rate measurements. This is due to its superior mean and covariance propagation characteristics and the fact that differencing generates noisier rates than measuring. For one sample case, the "pointing accuracy" of the rocket spin axis is improved by approximately 39 percent over the EKF that uses rate measurements and by 40 percent over the UKF without rates. The

  2. A Model for the Sounding Rocket Measurement on an Ionospheric E-F Valley at the Hainan Low Latitude Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Shi, Jiankui; Guan, Yibing; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Guangwu; Klaus, Torkar; Martin, Fredrich

    2014-04-01

    To understand the physics of an ionospheric E-F valley, a new overlapping three-Chapman-layer model is developed to interpret the sounding rocket measurement in the morning (sunrise) on May 7, 2011 at the Hainan low latitude ionospheric observation station (19.5°N, 109.1°E). From our model, the valley width, depth and height are 43.0 km, 62.9% and 121.0 km, respectively. From the sounding rocket observation, the valley width, depth and height are 42.2 km, 47.0% and 123.5 km, respectively. The model results are well consistent with the sounding rocket observation. The observed E-F valley at Hainan station is very wide and deep, and rapid development of the photochemical process in the ionosphere should be the underlying reason.

  3. Estimation of Electron Density profile Using the Propagation Characteristics of Radio Waves by S-520-29 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaya, K.; Ishisaka, K.; Ashihara, Y.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Kurihara, J.

    2015-12-01

    S-520-29 sounding rocket experiment was carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC) at 19:10 JST on 17 August, 2014. The purpose of this sounding rocket experiments is observation of sporadic E layer that appears in the lower ionosphere at near 100km. Three methods were used in order to observe the sporadic E layer. The first method is an optical method that observe the light of metal ion emitted by the resonance scattering in sporadic E layer using the imager. The second method is observation of characteristic of radio wave propagation that the LF/MF band radio waves transmitted from the ground. The third method is measuring the electron density in the vicinity of sounding rocket using the fast Langmuir probe and the impedance probe. We analyze the propagation characteristics of radio wave in sporadic E layer appeared from the results of the second method observation. This rocket was equipped with LF/MF band radio receiver for observe the LF/MF band radio waves in rocket flight. Antenna of LF/MF band radio receiver is composed of three axis loop antenna. LF/MF band radio receiver receives three radio waves of 873kHz (JOGB), 666kHz (JOBK), 60kHz (JJY) from the ground. 873kHz and 60kHz radio waves are transmitting from north side, and 666kHz radio waves are transmitting from the east side to the trajectory of the rocket. In the sounding rocket experiment, LF/MF band radio receiver was working properly. We have completed the observation of radio wave intensity. We analyze the observation results using a Doppler shift calculations by frequency analysis. Radio waves received by the sounding rocket include the influences of Doppler shift by polarization and the direction of rocket spin and the magnetic field of the Earth. So received radio waves that are separate into characteristics waves using frequency analysis. Then we calculate the Doppler shift from the separated data. As a result, 873kHz, 666kHz radio waves are reflected by the ionosphere. 60kHz wave was able to

  4. Searching for keV Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter with X-Ray Microcalorimeter Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Anderson, A. J.; Castro, D.; Goldfinger, D. C.; Rutherford, J.; Eckart, M. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K.; Porter, F. S.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; XQC Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectrometers onboard suborbital sounding rockets can search for dark matter candidates that produce X-ray lines, such as decaying keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Even with exposure times and effective areas far smaller than XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, high-resolution, wide field of view observations with sounding rockets have competitive sensitivity to decaying sterile neutrinos. We analyze a subset of the 2011 observation by the X-ray Quantum Calorimeter instrument centered on Galactic coordinates l=165°,b=-5° with an effective exposure of 106 s, obtaining a limit on the sterile neutrino mixing angle of {{sin}}22θ < 7.2× {10}-10 at 95% CL for a 7 keV neutrino. Better sensitivity at the level of {{sin}}22θ ∼ 2.1× {10}-11 at 95% CL for a 7 keV neutrino is achievable with future 300-s observations of the galactic center by the Micro-X instrument, providing a definitive test of the sterile neutrino interpretation of the reported 3.56 keV excess from galaxy clusters.

  5. Compact narrow linewidth diode laser modules for precision quantum optics experiments on board of sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeldt, Anja; Kürbis, Christian; Luvsandamdin, Erdenetsetseg; Schiemangk, Max; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2016-04-01

    We have realized a laser platform based on GaAs diode lasers that allows for an operation in mobile exper-imental setups in harsh environments, such as on sounding rockets. The platform comes in two versions: a master-oscillator-power-amplifier and an extended cavity diode laser. Our very robust micro-optical bench has a footprint of 80 x 25 mm2. It strictly omits any movable parts. Master-oscillator-power-amplifier systems based on distributed feedback master oscillators for 767 nm and 780 nm narrow linewidth emission have been implemented by now. A continuous wave optical output power of > 1 W with a power conversion efficiency of > 25% could be achieved. The continuous tuning range of these lasers is on the order of 100 GHz, the linewidth at 10 μs is about 1 MHz. For applications demanding a narrower linewidth we have developed an extended cavity diode laser that achieves a linewidth of 100 kHz at 10 μs. These lasers achieve a continuous spectral tuning range of about 50 GHz and an continuous wave optical power up to 30 mW. The modules have been successfully vibration tested up to 29 gRMS along all three axes and passed 1500 g shocks, again along all 3 axes. Both, master-oscillator-power-amplifiers and extended cavity diode lasers, have been employed in sounding rocket experiments.

  6. Sounding rockets and balloon activities and related research in Switzerland 2003-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli-Greuter, Marianne

    2005-08-01

    Two Swiss institutions involved since many years in this type of research have continued their activities in 2003-2005. The Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Bern is measuring water vapour and ozone constituents in the Earth atmosphere; the Atmospheric Chemistry Group of the Institute of Atmospheric Climate Science at the ETH in Zürich is evaluating data on ozone profile. The Space Biology Group at the ETH in Zürich has performed many investigations in the field of Life Sciences on different sounding rocket flights in the past, but had no experiment in 2003-2005. The group will resume its activity in the near future. The Physical Meteorological Observatory/World Radiation Center Davos is planning a balloon campaign to test a new absolute radiometer measuring total solar irradiance currently in development at the institute. Two new Swiss research teams - embedded in international teams - will become active in microgravity research on sounding rockets both in the field of Physical Sciences.

  7. Hands-on Space Experiments from Cradle to Grave: The Role of the Sounding Rocket Program in Developing Human Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.

    2005-12-01

    Sounding rockets in university research provide a unique opportunity to train future space scientists and engineers. Besides fitting the typical schedule of a student, they allow a small group of students to be involved in all aspects of a space project from its inception through execution to a conclusion involving scientific discovery. Furthermore, universities with sounding rocket programs are cradles of innovations where the interdisciplinary nature of space experimentation is nurtured. These programs have formed the core research of many of the current Principal Investigators of NASA Space Science Missions. Additionally, they typically involve a large number of undergraduate students who gain in-depth experience into well-defined and critical components of a space mission. Researchers involved in sounding rocket experiments typically develop the science payload consisting of one or more instrument with the NASA Sounding Rocket Program Office (SRPO) providing all support necessary to make the science program a success. Unlike satellite missions, the sounding rocket experiments offer an opportunity to take more risks in terms of their science return. Some of these risks come in the form of new technology invention and development. Sounding rockets, with their flexible schedule and fewer formal procedural requirements, thus play an important role in maturing technology and developing new capabilities for satellite missions. The Student Launch Program was designed by NASA to provide a new opportunity where space science took a back seat to education and training. The program required that the proposing team provide components such as the nose cone, power and telemetry systems, which are typically provided to rocket experimenters by SRPO. The students involved in such programs thus gained invaluable experience with "mini-satellite" missions. We believe that they are essential for the long-term vitality of the space program and maintaining a technology

  8. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  9. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  10. Determination of the center of brightness of the lunar crescent. [through use of a sounding rocket payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, C.

    1975-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the lunar sensor which was used to point the sounding rocket are discussed briefly. The associated mathematical model of the system is developed and the computer programs which were written to implement the model are described. Data pertinent to the two launches is presented.

  11. THE ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION REFRIGERATOR FOR THE MICRO-X SOUNDING ROCKET TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wikus, P.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Leman, S. W.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Eckart, M. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Doriese, W. B.; McCammon, D.

    2010-04-09

    The Micro-X Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a sounding rocket payload slated for launch in 2011. An array of Transition Edge Sensors, which is operated at a bath temperature of 50 mK, will be used to obtain a high resolution spectrum of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) with a 75 gram Ferric Ammonium Alum (FAA) salt pill in the bore of a 4 T superconducting magnet provides a stable heat sink for the detector array only a few seconds after burnout of the rocket motors. This requires a cold stage design with very short thermal time constants. A suspension made from Kevlar strings holds the 255 gram cold stage in place. It is capable of withstanding loads in excess of 200 g. Stable operation of the TES array in proximity to the ADR magnet is ensured by a three-stage magnetic shielding system which consists of a superconducting can, a high-permeability shield and a bucking coil. The development and testing of the Micro-X payload is well underway.

  12. Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure Measured by Two SOunding Rockets in Flight Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, Scott R.; Kaeppler, Steve; Kletzing, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Cohen, Ian J.; Jones, Sarah; Pfaff, Robert F.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Labelle, James W.; Dombrowski, Micah P.; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Heinselman, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    On January 29, 2009, two identically instrumented sounding rockets were launched into a sub-storm auroral arc from Poker Flat Alaska. Labeled the Auroral Currents and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) mission, the payloads were launched to different apogees (approx.350km and approx.120km) and staggered in time so as to optimize their magnetic conjunctions. The different altitudes provided simultaneous in-situ measurements of magnetospheric input and output to the ionosphere and the ionospheric response in the lower F and E region. Measurements included 3-axis magnetic field, 2-axis electric field nominally perpendicular to the magnetic field, energetic particles, electron and ion, up to 15keV, cold plasma temperature and density. In addition, PFISR was also operating in a special designed mode to measure electric field and density profiles in the plane defined by the rocket trajectories and laterally to either side of the trajectories. Observation of the measured currents and electrodynamics structure of the auroral form encountered are presented in the context of standard auroral models and the temporal/spatial limitations of mission designs.

  13. The hydrogen coma of Comet P/Halley observed in Lyman-alpha using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, R. P.; Meier, R. R.; Keller, H. U.; Opal, C. B.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) images of Comet P/Halley were obtained using sounding rockets launched from White Sands Missile Range on 24.5 February and 13.5 March 1986. The second rocket was launched 13 hours before the fly-by of the Giotto spacecraft. An electrographic camera on both flights provided Lyman-alpha images covering a 20 field of view with 3 arcmin resolution. The data from both flights have been compared with a time-dependent model of hydrogen kinetics. To match the measured isophote contours, hydrogen sources with velocity components of 8 km/s and 20 km/s (from OH and H2O respectively) as well as a low velocity component (about 2 km/s) are required. This low velocity component is thought to result from thermalization of fast hydrogen atoms within the collision zone, providing an important diagnostic of temperature and density near the nucleus. Hydrogen production rates of 3.8 x 10 exp 30/s and 1.7 x 10 exp 30/s have been obtained for the two observations.

  14. Observatio of HF noise in an intense aurora by the sounding rocket S-310JA-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1982-09-01

    Observation of noise in the frequency range from 0.6 to 7.6 MHz has been made in an auroral plasma up to approximately 220 km by an instrument (PWN-H) on board the S-310JA-7 sounding rocket. This rocket was launched at 1915:50 UT on March 27, 1978 from Syowa Station in Antarctica, just prior to an intense auroral substorm (magnetic H component decrease = -700 nT and 30 MHz CNA = -5 dB). The observed HF emissions are classified into three types according to their frequency ranges and spectral shape; (1) High level and narrow band signals whose frequencies are nearly equal to nf(ce) or (n + 1/2)f(ce), where n is an integer and f(ce) is the electron gyrofrequency. (2) A low level broad band emission whose upper-limiting frequency is below the local electron plasma frequency. (3) Signals at frequencies below f(ce). Excitation mechanism of these waves in the aurora is discussed.

  15. The Transition-Edge-Sensor Array for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, Sarah Elizabeth; Chervenak J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2012-01-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket program will fly a 128-element array of transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. To match the angular resolution of the optics while maximizing the field-of-view and retaining a high energy resolution (< 4 eV at 1 keV), we have designed the pixels using 600 x 600 sq. micron Au/Bi absorbers, which overhang 140 x 140 sq. micron Mo/Au sensors. The data-rate capabilities of the rocket telemetry system require the pulse decay to be approximately 2 ms to allow a significant portion of the data to be telemetered during flight. Here we report experimental results from the flight array, including measurements of energy resolution, uniformity, and absorber thermalization. In addition, we present studies of test devices that have a variety of absorber contact geometries, as well as a variety of membrane-perforation schemes designed to slow the pulse decay time to match the telemetry requirements. Finally, we describe the reduction in pixel-to-pixel crosstalk afforded by an angle-evaporated Cu backside heatsinking layer, which provides Cu coverage on the four sidewalls of the silicon wells beneath each pixel.

  16. The Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikus, P.; Adams, J. S.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Bandler, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

    2010-04-01

    The Micro-X Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a sounding rocket payload slated for launch in 2011. An array of Transition Edge Sensors, which is operated at a bath temperature of 50 mK, will be used to obtain a high resolution spectrum of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) with a 75 gram Ferric Ammonium Alum (FAA) salt pill in the bore of a 4 T superconducting magnet provides a stable heat sink for the detector array only a few seconds after burnout of the rocket motors. This requires a cold stage design with very short thermal time constants. A suspension made from Kevlar strings holds the 255 gram cold stage in place. It is capable of withstanding loads in excess of 200 g. Stable operation of the TES array in proximity to the ADR magnet is ensured by a three-stage magnetic shielding system which consists of a superconducting can, a high-permeability shield and a bucking coil. The development and testing of the Micro-X payload is well underway.

  17. X-ray CCD Sounding Rocket Observation of the North Polar Spur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, L. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Mendenhall, J. A.

    1997-12-01

    A X-ray CCD camera aboard a sounding rocket was used to observe the North Polar Spur, an enhanced feature of the Soft X-ray Background. The flight took place on May 2, 1997 from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The target center was (l=20, b=+45) with a 60 x 20 degree field of view aligned along the North Polar Spur SXRB feature seen in 3/4 KeV maps of the Rosat All-Sky Survey. [Snowden et al. 1995] The goal was to examine the NPS with high spectral energy resolution. To that end, we utilized a three-phase CCD with thinned poly gates made by EEV. This device was designed to improve quantum efficiency in the soft X-ray band, i.e. below 1 KeV. We present trajectory and aspect solutions for this rocket flight. We discuss the amount of data contamination from cosmic rays, energetic particles and scattered solar X-rays, as well as atmospheric absorption corrections. We present our corrected spectrum for the NPS and the preliminary results of spectral fits with Raymond and Smith thermal plasma models. Finally we compare the results for the North Polar Spur with results from our previous observation of a similar enhanced feature of the SXRB in the galactic center. [Mendenhall, 1997

  18. Status of the PICTURE Sounding Rocket to Image the Epsilon Eridani Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Mendillo, Christopher Bernard; Hicks, Brian; Cook, Timothy; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna; Polidan, Ronald S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2014-06-01

    The PICTURE (Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment) sounding rocket will use a visible nulling interferometer to characterize the exozodiacal dust disk of Epsilon Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) in reflected visible light to an inner radius of 1.5 AU (0.5”) from the star. Launch is scheduled for Fall 2014 and the PICTURE payload is currently undergoing re-integration. The first launch of PICTURE suffered a science telemetry failure and the primary mirror was shattered upon landing, the second launch will fly a new SiC primary mirror and onboard data storage. PICTURE visible light observations will constrain scattering properties of the Epsilon Eridani exozodiacal dust disk from 600nm to 750 nm, measuring the background brightness which must be overcome for future exoplanet observations. Additionally, PICTURE will demonstrate operation of a MEMS deformable mirror and a visible nulling coronagraph in space. We will present the latest measurements of integrated telescope and interferometer performance.

  19. An experimental study on the aerodynamic feasibility of a roll-controllable sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirouzu, M.; Soga, K.; Shibato, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The aerodynamic feasibility of a roll-controllable two-stage sounding rocket is investigated experimentally. The rocket has ailerons on front-fins to generate the rolling moment for the control and free-rolling tail-fins to prevent the induced rolling moment on the tail-fins from transmitting to the fuselage. Wind tunnel tests were made at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and alpha = 0 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg varying the deflection angle of the ailerons for the models with fixed tail-fins, with free-rolling tail-fins and without tail-fins. Aerodynamic characteristics were measured by using a six-component balance. The effectiveness of the free-rolling tail-fins for the elimination of the influence of the induced rolling moment is confirmed. It is concluded that the characteristics of the rolling moment generated by the ailerons are desirable for the control, and the rotation of the tail-fins would not raise mechanical and other aerodynamic problems.

  20. Second flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager sounding rocket [FOXSI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Ramsey, B.; Foster, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket experiment that has flown twice to test a direct focusing method for measuring solar hard X-rays (HXRs). These HXRs are associated with particle acceleration mechanisms at work in powering solar flares and aid us in investigating the role of nanoflares in heating the solar corona. FOXSI-1 successfully flew for the first time on November 2, 2012. After some upgrades including the addition of extra mirrors to two optics modules and the inclusion of new fine-pitch CdTe strip detectors, in addition to the Si detectors from FOXSI-1, the FOXSI-2 payload flew successfully again on December 11, 2014. During the second flight four targets on the Sun were observed, including at least three active regions, two microflares, and ~1 minute of quiet Sun observation. This work is focused in giving an overview of the FOXSI rocket program and a detailed description of the upgrades for the second flight. In addition, we show images and spectra investigating the presence of no thermal emission for each of the flaring targets that we observed during the second flight.

  1. High-resolution sounding rocket observations of large-amplitude Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mozer, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    Shear Alfven waves with amplitudes greater than 100 mV/m were observed on two recent sounding rocket flights. The largest waveforms are best described as a series of step functions, rather than as broadband noise or as single frequency waves. Complete two-dimensional E and B measurements at 4-ms time resolution were made, showing a downward propagation direction and implying insignificant reflection from the ionosphere at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. Intense, field-aligned, low-energy electron fluxes accompany the waves. Acceleration of these electrons by the Alfven waves is shown to be feasible. The waves in at least one case have a sufficently large ponderomotive potential to generate the observed density fluctuations of order one.

  2. Far-ultraviolet spectral images of comet Halley from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, R. P.; Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1986-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet images of comet Halley obtained from sounding rockets launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 24 February and 13 March, 1986, are presented. Direct electrographic images of the hydrogen coma of the comet were obtained at the Lyman-alpha wavelength along with objective spectra containing images of the coma at the oxygen, carbon, and sulfur resonance multiplets. Analysis of the Lyman-alpha images yields hydrogen atom production rates of 1.9 x 10 to the 30th/s and 1.4 x 120 to the 30th/s for the two observations. Images of oxygen, carbon, and sulfur emissions obtained with the objective grating spectrograph are presented for the first set of observations and preliminary production rates are derived for these elements.

  3. A Sounding Rocket Experiment for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Goto, M.; Holloway, T.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Belluzzi, L.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Štěpán, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-10-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is presently under development to measure the linear polarization profiles in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) line at 121.567 nm. CLASP is a vacuum-UV (VUV) spectropolarimeter to aim for first detection of the linear polarizations caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in the Lyα line with high accuracy (0.1%). This is a fist step for exploration of magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. Accurate measurements of the linear polarization signals caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in strong UV lines like Lyα are essential to explore with future solar telescopes the strength and structures of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. The CLASP proposal has been accepted by NASA in 2012, and the flight is planned in 2015.

  4. Medium Resolution Spectra of Solar Illuminated Sounding Rocket Samarium Vapor Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Miller, D.; Caton, R.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Samarium spectra in the visible wavelengths (400-900 nm) are presented from the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) sounding rocket launches of 2014 May 01 and 09. The two releases occurred in twilight at the ground, but with distinctly different solar elevation angles. Resonance-fluorescence spectral lines are identified throughout this wavelength range, and are attributed to Sm, Sm+, SmO and SmO+. Even given the wide spectral range of the instrument, the spectral resolution throughout the range was 1.5 nm or better. The time variation of spectral line intensity from various neutral and ionized atomic and molecular products are compared with a time dependent model of the samarium release, yielding estimates of photoionization rates, autoionization rates (reaction with O to form SmO+), and relative populations of energy levels giving rise to the spectra.

  5. Hard X-ray Detector Calibrations for the FOXSI Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Glesener, L.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.; Han, R.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Christe, S.; Krucker, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of high-energy solar flares, detailed X-ray images and spectra of the Sun are required. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is used to test direct-focusing X-ray telescopes and Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) for solar flare study and to further understand coronal heating. The measurement of active region differential emission measures, flare temperatures, and possible quiet-Sun emission requires a precisely calibrated spectral response. This poster describes recent updates in the calibration of FOXSI's DSSDs based on new calibration tests that were performed after the second flight. The gain for each strip was recalculated using additional radioactive sources. Additionally, the varying strip sensitivity across the detectors was investigated and based on these measurements, the flight images were flatfielded. These improvements lead to more precise X-ray data for future FOXSI flights and show promise for these new technologies in imaging the Sun.

  6. Parallel electric fields detected via conjugate electron echoes during the Echo 7 sounding rocket flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electron detectors on the Echo 7 active sounding rocket experiment measured 'conjugate echoes' resulting from artificial electron beam injections. Analysis of the drift motion of the electrons after a complete bounce leads to measurements of the magnetospheric convection electric field mapped to ionospheric altitudes. The magnetospheric field was highly variable, changing by tens of mV/m on time scales of as little as hundreds of millisec. While the smallest-scale magnetospheric field irregularities were mapped out by ionospheric conductivity, larger-scale features were enhanced by up to 50 mV/m in the ionosphere. The mismatch between magnetospheric and ionspheric convection fields indicates a violation of the equipotential field line condition. The parallel fields occurred in regions roughly 10 km across and probably supported a total potential drop of 10-100 V.

  7. Prediction of pressure fluctuation in sounding rockets and manifolded recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudadio, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The determination of altitude by means of barometric sensors in sounding rocket applications is discussed. A method for predicting the performance of such sensing systems is needed. A method is developed for predicting the pressure-time response of a volume subjected to subsonic air flow through from one to four passages. The pressure calculation is based on one-dimensional gas flow with friction. A computed program has been developed which solves the differential equations using a self-starting predictor-corrector integration technique. The input data required are the pressure sensing system dimensions, pressure forcing function(s) at the inlet port(s), and a trajectory over the time of analysis (altitude-velocity-time), if the forcing function is trajectory dependent. The program then computes the pressure-temperature history of the gas in the manifold over the time interval specified.

  8. Verification of SOHO/CELIAS/SEM EUV Flux Calibration Based on Seven Sounding Rocket Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.

    2009-05-01

    A verified and updated version of the calibrated SOHO/CELIAS/SEM (absolute) solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) measurements from the beginning of the mission in 1996 through the present is available at the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center website (www.usc.edu/dept/space_science). To complete this new version, seven (1996- 2006) sounding rocket under-flights were analyzed using measurements from both a very stable Rare Gas (Ne) Ionization Cell (RGIC) and a clone of the flight SEM instrument. These sounding rocket under-flights have provided a number of reference points that have been compared with the solar flux data published on our web site (last revised in 2000). These reference points are in good agreement with the solar cycle EUV flux for the 30.4 nm first order (26 nm to 34 nm) SEM channels, indicating a very small (less than 1 percent) averaged difference from the best revised published flux for the seven under- flights. After providing thirteen years of accurate and near continuous data (with the exception of the SOHO "vacation"), SEM continues to give important information about short term (solar flares) and long term (solar cycle) changes of EUV solar irradiance. These data are useful for advancing solar models, for more accurate Earth atmosphere drag models, ionization proxies, and atmospheric dynamics generally, and will also provide solar EUV measurement overlap with the new SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), to be launched in 2009. This work was supported by NASA grants NNG05WC09G and NNX08AM94G.

