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Sample records for njit physicist sees

  1. Freshman Chemistry and Materials at NJIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzin, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary chemistry course at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) in which at least one quarter of the time is devoted to materials science. Includes information on course content, laboratory work, and assessment of student performance on chemistry and materials science topics. (JN)

  2. Medical Physicists and Health Physicists: Radiation Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Physics is the study of matter and energy and the ways in which the two interact. Some physicists use their expertise in physics to focus on radiation. These specialists, called medical physicists and health physicists, work to help people or protect the environment. Medical physicists work with physicians, assisting patients who need imaging…

  3. The New Jersey Institute of Technology Robot-Assisted Virtual Rehabilitation (NJIT-RAVR) system for children with cerebral palsy: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that the integration of virtual reality (VR) with robot assisted rehabilitation could be successful if applied to children with hemiparetic CP. The combined benefits of increased attention provided by VR and the larger training stimulus afforded by adaptive robotics may increase the beneficial effects of these two approaches synergistically. This paper will describe the NJIT-RAVR system, which combines adaptive robotics with complex VR simulations for the rehabilitation of upper extremity impairments and function in children with CP and examine the feasibility of this system in the context of a two subject training study. Methods The NJIT-RAVR system consists of the Haptic Master, a 6 degrees of freedom, admittance controlled robot and a suite of rehabilitation simulations that provide adaptive algorithms for the Haptic Master, allowing the user to interact with rich virtual environments. Two children, a ten year old boy and a seven year old girl, both with spastic hemiplegia secondary to Cerebral Palsy were recruited from the outpatient center of a comprehensive pediatric rehabilitation facility. Subjects performed a battery of clinical testing and kinematic measurements of reaching collected by the NJIT-RAVR system. Subjects trained with the NJIT-RAVR System for one hour, 3 days a week for three weeks. The subjects played a combination of four or five simulations depending on their therapeutic goals, tolerances and preferences. Games were modified to increase difficulty in order to challenge the subjects as their performance improved. The testing battery was repeated following the training period. Results Both participants completed 9 hours of training in 3 weeks. No untoward events occurred and no adverse responses to treatment or complaints of cyber sickness were reported. One participant showed improvements in overall performance on the functional aspects of the testing battery. The second subject made improvements in upper extremity

  4. Women Physicists Speak Again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy

    2005-10-01

    More than 1350 women physicists from more than 70 countries responded to a survey designed to identify issues important to women in physics. Women physicists had many areas of concern, notably discrimination and career/family balance. However, they also had many successes in physics. The majority would choose physics again and felt that they had progressed in their careers at least as quickly as their colleagues. Many spoke eloquently about their love of physics, the support they had received from others, and about their own determination and hard work.

  5. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  6. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2013-03-01

    Women constitute more than half of the total population of Nepal but are far behind men in all aspects of life. There is a wide gender gap socially, economically, and politically. Data for 1960 through 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied at the postgraduate level and there was no woman with a PhD degree. From 2002 through mid-2010 the number of female students increased gradually at both the MSc and in PhD levels, due to study opportunities abroad. We expect that this trend will continue, with significant improvement in furthering the education of women as a whole, and will lead to an increase in women physicists in the country.

  7. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  8. Brazilian physicists take centre stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    With the FIFA World Cup taking place in Brazil this month, Susan Curtis travels to South America's richest nation to find out how its physicists are exploiting recent big increases in science funding.

  9. Fear rises among Iranian physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-01-01

    Academics in Iran have been left in a state of fear following the murder in Tehran last November of nuclear physicist Majid Shahriari and the attempted assassination of another nuclear researcher, Fereydoon Abbasi.

  10. Physicists dream of supersized collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Particle physicists in China are hopeful that the Chinese government will allocate 1 billion yuan (about £104m) to design what would be the world's largest particle accelerator - the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC).