  9. The ISS education programme and its evolution student experiments and sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, Elena; Rodriguez Rebolledo, Inaki

    2005-08-01

    The subject of education, and the development of educational activities, is part the mandate of the European Space Agency (ESA) since its foundation. ESA's effort in this direction has been significantly increased in the late 90's as a reflection and contribution to the solution of the issue of - on one side - the decreasing interest of the European youth in space and technology, and - on the other side - the increased need of a scientifically literate society. In this framework, ESA's Member States participating to the International Space Station (ISS) programmes, have demonstrated their concrete commitment by approving: in the year 2000, the concept that 1% of the ISS on-board/operational resources (e.g. up/down mass, crew time) would be dedicated to education activities; in 2001, the development of a 5 years education programme, the ISS Education Programme and, in 2002, the creation of a fund - open to external, private contributions - that would provide for additional financial support to the programme, the ISS Education Fund. The ISS Education Programme is now approaching the end of its first 5 years cycle, and - based on the positive results obtained - a new programme is being prepared for approval at ESA's next Ministerial Conference. This proposal brings the ISS Education Programme to a new, extended dimension, where new elements are included beyond ISS, with planetary exploration becoming a key theme. One of the new elements in the proposal is the opening to collaborative education activities on Sounding Rockets. The objective of this paper is to present the concept and content of the ISS Education Programme and the plan for its evolution - in particular the reasons why a new Sounding Rockets element should be included - and the possible mechanisms for its realisation.

  10. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The topic of this paper is to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat trans-fer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. The paper will deliver correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters as well as physical explanations for the observed behavior. The data will be used

  11. Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly

  12. Channel electron multiplier operated on a sounding rocket without a cryogenic vacuum pump from 120 - 75 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, S.; Gausa, M. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 75 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on the two sounding rockets of the CHAMPS (CHarge And mass of Meteoritic smoke ParticleS) rocket campaign which were launched into the mesosphere in October 2011 from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void beneath an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed above an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened on the downleg to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region below. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ~75 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.

  13. ROCKETMAS: A sounding-rocket-based remote sensing measurement of mesospheric water vapor and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croskey, C. L.; Olivero, J. J.; Puliafito, S. E.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The ROCKETMAS rocketborne technique, based on the shuttle-borne millimeter wave atmospheric sounder (MAS), to obtain water vapor and ozone measurements with vertical resolution, is described. The concentrations of mesospheric water vapor and ozone are not well known, yet both contribute significantly to the chemical and radiative structure of that region. In situ measurements of water vapor are difficult to make because water that was absorbed on the instrument surfaces outgasses in space and contaminates the local environment of the payload. However, a remote sensing technique that uses a long pathlength through the atmosphere greatly reduces the effect of such local contamination. The 183.3 GHz line of water vapor and 184.4 GHz line of ozone are good choices for spaceborne radiometer measurements because one front-end mixer assembly can be used to simultaneously observe both gases. The design of a sounding rocket based millimeter wave radiometer for measuring water vapor and ozone with a height resolution not possible by either ground based or limb sounding techniques is described.

  14. Use of a personal computer for the real-time reception and analysis of data from a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, W. D.; Penegor, G. T.; Cotton, D. M.; Kaplan, G. C.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1990-01-01

    In September 1988 the Earth and Planetary Atmospheres Group of the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of California at Berkeley flew an experiment on a high-altitude sounding rocket launched from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. The experiment, BEARS (Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer), was designed to obtain spectroscopic data on the composition and structure of the earth's upper atmosphere. Consideration is given to the objectives of the BEARS experiment; the computer interface and software; the use of remote data transmission; and calibration, integration, and flight operations.

  15. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitkotter, Robert H

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  16. IMAPS - A high-resolution, echelle spectrograph to record far-ultraviolet spectra of stars from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Joseph, C. L.; Long, D.; Zucchino, P. M.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel sounding rocket payload consisting of a slitless objective grating spectrograph with no transmission elements in the optical train (or detector) is described. This instrument, called the interstellar medium absorption profile spectrograph (IMAPS), is designed to provide continuous coverage over the wavelength range of 950-1150 A; it has an effective collecting area of about 4 sq cm and can record spectra of pointlike sources at a wavelength resolution of 0.004 A and with a sample interval of 0.002 A. The successful use of this instrument aboard a Black Brant rocket is described.

  17. Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design

  18. Midlatitude daytime wind measurements in the dynamo region with a sounding rocket chemical release technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sounding rocket chemical release technique can provide wind measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with excellent height resolution and extended altitude coverage, but such measurements are generally limited to nighttime conditions. Lithium trails, however, have a sufficiently bright resonant emission in sunlight to be detected with cameras or photometers using very narrow-band filters tuned to the emission wavelength. This type of measurement was attempted successfully a few times in the 1970's. We present the results of a recent experiment that represents the first use of the technique since those early attempts. Specifically, a rocket launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, on July 4, 2013, at 1031 LT, released a series of three lithium trails covering the altitude range from 95 to 125 km. The trails were observed with cameras equipped with 2-nm telecentric filter lenses on a NASA aircraft at an altitude of 28,000 feet, above the majority of the lower-level haze layer. The wind profile obtained from the observations showed maximum wind speeds of approximately 150 m/s in the altitude range where the strongest dynamo currents are expected. A large shear was evident below the altitude of the wind maximum, and the turbopause transition could be seen in the trail within the region of the large shear. In addition, there were large changes in the wind speed and wind direction during the 10 to 15 minute observing period. The results are of interest in terms of the technique development, which improves significantly on the measurements from the 1970's by using modern filter lens systems and sensitive digital cameras. In addition, the observed wind profiles show the characteristics of the winds and their time variations in daytime conditions across this critical altitude range.

  19. Measurement of Neutral Winds and Gradients in the Lower Thermosphere with Multi-Point, Chemical-Release Sounding Rocket Payloads.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Sounding rocket payloads capable of deploying multi-point chemical releases provide a unique tool for investigating the properties of the lower thermosphere. This type of payload consists of a collection of sub-payloads that are propelled laterally out of the rocket during flight. Each contains a canister of liquid tracer (such as tri-methyl aluminum) which, after separating from the main rocket, is dispersed by explosive detonation. The result is a luminous "puff" that can be tracked by triangulation using images taken from several ground stations, producing wind vector velocities with typical uncertainties of just 1-2 m/s. A deployment of puffs throughout a 3-dimensional volume spanning approximately 100x100 km horizontally and from 100 to 180 km altitude, vertically, makes it possible to measure the height profiles of all nine first-order spatial gradients of the neutral wind vector in the lower thermosphere.

  20. An observation of LHR noise with banded structure by the sounding rocket S29 Barium-GEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Holmgren, G.; Kintner, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of electrostatic and obviously locally produced noise near the lower hybrid frequency made by the sounding rocket S29 Barium-GEOS is reported. The noise is strongly related to the spin of the rocket and reaches well below the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. Above the altitude of 300 km the noise shows banded structure roughly organized by the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. Simultaneously with the banded structure, a signal near the hydrogen cyclotron frequency is detected. This signal is also spin related. The characteristics of the noise suggest that it is locally generated by the rocket payload disturbing the plasma. If this interpretation is correct we expect plasma wave experiments on other spacecrafts, e.g., the space shuttle to observe similar phenomena.

  1. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph Sounding Rocket Payload: Recent Modifications for Planetary Observations in the EUV/FUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan; Scherrer, John; Cash, Webster; Green, James C.; Wilkinson, Erik

    1995-01-01

    We report on the status of modifications to an existing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope/spectrograph sounding rocket payload for planetary observations in the 800 - 1200 A wavelength band. The instrument is composed of an existing Wolter Type 2 grazing incidence telescope, a newly built 0.4-m normal incidence Rowland Circle spectrograph, and an open-structure resistive-anode microchannel plate detector. The modified payload has successfully completed three NASA sounding rocket flights within 1994-1995. Future flights are anticipated for additional studies of planetary and cometary atmospheres and interstellar absorption. A detailed description of the payload, along with the performance characteristics of the integrated instrument are presented. In addition, some preliminary flight results from the above three missions are also presented.

  2. Results of the measurement of the vertical profile of ozone up to a height of 70 km by means of the MR-12 and M-100 sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezgin, N. I.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Chizhov, A. F.; Shtyrkov, O. V.

    1979-01-01

    The photometers used and methods of calculation of the vertical ozone concentration profile are described. The results obtained in several series of MR-12 and M-100 sounding rocket launchings are presented and discussed.

  3. A Sounding Rocket Experiment for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Tsuneta, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchere, F.; Trujillo, Bueno J.; Manso, Sainz R.; Ramos, Asensio A.; Stepan, J.; Belluzi, L.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is presently under development to measure the linear polarization profiles caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (121.567nm). Accurate measurements of the linear polarization signals caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect are essential to explore the strength and structures of weak magnetic fields. The primary target of future solar telescopes is to measure the weak magnetic field in outer solar atmospheres (from the chromosphere to the corona through the transition region). The hydrogen Lyman-alpha-line is one of the best lines for the diagnostics of magnetic fields in the outer solar atmospheres. CLASP is to be launched in 2015, and will provide, for the first time, the observations required for magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and transition region. CLASP is designed to have a polarimetric sensitivity of 0.1% and a spectral resolution of 0.01nm for the Lyman-alpha line. CLASP will measure two orthogonal polarizations simultaneously for about 5-minute flight. Now the integration of flight mirrors and structures is in progress. In addition to our strategy to realize such a high-precision spectro-polarimetry in the UV, we will present a progress report on our pre-launch evaluation of optical and polarimetric performances of CLASP.

  4. A TRANSITION REGION EXPLOSIVE EVENT OBSERVED IN He II WITH THE MOSES SOUNDING ROCKET

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J. Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Thomas, Roger J. E-mail: kankel@solar.physics.montana.ed

    2010-08-20

    Transition region explosive events (EEs) have been observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548 A, 1550 A) and Si IV (1393 A, 1402 A). We report what we believe to be the first observation of a transition region EE in He II 304 A. With the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) sounding rocket, a novel slitless imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial structure of the event. We observe a bright core expelling two jets that are distinctly non-collinear, in directions that are not anti-parallel. The jets have sky-plane velocities of order 75 km s{sup -1} and line-of-sight velocities of +75 km s{sup -1} (blue) and -30 km s{sup -1} (red). The core is a region of high non-thermal Doppler broadening, characteristic of EEs, with maximal broadening 380 km s{sup -1} FWHM. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components of maximum Doppler velocities +160 km s{sup -1} and -220 km s{sup -1}. The event lasts more than 150 s. Its properties correspond to the larger, long-lived, and more energetic EEs observed in other wavelengths.

  5. Spectral imagery in the far ultraviolet: results from a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya; Taylor, Valerie; Cook, Timothy A.; Stephan, Andrew W.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Kamalabadi, Farzad

    1998-08-01

    We describe a new technique of space based spectral imagery for a spinning platform. The technique uses tomographic inversion to produce a 2D spectral image using a novel imaging spectrograph. The spectrograph uses a single optical element with a large field of view. Our technique delivers high throughput due to continuous observation of the scene at all wavelengths. The challenge of spectral imaging is to obtain 3D information from a time series of 2D data. In our technique, we obtain spectral information along one detector dimension, while two dimensions of spatial information are combined into the second dimension of the detector for each time step. With the spin axis of the spacecraft located at the center of the scene, we recover the 2D of spatial information from a series of these individual 'snapshots'. We will report on the results obtained on May 8, 1997 by a sounding rocket experiment using this technique in the 80- 140nm wavelength range, on the Scorpio constellation.

  6. Plasma turbulence and coherent structures in the polar cap observed by the ICI-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, A.; Miloch, W. J.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Moen, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The electron density data from the ICI-2 sounding rocket experiment in the high-latitude F region ionosphere are analyzed using the higher-order spectra and higher-order statistics. Two regions of enhanced fluctuations are chosen for detailed analysis: the trailing edge of a polar cap patch and an electron density enhancement associated with particle precipitation. While these two regions exhibit similar power spectra, our analysis reveals that their internal structures are significantly different. The structures on the edge of the polar cap patch are likely due to nonlinear wave interactions since this region is characterized by intermittency and significant coherent mode coupling. The plasma enhancement subjected to precipitation, however, exhibits stronger random characteristics with uncorrelated phases of density fluctuations. These results suggest that particle precipitation plays a fundamental role in ionospheric plasma structuring creating turbulent-like structures. We discuss the physical mechanisms that cause plasma structuring as well as the possible processes for the low-frequency part of the spectrum in terms of plasma instabilities.

  7. Narrow-band EUV Multilayer Coating for the MOSES Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Scott M.; Gum, Jeffery S.; Tarrio, Charles; Dvorak, Joseph; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Thomas, Roger J.; Kankelborg, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a slitless spectrograph designed to study solar He II emission at 303.8 Angstroms, to be launched on a sounding rocket payload. One difference between MOSES and other slitless spectrographs is that the images are recorded simultaneously at three spectral orders, m = -1,0, +l. Another is the addition of a narrow-band multilayer coating on both the grating and the fold flat, which will reject out-of-band lines that normally contaminate the image of a slitless instrument. The primary metrics f a the mating were high peak reflectivity and suppression of Fe XV and XVI emission lines at 284 Angstroms and 335 Angstroms, respectively. We chose B4C/Mg2Si for our material combination since it provides better values for all three metrics together than the other leading candidates Si/Ir, Si/B4C or Si/SiC. Measurements of witness flats at NIST indicate the peak reflectivity at 303.6 is 38.5% for a 15 bilayer stack, while the suppression at 284 Angstroms, is 4.5x and at 335 Angstroms is 18.3x for each of two reflections in the instrument. We present the results of coating the MOSES flight gratings and fold flat, including the spectral response of the fold flat and grating as measured at NIST's SURF III and Brookhaven's X24C beamline.

  8. Pulsating Heat pipe Only for Space (PHOS): results of the REXUS 18 sounding rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creatini, F.; Guidi, G. M.; Belfi, F.; Cicero, G.; Fioriti, D.; Di Prizio, D.; Piacquadio, S.; Becatti, G.; Orlandini, G.; Frigerio, A.; Fontanesi, S.; Nannipieri, P.; Rognini, M.; Morganti, N.; Filippeschi, S.; Di Marco, P.; Fanucci, L.; Baronti, F.; Mameli, M.; Manzoni, M.; Marengo, M.

    2015-11-01

    Two Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes (CLPHPs) are tested on board REXUS 18 sounding rocket in order to obtain data over a relatively long microgravity period (approximately 90 s). The CLPHPs are partially filled with FC-72 and have, respectively, an inner tube diameter larger (3 mm) and slightly smaller (1.6 mm) than the critical diameter evaluated in static Earth gravity conditions. On ground, the small diameter CLPHP effectively works as a Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP): the characteristic slug and plug flow pattern forms inside the tube and the heat exchange is triggered by thermally driven self-sustained oscillations of the working fluid. On the other hand, the large diameter CLPHP works as a two- phase thermosyphon in vertical position and doesn't work in horizontal position: in this particular condition, the working fluid stratifies within the device as the surface tension force is no longer able to balance buoyancy. Then, the idea to test the CLPHPs in reduced gravity conditions: as the gravity reduces the buoyancy forces becomes less intense and it is possible to recreate the typical PHP flow pattern also for larger inner tube diameters. This allows to increase the heat transfer rate and, consequently, to decrease the overall thermal resistance. Even though it was not possible to experience low gravity conditions due to a failure in the yoyo de-spin system, the thermal response to the peculiar acceleration field (hyper-gravity) experienced on board are thoroughly described.

  9. Subcooled Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Microgravity: Terrier-improved Orion Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Benton, John; Kucner, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A microscale heater array was used to study boiling in earth gravity and microgravity. The heater array consisted of 96 serpentine heaters on a quartz substrate. Each heater was 0.27 square millimeters. Electronic feedback loops kept each heater's temperature at a specified value. The University of Maryland constructed an experiment for the Terrier-Improved Orion sounding rocket that was delivered to NASA Wallops and flown. About 200 s of high quality microgravity and heat transfer data were obtained. The VCR malfunctioned, and no video was acquired. Subsequently, the test package was redesigned to fly on the KC-135 to obtain both data and video. The pressure was held at atmospheric pressure and the bulk temperature was about 20 C. The wall temperature was varied from 85 to 65 C. Results show that gravity has little effect on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble was surrounded by smaller bubbles, which eventually merged with the primary bubble. This bubble was formed by smaller bubbles coalescing, but had a constant size for a given superheat, indicating a balance between evaporation at the base and condensation on the cap. Most of the heaters under the bubble indicated low heat transfer, suggesting dryout at those heaters. High heat transfer occurred at the contact line surrounding the primary bubble. Marangoni convection formed a "jet" of fluid into the bulk fluid that forced the bubble onto the heater.

  10. Analysis of Particle Detectors in Plasma Sheaths on Sounding Rockets and in Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Lisa; Lynch, Kristina

    2013-10-01

    The influence of plasma sheaths on particle measurements is a well-known problem. Improvements in computational speed and memory have made the use of particle-in-cell codes, attainable on a laptop. These codes can calculate complex sheath structures and include most of the relevant physics. We will discuss how the use of one such code, SPIS, has been integrated into our data processing for the MICA sounding rocket. This inclusion of sheath physics has allowed us to describe the current-voltage signature of an ion retarding potential analyzer, called the PIP, to measure the ambient ionospheric temperature, as well as to examine the possibility of ion upflow. These results will be compared with the other instrumentation on MICA, which use traditional thin-sheath approximations. This comparison will emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of these other data analysis methods and call attention to the need to include sheath physics when measuring very low energy populations. Additionally, these instruments have also been tested in the Dartmouth College plasma facility. This provides another set of plasma conditions for testing and extrapolating our method to a future low-orbit mission.

  11. Spin stability of sounding rocket secondary payloads following high velocity ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Weston M.

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) mission is a sounding rocket mission studying solar energy input to space weather. ASSP requires the high velocity ejection (up to 50 m/s) of 6 secondary payloads, spin stabilized perpendicular to the ejection velocity. The proposed scientific instrumentation depends on a high degree of spin stability, requiring a maximum coning angle of less than 5°. It also requires that the spin axis be aligned within 25° of the local magnetic field lines. The maximum velocities of current ejection methods are typically less than 10m/s, and often produce coning angles in excess of 20°. Because of this they do not meet the ASSP mission requirements. To meet these requirements a new ejection method is being developed by NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Success of the technique in meeting coning angle and B-field alignment requirements is evaluated herein by modeling secondary payload dynamic behavior using a 6-DOF dynamic simulation employing state space integration written in MATLAB. Simulation results showed that secondary payload mass balancing is the most important factor in meeting stability requirements. Secondary mass payload properties will be measured using an inverted torsion pendulum. If moment of inertia measurement errors can be reduced to 0.5%, it is possible to achieve mean coning and B-field alignment angles of 2.16° and 2.71°, respectively.

  12. Far-Ultraviolet Dust Scattering In Orion: Results From The SPINR Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Christopher; Lewis, N. K.; Cook, T. A.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2009-05-01

    The Spectrograph for Photometric Imaging with Numeric Reconstruction (SPINR) sounding rocket recorded spectral imaging data of the far-ultraviolet (912-1450Å) scattered light distribution towards the Orion constellation. These observations can be used to study the scattering properties of interstellar dust grains in Orion by way of constraining the DIRTY radiative transfer model (Gordon, K.D., ApJ 551:269-276, 2001) to best-fit values of the dust albedo (a) and asymmetry parameter (g). Previous determinations of the FUV scattering albedo for dust grains in reflection nebulae show a sharp discontinuity at 1400Å, over which the dust albedo changes by a factor of two (Gordon, K. D., ASPCS Vol. 309, 2004). This 1400Å feature is not reproduced by any dust grain model. We will present the development of a three dimensional Orion dust model and the subsequent determinations of (a) and (g) using the SPINR Orion data. The determined albedos span the 1400Å discontinuity and show further evidence of its existence. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NAG5-960.

  13. SPINR Sounding Rocket Measurements of Far-Ultraviolet Dust Scattering Properties in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Christopher; Cook, T.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gordon, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    Wide-field observations of the Orion OB stellar association were performed in the far-ultraviolet using the Spectrograph for Photometric Imaging with Numeric Reconstruction (SPINR) sounding rocket. These observations reveal the diffuse signature of starlight scattering off interstellar dust grains. The spectral-imaging data were used along with a three-dimensional radiative transfer model to measure the dust scattering parameters: the grain albedo (a) and the scattering asymmetry (g). The measured parameters are consistent with previous measurements made toward Orion. A sharp increase in albedo was measured at ~1330 Å. This feature is not explained by current grain models. The constructed three-dimensional model of Orion includes a two-component dust distribution. The foreground distribution is responsible for the small amount of visible reddening measured toward the bright stars in the Orion constellation. The background distribution represents the Orion Molecular Cloud, which dominates observations of dust emission in the infrared. This model was used to show that backscattered light from the molecular cloud alone cannot produce the observed scattered light distribution. The foreground dust, though optically thin in the visible, significantly contributes to the scattered light in the far-ultraviolet. This suggests that observations of Orion in the infrared and far-ultraviolet may probe entirely different dust populations.

  14. A real-time electronic imaging system for solar X-ray observations from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Ting, J. W.; Gerassimenko, M.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time imaging system for displaying the solar coronal soft X-ray emission, focussed by a grazing incidence telescope, is described. The design parameters of the system, which is to be used primarily as part of a real-time control system for a sounding rocket experiment, are identified. Their achievement with a system consisting of a microchannel plate, for the conversion of X-rays into visible light, and a slow-scan vidicon, for recording and transmission of the integrated images, is described in detail. The system has a quantum efficiency better than 8 deg above 8 A, a dynamic range of 1000 coupled with a sensitivity to single photoelectrons, and provides a spatial resolution of 15 arc seconds over a field of view of 40 x 40 square arc minutes. The incident radiation is filtered to eliminate wavelengths longer than 100 A. Each image contains 3.93 x 10 to the 5th bits of information and is transmitted to the ground where it is processed by a mini-computer and displayed in real-time on a standard TV monitor.

  15. Transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters for a diffuse soft X-ray sounding rocket mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Kelsey M.

    The extent and composition of the soft Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB) has been the subject of debate since its discovery in the 1960s. Initially assumed to be extragalactic, it was soon realized that most of the emission observed between 0.1-1 keV originated inside the Galaxy and was most likely thermal emission from hot gas. However, when a few high resolution spectral measurements became available in the 1990s and early 2000s it became apparent that standard thermal models were not a good fit to the observations. It has also become apparent that a significant fraction of the diffuse background, particularly in the 1/4 keV energy range, may actually be produced by charge exchange within the Solar System. An essential part of understanding the different contributions to the DXRB is obtaining more high spectral resolution data. The large number of closely-spaced emission lines in the 1/4 keV energy range requires 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution to resolve individual lines. This thesis details efforts to design a detector array capable of < 2 eV FWHM resolution at 250 eV using a superconducting transition-edge sensor thermometer coupled to a thin gold absorber. I show that 2 eV FWHM energy resolution is possible while still maintaining enough collecting area and efficiency to enable a sounding rocket observation with currently available readout and cryogenic technology. In thin, large area absorbers, position dependent pulse shape can degrade energy resolution. Simulations of thermal diffusion in thin gold layers indicate that broadening due to position dependent pulse shape is expected to be minimal in these devices. Results from test devices are presented, with energy resolution and broadening due to position dependent pulse shape showing good agreement with modeled behavior.

  16. Imaging System for a Sub-Orbital Sounding Rocket Mission Based Upon Next Generation Detector Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd; Scowen, P.; Beasley, M.; Nikzad, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the design and preliminary results from the fabrication of a charge-coupled device (CCD) based imaging system designed using a modified modular imager cell (MIC) for use in a sounding rocket mission. The heart of the imaging system is the modified MIC, which provides the video pre-amplifier circuitry and CCD clock level filtering. The MIC is designed with a four-layer FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) with surface mount and through-hole components for ease of testing and lower fabrication cost. The imager is a delta doped 3.5k by 3.5k LBNL CCD. Delta doping the detector provides for enhanced QE response in the UV. Detector readout is performed by the recently released PCIe/104 Small-Cam imager controller from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc (ARC). The PCIe/104 Small-Cam system has the same capabilities as its larger PCIe brethren, but in a smaller form factor, which makes it ideally suited for sub-orbital ballistic missions. The overall control is then accomplished using a PCIe/104 computer from RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc. For laboratory testing and calibration, the modified MIC is placed inside an IR Labs ND5 liquid nitrogen cooled dewar. Upon flight, the modified MIC is placed within a 6.75” diameter 10” long ultra-high vacuum (UHV) vessel. The design, fabrication, and testing is being done at the Laboratory for Astronomical and Space Instrumentation (LASI) at Arizona State University. The LASI Lab is a state of the art detector calibration facility providing calibration from the 300 nm to 2.3 microns with further capability for designing hardware for use in suborbital ballistic missions.

  17. Auroral ion acceleration from lower hybrid solitary structures: A summary of sounding rocket observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Schuck, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Coffey, V.

    In this paper we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen in nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) in lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90° pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a few hundred meters across B. The acceleration process does not affect the thermal core of the ambient distribution and does not directly create a measurable effect on the ambient ion population outside the LHSS themselves. This precludes observation with these data of any nonlinear feedback between the ion acceleration and the existence or evolution of the density irregularities on which these LHSS events grow. Within the LHSS region the acceleration process creates a high-energy tail beginning at a few times the thermal ion speed. The ion acceleration events are closely associated with localized wave events. Accelerated ions bursts are also seen without a concurrent observation of a localized wave event, for two possible reasons. In some cases, the pitch angles of the accelerated tail ions are elevated above perpendicular; that is, the acceleration occurred below the observer and the mirror force has begun to act upon the distribution, moving it upward from the source. In other cases, the accelerated ion structure is spatially larger than the wave event structure, and the observation catches only the ion event. The occurrence rate of these ion acceleration events is related to the ambient environment in two ways: its altitude dependence can be modeled with the parameter B2/ne, and it is highest in regions of intense VLF activity. The cumulative ion outflow from these LHSS TAI is

  18. Channel electron multiplier operated on a sounding rocket without a cryogenic vacuum pump from 120 to 80 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Shannon; Gausa, Michael; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 80 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on two sounding rockets to the mesosphere. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void behind (relative to the direction of motion) an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed forward of an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened during flight to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region behind it. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ∼80 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.

  19. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  20. DC Electric Field measurement in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere during MSTID by S-520-27 Sounding Rocket Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the middle latitude ionospheric F region, mainly in summer, wave structures of electron density that have wave length of 100-200 km and period of one hour are observed. This phenomena is called Medium Scale Traveling Ionosphiric Disturbance; MSTID. MSTID has been observed by GPS receiving network, and its characteristic were studied. In the past, MSTID was thought to be generated by the Perkins instability, but its growth ratio was too small to be effective so far smaller than the real. Recently coupling process between ionospheric E and F regions are studied by using two radars and by computer simulations. Through these studies, we now have hypothesis that MSTID is generated by the combination of E-F region coupling and Perkins instability. The S-520-27 sounding rocket experiment on E-layer and F-layer was planned in order to verify this hypothesis. S-520-27 sounding rocket was launched at 23:57 JST on 20th July, 2013 from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center. S-520-27 sounding rocket reached 316km height. The S-520-27 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifier using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. As a results of measurements of DC electric fields by the EFD, the natural electric field was about +/-5mV/m, and varied the direction from southeast to east. Then the electric field was mapped to the horizontal plane at 280km height along the geomagnetic field line. In this presentation, we show the detail result of DC electric field measurement by S-520-27 sounding rocket and then we discuss about the correlation between the natural electric field and TEC variation by using the GPS-TEC.

  1. Observations of the MF-HF plasma wave emissions in active auroras by the sounding rocket experiments at Syowa station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, H.; Oya, H.

    1984-09-01

    Plasma waves in the range 0.1 to 10 MHz were observed in the polar ionosphere up to 230 km level by sounding rockets. Four categories of plasma wave emissions are identified with respect to the correlation to precipitating energetic particle data. These are the z mode waves generated by beam instability (cyclotron or inverse Landau type) due to the field-aligned auroral electrons; electrostatic plasma waves in the frequency range lower than the electron cyclotron frequency mode waves; continuum emissions emanating from the upper side of the ionosphere; and leaked auroral kilometric radiation, propagating down towards the ionosphere as whistlers.

  2. MEDUSA- Measurements of the D-Region Plasma Using Active Falling Plasma Probes on Board of the REXUS 15 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, H.; Baumann, C.; Staszak, T.; Karow, N.; Schunemann, P.; Mainz, R. E.; Fencik, A.; Jeglorz, E.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    A rocket borne experiment was designed to measure the ion density and its relative fluctuations in the lower Dregion of the Earth's ionosphere. It was launched on the 29th of May in 2014 at 12 LT during the REXUS 15/16 (Rocket Experiments for University Students) sounding rocket campaign aboard of the REXUS 15 sounding rocket from ESRANGE, Kiruna in northern Sweden. This experiment included two identical FFU's (free falling units) which were ejected on the upper upleg part of the rocket flight and conducted the measurement independently. One of the two FFUs was successfully recovered. It was shown that the developed deployment technique and the FFU framework made by a selective laser sintering process are very suitable for sounding rocket flights and could be the carrier system for any kind of small scientific instrument. The results of the measurement of the fixed-biased probe showed reasonable ion densities for the up- and downleg phase of the FFU flight. A spectral analysis of the data showed no significant turbulence.

  3. Proposal to National Aeronautics and Space Administration for continuation of a grazing incidence imaging telescope for X-ray astronomy using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of a high resolution imaging telescope experiment payload suitable for launch on an Astrobee F sounding rocket was proposed. Also integration, launch, and subsequent data analysis effort were included. The payload utilizes major component subassemblies from the HEAO-B satellite program which were nonflight development units for that program. These were the X ray mirror and high resolution imager brassboard detector. The properties of the mirror and detector were discussed. The availability of these items for a sounding rocket experiment were explored with the HEAO-B project office.

  4. Study for application of a sounding rocket experiment to spacelab/shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    An inexpensive adaptation of rocket-size packages to Spacelab/Shuttle use was studied. A two-flight project extending over two years was baselined, requiring 80 man-months of effort. It was concluded that testing should be held to a minimum since rocket packages seem to be able to tolerate shuttle vibration and noise levels. A standard, flexible control and data collection language such as FORTH should be used rather than a computation language such as FORTRAN in order to hold programming costs to a minimum.

  5. Test of a life support system with Hirudo medicinalis in a sounding rocket.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Baum, P; Bowman, G H; Klein, K D; von Lohr, R; Schrotter, L

    1972-01-01

    Two Nike-Tomahawk rockets each carrying two Biosondes were launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, the first on 10 December 1970 and the second on 16 December 1970. The primary objective of both flights was to test the Biosonde life support system under a near weightless environment and secondarily to subject the Hirudo medicinalis to the combined stresses of a rocket flight. The duration of the weightless environment was approximately 6.5 minutes. Data obtained during the flight by telemetry was used to ascertain the operation of the system and the movements of the leeches during flight. Based on the information obtained, it has been concluded that the operation of the Biosondes during the flight was similar to that observed in the laboratory. The experiment and equipment are described briefly and the flight results presented. PMID:11898833

  6. Ground based observations of the Cascades2 sounding rocket ionosphere - characterization and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, D. L.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Dahlgren, H.; Ivchenko, N. V.; Nicolls, M. J.; Lynch, K. A.; Mella, M. R.; Kintner, P. M.; Lundberg, E. T.; Lessard, M.; Jones, S.

    2009-12-01

    In support of the Cascades2 program (see Lynch et al. this session) multiple ground-based observatories were recording the auroral conditions on March 20, 2009. In addition to standard all-sky cameras at Poker Flat, Fort Yukon, Kaktovik and Toolik Lake, and meridian spectrographs at Poker Flat, Fort Yukon and Kaktovik, two sets of narrow-field cameras were deployed to Kaktovik and Toolik Lake specifically for the experiment. The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) was collecting ion and electron density, temperature and velocity profiles in the upleg region of the rocket trajectory. The geomagnetic conditions on March 20, 2009 showed very low activity prior to 10 UT, with a single narrowly defined arc nearly overhead at Fort Yukon (magnetic latitude ~67.3). At 10:15 the arc intensified, and split and showed increased activity with the active arcs drifting northward of Kaktovik (magnetic latitude ~70.8) as the rocket payload overflew the region at 11:10 to 11:15 UT. The increased activity produced only moderate currents with the ground magnetometers at Kaktovik and Fort Yukon recording 150 nT deflection in H. For a significant portion of the flight the rocket overflies a region where arcs are often not aligned along magnetic E-W which is consistent with alfvenic aurora associated with Poleward Boundary Intensifications. We present the characteristics of the ionosphere and auroral emissions along the trajectory of the rocket and how they correlate to the precipitation data recorded by the Cascades2 payload.

  7. The Polar Summer MLT Plasma Environment as Seen by the DROPPS Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assis, Michael P.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Webb, Phillip A.; Pesnell, William D.; Voss, H. D.

    2006-01-01

    During early July, 1999, the DROPPS (Distribution and Role of Particles in the Polar Summer Mesosphere) campaign launched two rocket payloads whose purpose was to study the polar summer MLT (mesosphere and lower thermosphere), particularly PMSEs (polar mesospheric summer echoes) and PMCs (polar mesospheric clouds). The rockets were launched from the Anderya Rocket Range in Norway the nights of the 5th and 14th of July. Both payloads included a front-mounted PID (Particle Impact Detector) consisting of charge and mass telescopes to measure aerosol and dust mass distributions. Ice particles of nanometer size are believed to be responsible for PMSEs through the process of electron scavenging. Evidence for this process is suggested, for example, by the presence of an electron "biteout" simultaneously measured by several instruments at an altitude of approx. 82 - 87km during the first DROPPS launch. This presentation will characterize similarities and differences between both flights as seen by the charge and mass telescopes, starting at launch until the loss of data on the downleg of each flight. Various stages of the flights will be considered in detail, such as the PMSE layer and the apogee at 117 km, as well as the calibration of the data before launch.

  8. The Polar Summer MLT Plasma Environment as seen by the DROPPS Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assis, Michael P.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Webb, Phillip; Pesnell, W. Dean; Voss, Henry D.

    2006-01-01

    During early July, 1999, the DROPPS (Distribution and Role of Particles in the Polar Summer Mesosphere) campaign launched two rocket payloads whose purpose was to study the polar summer MLT (mesosphere and lower thermosphere), particularly PMSEs (polar mesospheric summer echoes) and PMCs (polar mesospheric clouds). The rockets were launched from the And(\\o)ya Rocket Range in Norway the nights of the 5th and 14th of July. Both payloads included a front-mounted PID (Particle Impact Detector) consisting of charge and mass telescopes to measure aerosol and dust mass distributions. Ice particles of nanometer size are believed to be responsible for PMSEs through the process of electron scavenging. Evidence for this process is suggested, for example, by the presence of an electron "biteout" simultaneously measured by several instruments at an altitude of $\\sim$82-87 km during the first DROPPS launch. This presentation will characterize similarities and differences between both flights as seen by the charge and mass telescopes, starting at launch until the loss of data on the downleg of each flight. Various stages of the flights will be considered in detail, such as the PMSE layer and the apogee at 117 km, as well as the calibration of the data before launch.

  9. The Polar Summer MLT Plasma Environment as Seen by the DROPPS Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, M. P.; Goldberg, R. A.; Webb, P. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Voss, H. D.

    2006-12-01

    During early July, 1999, the DROPPS (Distribution and Role of Particles in the Polar Summer Mesosphere) campaign launched two rocket payloads whose purpose was to study the polar summer MLT (mesosphere and lower thermosphere), particularly PMSEs (polar mesospheric summer echoes) and PMCs (polar mesospheric clouds). The rockets were launched from the Andøya Rocket Range in Norway the nights of the 5th and 14th of July. Both payloads included a front-mounted PID (Particle Impact Detector) consisting of charge and mass telescopes to measure aerosol and dust mass distributions. Ice particles of nanometer size are believed to be responsible for PMSEs through the process of electron scavenging. Evidence for this process is suggested, for example, by the presence of an electron "biteout" simultaneously measured by several instruments at an altitude of ~82-87 km during the first DROPPS launch. This presentation will characterize similarities and differences between both flights as seen by the charge and mass telescopes, starting at launch until the loss of data on the downleg of each flight. Various stages of the flights will be considered in detail, such as the PMSE layer and the apogee at 117 km, as well as the calibration of the data before launch.

  10. [Build and Demonstrate a X-Ray Interferometer and Build and Fly a High Resolution Telescope on a Sounding Rocket}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report is written with eight months still go on the 36 month period of the grant. This grant, as originally proposed three years ago, was two pronged - to build and demonstrate a practical x-ray interferometer, and to build and fly a high resolution telescope on a sounding rocket. As we started into these projects, we received community feedback that led to our giving priority to the interferometer., The rocket would achieve O.2-arcsecond resolution that, while better, than that of Chandra, would, because of the limited signal of a sub-orbital flight, not be of substantially greater scientific use. The interferometry, on the other hand, shows the potential for many orders of magnitude improvement. For this reason we gave priority to the lab interferometry, and the building of the telescope lagged behind. With our new understanding (and practical demonstration) of how to build an interferometer, we changed the telescope design from spherical surfaces in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, to an interferometer with resolution between .005 and .05 arcseconds.

  11. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET DUST ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS IN THE UPPER SCORPIUS CLOUD USING THE SPINR SOUNDING ROCKET EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N. K.; Cook, T. A.; Wilton, K. P.; Chakrabarti, S.; France, K.; Gordon, K. D. E-mail: Kevin.France@colorado.ed

    2009-11-20

    The Spectrograph for Photometric Imaging with Numeric Reconstruction sounding rocket experiment was launched on 2000 August 4 to record far-ultraviolet (912-1450 A) spectral and spatial information for the giant reflection nebula in the Upper Scorpius region. The data were divided into three arbitrary bandpasses (912-1029 A, 1030-1200 A, and 1235-1450 A) for which stellar and nebular flux levels were derived. These flux measurements were used to constrain a radiative transfer model and to determine the dust albedo for the Upper Scorpius region. The resulting albedos were 0.28 +- 0.07 for the 912-1029 A bandpass, 0.33 +- 0.07 for the 1030-1200 A bandpass, and 0.77 +- 0.13 for the 1235-1450 A bandpass.

  12. X-Ray Radiographic Observation of Directional Solidification Under Microgravity: XRMON-GF Experiments on MASER12 Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, G.; NguyenThi, H.; Bogno, A.; Billia, B.; Houltz, Y.; Loth, K.; Voss, D.; Verga, A.; dePascale, F.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Zimmermann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) - Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme entitled XRMON (In situ X-Ray MONitoring of advanced metallurgical processes under microgravity and terrestrial conditions) aims to develop and perform in situ X-ray radiography observations of metallurgical processes in microgravity and terrestrial environments. The use of X-ray imaging methods makes it possible to study alloy solidification processes with spatio-temporal resolutions at the scales of relevance for microstructure formation. XRMON has been selected for MASER 12 sounding rocket experiment, scheduled in autumn 2011. Although the microgravity duration is typically six minutes, this short time is sufficient to investigate a solidification experiment with X-ray radiography. This communication will report on the preliminary results obtained with the experimental set-up developed by SSC (Swedish Space Corporation). Presented results dealing with directional solidification of Al-Cu confirm the great interest of performing in situ characterization to analyse dynamical phenomena during solidification processes.

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Observations of the Upper Chromosphere: First Results From the NRL VAULT Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C. M.; Dere, K. P.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    The Very high resolution Advanced ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT) is a new spectroscopic imaging instrument. The instrument was launched on May 7, 1999 as a sounding rocket payload. The goal of the first VAULT flight was to obtain sub-arcsecond images of the Sun in the light of Lya (1216 Å). VAULT directly imaged an active region plage, fliaments and the fine structures in the supergranule boundaries and network with the unprecented spatial resolution of 0.33 arcseconds. We present the VAULT images and the first results from the comparison of the Lya data to observations from other instruments and in particular with a sequence of TRACE 171 Å images taken during the VAULT flight.

  14. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Berendsen, Willem; Kerkvliet, Sonja; Narraway, Jenny

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we inted to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  15. Development and first flight of a sounding rocket payload to investigate the phenomena of rapidly varying space plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility has developed, flown, and recovered a unique plasma physics payload. This sounding rocket payload was developed to measure varying aspects of Alfven's critical velocity effect in a space plasma by using conical-shaped barium explosives. These measurements could possibly duplicate conditions that existed in the early solar system. This paper provides details of the payload and subpayload development, with specific emphasis on the extensive dynamic analysis of the barium release modules. Other key elements which are expanded on in the paper are: (1) design, development, and testing acceptance for the science/inertia booms using a viscous damping system for high spin rate deployment; (2) vehicle dynamic analysis; (3) apogee and impact dispersion analysis to satisfy the science and NASA safety requirements; (4) a comparison of predicted versus actual flight events.

  16. Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Hot Bubble X-Ray Emission with the DXL Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galeazzi, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lepri, S.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Prasai, K.; Robertson, I.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N. E.; Uprety, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) sounding rocket is a NASA approved mission with a scheduled first launch in December 2012. Its goal is to identify and separate the X-ray emission of the SWCX from that of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB) to improve our understanding of both. To separate the SWCX contribution from the LHB. DXL will use the SWCX signature due to the helium focusing cone at 1=185 deg, b=-18 deg, DXL uses large area propostionai counters, with an area of 1.000 sq cm and grasp of about 10 sq cm sr both in the 1/4 and 3/4 keY bands. Thanks to the large grasp, DXL will achieve in a 5 minule flight what cannot be achieved by current and future X-ray satellites.

  17. Measurement of DC Electric Field in the Midlatitude Ionosphere by S-520-23 Sounding Rocket Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Okada, T.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.

    2014-12-01

    S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments are carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC) in Japan at 19:20 LT on 2 September, 2007. The purpose of this experiment is the investigation of the process of momentum transportation between the atmospheres and the plasma in the thermosphere during the summer evening time at mid latitudes. The S-520-23 payload was equipped with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure both DC and AC less than 40Hz electric fields in the spin plane of the payload. One of the double probe is the inflatable structure antenna, called the SPINAR, with a length of 5m tip-to-tip. The SPINAR was the first successful use of an inflatable structure as a flight antenna. It extended and worked without any problems. Another one is the NEI type antenna with a length of 2m tip-to-tip. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifiers using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. The potential differences on the two main orthogonal axes were digitized on-board using 16-bit analog-digital converters, sampled at 400 samples/sec with low pass filters at cut-off frequency of 40Hz. We have investigated the DC electric field during the rocket ascent. And it was able to obtain the electric field vector in a geographic-coordinates system. The direction of DC electric field vector at altitude from 140km to 170km is seems to be dependent on the direction of a neutral wind in the ionosphere. And intensity of DC electric field is increasing at altitude more than 260km. Its direction is east. It is thought that the polarization electric field was observed in the region where the difference of the electron density was large after sunset. In this presentation, we will describe the result of investigation of the relationship between an electric field and ionospheric plasma in detail. Especially the dependence of the direction of electric field and the direction of the neutral

  18. Rocket-borne particle, field, and plasma observations in the cleft region. [ionospheric sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungstrup, E.; Bahnsen, A.; Olesen, J. K.; Primdahl, F.; Spangslev, F.; Heikkila, W. J.; Klumpar, D. M.; Winningham, J. D.; Fahleson, U.; Falthammar, C.-G.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for comprehensive observations of magnetic and electric fields together with ambient and suprathermal plasmas above the dayside auroral oval with rocket-borne instrumentation which penetrated the cleft region. Measurements were also obtained equatorward and poleward of the cleft. Convection velocities as inferred from electric-field measurements were generally toward noon equatorward of the cleft and were antisunward over the polar cap. Observations of electron temperatures, electric fields, and low-frequency electrostatic noise provide strong evidence of a plasma instability (Farley-Buneman) in the E-layer associated with the appearance of the 'slant E condition' identified in ground-acquired ionograms. The positions of these measurements relative to that of the cleft were firmly established via the determination of the plasma environment with an electrostatic analyzer.

  19. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  20. Searches for Decaying Sterile Neutrinos with the X-Ray Quantum Calorimeter Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, David; XQC Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Rocket borne X-ray spectrometers can produce high-resolution spectra for wide field-of-view observations. This is useful in searches for dark matter candidates that produce X-ray lines in the Milky Way, such as decaying keV scale sterile neutrinos. In spite of exposure times and effective areas that are significantly smaller than satellite observatories, similar sensitivity to decaying sterile neutrinos can be attained due to the high spectral resolution and large field of view. We present recent results of such a search analyzing the telemetered data from the 2011 flight of the X-Ray Quantum Colorimeter instrument as well as ongoing progress in expanding the data set to include the more complete onboard data over additional flights.

  1. INTER ZODIAC: A sounding rocket project for high resolution of EUV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G.; Boison, M.; Henkel, R.

    1983-06-01

    A Skylark rocket-borne helium and hydrogen resonance cell EUV photometer for high resolution spectral analysis of He-I 58.4 nm and H 121.6 nm radiation is described. Measuring cells, gas supply system, and baffle system are accommodated in the top payload section and covered by a split nose cone during ascent. Two of the cells can be connected alternatively to one of the main baffles by a controlled deflecting mirror unit. The combined instruction/attitude control system (ACS) and the pneumatic section are attached to the experiment section. During acquisition of the Sun by the ACS in the ascent, there are measurements in positions near the ecliptic. This is followed in the apogee by a circular scan round the Sun. In the descent there is a similar program.

  2. Examinations of structured dispersive features of auroral HF waves observed with sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, Christopher A.

    Earth's high latitude ionosphere, highly disturbed by particle and energy inputs and associated aurora, is the stage for plasma wave activity across a wide range of frequencies. These waves often exhibit strikingly distinct time-frequency structure which can have relatively direct explanations based on the dispersion relations of the appropriate normal modes of the plasma. Hence, they present an opportunity to confirm basic plasma physics. Moreover, once a physical explanation is proven for these emissions, it is often possible to exploit the structured waves to either measure characteristics of the local plasma or remotely sense characteristics of plasmas through which the waves have propagated. Identifying the wavemode of observed emissions is the first step in characterizing them. This thesis develops a novel technique to constrain the mode of observed emissions by taking advantage of the orientation of the electric field sensors. In addition, auroral rocket observations of two structured emissions having distinct frequency-time patterns, "swishers" and "stripes," are investigated. Ray-tracing and growth rate calculations provide effective tests of the mode identification and possible generating mechanisms of these emissions. Lastly, rocket observations of waveform statistics and spectra of short intense bursts of Langmuir waves in the polar cusp ionosphere reveal information about the modulation of these waves and the density fluctuations in which they arise. Taken together, the observations of these dispersed features and the development of new techniques to constrain their modes and identify their generation mechanisms presented in this thesis add to our existing knowledge of the auroral ionosphere and show promise in remote sensing plasma characteristics elsewhere in the Earth's magnetosphere and beyond.

  3. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  4. Snapshot imaging spectroscopy of the solar transition region: The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) sounding rocket mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, James Lewis

    We have developed a revolutionary spectroscopic technique for solar research in the extreme ultraviolet. This slitless spectrographic technique allows snapshot imaging spectroscopy with data exactly cotemporal and cospectral. I have contributed to the successful realization of an application of this technique in the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, MOSES . This instrument launched 2006 Feb 8 as a NASA sounding rocket payload and successfully returned remarkable data of the solar transition region in the He II 304Å spectral line. The unique design of this spectrometer allows the study of transient phenomena in the solar atmosphere, with spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution heretofore unachievable in concert, over a wide field of view. The fundamental concepts behind the MOSES spectrometer are broadly applicable to many solar spectral lines and phenomena and the instrument thus represents a new instrumentation technology. The early fruits of this labor are here reported: the first scientific discovery with the MOSES sounding rocket instrument, our observation of a transition region explosive event, phenomena observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548Å 1550Å) and Si IV (1393Å, 1402Å). This explosive event is the first seen in He II 304Å. With our novel slitless imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial structure of the event. We observe a bright core expelling two jets that are distinctly non-collinear, in directions that are not anti-parallel, in contradiction to standard models of explosive events, which give collinear jets. The jets have sky-plane velocities of order 75 km s -1 and line-of-sight velocities of +75 km s-1 (blue) and -30 km s-1 (red). The core is a region of high non-thermal doppler broadening, characteristic of explosive events, with maximal broadening 380 km s-1 FWHM. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components of maximum doppler

  5. Undergraduate Student-built Experiments in Sounding-Rocket and Balloon Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Christian, J. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Lindon, M.; Lusk, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Space physics and aerospace engineering experiments are becoming readily accessible to STEM undergraduates. A number of ionospheric physics experiments and guidance and navigation components were designed, built, integrated, and tested by STEM students at West Virginia University in the 2013-2014 academic year. A main payload was flown on NASA's annual RockSat-C two-stage rocket launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Chincoteague, VA on the morning of June 26, 2014. A high-altitude balloon with a reduced payload was released from Bruceton Mills, WV, prior to the rocket and reached 30,054 m. The geographic distance between the two launch points is small compared to the footprint of geomagnetic and solar-terrestrial disturbances. Aerospace sensors provided flight profiles for each of the two platforms. Daytime E region electron density was measured via a Langmuir probe as a function of altitude from 90 km to the apogee of 117 km. Geomagnetic activity was low (Dst>-7 nT, AE<500 nT) so geomagnetic disturbances were probably due to solar quiet (Sq) currents. Earlier solar wind activity included two high-plasma-density regions measured by NASA's ACE which impacted the magnetosphere producing two sudden impulses at midlatitudes (Dst=+19 and +13 nT). In an airglow experiment, the altitude range of the sodium layer was estimated to be 75-110 km based on in situ measurements of the D2emission line intensity. Acceleration, rotation-rate, and magnetic-field data are useful in reconstructing the trajectory and flight dynamics of the two vehicles and comparing with video from onboard cameras. Participation in RockSat and similar programs is useful in ushering space science and spaceflight concepts in the classroom and lab experience of STEM undergraduates. Lectures, homework, and progress reports were used to connect advanced topics of Earth's space environment and spaceflight to the students' core courses. In several cases the STEM students were guided by graduate students

  6. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  7. Guidance, navigation & control systems for sounding rockets - flight results, current status and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2005-08-01

    At the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rockets and Balloons, two newly developed guidance and control systems by Saab Ericsson Space were presented: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. These two and the third recent system, the DS19, were developed as replacements for the analog S19 and the GCS/RIINS, both of which use very old technology. The design drivers or the DS19, the S19D and the GCS/DMARS are: User requirements. New technology with improved performance capability becoming available. Current technology becoming old and replacement parts hard to come by. This paper first lists some guidance related user requirements, and then discusses the performance that has been achieved in the various guidance systems, including the S19, for comparison. This is first done from a theoretical point of view and then by analyzing actual flight data. The ability of the systems to fulfil the user requirements is also discussed and finally, a look is taken into the future.