  11. Poetry for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Sheila; Abel, Lynne S.

    1990-09-01

    In an effort to discover what makes the humanities difficult and unpopular with some science and engineering students, 14 Cornell faculty from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, applied mathematics, geology, materials science, and engineering were invited to become ``surrogate learners'' in a junior/senior level poetry seminar designed expressly for them. Their encounter with humanistic pedagogy and scholarship was meant to be an extension of ``Peer Perspectives on Science'' [see S. Tobias and R. R. Hake, ``Professors as physics students: What can they teach us?'' Am. J. Phys. 56, 786 (1988)]. The results challenge certain assumptions about differences between scholarship and pedagogy in the humanities and science (as regards ``certainty'' and models). But the experiment uncovered other problems that affect ``marketing'' the humanities to science and engineering students. Results are some additional insights into what makes science ``hard'' for humanities students and why physical science and engineering students have difficulty with and tend to avoid courses in literature, as well as into what can make humanities courses valuable for science students.

  12. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-19

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  13. Gert Finger Becomes Emeritus Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw, T.; Lucuix, C.; Péron, M.

    2016-03-01

    Gert Finger has retired after almost 33 years service and he has been made the first Emeritus Physicist at ESO. An appreciation of some of his many achievements in the development of infrared instrumentation and detector controllers is given. A retirement party for Gert Finger was held in February 2016.

  14. Mathematics for Physicists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The text is a report of the OEEC Seminar on "The Mathematical Knowledge Required by the Physicist and Engineer" held in Paris, 1961. There are twelve major papers presented: (1) An American Parallel (describes the work of the Panel on Physical Sciences and Engineering of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics of the Mathematical…

  15. Antibiotic resistance: a physicist's view.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rosalind; Waclaw, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    The problem of antibiotic resistance poses challenges across many disciplines. One such challenge is to understand the fundamental science of how antibiotics work, and how resistance to them can emerge. This is an area where physicists can make important contributions. Here, we highlight cases where this is already happening, and suggest directions for further physics involvement in antimicrobial research. PMID:27510596

  16. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  17. Physicists and the doctoral dissertation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Frederick A.; Porter, Alan L.

    1982-09-01

    This article is based on a recent study of 645 1969-1970 Ph.D. recipients from the disciplines of physics, electrical engineering, biochemistry, zoology, psychology, and sociology. It focuses on the 97 physicists in the sample, studying their personal characteristics, work histories, dissertation experiences and assessment of their worth, and early career productivity including publications and citations. In the process of analyzing the physicists' careers, it compares them as a group with the other disciplinary groups and the sample as a whole. There is general satisfaction with the dissertation experience and little inclination to change its structure. However, the data suggest certain areas where improvement is possible in the dissertation process. These include beginning the dissertation during course work, increasing the relevance and originality of the dissertation, and using the dissertation experience as an opportunity to begin learning research management.

  18. Helmut Paul, a happy physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokuti, Mitio

    Each time I meet Helmut (I address him in an American way, perhaps awfully improperly in Austria), I get a strong impression of a happy man. Why is it so? Well gifted as a physicist and also as a manager, he has had a well-deserved eminently successful career, which warrants his happiness. However, not every physicist of a comparable stature appears to be as happy as Helmut. As a tribute on the occasion of his retirement, I offer in what follows an analysis of his life, accomplishments, and happiness. The present article is also a dedication to him as the chairman of the 16th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids, which was highly successful, as seen in the Proceedings appearing in the following papes.

  19. Physicists' Forced Migrations under Hitler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerchen, Alan

    2011-03-01

    When the Nazis came to power in early 1933 they initiated formal and informal measures that forced Jews and political opponents from public institutions such as universities. Some physicists retired and others went into industry, but most emigrated. International communication and contact made emigration a viable option despite the desperate economic times in the Great Depression. Another wave of emigrations followed the annexation of Austria in 1938. Individual cases as well as general patterns of migration and adaptation to new environments will be examined in this presentation. One important result of the forced migrations was that many of the physicists expelled under Hitler played important roles in strengthening physics elsewhere, often on the Allied side in World War II.