  8. DC electric field measurement in the mid-latitude ionosphere by S-520-26 sounding rocket in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaka, K.; Suda, K.; Sugai, M.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2012-12-01

    S-520-26 sounding rocket experiment was carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC) in Japan at 5:51 JST on 12 January, 2012. The purpose of this experiment is the investigation of the bonding process between the atmospheres and the plasma in the thermosphere. S-520-26 sounding rocket reached to an altitude of 298 km 278 seconds after a launch. The S-520-26 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure both DC and AC less than 200 Hz electric fields in the spin plane of the payload by using the double probe method. One of the probes is the inflatable tube structure antenna, called the ITA, with a length of 5 m (tip-to-tip). And ITA is very lightweight (12.5g per one boom). The ITA extended and worked without any problems. It was the first successful use of an inflatable structure as a flight antenna. Another one is the ribbon antenna with a length of 2 m (tip-to-tip). The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifiers using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. The potential differences on the two main orthogonal axes were digitized on-board using 16-bit analog-digital converter, sampled at 800 samples/sec with low pass filter at cut-off frequency of 200 Hz. Results of DC electric fields measured by the EFD have the large sine waves that result from the payload rotation at the spin period. The largest contribution to the electric field measurements by double probes moving through the ionosphere at mid-latitudes is that due to the v x B fields created by their motion across the ambient magnetic field, where v is the rocket velocity in the Earth-fixed reference frame and B is the ambient magnetic field. The sum of the squares of the two components represents the magnitude of the DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. These data reveal abrupt, large-scale variations which can immediately be attributed

  9. Absolute solar 30.4 nm flux from sounding rocket observations during the solar cycle 23 minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Darrell L.; McMullin, Donald R.; Ogawa, Howard S.

    A transmission grating extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer, nominally identical to the Charge, Element, and Isotope Analysis System/Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), has obtained accurate measurements of the integrated absolute solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance in an 8 nm band pass centered at 30.4 nm. The spectrometer also measured the EUV/soft X-ray flux, but those data will be reported in a later paper. The instrument was launched on two sounding rocket flights from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on June 26, 1996, and again on August 11, 1997, to provide a SOHO underflight calibration database in the EUV. The full disk solar 30.4+/-40nm fluxes measured by it on the above 2 days were 1.21×1010 and 1.42×1010 photons cm-2 s-1 at 1 AU, respectively. These measurements have an absolute 1σ uncertainty of 8.1%.

  10. Miniaturized Imager for Low Energy Neutral Atoms (MILENA) Flown Feb. 7, 2013 on the VISIONS Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, J.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Rowland, D. E.; Kujawski, J. T.; Chornay, D. J.; Dobson, N.; Rozmarynowski, P.; Simms, K.; Pfaff, R. F.; Clemmons, J.; Hecht, J. H.; Lemon, C.; Klenzing, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two MILENA imagers flown during the VISIONS (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) Mission imaged energetic neutral atoms (ENA's) during the onset of an auroral substorm, Feb. 7, 2013. MILENA imagers are high energy resolution top-hat analyzers that use a polished tungsten venetian-blind assembly to convert ENA's into ions that are then energy analyzed via an electrostatic toroidal deflection analyzer. An ENA energy spectrum in the range 0.01 to 10 keV can be acquired. The top-hat analyzer enables a 360 degree field-of-view incorporating 6 individual sectors to spatially resolve active regions with an azimuthal span of approximately 10 degrees. The evaluation of the instrument sensitivity as a function of the effective geometric factor will be discussed. By design, the MILENA instruments minimize background from UV photons and rejects ions and electrons. The small size, low weight and power requirements makes MILENA ideal for sounding rocket missions, and an important flight instrument for advancing planetary science.

  11. Successful demonstration of a compact laser-pumped vector helium magnetometer on the Daytime Dynamo sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Pierce, D.; Dawson, O.; Bernal, I.; Leinweber, H. K.; Shaffer, C.; Plaschke, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Daytime Dynamo sounding rocket mission is a Goddard Space Flight Center led experiment (PI, Rob Pfaff) to study the dayside ionospheric dynamo with a suite of instruments that measure electromagnetic fields, upper atmospheric winds, and the ambient charged and neutral particle populations. Two Dynamo launches have taken place, the first on July 10th, 2011, the second on July 4th 2013. The primary objective of the mission is to determine the constituents of the dynamo current equation and to determine the degree to which the dynamo current is sustained via neutral winds, DC electric fields, or both. Dynamo carries a magnetometer developed by a JPL/UCLA collaboration that measures the vector magnetic field, and from its variation with altitude, allows us to deduce the horizontal current density. The low-mass instrument uses a laser pumped helium sensor developed at JPL, combined with digital electronics based on recent developments in fluxgate magnetometer electronics at UCLA. We will present an overview of the magnetometer design and the instrument performance.

  12. Validation of the radiation pattern of the VHF MST radar MAARSY by scattering off a sounding rocket's payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renkwitz, T.; Schult, C.; Latteck, R.; Stober, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) is a monostatic radar with an active phased array antenna designed for studies of phenomena in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Its design, in particular the flexible beam forming and steering capability, makes it a powerful instrument to perform observations with high angular and temporal resolution. For the configuration and analysis of experiments carried out with the radar it is essential to have knowledge of the actual radiation pattern. Therefore, during the time since the radar was put into operation various active and passive experiments have been performed to gain knowledge of the radiation pattern. With these experiments the beam pointing accuracy, the beam width and phase distribution of the antenna array were investigated. Here, the use of a sounding rocket and its payload as a radar target is described which was launched in the proximity of the radar. The analysis of these observations allows the detailed investigation of the two-way radiation pattern for different antenna array sizes and beam pointing positions.

  13. In-situ detection of noctilucent cloud particles by the Colorado Dust Detectors onboard the PHOCUS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Robertson, S.; Dickson, S.; Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Strelnikov, B.; Asmus, H.; Havnes, O.

    2014-10-01

    The Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere (PHOCUS) sounding rocket campaign is a payload that carried multiple in-situ instruments for the detection of charged icy particles of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The PHOCUS payload was launched on July 21st, 2011 and carried 18 scientific instruments. Three of these instruments were dedicated to the detection of the charged aerosol particles. All three instruments detected a narrow ice layer at around 81.5 km altitude. The Colorado Dust Detectors (CDDs) collected the net charge from the impact of aerosol particles on two graphite surfaces mounted flush with the payload skin. A combination of a small bias potential and permanent magnets were used to suppress the collection of plasma particles. The efficiency of the magnetic shielding improves with increasing altitude where there are fewer scattering collisions with neutrals. The data analysis shows that the net collected current can be decomposed into contributions from photoelectron emission, plasma electrons and ions, and the aerosol particles. The results show that the current corresponding to the collection of aerosol particles is positive, which is due to secondary charging effects.

  14. Atomic oxygen and temperature in the lower thermosphere from the O-STATES sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Stegman, Jacek; Seo, Mikael; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Slanger, Tom; Kalogerakis, Konstantinos; Friedrich, Martin; Torkar, Klaus; Eberhart, Martin; Löhle, Stefan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    In October 2015 the O-STATES payload was launched twice from Esrange Space Center (67.9° N, 21.1° E) in northern Sweden, first into moderately disturbed and then into calm geomagnetic conditions. The basic idea of O-STATES ("Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky") is that comprehensive information on the composition, specifically atomic oxygen in the ground state O(3P) and first excited state O(1D), and temperature of the lower thermosphere can be obtained from a limited set of optical measurements. Starting point for the analysis are daytime measurements of the O2(b1 ∑ g+ ‑ X3 ∑ g‑) Atmospheric Band system in the spectral region 755-780 nm and the O(1D-3P) Red Line at 630 nm. In the daytime lower thermosphere, O(1D) is produced by O2 photolysis and the excited O2(b) state is mainly produced by energy transfer from O(1D) to the O2(X) ground state. In addition to O2 photolysis, both electron impact on O(3P) and dissociative recombination of O2+ are major sources of O(1D) in the thermosphere. Laboratory studies at SRI International have shown that O2(b) production in vibrational level v=1 dominates. While O2(b, v=0) is essentially unquenched, O2(b, v=1) is subject to collisional quenching that is dominated by O at altitudes above 160 km. Hence, the ratio of the Atmospheric Band emission from O2(b, v=1) and O2(b, v=0) is a measure of the O density at sufficiently high altitudes. In addition, the spectral shape of the O2 Atmospheric Band is temperature dependent and spectrally resolved measurements of the Atmospheric Bands thus provide a measure of atmospheric temperature. This O2 Atmospheric Band analysis has been suggested as a new technique for thermospheric remote sensing under the name Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) Mapping. With O-STATES we want to characterize the GOAT technique by in-situ analysis of the O2 Atmospheric Band airglow and the underlying excitation mechanisms. By performing this dayglow analysis from a rocket

  15. High-Reflectivity Multi-Layer Coatings for the CLASP Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Giono, Gabriel; Auchere, Frederic; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Tsuneta, Saku

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman alpha line (Ly alpha line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly alpha lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approximately 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly alpha line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly alpha line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (greater than 50%) in Ly alpha line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (less than 5%) (cold mirror coating) was applied to the primary mirror. On the other hand, the efficiency of the polarization analyzer required chromospheric magnetic field measurement (the amount of light) Conventional (magnesium fluoride has long been known as a material for vacuum ultraviolet (MgF2) manufactured ellipsometer; Rs = 22%) about increased to 2.5 times were high efficiency reflective polarizing element analysis. This device, Bridou et al

  16. Far-ultraviolet observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with a sounding-rocket-borne instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, P.; McCandliss, S.; Weaver, H.; Fleming, B.; Redwine, K.; Li, M.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, S.

    2014-07-01

    We report on a far-ultraviolet observation of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made from a Black Brant IX sounding rocket that was launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, when the comet was 0.44 au from the Sun, 0.86 au from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3 degrees pre-perihelion. At the time of launch the comet was 0.1 degrees below ground horizon. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. The sounding rocket borne instrument was our wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), which is a Gregorian telescope (concave primary and secondary optics) with a triaxial figured diffractive secondary that provides an on-axis imaging channel and two off-axis spectral channels in a common focal plane. A multi-object spectroscopic capability is provided by an array of microshutters placed at the prime focus of the telescope. Our microshutter array (MSA) is based on prototype devices of the large area arrays developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use in the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The imaging channel on FORTIS has a field-of-view (FOV) of 0.5 degrees square. The MSA allows selection of up to 43 individual regions, each with a solid angle of 12.4'' × 36.9'', for spectral acquisition over the 800--1950 Ångstroms bandpass at a resolution of 6 Ångstroms. However a problem with addressing the MSA prevented the acquisition of spectra through individual slits. Nonetheless spectrally confused images, dominated by Lyman-alpha emission from the comet, were acquired in both off-axis spectral channels. The imaging channel uses a CaF_2/MgF_2 cylindrical doublet to correct for astigmatism introduced by the triaxial secondary, which restricts the bandpass to wavelengths longward of 1280 Ångstroms. The corrected imaging resolution is

  17. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  18. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

    2012-01-01

    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  19. Measuring the seeds of ion outflow: auroral sounding rocket observations of low-altitude ion heating and circulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Cohen, I. J.; Conde, M.; Fisher, L. E.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M. R.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Here, we present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure E→xB→ convection away from the arc (poleward) andmore » downflows of hundreds of m s-1 poleward of this arc, indicating small-scale low-altitude plasma circulation. In the early flight we observe DC electromagnetic Poynting flux and associated ELF wave activity influencing the thermal ion temperature in regions of Alfvénic aurora. We observe enhanced, anisotropic ion temperatures which we conjecture are caused by transverse heating by wave-particle interactions (WPI) even at these low altitudes. Throughout this region we observe several hundred m s-1 upflow of the bulk thermal ions colocated with WPI; however, the mirror force is negligible at these low energies; thus, the upflow is attributed to ambipolar fields (or possibly neutral upwelling drivers). Moreover, the low-altitude MICA observations serve to inform future ionospheric modeling and simulations of (a) the need to consider the effects of heating by WPI at altitudes lower than previously considered viable and (b) the occurrence of structured and localized upflows/downflows below where higher-altitude heating rocesses are expected.« less

  20. Measuring the seeds of ion outflow: Auroral sounding rocket observations of low-altitude ion heating and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Cohen, I. J.; Conde, M.; Fisher, L. E.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M. R.; Miceli, R. J.; Michell, R. G.; Moen, J.; Powell, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure E→×B→ convection away from the arc (poleward) and downflows of hundreds of m s-1 poleward of this arc, indicating small-scale low-altitude plasma circulation. In the early flight we observe DC electromagnetic Poynting flux and associated ELF wave activity influencing the thermal ion temperature in regions of Alfvénic aurora. We observe enhanced, anisotropic ion temperatures which we conjecture are caused by transverse heating by wave-particle interactions (WPI) even at these low altitudes. Throughout this region we observe several hundred m s-1 upflow of the bulk thermal ions colocated with WPI; however, the mirror force is negligible at these low energies; thus, the upflow is attributed to ambipolar fields (or possibly neutral upwelling drivers). The low-altitude MICA observations serve to inform future ionospheric modeling and simulations of (a) the need to consider the effects of heating by WPI at altitudes lower than previously considered viable and (b) the occurrence of structured and localized upflows/downflows below where higher-altitude heating rocesses are expected.

  1. Alterations in protein expression of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during hyper- , simulated and sounding rocket micro-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Babbick, Maren; Magel, Elisabeth; Nordheim, Alfred; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Hampp, Ruediger

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to hypergravity (8g), 2D clinorotation and random positioning exhibit changes in gene expression (Martzivanou et al., Protoplasma 229:155-162, 2003). In a recent investigation we could show that after 2 hrs of exposure also the protein complement shows treatment-related changes. These are indicative for reactive oxygen species being involved in the perception of / response to changes in the gravitational field. In the present study we have extended these investigations for a period of up to 16 hrs of exposure. We report on changes in abundance of 28 proteins which have been identified by nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and which were altered in amount after 2 hrs of treatment. According to changes between 2 and 16 hrs we could distinguish four groups of proteins which either declined, increased from down-regulated to control levels, showed a transient decline or a transient increase. With regard to function, our data indicate stress relief or adaption to a new gravitational steady state under prolonged exposure. The latter assumption is supported by the appearance of a new set of 19 proteins which is changed in abundance after 8 hrs of hypergravity. A comparative analysis of the different treatments showed some similarities in response between 8g centrifugation and 2D clinorotation, while random positioning showed the least responses. In addition, we report on the impact of reduced gravitation on the phospho proteom. Cell cultures exposed to 12 min of microgravity as obtained on board of sounding rockets do not respond with alterations in total protein but in the degree of phosphorylation as demonstrated after 2D SDS PAGE separation and sequencing. On this basis we give evidence for signaling cascades involved in the transduction of gravitational signals.

  2. In-situ studies of plasma irregularities in high latitude ionosphere with the ICI-2 sounding rocket within the 4DSpace project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloch, Wojciech; Moen, Joran; Spicher, Andres

    Ionospheric plasma is often characterized by irregularities, instabilities, and turbulence. Two regions of the ionospheric F-layer are of particular interest: low-latitudes for the equatorial anomaly and electrojet, and high-latitude regions where the most dynamic phenomena occur due to magnetic field lines coupling to the magnetosphere and the solar wind. The spectra of plasma fluctuations in the low-latitude F-layer usually exhibit a power law with a steeper slope at high frequencies [1]. Until recently, there was no clear evidence of the corresponding double slope spectra for plasma fluctuations in the high latitude ionospheric F-layer, and this difference was not well understood. We report the first direct observations of the double slope power spectra for plasma irregularities in the F-layer of the polar ionosphere [2]. The ICI-2 sounding rocket, which intersected enhanced plasma density regions with decameter scale irregularities in the cusp region, measured the electron density with unprecedented high resolution. This allowed for a detailed study of the plasma irregularities down to kinetic scales. Spectral analysis reveals double slope power spectra for regions of enhanced fluctuations associated mainly with density gradients, with the steepening of the spectra occurring close to the oxygen gyro-frequency. The double slope spectra are further supported by the results from the ICI-3 sounding rocket. Double slope spectra were not resolved in previous works presumably due to limited resolution of instruments. The study is a part of the 4DSpace initiative for integrated studies of the ionospheric plasma turbulence with multi-point, multi-scale in-situ studies by sounding rockets and satellites, and numerical and analytical models. A brief overview of the 4DSpace initiative is given. [1] M.C. Kelley, The Earth’s Ionosphere Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics (Elsevier, Amsterdam 2009). [2] A. Spicher, W. J. Miloch, and J. I. Moen, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, (in

  3. DXL: A Sounding Rocket Mission for the Study of Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Hot Bubble X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galeazzi, M.; Prasai, K.; Uprety, Y.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Koutroumpa, D.; Porter, F. S.; Snowden, S.; Cravens, T.; Robertson, I.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lepri, S.; McCammon, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Diffuse X-rays from the Local galaxy (DXL) mission is an approved sounding rocket project with a first launch scheduled around December 2012. Its goal is to identify and separate the X-ray emission generated by solar wind charge exchange from that of the local hot bubble to improve our understanding of both. With 1,000 square centimeters proportional counters and grasp of about 10 square centimeters sr both in the 1/4 and 3/4 keV bands, DXL will achieve in a 5-minute flight what cannot be achieved by current and future X-ray satellites.

  4. Simultaneous Observations of Electric Fields, Current Density, Plasma Density, and Neutral Winds During Two Sounding Rocket Experiments Launched from Wallops Island into Strong Daytime Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Martin, S. C.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Hurd, L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fish, C. S.; Bullett, T. W.; Mabie, J. J.; Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bernal, I.; Chi, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the ion-neutral coupling that creates the global electrical daytime "dynamo" currents in the mid-latitude, lower ionosphere, NASA carried out two multiple sounding rocket experiments from Wallops Island, VA on July 10, 2011 (14:00 UT, 10:00 LT) and July 4, 2013 (14:31 UT, 10:31 LT). The rockets were launched in the presence of well-defined, westward Hall currents observed on the ground with ΔH values of ­-25 nT and -30 nT, respectively, as well as a well-defined, daytime ionospheric density observed by the VIPIR ionosonde at Wallops. During the 2011 experiment, a narrow, intense sporadic-E layer was observed near 102 km. Each experiment consisted of a pair of rockets launched 15 sec apart. The first rocket of each pair carried instruments to measure DC electric and magnetic fields, as well as the ambient plasma and neutral gases and attained apogees of 158 km and 135 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. The second rocket of each pair carried canisters which released a lithium vapor trail along the upleg to illuminate neutral winds in the upper atmosphere. This daytime vapor trail technology was developed jointly by researchers at JAXA and Clemson University. In the second experiment, the lithium release was clearly visible in cameras with infrared filters operated by US and Japanese researchers in a NASA airplane at 9.6 km altitude. The observed wind profiles reached speeds of 100 m/s with strong shears with respect to altitude and were consistent with an independent derivation of the wind from the ionization gauge sensor suite on the instrumented rocket. The "vapor trail" rockets, which also included a falling sphere, attained apogees of 150 km and 143 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. By measuring the current density, conductivity, DC electric fields, and neutral winds, we solve the dynamo equation as a function of altitude, revealing the different contributions to the lower E-region currents. We find that the DC

  5. In-situ observations of mesospheric aerosol particles and their impact on the D-region charge balance: Highlights from the ECOMA sounding rocket program (2006 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, M.; Friedrich, M.; Strelnikov, B.; Hoppe, U.; Plane, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the years 2006 - 2010 a total of 9 sounding rockets was successfully launched in the scope of the Norwegian-German ECOMA (= Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere) project. While the primary target of these observations was the characterization of the properties of meteoric smoke particles (MSP), both MSP and mesospheric ice particles in the vicinity of the cold polar summer mesopause were investigated. This presentation gives an overview of the major results of this project covering subjects such as the charging properties of MSP and ice particles, the impact of this charging process on the D-region charge balance, and the microphysical properties of the MSP. Concerning the latter, emphasis is spent on the most recent results from a campaign in December 2010 during which two sounding rockets were launched with improved particle detectors that were designed to provide constraints on the photoelectric work function of the particles. These experimental results are further discussed on the basis of quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic structure of cluster molecules which are likely candidates for MSP. These calculations allow a tentative interpretation of the observations in terms of MSP size and altitude variations as well as their photoelectric properties.

  6. Principal investigators data package for Project Initiation Conference (PIC): EUVS sounding rocket no. 36.117CL. Target: Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1993-01-01

    The region of the UV between 500 and 1200 A is a rich one for the study of planetary and astrophysical targets. EUV atmospheric spectroscopy opens up an important window on ion and neutral nitrogen, oxygen, and noble gas emissions. In this document we describe the specific scientific background and motivations for this Venus EUV rocket observation along with experiment design and mission parameters.

  7. Winds and Ion Drifts Measured in the Thermospheric Footprint of Earth's Northern Magnetic Cusp During the C-REX Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, M.; Larsen, M. F.; Hampton, D.; Dhadly, M. S.; Ahrns, M. J.; Aruliah, A. L.; Kakinami, Y.; Barker, B.; Kiene, A.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report here on neutral wind and ion drift measurements recorded during the November 24, 2014, "C-REX" sounding rocket mission into the thermosphere beneath Earth's northern geomagnetic cusp. The rocket released ten tracer clouds, each comprised of a mixture of barium and strontium, at altitudes between 190 and 400 km. The clouds were created by launching rocket-propelled "grenades" at high velocity out from the parent payload, and were dispersed across a 3D volume extending over many tens of km around the main trajectory. Cameras located at Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, and aboard an aircraft stationed north of Bear Island were used to image the tracer clouds and to triangulate on their position and 3D motion. Sunlight striking the clouds ionized the barium within a few tens of seconds, whereas the strontium remained neutral. We were thus able to independently measure the flow velocity of both neutrals and ions at the release locations. Here we will present high-resolution maps of the tracer cloud motion, along with the resulting estimates of neutral and ion flow velocities. These results show very substantial ion-neutral velocity differences: the ions' drift direction was roughly perpendicular to that of the neutrals, while the magnitude of their velocity difference was of order 500 meters per second. Combining these data with ground-based measurements of temperature and electron density allows us to estimate that the specific power density for Joule heating at heights above 200 km was very substantial during the time of this experiment. If such Joule heating is typical, it is very likely to play a major role in establishing the (currently poorly understood) permanent enhancements in the neutral mass density of Earth's thermosphere in the geomagnetic cusp regions at altitudes of around 400 km.

  8. The Sub-arcsecond Structure Of The Upper Chromosphere: Results From The 2nd Flight Of The Nrl Vault Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Andrade Nuno, Bruno; Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Very high Angular resolution ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT) is an Lya spectroheliograph flown on a sounding rocket. The payload is capable of obtaining Lya filtergrams with a spatial resolution of around 0.33'' ( 200 km) over an extended field of view (535'' x 235'') . The instrument is tuned to the Ly-a line because it forms at the boundary of the upper chromosphere low corona. On its last flight, on 14 June 2002, VAULT observed an area around NOAA AR 9997 & 9998 with a rich variety of features: quiet Sun network, limb spicules, filaments, prominences and plage. The observing campaign incorporated a wide variety of ground-based and space-borne instruments. The level 0.9 VAULT data is open and available from http://wwwsolar.nrl.navy.mil/rockets/vault .We have recently releseased SolarSoft-compatible software for easy access and processing of the data. This contribution showcases the data capabilities and availability. We present contrast-enhanced images by means of wavelet image processing. The images reveal in extraordinary detail the dynamics of the smallest solar scales (200-300 km). We observe flows along thin threads on the prominence, exploding events on the plage and even in the quiet sun regions.