  20. Physicists and Physics in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan

    We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

  1. Complementary colours for a physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babič, Vitomir; Čepič, Mojca

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

  2. Physicist appeals against security revoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    An Egyptian-born nuclear physicist filed a fresh legal appeal last month in an effort to learn why his security clearance was revoked by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Abdel Moniem El-Ganayni, 57, who became a US citizen in 1988, lost his clearance in December 2007. Last May, he lost his job at Bettis Laboratory in Pittsburgh, which is run for the DOE by a subsidiary of the Bechtel Corporation. A lawsuit in which El-Ganayni sought a hearing on the reasons for revoking his clearance was dismissed in late November by US District judge Terrence McVerry, prompting the latest appeal.

  3. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    This book summarizes the radiation physics knowledge that professionals working in medical physics need to master for efficient and safe dealings with ionizing radiation. It contains eight chapters, each chapter covering a specific group of subjects related to radiation physics and is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in medical-physics graduate programs. However, the book may also be of interest to the large number of professionals, not only medical physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and find a need to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

  4. John Bardeen: an extraordinary physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoddeson, Lillian

    2008-04-01

    On the morning of 1 November 1956 the US physicist John Bardeen dropped the frying-pan of eggs that he was cooking for breakfast, scattering its contents on the kitchen floor. He had just heard that he had won the Nobel Prize for Physics along with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for their invention of the transistor. That evening Bardeen was startled again, this time by a parade of his colleagues from the University of Illinois marching to the door of his home bearing champagne and singing "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow".

  5. Murdered physicist leaves Iran reeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2010-02-01

    The murder of the Iranian physicist Masoud Alimohammadi last month has left the country's academic community in a state of shock. Alimohammadi, a 50-year-old physics professor at the University of Tehran, was killed on 12 January by a remote-controlled bomb attached to the side of a motorcycle outside his home. The bomb was detonated as he left for work, but the reason for the murder remained unclear as Physics World went to press. Reports by the Iranian state media blamed the US and Israel for the attack - a claim that the US later described as "absurd".

  6. My recollections as a physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yung-su

    1997-03-01

    This presentation is a talk presented by the author at a Physics Symposium of the 50th anniversary of the Taiwan University, in December 1996. The author describes how he became a physicist, and then presents a brief outline of his professional career, most of which has centered at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He was involved in the discovery of the {tau} lepton, and in studies of CP violation through decay of the {tau}, in addition to studies of semileptonic decay of t, B, D, K, and {pi}.

  7. Are physicists afraid of mathematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmer, Jonathan E.; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    A recent study claimed that heavy use of equations impedes communication among biologists, as measured by the ability to attract citations from peers. It was suggested that to increase the probability of being cited one should reduce the density of equations in papers, that equations should be moved to appendices, and that math training among biologists should be improved. Here, we report a detailed study of the citation habits among physicists, a community that has traditionally strong training and dependence on mathematical formulations. Is it possible to correlate statistical citation patterns and fear of mathematics in a community whose work strongly depends on equations? By performing a systematic analysis of the citation counts of papers published in one of the leading journals in physics covering all its disciplines, we find striking similarities with distribution of citations recorded in biological sciences. However, based on the standard deviations in citation data of both communities, biologists and physicists, we argue that trends in statistical indicators are not reliable to unambiguously blame mathematics for the existence or lack of citations. We digress briefly about other statistical trends that apparently would also enhance citation success.

  8. An Applied Physicist Does Econometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, L. G.

    2010-02-01

    The biggest problem those attempting to understand econometric data, via modeling, have is that economics has no F = ma. Without a theoretical underpinning, econometricians have no way to build a good model to fit observations to. Physicists do, and when F = ma failed, we knew it. Still desiring to comprehend econometric data, applied economists turn to mis-applying probability theory---especially with regard to the assumptions concerning random errors---and choosing extremely simplistic analytical formulations of inter-relationships. This introduces model bias to an unknown degree. An applied physicist, used to having to match observations to a numerical or analytical model with a firm theoretical basis, modify the model, re-perform the analysis, and then know why, and when, to delete ``outliers'', is at a considerable advantage when quantitatively analyzing econometric data. I treat two cases. One is to determine the household density distribution of total assets, annual income, age, level of education, race, and marital status. Each of these ``independent'' variables is highly correlated with every other but only current annual income and level of education follow a linear relationship. The other is to discover the functional dependence of total assets on the distribution of assets: total assets has an amazingly tight power law dependence on a quadratic function of portfolio composition. Who knew? )

  9. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  10. Women Physicists and the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Ruth H.

    1996-05-01

    Wartime labor shortages opened laboratory doors to women physicists. Like their male colleagues, women physicists were swept into the weapons-related research projects of World War II including the Manhattan Project. Although no women served on the leadership committees of the atomic bomb project, they participated in all other aspects of the work except the combat delivery of the weapon. Women physicists performed both experimental and theoretical work. Most of them were very young and joined the project in order to contribute to the national war effort. This discussion of some women physicists and their technical contributions is based on the literature and interviews with participants in tthe Manhattan Project.

  11. Preparing Physicists for Paperless Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Robert G.

    1996-11-01

    Electronic databases, CD-ROMs and the World Wide Web are making large amounts of physics information in electronic form available to physics faculty members. As we seek to educate the next generation of physicists we need to explore the positive and negative aspects of teaching without using paper. We are preparing to offer a experimental version of calculus-based physics that will use a CD-ROM instead of a printed text. The homework and examinations will be done electronically. The laboratory experiments will be microcomputer-based activities and will include multimedia. This presentation will examine the positive and negative features of print as well as introduce the promises and pitfalls of the electronic teaching of physics. Some time for discussion will be left at the end of the presentation. Members of the audience will surely have comments and suggestions overlooked by the author.

  12. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  13. Once a physicist: Umberto Guidoni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, Umberto

    2008-09-01

    How did you first become interested in physics? As a teenager I was given a small telescope. It was only a toy but with it I could see the rings of Saturn. I was fascinated and decided I wanted to study space.

  14. Physicists and Economic Growth: Preparing the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    For many years it has been recognized that many physicists are ``hidden'' -- deep in the industrial world or holding positions not named ``physicist.'' In parallel with this phenomenon is the recognition that many new and innovative product ideas are, in fact, generated by physicists. There are many more ideas that could be brought to market to the benefit of both society and the inventor, but physicists don't often see themselves as the innovators and inventors that they actually are. A number of education programs have arisen to try to address this issue and to engender a greater entrepreneurial spirit in the scientific community. The ScienceWorks program at Carthage College was one of the first to do so, and has for nearly twenty years prepared undergraduate science majors to understand and practice innovation and value creation. Other programs, such as professional masters degrees, also serve to bridge the technical and business universes. As it is no doubt easier to teach a scientist the world of business than it is to teach a businessperson the world of physics, providing educational experiences in innovation and commercialization to physics students can have tremendous economic impact, and will also better prepare them for whatever career direction they may ultimately pursue, even if it is the traditional tenure-track university position. This talk will discuss education programs that have been effective at preparing physics students for the professional work environment, and some of the positive outcomes that have resulted. Also discussed will be the variety of opportunities and resources that exist for faculty and students to develop the skills, knowledge and abilities to recognize and successfully commercialize innovations.

  15. Developing Technology Products - A Physicist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burka, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There are many physicists working in the industrial sector. We rarely have the word physicist in our job title; we are far more commonly called engineers or scientists. But, we are physicists, and we succeed because our training in physics has given us the habits of mind and the technical skills that one needs to solve complex technical challenges. This talk will explore the transition from physics research to technology product development using examples from my own career, first as a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist on the LIGO project, and then developing products in the spectroscopy, telecommunications, and medical device industries. Approaches to identifying and pursuing opportunities in industry will be discussed.

  16. The 16th International Young Physicists' Tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Steve

    2003-09-01

    The UK team from Shrewsbury School performed very well in this year's International Young Physicists' Tournament and learnt a lot of physics in the process. This article describes the format of the competition and the team's approach.