  9. A digital-type fluxgate magnetometer using a sigma-delta digital-to-analog converter for a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Kyosuke; Matsuoka, Ayako

    2014-07-01

    One of the design challenges for future magnetospheric satellite missions is optimizing the mass, size, and power consumption of the instruments to meet the mission requirements. We have developed a digital-type fluxgate (DFG) magnetometer that is anticipated to have significantly less mass and volume than the conventional analog-type. Hitherto, the lack of a space-grade digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with good accuracy has prevented the development of a high-performance DFG. To solve this problem, we developed a high-resolution DAC using parts whose performance was equivalent to existing space-grade parts. The developed DAC consists of a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta modulator and a fourth-order analog low-pass filter. We tested the performance of the DAC experimentally and found that it had better than 17-bits resolution in 80% of the measurement range, and the linearity error was 2-13.3 of the measurement range. We built a DFG flight model (in which this DAC was embedded) for a sounding rocket experiment as an interim step in the development of a future satellite mission. The noise of this DFG was 0.79 nTrms at 0.1-10 Hz, which corresponds to a roughly 17-bit resolution. The results show that the sigma-delta DAC and the DFG had a performance that is consistent with our optimized design, and the noise was as expected from the noise simulation. Finally, we have confirmed that the DFG worked successfully during the flight of the sounding rocket.

  10. A Sounding Rocket Investigation of the Fine Structure in the Mesopause Region in Conjunction with High Spatial Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    The grant funds were provided to carry out chemical tracer wind and turbulence measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as part of the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing Experiment (TOMEX) for which Dr. James Hecht of the Aerospace Corp. was the Principal Investigator. Clemson University designed, built, and tested two chemical tracer release payload sections for the 21.126 and 21.127 payloads which, in addition, had photometer and ionization gauge instrumentation. The tracer chemical was trimethyl aluminum (TMA). The experiment was carried out at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on October 26,2000. The location was chosen because of the proximity to the Starfire Optical Range (SOR) which hosted the powerful University of Illinois sodium lidar for an extended period prior to and also during the launch window. Since the SOR telescope is fully steerable, lidar measurements in the same volume sampled by the rocket were possible. The primary objective of the experiment was to measure the turbulent diffusion and mixing in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, especially in layers characterized by convective and/or dynamical instabilities. The lidar, which is capable of measuring the sodium density, temperatures, and winds with good range and time resolution, provided the launch criteria, as well as context measurements for the in situ rocket observations.

  11. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  12. Ground and flight test program of a Stokes-flow parachute: Packaging, deployment, and sounding rocket integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederer, P. G.; Mihora, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The current design and hardware components of the patented 14 sqm Stokes flow parachute are described. The Stokes-flow parachute is a canopy of open mesh material, which is kept deployed by braces. Because of the light weight of its mesh material, and the high drag on its mesh elements when they operate in the Stokes-flow flight regime, this parachute has an extremely low ballistic coefficient. It provides a stable aerodynamic platform superior to conventional nonporous billowed parachutes, is exceptionally packable, and is easily contained within the canister of the Sidewinder Arcas or the RDT and E rockets. Thus, it offers the potential for gathering more meteorological data, especially at high altitudes, than conventional billowed parachutes. Methods for packaging the parachute are also recommended. These methods include schemes for folding the canopy and for automatically releasing the pressurizing fluid as the packaged parachute unfolds.

  13. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  14. Development of a Low-cost, FPGA-based, Delay Line Particle Detector for Satellite and Sounding Rocket Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, M.; Kujawski, J. T.; Adrian, M. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Electrons are, by definition, a fundamental, chemical and electromagnetic constituent of any plasma. This is especially true within the partially ionized plasmas of Earth's ionosphere where electrons are a critical component of a vast array of plasma processes. Siena College is working on a novel method of processing information from electron spectrometer anodes using delay line techniques and inexpensive COTS electronics to track the movement of high-energy particles. Electron spectrometers use a variety of techniques to determine where an amplified electron cloud falls onto a collecting surface. One traditional method divides the collecting surface into sectors and uses a single detector for each sector. However, as the angular and spatial resolution increases, so does the number of detectors, increasing power consumption, cost, size, and weight of the system. An alternative approach is to connect each sector with a delay line built within the PCB material which is shielded from cross talk by a flooded ground plane. Only one pair of detectors (e.g., one at each end of the chain) are needed with the delay line technique which is different from traditional delay line detectors which use either Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or very fast clocks. In this paper, we report on the implementation and testing of a delay line detector using a low-cost Xilinx FPGA and a thirty-two sector delay system. This Delay Line Detector has potential satellite and rocket flight applications due to its low cost, small size and power efficiency

  15. ALTAIR Radar Plasma Drifts and in situ Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements on Two Sounding Rockets and the C/NOFS Satellite in the Low Latitude Ionosphere at Sunset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Pfaff, Robert; Rowland, Douglas; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Freudenreich, Henry

    2016-07-01

    We present ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar plasma drifts and in situ electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density measurements made simultaneously with probes on two sounding rockets and the C/NOFS satellite in the low latitude ionosphere in the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll. The coincident data were gathered during sunset conditions prior to a spread-F event during the NASA EVEX Campaign. The sounding rocket apogees were 180 km and 330 km, while the C/NOFS altitude in this region was ~ 390 km. Electric field data from all three platforms display upwards vertical plasma drifts, while the zonal drifts change direction as a function of altitude and/or local time. The variable drifts provide evidence of a dynamic plasma environment which may contribute to the unstable conditions necessary for spread-F instabilities to form.

  16. An investigation of the unexpected attitude dynamics experienced by the OEDIPUS-A tethered sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, G.; Han, R. P. S.; Berry, T. G.

    1991-05-01

    On 30 January 1989, the OEDIPUS-A Canadian scientific research rocket was launched. The payload, weighing some 265 kg, actually consisted of two payloads, referred to as the forward and aft payloads, each with their own complement of scientific instruments, control, power, and telemetry systems. An essential scientific requirement was to precisely align the payload with the Earth's magnetic field and separate the two subpayloads along the magnetic field line to a distance of one kilometer while an electrically conducting tether connects the two payloads. During the flight of OEDIPUS-A, all scientific instruments and payload support systems functioned normally and the tethered subpayloads separated to a distance of 960 meters. However, the flight data indicated that although there was virtually no coning increase in the forward payload after separation, the coning in the aft payload increased to approximately 40 deg, which far exceeds the predicted value. In an attempt to understand what may have caused this unexpected dynamic behavior, an investigation was conducted by Bristol Aerospace. This investigation is the subject of this paper. The analysis seems to support the theory that the tether connecting the aft and fore payloads was the cause of the unexpected rapid increase in coning experienced by the aft paylaod. It appears that there are two mechanisms associated with the tether that have influenced the aft payload dynamics. The first is the tether tension which acts as an external force acting on the aft payload and the second is the added energy dissipation. More detailed analysis is needed to fully understand the complex dynamics of this tethered two-body elastic system.

  17. Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Barbee, Troy W. Jr.; Heidemann, Klaus F.; Gursky, Herbert; Rife, Jack C.; Hunter, William R.; Fritz, Gilbert G.; Cruddace, Raymond G.

    1999-11-01

    We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-nm radius of curvature), large (160 mmx90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 Aa rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed in efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225-245 Aa. At an angle of incidence of 5 degree sign and a wavelength of 232 Aa, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4{+-}0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8{+-}1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating. (c) 1999 Optical Society of America.

  18. Lyman-alpha observations of the interplanetary hydrogen: support of a NASA sounding rocket program and study of the local interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    Our proposal is to use the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph {HST /STIS} over a single orbit to make Lyman-alpha observations of the interplanetary hydrogen {IPH} during the April period of this year {2014}.These measurements will provide wavelength and flux calibration, in order to support the HYPE instrument {Hydrogen Polarimetric Explorer} that is planned to make spectro-polarimetric observations in April during a suborbital flight of a NASA sounding rocket {grant NNX08AI98G}. Cross-calibration will also be made with the SWAN instrument {Solar Wind Anisotropies} on the SOHO satellite {Solar and Heliospheric Observatory}. SWAN can provide flux calibration but without any spectral information, so only HST/STIS can provide the wavelength calibration.Moreover the scientific controversy on the physical properties of the local interstellar medium {LISM} is still going on. The recent observations of interstellar helium atoms by IBEX {Interstellar Boundaries Explorer} suggest that the LISM velocity vector may vary over time. Such a change should impact the bulk velocity of interplanetary hydrogen and should be detected by HST /STIS.

  19. In-situ and real-time investigation of the columnar-equiaxed transition in the transparent alloy system neopentylglycol-camphor onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.

    2011-12-01

    The low-gravity experiment TRACE (TRansparent Alloys in Columnar Equiaxed solidification) has been performed onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47 to enable the investigation of dendritic growth and the dendrites' columnar to equiaxed transition during solidification. Low-gravity conditions provide solidification under diffusive heat and mass transfer conditions and without sedimentation or buoyancy of equiaxed dendrites or nucleation seeds to simplify the boundary conditions for dendritic microstructure simulation. In addition the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol (NPG) - (D)Camphor (DC) was used to allow for a real-time and in-situ observation of the microstructure evolution with standard optics. For the flight experiment all relevant experimental parameters like thermal gradient, solidification velocity and undercooling within the bulk liquid and at the columnar dendritic tips have been determined by image analysis or from thermocouple recordings within the solidifying alloy. This allows a very detailed comparison with results of existing models for dendritic growth and for columnar-to-equiaxed transition. Here we present a summary of the experimental findings in comparison with results of some of the theoretical models.

  20. Analysis of electron auroras based on the Monte Carlo method: Application to active electron arc auroras observed by the sounding rocket at Syowa Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Kunizo; Ejiri, Masaki; Itikawa, Yukikazu

    A downward electron differential number flux, the absolute photoemission rate for the (0, 1) band of the first negative band system of the molecular nitrogen ion, and the number density of thermal electrons were simultaneously measured by the sounding rocket S-310JA-8 launched toward active auroral arcs at a substorm expansion phase on April 4, 1984, from Syowa Station in Antarctica. We apply the Monte Carlo method to analyze these observed results. The MSIS-86 model is employed to represent the atmospheric number density and temperature in the aurora observed by this experiment. Only N2, O, and O2 are taken into account as constituent elements of the atmosphere. Electrons are injected downward into the upper atmosphere at the altitude of 200 km, at which the downward electron differential number flux was measured. An initial electron energy is considered in the range of 0.1-18 keV. It is assumed that an initial pitch angle is uniformly distributed in the range of [0, π/2]. Excitation and ionization rates of N2, O, and O2 are calculated as a function of altitude, the initial pitch angle, and the initial electron energy. Production and emission rates of the N2+ 1N (0, 1) band are deduced by using these calculated rates. Time variation of the observed absolute intensity of this band is reasonably well reproduced by the Monte Carlo method combined with the measured electron number flux.

  1. MICA sounding rocket observations of conductivity-gradient-generated auroral ionospheric responses: Small-scale structure with large-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Conde, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Michell, R.; Moen, J.; Nicolls, M.; Powell, S. P.; Samara, M.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed, in situ study of field-aligned current (FAC) structure in a transient, substorm expansion phase auroral arc is conducted using electric field, magnetometer, and electron density measurements from the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat, AK. These data are supplemented with larger-scale, contextual measurements from a heterogeneous collection of ground-based instruments including the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar and nearby scanning doppler imagers and filtered all-sky cameras. An electrostatic ionospheric modeling case study of this event is also constructed by using available data (neutral winds, electron precipitation, and electric fields) to constrain model initial and boundary conditions. MICA magnetometer data are converted into FAC measurements using a sheet current approximation and show an up-down current pair, with small-scale current density and Poynting flux structures in the downward current channel. Model results are able to roughly recreate only the large-scale features of the field-aligned currents, suggesting that observed small-scale structures may be due to ionospheric feedback processes not encapsulated by the electrostatic model. The model is also used to assess the contributions of various processes to total FAC and suggests that both conductance gradients and neutral dynamos may contribute significantly to FACs in a narrow region where the current transitions from upward to downward. Comparison of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar versus in situ electric field estimates illustrates the high sensitivity of FAC estimates to measurement resolution.

  2. The Global Coronal Structure Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    During the past year we have completed the changeover from the NIXT program to the new TXI sounding rocket program. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design, has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronics and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated x-ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The H-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. A new H-alpha camera has been built, with a high-resolution RS170 CCD camera output. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, have been written and published this year: 1. "The Solar X-ray Corona," by L. Golub, Astrophysics and Space Science, 237, 33 (1996). 2. "Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure," Keynote Paper, Proceedings STEPWG1 Workshop on Measurements and Analyses of the Solar 3D Magnetic Field, Solar Physics, 174, 99 (1997).

  3. The Global Coronal Structure Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-02-01

    During the past year we have completed the changeover from the NIXT program to the new TXI sounding rocket program. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design, has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronics and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated x-ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The H-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. A new H-alpha camera has been built, with a high-resolution RS170 CCD camera output. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, have been written and published this year: 1. "The Solar X-ray Corona," by L. Golub, Astrophysics and Space Science, 237, 33 (1996). 2. "Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure," Keynote Paper, Proceedings STEPWG1 Workshop on Measurements and Analyses of the Solar 3D Magnetic Field, Solar Physics, 174, 99 (1997).

  4. Congreve Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812. As a result Francis Scott Key coined the phrase the 'rocket's red glare.' Congreve had used a 16-foot guide stick to help stabilize his rocket. William Hale, another British inventor, invented the stickless rocket in 1846. The U.S. Army used the Hale rocket more than 100 years ago in the war with Mexico. Rockets were also used to a limited extent by both sides in the American Civil War.

  5. Rocket Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  6. Infrasound Rocket Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation reviews the work performed by our research group at the Geophysical Institute as we have applied the tools of infrasound research to rocket studies. This report represents one aspect of the effort associated with work done for the National Consortium for MASINT Research (NCMR) program operated by the National MASINT Office (NMO) of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Infrasound, the study of acoustic signals and their propagation in a frequency band below 15 Hz, enables an investigator to collect and diagnose acoustic signals from distant sources. Absorption of acoustic energy in the atmosphere decreases as the frequency is reduced. In the infrasound band signals can propagate hundreds and thousands of kilometers with little degradation. We will present an overview of signatures from rockets ranging from small sounding rockets such as the Black Brandt and Orion series to larger rockets such as Delta 2,4 and Atlas V. Analysis of the ignition transients provides information that can uniquely identify the motor type. After the rocket ascends infrasound signals can be used to characterize the rocket and identify the various events that take place along a trajectory such as staging and maneuvering. We have also collected information on atmospheric shocks and sonic booms from the passage of supersonic vehicles such as the shuttle. This review is intended to show the richness of the unique signal set that occurs in the low-frequency infrasound band.

  7. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    During the period March 1977 through May 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center and three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at the Churchill Research Range. One additional flight was conducted at Wallops Flight Center in support of Nimbus 4 SBUV. Data results and flight profiles for the period covered are presented.

  8. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  9. The four INTA-300 rocket prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero, J. S.

    1985-03-01

    A development history and performance capability assessment is presented for the INTA-300 'Flamenco' sounding rocket prototype specimens. The Flamenco is a two-stage solid fuel rocket, based on British sounding rocket technology, that can lift 50 km payloads to altitudes of about 300 km. The flight of the first two prototypes, in 1974 and 1975, pointed to vibration problems which reduced the achievable apogee, and the third prototype's flight was marred by a premature detonation that destroyed the rocket. The fourth Flamenco flight, however, yielded much reliable data.

  10. Design of a simple Gerdien condenser for ionospheric D-region charged particle density and mobility measurements. [for Arcas rocket sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrokh, H.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of a Gerdien condenser operating in a collision controlled medium is reviewed. Design and electronics of a Gerdien condenser probe suitable for flying on the Arcas rocket is presented. Aerodynamics properties of the instrument in continuous flow are discussed. The method of data reduction and experimental results of one successful flight at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico, on 11 January 1974 are reported. This investigation shows positive ions in two relatively distinct mobility groups between 47 and 65 km and a more continuous distribution of mobilities between 38 and 47 km.

  11. Rockets Away!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaahaaina, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project that involved a rocket-design competition where students played the roles of McDonnell Douglas employees competing for NASA contracts. Provides a real world experience involving deadlines, design and performance specifications, and budgets. (JRH)

  12. Television observations of artificial aurora and analyses of flight data from NASA payload 12.18 NE. [onboard the Strypi sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    An accelerator nominally capable of ejecting pulses of electrons up to 6 sec in length, current to 500 ma and energy to 20 keV was flown on a rocket at 1500 October 15, 1972. The Strypi rocket was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kauai, Hawaii. The intent was to eject electron pulses of various characteristics upwards along the magnetic field so as to produce artificial auroras in the conjugate (Southern Hemisphere) atmosphere and possibly to produce weaker auroras in the nearby atmosphere as a consequence of backscattered electrons. The accelerator package included a gas jet actuated attitude control system controlled by gyros. Attitude sensing also was accomplished by a two-axis fluxgate magnetometer, and a large foil was deployed to collect ambient electrons to neutralize the accelerator when it ejected high-energy electrons. Scientific instrumentation contained on the flight package included retarding potential analyzers, energetic electron detectors, and detectors to sense very low frequency radio noise. Image orthicon television systems and other optical sensors were operated in the conjugate region aboard two NC-135 jet aircrafts based in Samoa. Similar devices were operated at Haleakala, Hawaii, to attempt detection of auroras caused by backscattered electrons.

  13. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  14. Air-Powered Rockets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  15. The Echo Sounding Rocket Payloads as a Laboratory in Space to Study the Dynamics of the Natural Aurora Acceleration Mechanism and Other Important Contributions John Winckler has Made to the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    It is with great honor that I have the opportunity to talk about some of the contributions Prof. John Winckler has made to space science and auroral physics in particular. John's interest in the aurora began on the first day of the IGY during a balloon flight designed to be the start of a campaign to do a latitudinal survey of the cosmic ray cut-off during the IGY. The detectors of this flight unexpectedly measured 50-100 keV x-rays produced by auroral electrons bombarding the top of the atmosphere. After retiring from teaching, John's interest in the dynamics of low-latitude aurora came full circle from its starting point during that first day of the IGY almost thirty years earlier. With ground photometers, cameras and stereoscopic TV, he made extensive observations of the pulsation phase of auroras during the peak of solar cycle 22. Although pulsating aurora had been studied for decades at auroral zone latitudes, John's work at sub-auroral latitudes discovered new phenomena and made observations of known phenomena in greater detail. The intent of this talk is primarily to consider Winckler's pioneering work with electron beam injections into the magnetosphere from sounding rockets. The motivation for this work initially was to map auroral field lines and to study large scale magnetospheric electric fields. The aspect of the work that I was most intimately involved in was the mechanism of neutralizing the rocket after it had injected nearly a coulomb of negative charge into space. It was initially argued that the beams would become unstable and therefore be destroyed and useless as probes of the magnetosphere. This was not the case, hence the neutralization mechanism became a significant study of the program. Although not realized at the time, it turns out that the beam injections at rocket altitude in essence became a laboratory in space in which many of the features of the aurora itself were reproduced. It is accepted that the electrons of a discrete aurora are

  16. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  17. The mean ozone distribution from several series of rocket sounding to 52 km at latitudes from 58 deg S to 64 deg N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results of 21 rocket flights of Arcas optical ozonesondes were combined to produce estimates of the mean ozone distribution and its variability; these estimates apply to a broad range of latitudes. The flights were launched from sites near the equator to 58 S and to 64 N, in the years from 1965 to 1971. The local-noon mean ozone densities in molecules/cubic centimeter are 7.0 to the 10th power at 50 km, 6.7 x 10 to the 11th power at 40 km, 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 30 km, and 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 20 km. The range of observed densities is about + or - 30 percent of the mean value at 50 km; + or 40 percent at 40 km; + or - 40 percent at 30 km; and +200 percent, -66 percent at 20 km. The variabilities in this set of observations are much smaller than those indicated by previous measurements.

  18. An Analysis of Ionospheric Thermal Ions Using a SIMION-based Forward Instrument Model: In Situ Observations of Vertical Thermal Ion Flows as Measured by the MICA Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. In this presentation we focus on in situ measurements of the thermal ion distribution. We observe thermal ions flowing both up and down the auroral field line, with upflows concentrated in Alfvénic and downward current regions. The in situ data are compared with recent ionospheric modeling efforts (Zettergren et al., this session) which show structured patterns of ion upflow and downflow consistent with these observations. In the low-energy thermal plasma regime, instrument response to the measured thermal ion population is very sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is shifted and accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the payload sheath. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Rigorous quantitative analysis of the instrument response is necessary to extract the plasma properties which describe the full 3D distribution function at the instrument aperture. We introduce an instrument model, developed in the commercial software package SIMION, to characterize instrument response at low energies. The instrument model provides important insight into how we would modify our instrument for future missions, including fine-tuning parameters such as the analyzer sweep curve, the geometry factor, and the aperture size. We use the results from the instrument model to develop a forward model, from which we can extract anisotropic ion temperatures, flows, and density of the thermal plasma at the aperture. Because this plasma has transited a sheath to reach the aperture, we must account for the acceleration due to the sheath. Modeling of this complex sheath is being conducted by co-author Fisher, using a PIC code

  19. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  20. Supersonic-combustion rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.; Franciscus, L. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A supersonic combustion rocket is provided in which a small rocket motor is substituted for heavy turbo pumps in a conventional rocket engine. The substitution results in a substantial reduction in rocket engine weight. The flame emanating from the small rocket motor can act to ignite non-hypergolic fuels.

  1. Development Status of Reusable Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takada, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Niu, Kenichi

    A 30-kN rocket engine, a pilot engine, is being developed in Japan. Development of this pilot engine has been initiated in relation to a reusable sounding rocket, which is also being developed in Japan. This rocket takes off vertically, reaches an altitude of 100 km, lands vertically at the launch site, and is launched again within several days. Due to advantage of reusability, successful development of this rocket will mean that observation missions can be carried out more frequently and economically. In order to realize this rocket concept, the engines installed on the rocket should be characterized by reusability, long life, deep throttling and health monitoring, features which have not yet been established in Japanese rocket engines. To solve the engineering factors entitled by those features, a new design methodology, advanced engine simulations and engineering testing are being focused on in the pilot engine development stage. Especially in engineering testing, limit condition data is acquired to facilitate development of new diagnostic techniques, which can be applied by utilizing the mobility of small-size hardware. In this paper, the development status of the pilot engine is described, including fundamental design and engineering tests of the turbopump bearing and seal, turbine rig, injector and combustion chamber, and operation and maintenance concepts for one hundred flights by a reusable rocket are examined.

  2. Far-ultraviolet rocket astronomy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The launch of sounding rocket 26.056 DG on 29 October 1976 is described and quick-look results from that mission are given. Also further work on data obtained by 13.118 DG, launched 5 December 1975 is reported.

  3. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. Preliminary guided rocket feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, M. B.; Celmer, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of actively guiding sounding rockets to reduce impact dispersion has been investigated. The theoretical probability of range safety thrust termination for several high performance rockets was combined with the cost of acquiring the extended range at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to establish a guidance system price ceiling of $20K per flight. Guiding the Black Brant VC (BBVC) for the first five seconds of flight results in sufficient dispersion reduction to impact within the standard range boundaries at WSMR. The guidance system thrust level required to statically control the vehicle to a nominal-wind weighted trajectory for five seconds is between 150-200 pounds. A six-degree-of-freedom trajectory program with guidance simulation capability has been developed and the equations are presented.

  5. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  6. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  7. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  8. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  9. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A 10,000-pound thrust hybrid rocket motor is tested at Stennis Space Center's E-1 test facility. A hybrid rocket motor is a cross between a solid rocket and a liquid-fueled engine. It uses environmentally safe solid fuel and liquid oxygen.

  10. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  11. Rocket pollution reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Geisler, R.L.

    1994-01-04

    A system is provided for reducing the emissions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) from solid fuel rockets, especially during ground disposal. An aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide is injected as a mist into the rocket chamber as the rocket fuel is burned. The reaction of the alkali metal with hydrogen chloride (HCl) produces a salt and thereby minimizes the presence of hydrochloric acid in the rocket exhaust. An injected neutralizing material which reduces hydrochloric acid, but which produces less thrust than an equal weight of rocket fuel, can be injected into an operating rocket which carries a payload high above the earth, with the injected material being injected only while the rocket is at a lower altitude when hydrochloric acid is most undesirable. The injected material can be produced by a small auxiliary rocket device whose exhaust is delivered directly to the main rocket chamber, and with the exhaust of the auxiliary rocket device including a high proportion of magnesium to react with the hydrochloric acid with minimal degradation of rocket performance. 4 figs.