  17. The Energy Crisis: What Physicists Can Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tay Yong

    1976-01-01

    Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)

  18. Condensed matter physicists shrink their horizons.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1993-04-01

    In the world of the condensed matter physicist, a micron is a chasm and a millimeter an ocean. At the March American Physical Society meeting in Seattle, some of the 4500 physicists probed the hazards of the micro world, where weird quantum effects can scramble information. Others outlined its opportunities: Molecular engineering that is leading to new information storage materials, and minute structures that could form tethers and containers in some future nanotechnology. PMID:17807173

  19. Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists , readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way.

  20. Once a physicist: Tom Wanne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanne, Tom

    2010-01-01

    I have always been attracted to observing and modelling things, thriving on visual feedback. Back when I was 12 years old, I did not see my long nights of programming my Commodore 64 computer as physics, but they were, and that experience gave me the same excitement that I still get from many things now. I love the intuitive and building-brick nature of physics, mathematics and computer science - diving into the heart of a matter, laying out all the pieces for the big picture. And I love lots of data, especially if I can turn an uncomfortable hurdle into an easy stepping-stone for the next challenge. When I was an undergraduate at Harvey Mudd College in California, I also enjoyed philosophy, and fortunately the physics course there offered room to integrate other studies. I enjoyed the synergies between physics theory and philosophy, which offered different perspectives on the nature of existence.

  1. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  2. Mario Bunge: Physicist and Philosopher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War.He learnt atomic physics and quantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taught himself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised - it is salutary to see the fruits of one person's pursuit of the Big'' scientific and philosophical picture.

  3. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  4. Belarusian female physicists: Statistics and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya

    2013-03-01

    The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.

  5. The first meeting of Peruvian women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón

    2015-12-01

    The First Meeting of Peruvian Women Physicists helped bring together women physicists from different universities, especially from regions in the interior of Peru. Our initial statistical analysis about women entering and completing their undergraduate and graduate studies in Peruvian universities showed a low participation of women in study programs in physics. This situation motivated us to discuss this and propose solutions. In this First Meeting it was possible to broaden our vision of the problems that are common to women in the context of our social reality. We feel we have the strength and will continue working to improve this situation for the benefit of future generations.

  6. Seeing the invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymans, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Light from distant galaxies is distorted on its journey to us via a vast network of dark matter. By observing this phenomenon, known as gravitational lensing, physicists are able to map the structure of this dark cosmic web, as Catherine Heymans explains.

  7. 'Collision contest' draws in artists and physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Three winners have bagged the 2013 "collision contest" run by the Australia Research Council's Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale. More than 20 artists from around the world - together with a few physicists - entered the competition in which artists were asked to depict "new physics" and could choose any medium such as a painting or video for their artwork.

  8. History of Physicists in Industry. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. Joseph; Butler, Orville R.

    2008-01-01

    This project is the first systematic study of the organizational structure, communications patterns, and archival records of industrial physicists in the U.S., and it provides general guidelines for understanding and documenting their work. The study confirms that the organization and management of industrial R&D is volatile, changing in response…

  9. DOE is Funding Young High- Energy Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waff, Craig B.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on some recommendations made by a subpanel on High Energy Physics Manpower for the purpose of employing additional physicists through the transfer of some postdoctoral monies to produce long-term positions, and the creation of a five-year national fellowship program. (GA)

  10. A Top Physicist Turns to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a top physicist took charge of reforming undergraduate science education at the University of British Columbia. Carl E. Wieman, the 2001 Nobel Prize winner in Physics, gave up his research career to devote himself to improving the way college science is taught. Wieman is heading up a $10.2 million science education…

  11. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  12. Directory and survey of particle physicists