  12. Rocket Observations of IC 405

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, K.; McCandliss, S. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Burgh, E. B.

    2001-12-01

    We present the preliminary results from a NASA/JHU sounding rocket mission (36.198 UG), launched on 09 February 2001 at 21:00 MST, to obtain a long slit (200\\arcsec x 12\\arcsec) spectrum of the reflection nebula IC 405 in the 900 -- 1400 Å wavelength region. Several pointings within the nebula were obtained, including a high quality (S/N ≈ 10-15 at R = 300) spectrum of the central star, HD 34078, which clearly shows absorption from molecular hydrogen (H2). Observations of the nebula reveal a surface brightness to stellar flux ratio that rises by two orders of magnitude between 1400 and 900 Å. This is in contrast with the relatively flat nebular dust scattering observed during a prior sounding rocket observation of the reflection nebula NGC 2023. We will also present additional nebular pointings within IC 405, including a region observed by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope showing evidence of H2 fluorescent emission. These observations were supported by NASA grant NAG5-5122 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  13. Stability analysis of synchronization regimes of spinning rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, N. M.

    1993-10-01

    A method is studied for estimating the formation of synchronization regimes in rocket ballistic flight in which the roll rate approaches the pitch rate. Supporting resonance angular motion regimes due to induced moments are analyzed, and the nonlinear second-order differential equation of the rolling motion is addressed. The results permit synchronization regimes to be prevented, which is important for motion stability and trajectory parameter dispersion in sounding rockets.

  14. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  15. Rocket and Laboratory Studies in Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-5122 and covers the period from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 2001. This grant was a continuation of a program in rocket and laboratory studies in ultraviolet astronomy that was supported by NASA grant NAG5-619. As of March 1, 2001, this program is continuing under grant NAG5-5315. During the period of the grant, annual status reports have been submitted detailing the scientific achievements and current objectives of each report period. These will not be repeated here. Among the highlights of the program are four successful rocket launches including participation in the campaign to study comet Hale-Bopp in April 1997. We have continued our emphasis on long-slit spectroscopy of extended sources in the shorter wavelength far-ultraviolet, necessitating the development of evacuated telescope/spectrograph payloads. Finally, we also note the use of our ultraviolet calibration facilities in support of other sounding rocket investigators and for other space missions such as the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. We include a list of the sounding rocket launches performed under NASA sponsorship during this period, a list of Ph.D. degrees awarded to students who worked in this program, and a summary bibliography of publications between 1997 and 2001.

  16. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... sounds by listening to the abdomen with a stethoscope ( auscultation ). Most bowel sounds are normal. However, there ... sounds can sometimes be heard even without a stethoscope. Hyperactive bowel sounds mean there is an increase ...

  17. Rocket calibration of the Nimbus 6 solar constant measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Hickey, J. R.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Thekaekara, M. P.; Willson, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Total solar irradiance was observed simultaneously outside the earth's atmosphere by three types of absolute cavity radiometers and duplicates of four of the Nimbus 6 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar channels in a June 1976 sounding rocket experiment. The preliminary average solar constant result from the cavity radiometers is 1367 Wm (-2) with an uncertainty of less than + or - 0.5% in S.I. units. The duplicate ERB channel 3 on the rocket gave a value of 1389 Wm (-2) which agreed exactly with the Nimbus 6 ERB channel 3 measurement made simultaneously with the rocket flight.

  18. Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

  19. Effects of high combustion chamber pressure on rocket noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The acoustical environment for a high combustion chamber pressure engine was examined in detail, using both conventional and advanced theoretical analysis. The influence of elevated chamber pressure on the rocket noise environment was established, based on increase in exit velocity and flame temperature, and changes in basic engine dimensions. Compared to large rocket engines, the overall sound power level is found to be 1.5 dB higher, if the thrust is the same. The peak Strouhal number shifted about one octave lower to a value near 0.01. Data on apparent sound source location and directivity patterns are also presented.

  20. Rocket and laboratory studies in aeronomy and astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Data extracted from semi-annual status reports presented include: a list of all sounding rocket launches performed under NASA sponsorship; a list of Ph.D. and M.A. degrees awarded to students who worked in these programs; a summary bibliography of all publications through 1983; the most recent list of the publications from the IUE program; a summary of instrument development supported by the Johns Hopkins sounding rocket program; and a list of faculty and post-doctoral research associates whose work was supported by this grant.

  1. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  2. Model Rockets and Microchips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Points out the instructional applications and program possibilities of a unit on model rocketry. Describes the ways that microcomputers can assist in model rocket design and in problem calculations. Provides a descriptive listing of model rocket software for the Apple II microcomputer. (ML)

  3. Postal Rocket Stamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  4. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  5. Colorado Hydrogen Imaging Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; France, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design for a rocket-borne narrow-band far-ultraviolet imaging telescope. It will measure the spatial distribution of photo-excited molecular hydrogen emission nearby hot stars by utilizing multi-layer reflection coatings, similar to those used in previous NASA experiments, to obtain two images during a flight: one with a narrow-band filter that captures the 1575/1608A emission features (the "on-band" filter), and a second one that measures the dust-scattered stellar continuum at 1800A (the "off-band" filter). The difference image will then isolate the molecular hydrogen emission by subtracting the underlying scattered-light background. This would be a large improvement over existing studies at ultraviolet wavelengths for which many individual pointings with spectroscopic apertures are required to map the region of interest. These data will complete the picture, combined with far-ultraviolet spectra and near-infrared observations of vibrational emission that we will obtain from ground-based instrumentation, of the physical conditions in sites of recent and on-going star formation. A sounding rocket payload such as this provides the opportunity to perform niche science that other facilities cannot as well as advances the readiness of junior researchers to assume leadership roles on future NASA space flight missions.

  6. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  7. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  8. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  9. Acoustical and Flowfield Characterization of a Tabletop Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Margasahayam, Ravi; Norton, Michael P.; Caimi, Raoul E.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of the acoustical and flowfield environment for the scaled 1-pound-force (lbf) thrust tabletop motor was performed. The jet characterization is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with Kirchhoff surface integral formulation and compared with correlations developed for measured rocket noise and a pressure fluctuation scaling (PFS) method. Comparisons are made for the overall sound pressure levels (OASPL's) and spectral dependence of sound pressure level (SPL).

  10. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  11. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  12. Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

    2009-07-01

    Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

  13. Calibration of the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Siegmund, Oswald

    1989-01-01

    The Berkeley Extreme-ultraviolet Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS), a multiinstrument sounding rocket payload, made comprehensive measurements of the earth's dayglow. The primary instruments consisted of two near-normal Rowland mount spectrometers: one channel to measure several atomic oxygen features at high spectral resolution (about 1.5 A) in the band passes 980-1040 and 1300-1360 A, and the other to measure EUV dayglow and the solar EUV simultaneously in a much broader bandpass (250-1150 A) at moderate resolution (about 10 A). The payload also included a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and goecoronal emissions. The instrument was calibrated at the EUV calibration facility at the University of California at Berkeley, and was subsequently launched successfully on September 30, 1988 aboard a four-stage experimental sounding rocket, Black Brant XII flight 12.041 WT. The calibration procedure and resulting data are presented.

  14. Flight performance of a rocket-borne 3He refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Alsop, D.; Lange, A.; Hayata, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.

    A self-contained, recyclable 3He refrigerator suitable for use in zero-gravity has been developed. This refrigerator successfully flew on 5 September 1989, as part of an S-520 sounding rocket payload designed to measure the spectrum of the cosmic submillimetre background. This paper presents the cryogenic performance of the refrigerator during flight.

  15. Structural damage claims resulting from acoustic environments developed during static test firing of rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, S. H.; Slone, R. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    During static testing of multi-million pound thrust rocket engines areas adjacent to the test site have been subjected to the noise generated by rocket engines. Structural damage claims and subjective complaints were filed by those who alleged that the noise levels were excessive. The statistical analysis of these claims and complaints which were filed during these rocket engine development programs led to the determination of a relationship between claims and overall sound pressure level. Community exposure criteria are then assessed based on what can be considered allowable acoustic environments from large rocket engines.

  16. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  17. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  18. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center conducts a test on a hybrid rocket motor fed by a liquid oxygen turbopump. The test occurred at the E-1 test facility. The test was believed to be the first of its kind in the world.

  19. Antares Rocket Lifts Off!

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA commercial space partner Orbital Sciences Corp. of Dulles, Va., launched its Cygnus cargo spacecraft aboard its Antares rocket at 10:58 a.m. EDT Wednesday from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spacep...

  20. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  1. Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Defines adaptive inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)

  2. Rocket University at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    "Rocket University" is an exciting new initiative at Kennedy Space Center led by NASA's Engineering and Technology Directorate. This hands-on experience has been established to develop, refine & maintain targeted flight engineering skills to enable the Agency and KSC strategic goals. Through "RocketU", KSC is developing a nimble, rapid flight engineering life cycle systems knowledge base. Ongoing activities in RocketU develop and test new technologies and potential customer systems through small scale vehicles, build and maintain flight experience through balloon and small-scale rocket missions, and enable a revolving fresh perspective of engineers with hands on expertise back into the large scale NASA programs, providing a more experienced multi-disciplined set of systems engineers. This overview will define the Program, highlight aspects of the training curriculum, and identify recent accomplishments and activities.

  3. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  4. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  5. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  6. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The waters.... Upon being so warned vessels working in the area shall leave the area immediately. (b) Bombing, rocket... regulations. (i) The area described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section will be used as bombing, rocket...

  7. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The waters.... Upon being so warned vessels working in the area shall leave the area immediately. (b) Bombing, rocket... regulations. (i) The area described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section will be used as bombing, rocket...

  8. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The waters.... Upon being so warned vessels working in the area shall leave the area immediately. (b) Bombing, rocket... regulations. (i) The area described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section will be used as bombing, rocket...

  9. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  10. Quantifying Instability Sources in Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary C.

    2000-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methodology to predict the effects of combusting flows on acoustic pressure oscillations in liquid rocket engines (LREs) is under development. 'Me intent of the investigation is to develop the causal physics of combustion driven acoustic resonances in LREs. The crux of the analysis is the accurate simulation of pressure/density/sound speed in a combustor which when used by the FDNS-RFV CFD code will produce realistic flow phenomena. An analysis of a gas generator considered for the Fastrac engine will be used as a test validation case.

  11. General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  13. Rocket motor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, U. G.; Strahle, W. C.

    1983-10-01

    Vibration problems in solid propellant rocket motors are investigated. A class of interior flows modelled to simulate flow conditions inside rocket motor cavities is considered. Turbulence generated pressure fluctuations are shown to consist of two components - acoustic and hydrodynamics. The Bernoulli enthalpy theory of aeroacoustics is employed to extract acoustic pressure spectra from experimentally obtained turbulence data and acoustic impedance values at flow boundaries. The effects of turbulence intensities, sidewall acoustic impedance, axial mass blowing distribution, length to diameter ratio of the cavity and different mass flux on the acoustic pressure level are investigated. Typical pressure levels, under rocket motor conditions, are calculated using the A/B model of propellant response. Estimates of the hydrodynamic component of the pressure fluctuation are provided for the case of fully developed turbulent pipe flow terminated by a choked nozzle.

  14. Near-Field Acoustical Characterization of Clustered Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Vu, Bruce T.; Lindsay Halie K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the prediction and characterization of the near-field acoustic levels from closely-spaced clustered rocket engines. The calculations are based on the method proposed by Eldred, wherein the flowfield from the clustered rockets is divided into two zones. Zone 1 contains the isolated nozzles which produce noise independently, and extends up to a distance where the individual flows completely mix to form an equivalent single nozzle flow. Zone 2 is occupied by the single mixed stream starting from the station where the jets merge. The acoustic fields from the two zones are computed separately on the basis of the NASA-SP method of Eldred developed for a single equivalent nozzle. A summation of the spectra for the two zones yields the total effective sound pressure level for the clustered engines. Under certain conditions of nozzle spacing and flow parameters, the combined sound pressure level spectrum for the clustered nozzles displays a double peak. Test cases are presented here to demonstrate the importance of hydrodynamic interactions responsible for the double peak in the sound spectrum in the case of clustered rocket nozzles, and the role of ground reflections in the case of non-interfering jets. A graphics interface (Rocket Acoustic Prediction Tool) has been developed to take into account the effects of clustered nozzles and ground reflections.

  15. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  16. Advanced liquid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    A program to substitute iridium coated rhenium for silicide coated niobium in thrust chamber fabrications is reviewed. The life limiting phenomena in each of these material systems is also reviewed. Coating cracking and spalling is not a problem with iridium-coated rhenium as in silicide-coated niobium. Use of the new material system enables an 800 K increase in thruster operating temperature from around 1700 K for niobium to 2500 K for rhenium. Specific impulse iridium-coated rhenium rockets is nominally 20 seconds higher than comparable niobium rockets in the 22 N class and nominally 10 seconds higher in the 440 N class.

  17. Reduced hazard chemicals for solid rocket motor production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1995-01-01

    During the last three years. the NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Thiokol Corporation have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem-solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this challenge.

  18. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  19. Rocket center Peenemuende - Personal memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    1993-01-01

    A brief history of Peenemuende, the rocket center where Von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under German Army auspices, and the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes, is presented. Emphasis is placed on the expansion of operations beginning in 1942.

  20. Pegasus Rocket Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  1. 'RCHX-1-STORM' first Slovenian meteorological rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago; Trauner, Amalija; Britovšek, Zvone

    2004-08-01

    Astronautic and Rocket Society Celje (ARSC) formed a special working team for research and development of a small meteorological hail suppression rocket in the 70th. The hail suppression system was established in former Yugoslavia in the late 60th as an attempt to protect important agricultural regions from one of the summer's most vicious storm. In this time Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia as one of the federal republic with relative high developed agricultural region production. The Rocket program 'RCHX-STORM' was a second attempt, for Slovenia indigenously developed in the production of meteorological hail suppression rocket. ARSC has designed a family of small sounding rocket that were based on highly promising hybrid propellant propulsion. Hybrid propulsion was selected for this family because it was offering low cost, save production and operation and simple logistics. Conventional sounding rockets use solid propellant motor for their propulsion. The introduction of hybrid motors has enabled a considerable decrease in overall cost. The transportation handling and storage procedures were greatly simplified due to the fact that a hybrid motor was not considered as explosive matter. A hybrid motor may also be designed to stand a severe environment without resorting to conditioning arrangements. The program started in the late 70th when the team ARSC was integrated in the Research and Development Institute in Celje (RDIC). The development program aimed to produce three types of meteorological rockets with diameters 76, 120 and 160 mm. Development of the RCHX-76 engine and rocket vehicle including flight certification has been undertaken by a joint team comprising of the ARCS, RDIC and the company Cestno podjetje Celje (CPC), Road building company Celje. Many new techniques and methods were used in this program such as computer simulation of external and internal ballistics, composite materials for rocket construction, intensive static testing of models and

  2. This Is Rocket Science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  3. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  4. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  5. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  6. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  7. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  8. Water Rocket Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Sanford, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Water rockets are used to present Newton's three laws of motion to high school physics students. Described is an outdoor activity which uses four students per group. Provides a launch data sheet to record height, angle of elevation, amount of water used, and launch number. (MVL)

  9. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  10. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  11. Liquid rocket valve components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

  12. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  13. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  14. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  15. Dr. Goddard Transports Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dr. Robert H. Goddard tows his rocket to the launching tower behind a Model A Ford truck, 15 miles northwest of Roswell, New Mexico. 1930- 1932. Dr. Goddard has been recognized as the 'Father of American Rocketry' and as one of three pioneers in the theoretical exploration of space. Robert Hutchings Goddard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 15, 1882. He was a theoretical scientist as well as a practical engineer. His dream was the conquest of the upper atmosphere and ultimately space through the use of rocket propulsion. Dr. Goddard, who died in 1945, was probably as responsible for the dawning of the Space Age as the Wright Brothers were for the begining of the Air Age. Yet his work attracted little serious attention during his lifetime. When the United States began to prepare for the conquest of space in the 1950's, American rocket scientists began to recognize the debt owed to the New England professor. They discovered that it was virtually impossible to construct a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work of Dr. Goddard. This great legacy was covered by more than 200 patents, many of which were issued after his death.

  16. Rockets using Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

  17. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, M. E.; Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Goldfinger, D.; Wikus, P.; McCammon, D.; Oakley, P.

    2016-08-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer designed to enable high precision measurements of extended astrophysical systems. To perform high energy resolution measurements and capture unprecedented spectra of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, Micro-X must maintain tight temperature control. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to prevent heating of the detectors due to the vibrational loads on the rocket skin during launch. Several stages of vibration damping systems are implemented to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, each stage more rigid than the last. We describe recent redesign efforts to improve this vibration isolation by tuning the resonant frequencies of the various stages to minimize heating prior to the projected launch in 2016.

  18. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Sporadic-E Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Pfaff, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA grant NAG5-5086 provided funding for the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to design, fabricate, calibrate, and ultimately fly two ion mass spectrometer instruments on a pair of sounding rocket payloads. Drs. R.A. Heelis and G.D. Earle from UTD were co-investigators on the project. The principal investigator for both rocket experiments was Dr. Robert Pfaff of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall project title was "Rocket/Radar Investigation of Lower Ionospheric Electrodynamics Associated with Intense Mid-Latitude Sporadic-E Layers". This report describes the overall objectives of the project, summarizes the instrument design and flight experiment details, and presents representative data obtained during the flights.

  19. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, M. E.; Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Goldfinger, D.; Wikus, P.; McCammon, D.; Oakley, P.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer designed to enable high precision measurements of extended astrophysical systems. To perform high energy resolution measurements and capture unprecedented spectra of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, Micro-X must maintain tight temperature control. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to prevent heating of the detectors due to the vibrational loads on the rocket skin during launch. Several stages of vibration damping systems are implemented to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, each stage more rigid than the last. We describe recent redesign efforts to improve this vibration isolation by tuning the resonant frequencies of the various stages to minimize heating prior to the projected launch in 2016.

  20. EISCAT observation on plasma drifts connected with the Aureld-VIP rocket and the Viking satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Sandahl, I.; Wannberg, G. ); Opgenoorth, H. ); Soeraas, F. ); Murphree, J.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Coordinated simultaneous measurements with the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, Aureld-VIP sounding rocket, and Viking satellite are described. Background measurements from EISCAT provide us with the development of global plasma convection during the rocket night. The observed convection pattern is very distorted, with the eveningside reversal occurring at unusually low latitudes. On the morningside it withdraws back poleward from the measurement area. Viking particle measurements over the oval indicate a very complicated auroral topology with two sectors of boundary plasma sheet (BPS) and central plasma sheet (CPS) particles. The situation is interpreted as an intrusion of the evening side BPS into the morningside, which is also consistent with the convection pattern measured by EISCAT. Local measurements with the sounding rocket and radar indicate that the rocket flew in the northern part of the evening BPS area, approaching the inner transition region from BPS to CPS in its northward motion, thus confirming the existence of such a boundary.

  1. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  2. Two Amazing Rocket Launches That Began My Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    I began my X-ray astronomy career by being given the responsibility for the Goddard rocket program by Frank MacDonald in the early 70's. I am forever grateful to him and Elihu Boldt for the opportunity. The rocket's observing program was three compact binary X-ray sources that could not have been more different: Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, and Her X-1. A sounding rocket launch is nothing like a satellite launch with its large booster, Cape Canaveral experience, and lots of procedures and no touching of the hardware. First of all, one can walk up to the sounding rocket tower (at least you used to be able to) and go up in it to fix or adjust something with the yet-to-be-fueled rocket, booster, and payload just sitting there. At launch, you can see it up close 100 m) and personal, and it is spectacular. There is an explosion (the Nike booster igniting), a bright flash of light, and it is gone in a second or two. And back in the block house, I watched Her X-1 pulse in real time, after Chuck Glasser calmed me down and explained that the detectors were not arcing but it was Her X-1. The Cyg X-1 observations resulted in the discovery of millisecond temporal structure in the flux from a cosmic source -- 13 1-ms bursts over a total of two minutes of observing in the 2 flights. Cyg X-3 was seen in a high state in the first flight and in a lower harder state in the second, where we detected the iron line for the first time in a Galactic source. The Her X-1 observation clearly showed the high energy roll-over of the spectrum for the first time. The light curves of the first flight found their way into many presentations, including Ricardo Giacconi's Nobel lecture. The Goddard rocket program was an amazing beginning to my career.

  3. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  4. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  5. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  6. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  7. Sirius-5 experimental rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, A.; Omersel, P.; Goljuf, L.; Zidaric, M.

    1981-09-01

    After giving a historical account of multistage rocket development in Yugoslavia, a status report is presented for the three-stage Sirius-5 program. The rocket is composed of: (1) a solid-propellant first stage, consisting of a cluster of eight standard motors yielding 220 kN thrust for 1.3 sec; (2) a mixed amines/inhibited red fuming nitric acid, bipropellant second stage generating 50 kN thrust; and (3) a third stage of the same design as the second but with only 62 kg of fuel, by contrast to 168 kg. Among the design principles adhered to are: minimization of the number of components, conservative design margins, and specifications for key subsystems based on demonstration programs. The primary use of this system is in amateur rocketry, being able to carry a 20 kg payload to 150 km.

  8. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  9. Experimenter's data package for the descending layers rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, Greg; Herrero, Fred; Foster, John; Buonsanto, Mike; Satya-Narayana, P.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a proposal from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), NASA Headquarters has approved a sounding rocket mission designed to study the physics of intermediate layers in the Earth's ionosphere at middle latitudes. The experiment will be carried out by a team of scientists and engineers from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, SAIC, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Millstone Hill radar observatory. The mission will involve the launch of an instrumented sounding rocket from the Wallops Island rocket range in the summer of 1994, with the objective of penetrating a descending ionized layer in the E-region between altitudes of 115 and 140 km. Instrumentation aboard the rocket will measure the ion and neutral composition of the layer, its plasma density, driving wind and electric field forces, the thermal ion distribution function, and electron temperature. Depending on payload weight constraints and subject to availability, a particle detector to measure energetic ion and/or electron fluxes near the layer may also be included. This document was prepared as a reference for the NASA payload development and experiment teams, for distribution at the Project Initiation Conference (PIC). The design specifications discussed herein are therefore of a preliminary nature; the intent is to promote open discussions between experimenters and NASA engineers that will lead to a final design capable of achieving the experiment objectives.

  10. Small rocket tornado probe

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A (less than 1 lb.) paper rock tornado probe was developed and deployed in an attempt to measure the pressure, temperature, ionization, and electric field variations along a trajectory penetrating a tornado funnel. The requirements of weight and materials were set by federal regulations and a one-meter resolution at a penetration velocity of close to Mach 1 was desired. These requirements were achieved by telemetering a strain gage transducer for pressure, micro size thermister and electric field, and ionization sensors via a pulse time telemetry to a receiver on board an aircraft that digitizes a signal and presents it to a Z80 microcomputer for recording on mini-floppy disk. Recording rate was 2 ms for 8 channels of information that also includes telemetry rf field strength, magnetic field for orientation on the rocket, zero reference voltage for the sensor op amps as well as the previously mentioned items also. The absolute pressure was recorded. Tactically, over 120 h were flown in a Cessna 210 in April and May 1981, and one tornado was encountered. Four rockets were fired at this tornado, missed, and there were many equipment problems. The equipment needs to be hardened and engineered to a significant degree, but it is believed that the feasibility of the probe, tactics, and launch platform for future tornado work has been proven. The logistics of thunderstorm chasing from a remote base in New Mexico is a major difficulty and reliability of the equipment another. Over 50 dummy rockets have been fired to prove trajectories, stability, and photographic capability. Over 25 electronically equipped rockets have been fired to prove sensors transmission, breakaway connections, etc. The pressure recovery factor was calibrated in the Air Force Academy blow-down tunnel. There is a need for more refined engineering and more logistic support.

  11. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  12. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  13. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  14. Excitation by rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tammadge, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Standard methods of excitation are not always practical when a single mode of known frequency requires investigation. This form of investigation is often required on a modified aircraft. A new method of excitation was developed and proved in flight, which consists of firing small rocket charges attached to the aircraft structure. Damping values at gradually increasing airspeeds are obtained, as in Stick Jerk tests, and flutter speeds predicted.

  15. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  16. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  17. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  18. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  19. ISS Update: VASIMR Plasma Rocket

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Ken Bollweg, VASIMR Project Manager, about VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), recent testing progress and future applications. ...

  20. Electric rockets get a boost

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1995-12-01

    This article reports that xenon-ion thrusters are expected to replace conventional chemical rockets in many nonlaunch propulsion tasks, such as controlling satellite orbits and sending space probes on long exploratory missions. The space age dawned some four decades ago with the arrival of powerful chemical rockets that could propel vehicles fast enough to escape the grasp of earth`s gravity. Today, chemical rocket engines still provide the only means to boost payloads into orbit and beyond. The less glamorous but equally important job of moving vessels around in space, however, may soon be assumed by a fundamentally different rocket engine technology that has been long in development--electric propulsion.

  1. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  2. Thermal and convection analyses of the dendrite remelting rocket experiment; Experiment 74-21 in the space processing rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Pond, J. E.; Spradley, J. W.; Johnson, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    The Dendrite Remelting Rocket Experiment was performed aboard a Black Brant VC Sounding Rocket during a period which gravity levels of approximately 0.00001 g prevailed. The experiment consisted of cooling an aqueous ammonium chloride solution in a manner such that crystallization of ammonium chloride crystals proceeded throughout a three minute period of zero-g. The crystallization process during flight was recorded on 35 mm panatomic-x film. A number of ground crystallizations were similarly recorded for comparison purposes. The convective and thermal conditions in aqueous and metallic liquid systems were assessed under conditions of the flight experiment to help establish the relevance of the rocket experiment to metals casting phenomena. The results indicate that aqueous or metallic convective velocities in the Dendrite Remelting Rocket Experiment cell are of insignificant magnitudes at the 0.0001 to 0.00001 g levels of the experiment. The crystallization phenomena observed in the Rocket Experiment, therefore, may be indicative of how metals will solidify in low-g.

  3. If Only Newton Had a Rocket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammock, Frank M.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how model rocketry can be included in physics curricula. Describes rocket construction, a rocket guide sheet, calculations and launch teams. Discusses the relationships of basic mechanics with rockets. (CW)

  4. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  5. Catalytic Microtube Rocket Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Devices that generate both high energy and high temperature are required to ignite reliably the propellant mixtures in combustion chambers like those present in rockets and other combustion systems. This catalytic microtube rocket igniter generates these conditions with a small, catalysis-based torch. While traditional spark plug systems can require anywhere from 50 W to multiple kW of power in different applications, this system has demonstrated ignition at less than 25 W. Reactants are fed to the igniter from the same tanks that feed the reactants to the rest of the rocket or combustion system. While this specific igniter was originally designed for liquid methane and liquid oxygen rockets, it can be easily operated with gaseous propellants or modified for hydrogen use in commercial combustion devices. For the present cryogenic propellant rocket case, the main propellant tanks liquid oxygen and liquid methane, respectively are regulated and split into different systems for the individual stages of the rocket and igniter. As the catalyst requires a gas phase for reaction, either the stored boil-off of the tanks can be used directly or one stream each of fuel and oxidizer can go through a heat exchanger/vaporizer that turns the liquid propellants into a gaseous form. For commercial applications, where the reactants are stored as gases, the system is simplified. The resulting gas-phase streams of fuel and oxidizer are then further divided for the individual components of the igniter. One stream each of the fuel and oxidizer is introduced to a mixing bottle/apparatus where they are mixed to a fuel-rich composition with an O/F mass-based mixture ratio of under 1.0. This premixed flow then feeds into the catalytic microtube device. The total flow is on the order of 0.01 g/s. The microtube device is composed of a pair of sub-millimeter diameter platinum tubes connected only at the outlet so that the two outlet flows are parallel to each other. The tubes are each

  6. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  7. Rocket Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

  8. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  9. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rales can be further described as moist, dry, fine, and coarse. Rhonchi. Sounds that resemble snoring. They ... notice them. The following tests may be done: Analysis of a sputum sample ( sputum culture , sputum Gram ...

  10. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  11. Otrag rocket experiments in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    West German rocket manufacturers are testing their products in Zaire. Hundreds of pipes (12 m x 80 cm) are bundled together inside the test missiles, which are fired into Zaire's prairie. The reactions of neighboring nations, as well as leading countries of the world, are presented concerning the rocket tests.

  12. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  13. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  14. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  15. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  16. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The...

  17. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The...

  18. Sound Guard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lubrication technology originally developed for a series of NASA satellites has produced a commercial product for protecting the sound fidelity of phonograph records. Called Sound Guard, the preservative is a spray-on fluid that deposits a microscopically thin protective coating which reduces friction and prevents the hard diamond stylus from wearing away the softer vinyl material of the disc. It is marketed by the Consumer Products Division of Ball Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. The lubricant technology on which Sound Guard is based originated with NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO), an Earth-orbiting satellite designed and built by Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, also a division of Ball Corporation. Ball Brothers engineers found a problem early in the OSO program: known lubricants were unsuitable for use on satellite moving parts that would be exposed to the vacuum of space for several months. So the company conducted research on the properties of materials needed for long life in space and developed new lubricants. They worked successfully on seven OSO flights and attracted considerable attention among other aerospace contractors. Ball Brothers now supplies its "Vac Kote" lubricants and coatings to both aerospace and non-aerospace industries and the company has produced several hundred variations of the original technology. Ball Corporation expanded its product line to include consumer products, of which Sound Guard is one of the most recent. In addition to protecting record grooves, Sound Guard's anti-static quality also retards particle accumulation on the stylus. During comparison study by a leading U.S. electronic laboratory, a record not treated by Sound Guard had to be cleaned after 50 plays and the stylus had collected a considerable number of small vinyl particles. The Sound Guard-treated disc was still clean after 100 plays, as was its stylus.

  19. Rocket and Laboratory Studies in Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; McCandliss, Stephan R.

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the period from March 1, 2001 to August 31, 2004. This grant was the continuation of NASA grant NAG5-5122 and supported the Johns Hopkins sounding rocket program that had its roots in the 1960s. The emphasis of this program has been the development of instrumentation for far-ultraviolet astronomy, the training of graduate students in all aspects of a space mission, and the application of these techniques to timely scientific problems. During this period we completed the fabrication of our new long-slit dual-order spectrograph (LIDOS), and successfully flew it on a Black Brant sounding rocket on December 16, 2003 (36.208 UG). The targets were the bright star gamma-Cassiopeiae and its surrounding reflection nebulae, IC 59 and IC 63. We also continued the analysis of the data from our previous flight to study the reflection nebula IC 405 (36.198 UG), which revealed a far-ultraviolet nebular scatter to stellar flux ratio that, contrary to expectations, rises steeply toward the blue. Verifying this result required extensive post-flight analysis and calibration of the Faint Object Telescope FOT) payload, which entailed measuring the telescope mirror reflectivities, the absolute efficiency of the spectrograph, and the telescope point spread function, using a new vacuum collimator developed as part of former graduate student Eric Burgh's Ph.D. dissertation. This work, being done with graduate student Kevin France, has been completed and a paper describing the results has been accepted for publication by the Astrophysical Journal. We have also continued a number of laboratory calibration studies and design efforts.

  20. Magnetic Fluids Deliver Better Speaker Sound Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, Glenn Research Center developed a magnetized fluid to draw rocket fuel into spacecraft engines while in space. Sony has incorporated the technology into its line of slim speakers by using the fluid as a liquid stand-in for the speaker's dampers, which prevent the speaker from blowing out while adding stability. The fluid helps to deliver more volume and hi-fidelity sound while reducing distortion.

  1. HERSCHEL Sounding Rocket Mission Observations of the Helium Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, Jeffrey; Moses, J.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Telloni, D.; Auchere, F.; Barbey, N.; Romoli, M.

    2010-05-01

    The HERSCHEL (Helium Resonant Scattering in the Corona and Heliosphere) investigation successfully obtained unprecedented images of the helium and hydrogen components of the solar corona out to 3 solar radii during a suborbital flight on 14 September 2009. Preliminary analysis of these observations indicates the spatial distribution of the helium abundance and outflow velocity provides powerful diagnostics for the source and dynamics of the slow solar wind during the time of solar minimum activity. An analysis of co-temporal STEREO EUVI data to derive the temperature of low coronal structures associated with the regions of enhanced helium abundance observed by HERSCHEL provides evidence the relative first ionization potential (FIP) of helium and hydrogen may play an important role in the observed abundance distribution. NRL was supported by the Office of Naval Research and NASA under NDPRS6598G.

  2. Analysis of fourth sounding rocket heat pipe experiment, summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis was made of the cryogenic axial groove methane and axial groove nitrogen heat pipes. Data cover the establishment of reliable start-up and operational data for the cryogenic pipe and its reference control pipes, and requirements for and the applicability of cryogenic heat pipes to NASA coolers.

  3. The Tunable XUV Imager (TXI) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John (Technical Monitor); Golub, Leon

    2004-01-01

    The TXI was flown successfully on 21 June 2001 (36.199 US). All systems functioned as planned and image data were acquired and sent to the ground. Unfortunately, due to a parachute failure the payload was destroyed. In this report we summarize results from the flight and provide detailed information on the high resolution X-ray imaging detector which was developed as part of the program.

  4. Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

    2003-09-01

    , sounding rocket launches have been detected from over 150 km. A variety of rockets launched from NASA"s Wallops Island facility were detected over a two year span. Arrays of microphones were able to create a line of bearing to the source of the launches that took place during different times of the year. This same experiment has been able to detect the space shuttle from over 1000 km on a regular basis. These two sources represent opposite ends of the target size, but they do demonstrate the potential for the detection and location of rocket launches.

  5. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  6. Rocket/launcher structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion describing the interactions between a rocket and a launcher were derived using Lagrange's Equation. A rocket launching was simulated. The motions of both the rocket and the launcher can be considered in detail. The model contains flexible elements and rigid elements. The rigid elements (masses) were judiciously utilized to simplify the derivation of the equations. The advantages of simultaneous shoe release were illustrated. Also, the loading history of the interstage structure of a boosted configuration was determined. The equations shown in this analysis could be used as a design tool during the modification of old launchers and the design of new launchers.

  7. Exergy Analysis of Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Mesmer, Bryan; Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is defined as the useful work available from a system in a specified environment. Exergy analysis allows for comparison between different system designs, and allows for comparison of subsystem efficiencies within system designs. The proposed paper explores the relationship between the fundamental rocket equation and an exergy balance equation. A previously derived exergy equation related to rocket systems is investigated, and a higher fidelity analysis will be derived. The exergy assessments will enable informed, value-based decision making when comparing alternative rocket system designs, and will allow the most efficient configuration among candidate configurations to be determined.

  8. Dynamic characterization of solid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural dynamics of solid rockets in-general was studied. A review is given of the modes of vibration and bending that can exist for a solid propellant rocket, and a NASTRAN computer model is included. Also studied were the dynamic properties of a solid propellant, polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer, which may be used in the space shuttle rocket booster. The theory of viscoelastic materials (i.e, Poisson's ratio) was employed in describing the dynamic properties of the propellant. These studies were performed for an eventual booster stage development program for the space shuttle.

  9. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  10. National Report Sweden: Swedish Space Activities- An Overview with a Focus on Balloons and Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.

    2015-09-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of Swedish space activities with a focus on balloon and rocket projects, launched or scheduled for launch in the near future from Esrange Space Center. Several on-going national balloon and rocket projects are described in brief. Sweden is also a major player in sounding rocket activities within the ESA Elips programme as provider of launch services and developer of modules for microgravity experiments. Another important activity, described below, is the student programme REXUS/BEXUS, carried out within the framework of bilateral agreement between DLR and SNSB, and in collaboration with ESA. It should also be noted that several other balloons and rockets have been launched from Esrange Space Center during the reporting period. The present paper focuses, however, on the projects led by Swedish Principal Investigators and activities with a major involvement of Swedish scientists and engineers.

  11. Atmospheric Manmade Glowings Phenomena Observed During the Launches of Solid Propellant Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernouss, S. A.; Platov, V. V.; Upspensky, M. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Kirillov, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    Exotic types of luminosities observed in the upper atmosphere always take place during the launch and flight of solid-propellant rockets We consider a large-scale geometry and dynamic features of such phenomena also physics of the intense turquoise (blue-green) glow observed in twilight conditions in the region of missile flight. This study has been based on numerous observations of different rocket flights in the atmosphere over Russia and Scandinavia. Formation of the monoxide aluminum clouds observed in the upper atmosphere is a result of interaction of the exhausted propellant products with the atomic oxygen. The sunlight excited the monoxide aluminum EA1O*) resonance emissions in the atmosphere. Careful studies of spectra of the manmade luminosities during rocket launch/flight permit us to know chemical, thermal and mechanical processes in the atmosphere similar as it is doing in experiments with the artificial cloud release from sounding rockets in the high latitude atmosphere.

  12. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  13. Rocket FUV Observations of the Io Plasma Torus During the Shoemaker-Levy/9 Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Slater, D.; Cash, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Green, J.; Gladstone, R.

    1995-01-01

    We observed the Io torus from 820-1140 A on universal time (UT) 20.25 July 1994 from a sounding rocket telescope/spectrograph. These observations serve as only the fourth published spectrum of the torus in this wavelength range, and the only far ultraviolet (FUV) data documenting the state of the torus during the Shoemaker Levy 9 Impacts.

  14. Navigating the Rockets Educator Guide

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this brief video overview, learn how to navigate the Rockets Educator Guide. Get a glimpse of the resources available in the guide, including a pictorial history, an overview of the physics cont...

  15. Small Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

  16. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  17. Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1999-03-31

    Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

  18. Safe testing nuclear rockets economically

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; Travis, B. J.; Zerkle, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  19. Small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil; Reed, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Instrumented and optically-accessible rocket chambers are being developed to be used for diagnostics of small rocket (less than 440 N thrust level) flowfields. These chambers are being tested to gather local fluid dynamic and thermodynamic flowfield data over a range of test conditions. This flowfield database is being used to better understand mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rockets, influence the numerical modeling of small rocket flowfields, and characterize small rocket components. The diagnostic chamber designs include: a chamber design for gathering wall temperature profiles to be used as boundary conditions in a finite element heat flux model; a chamber design for gathering inner wall temperature and static pressure profiles; and optically-accessible chamber designs, to be used with a suite of laser-based diagnostics for gathering local species concentration, temperature, density, and velocity profiles. These chambers were run with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) propellants, while subsequent versions will be run on liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/HC) propellants. The purpose, design, and initial test results of these small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers are summarized.

  20. The SERTS-97 Rocket Experiment on Study Activity on the Sun: Flight 36.167-GS on 1997 November 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Marvin; Condor, Charles E.; Davila, Joseph M.; Haas, J. Patrick; Jordan, Stuart D.; Linard, David L.; Miko, Joseph J.; Nash, I. Carol; Novello, Joseph; Payne, Leslie J.; Plummer, Thomas B.; Thomas, Roger J.; White, Larry A.; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thompson, William T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes mainly the 1997 version of the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS-97), a scientific experiment that operated on NASA's suborbital rocket flight 36.167-GS. Its function was to study activity on the Sun and to provide a cross calibration for the CDS instrument on the SOHO satellite. The experiment was designed, built, and tested by the Solar Physics Branch of the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Other essential sections of the rocket were built under the management of the Sounding Rockets Program Office. These sections include the electronics, timers, IGN despin, the SPARCS pointing controls, the S-19 flight course correction section, the rocket motors, the telemetry, ORSA, and OGIVE.

  1. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Rutherford, J. M.; Wikus, P.; Oakley, P.; Porter, Frederick S.; McCammon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded, sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer that will allow high precision measurements of velocity structure, ionization state and elemental composition of extended astrophysical systems. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to maintain the temperature of the detectors during launch. There are several vibration damping stages to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, which causes heating during launch. Each stage should be more rigid than the outer stages to achieve vibrational isolation. We describe a major design effort to tune the resonance frequencies of these vibration isolation stages to reduce heating problems prior to the projected launch in the summer of 2014.

  2. Scanning Rocket Impact Area with an UAV: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C. C. C.; Costa, D. A. L. M.; Junior, V. L. S.; Silva, B. R. F.; Leite, D. L.; Junor, C. E. B. S.; Liberator, B. A.; Nogueira, M. B.; Senna, M. D.; Santiago, G. S.; Dantas, J. B. D.; Alsina, P. J.; Albuquerque, G. L. A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the first subsystems developed for an UAV used in safety procedures of sounding rockets campaigns. The aim of this UAV is to scan the rocket impact area in order to search for unexpected boats. To achieve this mission, designers developed an image recognition algorithm, two human-machine interfaces and two communication links, one to control the drone and the other for receiving telemetry data. In this paper, developers take all major engineering decisions in order to overcome the project constraints. A secondary goal of the project is to encourage young people to take part in Brazilian space program. For this reason, most of designers are undergraduate students under supervision of experts.

  3. High Latitude Scintillations during the ICI-4 Rocket Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S.; Moen, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first results from the Norwegian ICI-4 sounding rocket campaign in February 2015. The ICI-4 was launched into F-region auroral blobs from the Andøya Space Center. The multi needle langmuir probe (m-NLP) on board the rocket sampled the ionospheric density structures at a sub-meter spatial resolution. A multi-phase screen model has been developed to estimate the scintillations from the density measurements acquired on-board spacecrafts. The phase screen model is validated and the comparison of the estimated values with scintillations measured by ground receivers during the campaign will be presented. A combination of scintillation receivers in Svalbard and surrounding areas as well as all sky imagers at Ny Ålesund, Longyerbyen, and Skibotn are used to improve the performance of the model.

  4. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Rutherford, J. M.; Wikus, P.; Oakley, P.; Porter, F. S.; McCammon, D.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded, sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer that will allow high precision measurements of velocity structure, ionization state and elemental composition of extended astrophysical systems. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to maintain the temperature of the detectors during launch. There are several vibration damping stages to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, which causes heating during launch. Each stage should be more rigid than the outer stages to achieve vibrational isolation. We describe a major design effort to tune the resonance frequencies of these vibration isolation stages to reduce heating problems prior to the projected launch in the summer of 2014.

  5. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  6. Nuclear rocket plume studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Daniel

    1993-05-01

    A description and detailed computational analysis of a vortex cleaning system designed to remove radioactive material from the plumes of nuclear rockets is included. The proposed system is designed to remove both particulates and radioactive gaseous material from the plume. A two part computational model is used to examine the system's ability to remove particulates, and the results indicate that under some conditions, the system can remove over 99% of the particles in the flow. Two critical parameters which govern the effectiveness of the system are identified and the information necessary to estimate cleaning efficiencies for particles of known sizes and densities is provided. A simple steady analytical solution is also developed to examine the system's ability to remove gaseous radioactive material. This analysis, while inconclusive, suggests that the swirl rates necessary to achieve useful efficiencies are too high to be achieved in any practical manner. Therefore, this system is probably not suitable for use, with gaseous radioactive material. It was concluded that the system can cause negligible specific impulse losses, though there may be a substantial mass penalty associated with its use.

  7. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  8. Liquid rocket engine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The nozzle is a major component of a rocket engine, having a significant influence on the overall engine performance and representing a large fraction of the engine structure. The design of the nozzle consists of solving simultaneously two different problems: the definition of the shape of the wall that forms the expansion surface, and the delineation of the nozzle structure and hydraulic system. This monography addresses both of these problems. The shape of the wall is considered from immediately upstream of the throat to the nozzle exit for both bell and annular (or plug) nozzles. Important aspects of the methods used to generate nozzle wall shapes are covered for maximum-performance shapes and for nozzle contours based on criteria other than performance. The discussion of structure and hydraulics covers problem areas of regeneratively cooled tube-wall nozzles and extensions; it treats also nozzle extensions cooled by turbine exhaust gas, ablation-cooled extensions, and radiation-cooled extensions. The techniques that best enable the designer to develop the nozzle structure with as little difficulty as possible and at the lowest cost consistent with minimum weight and specified performance are described.

  9. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  10. Marshall Team Recreates Goddard Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In honor of the Centernial of Flight celebration and commissioned by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a team of engineers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) built a replica of the first liquid-fueled rocket. The original rocket, designed and built by rocket engineering pioneer Robert H. Goddard in 1926, opened the door to modern rocketry. Goddard's rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet while its flight lasted only 2.5 seconds. The Marshall design team's plan was to stay as close as possible to an authentic reconstruction of Goddard's rocket. The same propellants were used - liquid oxygen and gasoline - as available during Goddard's initial testing and firing. The team also tried to construct the replica using the original materials and design to the greatest extent possible. By purposely using less advanced techniques and materials than many that are available today, the team encountered numerous technical challenges in testing the functional hardware. There were no original blueprints or drawings, only photographs and notes. However, this faithful adherence to historical accuracy has also allowed the team to experience many of the same challenges Goddard faced 77 years ago, and more fully appreciate the genius of this extraordinary man. The replica will undergo ground tests at MSFC this summer.

  11. Improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). I - Demonstration of precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. C.; Barnes, R. A.; Lee, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the daytime ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been made with an improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). Vertical cumulative ozone as a function of geometric altitude is the basic information content of these measurements. The instrument-to-instrument repeatability of the ozonesonde was determined by two series of four soundings each. At one standard deviation the instrument repeatability averages from 2.0 to 2.5 percent over the entire altitude range of the instrument. The worst measured repeatability is 3.7 percent at 55 km for one of the flight series.

  12. Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

  13. Open Source Software Openfoam as a New Aerodynamical Simulation Tool for Rocket-Borne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, T.; Brede, M.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to do in-situ measurements, which are very important experimental studies for atmospheric science, in the mesoshere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is to use sounding rockets. The drawback of using rockets is the shock wave appearing because of the very high speed of the rocket motion (typically about 1000 mIs). This shock wave disturbs the density, the temperature and the velocity fields in the vicinity of the rocket, compared to undisturbed values of the atmosphere. This effect, however, can be quantified and the measured data has to be corrected not just to make it more precise but simply usable. The commonly accepted and widely used tool for this calculations is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique developed by GA. Bird which is available as stand-alone program limited to use a single processor. Apart from complications with simulations of flows around bodies related to different flow regimes in the altitude range of MLT, that rise due to exponential density change by several orders of magnitude, a particular hardware configuration introduces significant difficulty for aerodynamical calculations due to choice of the grid sizes mainly depending on the demands on adequate DSMCs and good resolution of geometries with scale differences of factor of iO~. This makes either the calculation time unreasonably long or even prevents the calculation algorithm from converging. In this paper we apply the free open source software OpenFOAM (licensed under GNU GPL) for a three-dimensional CFD-Simulation of a flow around a sounding rocket instrumentation. An advantage of this software package, among other things, is that it can run on high performance clusters, which are easily scalable. We present the first results and discuss the potential of the new tool in applications for sounding rockets.

  14. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  15. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1987-03-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

  16. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Saving Lives With Rocket Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Propulsion uses NASA's surplus rocket fuel to produce a flare that can safely destroy land mines. Through a Memorandum of Agreement between Thiokol and Marshall Space Flight Center, Thiokol uses the scrap Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) propellant. The resulting Demining Device was developed by Thiokol with the help of DE Technologies. The Demining Device neutralizes land mines in the field without setting them off. The Demining Device flare is placed next to an uncovered land mine. Using a battery-triggered electric match, the flare is then ignited. Using the excess and now solidified rocket fuel, the flare burns a hole in the mine's case and ignites the explosive contents. Once the explosive material is burned away, the mine is disarmed and no longer dangerous.

  18. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    A technology program aimed at improving the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft onboard applications is reviewed. Navier-Stokes analyses of low Reynolds number rocket flows have been compared with local flow property measurements obtained using Rayleigh and Raman diagnostics in a 100 N gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen rocket. It is indicated that computational domain should include the near injector flow and that the shear layer combustion model needs improvement. The system analyses and technical efforts intended to develop a technology base for higher performance propellants are presented. A LOX/hydrazine engine is demonstrated to have a 95 percent theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1.

  19. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale. PMID:27219742

  20. Emergency egress fixed rocket package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Margaret A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of effecting the in-flight departure of an astronaut from a shuttle craft, and apparatus is presented. A plurality of removeable compartment covers are provided, behind which rocket assemblies are stowed. To actuate the system, the astronaut pulls off a tab from one of the compartments which exposes a cannister having a lanyard with a hook. The lanyard extends around a spring biased sleeve with a safety lever preventing rocket ignition until the hook is moved by the astronaut. Upward movement of the hook allows the trigger mechanism to actuate the system resulting in the rods projecting out of the hatch. When the lanyard becomes taut, a lanyard elongation detector transmits a signal to the firing mechanisms to fire the rocket.

  1. Small rocket research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  2. Rocket study of auroral processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are presented of previously published reports analyzing data from three Echo 3 rocket flights. Particle experiments designed for the Terrier-Malmute flight, the Echo 5 flight, and the Norwegian Corbier Ferdinand 50 flight are described and their flight performance evaluated. Theoretical studies on auroral particle precipitation are reviewed according to observations made in three regions of space: (1) the region accessible to rockets and low altitude satellites (few hundred to a few thousand kilometers); (2) the region extending from 4000 to 8000 km (S3-3 satellite range); and (3) near the equatorial plane (geosynchronous satellite measurements). Questions raised about auroral arc formation are considered.

  3. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  4. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  5. Rocket Launch Trajectory Simulations Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul E.; Hauss, Sharon; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The design and development of a Trajectory Simulation Mechanism (TSM) for the Launch Systems Testbed (LST) is outlined. In addition to being one-of-a-kind facility in the world, TSM serves as a platform to study the interaction of rocket launch-induced environments and subsequent dynamic effects on the equipment and structures in the close vicinity of the launch pad. For the first time, researchers and academicians alike will be able to perform tests in a laboratory environment and assess the impact of vibroacoustic behavior of structures in a moving rocket scenario on ground equipment, launch vehicle, and its valuable payload or spacecraft.

  6. Infrared signature modelling of a rocket jet plume - comparison with flight measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rialland, V.; Guy, A.; Gueyffier, D.; Perez, P.; Roblin, A.; Smithson, T.

    2016-01-01

    The infrared signature modelling of rocket plumes is a challenging problem involving rocket geometry, propellant composition, combustion modelling, trajectory calculations, fluid mechanics, atmosphere modelling, calculation of gas and particles radiative properties and of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper presents ONERA simulation tools chained together to achieve infrared signature prediction, and the comparison of the estimated and measured signatures of an in-flight rocket plume. We consider the case of a solid rocket motor with aluminized propellant, the Black Brant sounding rocket. The calculation case reproduces the conditions of an experimental rocket launch, performed at White Sands in 1997, for which we obtained high quality infrared signature data sets from DRDC Valcartier. The jet plume is calculated using an in-house CFD software called CEDRE. The plume infrared signature is then computed on the spectral interval 1900-5000 cm-1 with a step of 5 cm-1. The models and their hypotheses are presented and discussed. Then the resulting plume properties, radiance and spectra are detailed. Finally, the estimated infrared signature is compared with the spectral imaging measurements. The discrepancies are analyzed and discussed.

  7. Coordinated rocket and satellite measurements of an auroral event. I - Satellite observations and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. H.; Stewart, A. I.; Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Hoffman, R. A.; Brace, L. H.; Doering, J. P.; Peterson, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a coordinated auroral experiment involving the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite and a sounding rocket are reported. Auroral primary electron fluxes and neutral gas densities measured by instruments on the satellite are used in a model calculation of the thermospheric manifestation of the aurora. There is encouraging agreement between the calculated and measured electron density, electron temperature, secondary electron flux, and O I emissions at 5577 and 6300 A. A discrepancy between the calculated and the rocket-measured 3914-A emission profile is discussed in terms of experiment geometry and auroral physics. The coordinated measurements are used to infer vertical fluxes of ionization and of electron thermal energy at high altitudes

  8. Premature ignition of a rocket motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Darlene Ruth

    2010-10-01

    During preparation for a rocket sled track (RST) event, there was an unexpected ignition of the zuni rocket motor (10/9/08). Three Sandia staff and a contractor were involved in the accident; the contractor was seriously injured and made full recovery. The data recorder battery energized the low energy initiator in the rocket.

  9. F. Gomez Arias' rocket vehicle project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreras, R.

    1977-01-01

    Research done by Spanish pioneer rocket scientists in the 19th century was investigated with major emphasis placed on F. Gomez Arias' rocket vehicle project. Arias, considered the world's first designer of rocket propelled, manned aircraft, was interested in solving the problem of space navigation. Major concerns included ascent and direction of heavier-than-airmachines, as well as ascent and direction of balloons.

  10. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  11. The Swedish Rocket Corps, 1833 - 1845

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rockets for pyrotechnic displays used in Sweden in the 19th century are examined in terms of their use in war situations. Work done by the Swedish chemist J. J. Berzelius, who analyzed and improved the propellants of such rockets, and the German engineer, Martin Westermaijer, who researched manufacturing techniques of these rockets is also included.

  12. Methods for tracking of balloons and rockets at Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedqvist, Tomas

    2001-08-01

    At Esrange several methods are used for tracking of balloons and rockets with help of radar, Vaisala sounding data, ARGOS and GPS information. Information from these different sources is fed into a computer system for processing, and for display on adapted systems. Data from balloon flights are displayed on a digital map, which includes population data and a system to predict impact point of the balloon. Data from rocket flights can be displayed either on a digital map, or in a system for range safety purpose. Signals from various sources are converted into a data format used in the new ATC (Air Traffic Control) transponder system in order to ease future integration into this system. Data from the GPS system in NMEA format can also be adopted directly into the tracking system for both balloon and rocket flight. Balloon tracking data is also transferred via Internet to ATCs centres for flight safety reasons. Future developments: A new system for wind measurements will be created from "throw away" GPS sondes. In air traffic transponders, the expensive altimeter will be replaced by an inexpensive GPS system. For recovery, Argos-GPS on balloons will be used for real-time tracking, position information via satellites and as a support system for recovery by helicopter. Balloons equipped with the Inmarsat system, for long duration balloon flights, will have their position displayed in the digital map system.

  13. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  14. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  15. Centrifugal pumps for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Farquhar, J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of centrifugal pumps for rocket engines is described in terms of general requirements of operational and planned systems. Hydrodynamic and mechanical design considerations and techniques and test procedures are summarized. Some of the pump development experiences, in terms of both problems and solutions, are highlighted.

  16. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  17. The Need for Faster Rockets

    NASA Video Gallery

    The rockets NASA has used have been great, but they can’t take us far enough, fast enough to get us to places we haven’t been before like Mars or beyond. A solution is to use plasma as propulsi...

  18. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  19. Laser-heated rocket studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Root, R. G.; Wu., P. K. S.; Caledonia, G. E.; Pirri, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    CW laser heated rocket propulsion was investigated in both the flowing core and stationary core configurations. The laser radiation considered was 10.6 micrometers, and the working gas was unseeded hydrogen. The areas investigated included initiation of a hydrogen plasma capable of absorbing laser radiation, the radiation emission properties of hot, ionized hydrogen, the flow of hot hydrogen while absorbing and radiating, the heat losses from the gas and the rocket performance. The stationary core configuration was investigated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. It was found that the flowing core rockets can have specific impulses between 1,500 and 3,300 sec. They are small devices, whose heating zone is only a millimeter to a few centimeters long, and millimeters to centimeters in radius, for laser power levels varying from 10 to 5,000 kW, and pressure levels of 3 to 10 atm. Heat protection of the walls is a vital necessity, though the fraction of laser power lost to the walls can be as low as 10% for larger powers, making the rockets thermally efficient.

  20. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  1. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  2. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  3. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, K.; Ono, F.; Sasaki, M.; Takahashi, M.

    In this experiment, the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5kN was designed and tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. Thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle, i.e., the ram combustor nozzle, were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was verified by the experiments. That is, the specific impulse gains in rocket-ram parallel operation, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of gains in pure rocket operation.

  4. A Brief Historical Survey of Rocket Testing Induced Acoustic Environments at NASA SSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted of all the various rocket test programs that have been performed since the establishment of NASA Stennis Space Center. The relevant information from each of these programs were compiled and used to quantify the theoretical noise source levels using the NASA approved methodology for computing "acoustic loads generated by a propulsion system" (NASA SP ]8072). This methodology, which is outlined in Reference 1, has been verified as a reliable means of determining the noise source characteristics of rocket engines. This information is being provided to establish reference environments for new government/business residents to ascertain whether or not their activities will generate acoustic environments that are more "encroaching" in the NASA Fee Area. In this report, the designation of sound power level refers to the acoustic power of the rocket engine at the engine itself. This is in contrast to the sound pressure level associated with the propagation of the acoustic energy in the surrounding air. The first part of the survey documents the "at source" sound power levels and their dominant frequency bands for the range of engines tested at Stennis. The second part of the survey discusses how the acoustic energy levels will propagate non ]uniformly from the test stands. To demonstrate this, representative acoustic sound pressure mappings in the NASA Stennis Fee Area were computed for typical engine tests on the B ]1 and E ]1 test stands.

  5. Acoustical and Flowfield Characterization of a Scaled Tabletop Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Margasahayam, Ravi; Norton, Michael; Caimi, Raoul; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor); Venegas, Augusto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the acoustical and flowfield environment for the scaled 1-pound-force (lbf) thrust tabletop motor was performed. This tabletop motor from NASA Stennis Space Center Is composed of Plexiglas burning In gaseous oxygen with a graphite insert for the nozzle portion. The nozzle has a throat diameter of 0.2 inch and an exit diameter of 0.38 Inch. With a chamber pressure at 55 pounds per square Inch absolute (psia), a normal shock is formed immediately downstream of the nozzle exit plane as the combustion products exhaust into the ambient at atmospheric pressure. The jet characterization Is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with Kirchhoff surface integral formulation and compared with correlations developed for measured rocket noise and a pressure fluctuation scaling (PFS) method. Predictions and comparisons are made for the overall sound pressure levels (OASPL's) and spectral dependence of sound pressure level (SPL). The overall objective of this effort is to develop methods for scaling the acoustic and flowfield environment of rockets with a wide range of thrust (1 lbf to 1 million lbf).

  6. Rocket ultraviolet imagery of the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Heckathorn, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    Far-UV electrographic imagery of M31 is presented which was obtained during a sounding-rocket flight with an electrographic Schmidt camera sensitive in the wavelength range from 1230 to 2000 A. The resolution in the imagery is such that 50% of the energy from a point source is confined within a circle 40 arcsec in radius. Two conspicuous features are observed in the UV image of M31: one corresponding to a bright association (NGC 206) in the SW region of the disk and one centered on the galactic nucleus. Indications of the general spiral-arm structure are also evident. Absolute photometry and brightness distributions are obtained for the observed features, and both the central region and NGC 206 are shown to be diffuse sources. It is found that the brightness distribution of the central region is a flat ellipse with its major axis closely aligned with the major axis of the galaxy, which favors a source model consisting of young early-type stars close to the galactic plane and constitutes strong evidence against a nonthermal point source at the galactic center.

  7. Photoelectron Emission and Lyman Alpha Measurements by the CHAMPS Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Robertson, S. H.; Dickson, S.; Gausa, M. A.; Friedrich, M.; Horanyi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The daytime CHAMPS (CHarge And mass of Meteoritic smoke ParticleS) sounding rocket carried a suit of instruments for the monitoring of photoemission current and Lyman alpha flux as a function of altitude. The results show that photoemission is significant down to 60-75 km altitude, depending on the photo-emitting surface. Lyman alpha was detected to about 65 km altitude. The daytime CHAMPS rocket launched on 13 October 13:50 UT from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. The CHAMPS instruments detected layers of particles, probably of meteoric origin, charged both positive and negative in the 63-93 km altitude range. The CHAMPS payloads were also designed to characterize the plasma environment and thus also carried Faraday rotation antennas and electron and ion probes. Solar UV plays an important role in charge balance for both the rocket body and meteoric smoke particles. Photoelectron emission was monitored by a set of three detectors consisting of an emitting surface (Platinum, Aluminum and Zirconium) biased at -10 V and placed behind a fine grid. The Al and Zr surfaces produced similar signals with photoemission measureable above 75 km altitude. The Pt surface emitted photoelectrons even below 60 km altitude. The different behavior of Pt can possibly be due to exposure to atomic oxygen, though further analysis is necessary. The solar Lyman alpha radiation was measured by a UV photodiode placed behind a pair or filters to reduce the contribution to the signal from visible light. Lyman alpha was detected down to 65 km altitude, which confirms that photo-detachment and photoelectric charging needs to be considered for the charge balance of particle layers in the mesosphere region. All instruments were calibrated at the facilities of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado.

  8. Transient desorption of water vapor - A potential source of error in upper atmosphere rocket experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Weeks, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Results of measurements of the outgassing rates of samples of materials and surface finishes used on the outer skins of rocket-borne experiment packages in simulated rocket ascents. The results showed outgassing rates for anodized aluminum in the second minute of flight which are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those given in typical tables of outgassing rates. The measured rates for aluminum with chromate conversion surface coatings were also abnormally high. These abnormally high initial rates fell quickly after about five to ten minutes to values comparable with those in the published literature. It is concluded that anodized and chromate conversion coatings on the aluminum outer surfaces of a sounding rocket experiment package will cause gross distortion of the true water vapor environment.

  9. Rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements in the winter polar stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, F.; Moehler, O.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Ziereis, H.

    1988-01-01

    In January and February 1987 stratospheric rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements were done in the North Polar region using ACIMS (Active Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) and PACIMS (PAssive Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) instruments. The rocket was launched at ESRANGE (European Sounding Rocket Launching Range) (68 N, 21 E, Northern Sweden) and the twin-jet research aircraft operated by the DFVLR (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchs-anstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt), and equipped with a mass spectrometer laboratory was stationed at Kiruna airport. Various stratospheric trace gases were measured including nitric acid, sulfuric acid, non-methane hydrocarbons (acetone, hydrogen cyanide, acetonitrile, methanol etc.), and ambient cluster ions. The experimental data is presented and possible implications for polar stratospheric ozone discussed.

  10. A rocket-borne electrostatic analyzer for measurement of energetic particle flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozzi, M. A.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne electrostatic analyzer experiment is described. It is used to measure energetic particle flux (0.9 to 14 keV) in the nighttime midlatitude E region. Energetic particle precipitation is believed to be a significant nighttime ionization source, particularly during times of high geomagnetic activity. The experiment was designed for use in the payload of a Nike Apache sounding rocket. The electrostatic analyzer employs two cylindrical parallel plates subtending a central angle of 90 deg. The voltage waveform supplied to the plates is a series of steps synchronized to the spin of the payload during flight. Both positive and negative voltages are provided, extending the detection capabilities of the instrument to both electrons and protons (and positive ions). The development, construction and operation of the instrument is described together with a preliminary evaluation of its performance in a rocket flight.

  11. A rocket tomography measurement of the N2(+) 3914 A emission rates within an auroral arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdade, I. C.; Lloyd, N. D.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket tomography experiment designed to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the N2(+) 3914 A volume emission rates within an auroral arc is described. A simple filter photometer on board a sounding rocket, which was launched during the ARIES auroral campaign, was used to measure the 3914 A aruoral brightnesses at elevation angles ranging from 0 to 360 deg in the plane of the rocket trajectory. The measured auroral brightnesses have been tomographically inverted to recover the local 3914 A volume emissioin rates as a function of both altitude and latitude within the arc. The tomographic inversion procedure, which is based upon a maximum probability algebraic reconstruction approach, is described, and the implications of the results for studies of auroral excitation processes are briefly discussed.

  12. Preliminary results of rocket attitude and auroral green line emission rate in the DELTA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Naomoto; Komada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Takao

    2006-09-01

    The attitude of a sounding rocket launched in the DELTA (Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora) campaign was determined with IR horizon sensors and geomagnetic sensors. Since the payload was separated into two portions, two sets of attitude sensors were needed. A new IR sensor was developed for the present experiment, and found the zenith-angle of the spin-axis of the rocket with an accuracy of 2°. By combining information obtained by both type of sensors, the absolute attitudes were determined. The auroral green line emission rate was measured by a photometer on board the same rocket launched under active auroral conditions, and the energy flux of the auroral particle precipitation was estimated.

  13. A comparison of U.S. and USSR rocketsondes using LIMS satellite temperature sounding as a transfer standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Bailey, P. L.; Beck, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the reduction of the number of sounding rockets launched per year, there is a general need to make the most effective use of each sounding. In particular, it is often necessary to combine the results from different types of instruments to obtain a meaningful and complete picture of the atmosphere. For this reason, data from different rockets must be compatible. The present investigation is concerned with the utilization of the temperature soundings of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) as the uniform comparison standard. Gille et al. (1984) have compared the LIMS temperatures to a set of 122 U.S. datasonde rockets. In the current study, a comparison between soundings by rocketborne instruments of the USSR and LIMS is combined with the results of the previous LIMS-U.S. rocketsonde comparison in the same latitude bands to provide an updated estimate of the differences between U.S. and USSR rocketborne temperature measurements.

  14. Korotkoff Sounds.

    PubMed

    Shennan; Halligan

    1996-12-01

    We were interested in the historical perspective that Arabidze et al. [1] brought to the subject of Korotkoff's auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure. The original description by the Reverend Stephen Hales performing the very first blood pressure measurement (which was actually published in 1733) does not make reference to a column of water as the authors suggest [2]. Hales wrote: 'Then untying the Ligature on the Artery, the Blood rose in the Tube eight Feet three Inches.'. He goes on to state that, 'When it was at its full Height, it would rise and fall at and after each Pulse two, three, or four Inches, and sometimes it would fall twelve or fourteen Inches, and have there for a time the same vibrations up and down at and after each Pulse, as it had, when it was at its full Height; to which it would rise again, after forty or fifty Pulses'. We believe this fall of '12 or 14 in' to have been the first description of blood pressure variability, which has wrongly been attributed to respirations by subsequent authors [3]. The mare's pulse rate was described to be about 50 beats per minute; therefore an unanaesthetized horse would not be likely to have a respiration rate of once per minute. One further important point of error concerning the Korotkoff sounds is their reproducibility. We have demonstrated recently that phase IV is reproduced or identified poorly, both in adults and even during pregnancy, when it has been recommended to be used in favour of phase V. We have also demonstrated that phase I (systolic blood pressure) is perceived to be significantly clearer than phase V [4]. PMID:10226281

  15. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  16. Low thrust rocket test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

  17. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.W. ); Rochow, R. )

    1993-01-15

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  18. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  19. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  20. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Rochow Wilcox Space; Nuclear Systems, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  1. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Rochow, Richard

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps.

  2. Theory for Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2009-11-01

    Electrical propulsion of rockets is developing potentially into the use of 3 different thrusters for future long-distance space missions that primarily involve plasma dynamics. These are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster, the Plasma Induction Thruster (PID), and the VASIMIR Thruster. The history of the development of electrical propulsion into these prospects and the current research of particularly the VASIMIR Thruster are reviewed. Theoretical questions that need to be addressed in that development are explored.

  3. Dumbo: A pachydermal rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Bill

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical account is given of the Dumbo nuclear reactor, a type of folded flow reactor that could be used for rocket propulsion. Much of the information is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs show details of the reactor system, fuel geometry, and key characteristics of the system (folded flow, use of fuel washers, large flow area, small fuel volume, hybrid modulator, and cermet fuel).

  4. Liquid rocket engine turbopump gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Design and fabrication of gear drives for rocket engine turbopumps are described in the sequence encountered during the design process as follows: (1) selection of overall arrangement; (2) selection of gear type; (3) preliminary sizing; (4) lubrication system design; (5) detail tooth design; (6) selection of gear materials; and (7) gear fabrication and testing as it affects the design. The description is oriented towards the use of involute spur gears, although reference material for helical gears is also cited.

  5. Fluid mechanics of spinning rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Vanmoorhem, W. K.; Shorthill, R.; Chen, K.; Woolsey, M.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed investigation of the influence of time-dependent combustion gas flows on the attitude dynamics of spinning rocket propelled space vehicles. The work was motivated by a need to understand the origins of a potentially serious system performance problem first detected in the PAM-D series of spin stabilized upper stages. Small wobbling (often referred to as nutation or coning) is induced during separation of the rocket motor burn. The growth ceased abruptly at motor burnout, and final cone angles as large as 17 deg were reached in some flights. The same phenomenon was encountered in two flights of the PAM-DII, a similar vehicle utilizing a larger motor. Conventional theories of spinning rocket dynamics failed to explain this behavior. Since the telemetry data shows that the severity of the problem depends on spacecraft mass properties and other system parameters, it is crucial that the origins of the instability be understood completely in order that serious mission degradation can be avoided in future orbit raising operations. A costly interim fix, which sidesteps the need to understand the physical origins of the problem, is the use of a strap-on nutation control system as used in the Air Force SGS II missions.

  6. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  7. Solar rocket system concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of solar energy to heat propellant for application to Earth orbital/planetary propulsion systems is of interest because of its performance capabilities. The achievable specific impulse values are approximately double those delivered by a chemical rocket system, and the thrust is at least an order of magnitude greater than that produced by a mercury bombardment ion propulsion thruster. The primary advantage the solar heater thruster has over a mercury ion bombardment system is that its significantly higher thrust permits a marked reduction in mission trip time. The development of the space transportation system, offers the opportunity to utilize the full performance potential of the solar rocket. The requirements for transfer from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) was examined as the return trip, GEO to LEO, both with and without payload. Payload weights considered ranged from 2000 to 100,000 pounds. The performance of the solar rocket was compared with that provided by LO2-LH2, N2O4-MMH, and mercury ion bombardment systems.

  8. Rocket measurements of the solar spectral irradiance during solar minimum, 1972-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottman, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Five sounding rocket experiments conducted between December 1972 and March 1977, a period spanning solar minimum between cycles 20 and 21, provide full disc solar irradiance data in the spectral range 120-190 nm. The five measurements have been combined to give a solar minimum reference table. This spectrum is compared with other measurements obtained during the same time period. A table of intensities for the strong emission lines at wavelengths between 120 and 190 nm is presented.

  9. Calculation of vibration mode and its experimental study in solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Junwei; Sun, Weishen; Xing, Chunjing

    1992-05-01

    A method for the calculation of vibration mode in rocket motors is presented, and a corresponding program is worked out. Values calculated with this program are consistent with theoretical and experimental results, indicating that the program is soundly based. A new type of vibration excitation apparatus-turbo vibration exciter is also introduced and used for determination of natural frequency of acoustic cavities and of acoustic damping coefficients of motor.

  10. Far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet rocket instrumentation for measuring the solar spectral irradiance and terrestrial airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment is being developed for the study of EUV spectral irradiance and its effects on the upper atmosphere, using three solar EUV instruments devised by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. These include a 25-cm Rowland circle EUV spectrograph, an array of Si X-UV photodiodes, and an X-UV imager with 20 arcsec resolution of the sun.

  11. Far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet rocket instrumentation for measuring the solar spectral irradiance and terrestrial airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1992-06-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment is being developed for the study of EUV spectral irradiance and its effects on the upper atmosphere, using three solar EUV instruments devised by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. These include a 25-cm Rowland circle EUV spectrograph, an array of Si X-UV photodiodes, and an X-UV imager with 20 arcsec resolution of the sun.

  12. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  13. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  14. Making Sound Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  15. The Sound of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  16. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  17. Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1997-01-01

    Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The

  18. Focused Rocket-Ejector RBCC Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This document reports the results of additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Perm State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3rd generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The two tasks conducted under this program build on earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task continued a systematic investigation of the improvements provided by a gaseous hydrogen (GHz)/oxygen (GO2) twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. In a similar vein, the second task continued investigations into the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. For the GH2/GO2 propellant rocket ejector experiments, high frequency measurements of the pressure field within the system were also made to understand the unsteady behavior of the flowfield.

  19. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  20. Rocket and radar investigation of background electrodynamics and bottom-type scattering layers at the onset of equatorial spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Larsen, M. F.; Swenson, C. M.; Barjatya, A.; Wheeler, T. F.; Bullett, T. W.; Sarango, M. F.; Woodman, R. F.; Chau, J. L.; Sponseller, D.

    2006-07-01

    Sounding rocket experiments were conducted during the NASA EQUIS II campaign on Kwajalein Atoll designed to elucidate the electrodynamics and layer structure of the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere prior to the onset of equatorial spread F (ESF). Experiments took place on 7 and 15 August 2004, each comprised of the launch of an instrumented and two chemical release sounding rockets. The instrumented rockets measured plasma number density, vector electric fields, and other parameters to an apogee of about 450 km. The chemical release rockets deployed trails of trimethyl aluminum (TMA) which yielded wind profile measurements. The Altair radar was used to monitor coherent and incoherent scatter in UHF and VHF bands. Electron density profiles were also measured with rocket beacons and an ionosonde. Strong plasma shear flow was evident in both experiments. Bottom-type scattering layers were observed mainly in the valley region, below the shear nodes, in westward-drifting plasma strata. The layers were likely produced by wind-driven interchange instabilities as proposed by Kudeki and Bhattacharyya (1999). In both experiments, the layers were patchy and distributed periodically in space. Their horizontal structure was similar to that of the large-scale plasma depletions that formed later at higher altitude during ESF conditions. We argue that the bottom-type layers were modulated by the same large-scale waves that seeded the ESF. A scenario where the large-scale waves were themselves produced by collisional shear instabilities is described.