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    In order to develop a clearer understanding of the demographics of the U.S. particle physics workforce, the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society commissioned a survey and census of particle physicists employed in the United States. This survey and census were conducted in 1995, with an update of the census in April 1997. The agencies and the scientific community were represented for the 1995 efforts by Dr. Robert Woods (DOE), Dr. William Chinowsky (NSF), and Prof. Uriel Nauenberg (DPF); for the current census, by Dr. Robert Diebold (DOE), Dr. Marvin Goldberg (NSF), and Dr. Patricia Rankin (NSF). The survey/census were carried out with the assistance of the Particle Data Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In order to obtain an accurate study of the current workforce and of future needs, we requested that all HEP physicists fill out and return the 1995 survey. There were 2494 respondents. For the 1997 census, a representative of each university and laboratory was asked to provide information on all persons at that institution who spend at least 50% of their research time on particle physics. In some cases this includes accelerator physicists. The total number of physicists in the 1997 census is 3492 from 155 institutions in the United States. The full survey questionnaires are shown. The primary one was addressed to individual particle physicists, while the secondary one was addressed to principal investigators and sought information about people leaving the field. There are many possible tables and plots from this survey, with a variety of correlations. Those chosen are representative of a cross-section of the demographic results. It should be emphasized that this survey was a snapshot in time, and does not have the same capabilities as would a series of surveys that are periodic in time. Care should be taken in interpreting the results of the tables and plots.

  13. Physicists, Mathematicians and Astronomers- communists (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    The second part is continuig the edition of communists (physicists, mathematicians, astronomers), which were not included in the reference books by Yu.A. Hramov, A. N. Bogoliubov, I.G. Kolchinskii et al.. The author is discussing here also the relation between business and Communist party, especially in the Post Soviet Russia. A discussion of the biographies of Soviet scientists included in the Britannica is given, as well as a list of Russian scientists included in the Oxford Dictionary of Physics is given. Another part of the paper is pointing out the defficiencies of the last edition of the Great Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary (Drofa Eds, Moscow, 2009) in what concerns physicists, mathematicians and astronomers. A great number of Nobel Prize Winners was ommited in the edition of 2009.

  14. The Physics of Sports: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2006-10-01

    In this talk, I will present a physicist's way of looking at various aspects of sports. In particular, I will focus the discussion on how one might improve or enhance performance by thinking as a physicist about the processes involved. Examples that will be discussed will range from why hockey sticks are (today) curved to why good (basketball) dribbling should be ``heard.'' I will present several examples of the benefits of effecting efficiency in motion. This talk will draw on portions of presentations that I have given in the Boulder-Denver area during the past 30 years on the physics of sports. In all these presentations, my purpose was to teach and develop student interest in physics while talking about -- and showing the relevance of physics to -- sports.

  15. Development of the Future Physicists of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, A.; Weatherford, C.; Cottle, P.; Fannin, S.; Roberts, W.; Fauerbach, M.; Ponti, L.; Sear, J.

    2013-03-01

    We present the development of the ``Future Physicists of Florida'' (FPF) comprised of Florida university physics professors, middle and high school science teachers, and backed by the Florida Legislature. Our purpose is to address the lack of incoming college freshmen ready and willing to become physics majors. We will discuss the building of FPF and the development of a pipeline for middle and high school students predicted to produce the optimal number of bachelor's degrees in STEM. We will also discuss our use of community-building activities to educate the students, and their parents and teachers about the educational value of taking physics before going to college and potential careers in physics, to entertain them with fun physics related activities in order to peak their interest in physics, and to ultimately inspire the students to become physicists.

  16. Templeton Prize again goes to physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    The Polish mathematical physicist and former priest Michael Heller has been awarded this year's Templeton Prize. Heller, whose more than 40-year-long career has encompassed research in theology, philosophy, mathematics and cosmology, intends to use the £820 000 prize to found an interuniversity institute in Poland to investigate questions in science, theology and philosophy. Dubbed the "Copernicus Centre", the institute will be affiliated to the Jagiellonian University and the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow.

  17. Career Opportunities for Physicists: Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    We live in a world full of opportunity for physics graduates. Join us for a unique opportunity to learn about some of these opportunities from our diverse panel of working physicists from industrial, national lab, and academic sectors. Topics of discussion will include panelists' daily experiences, how physics serves them in their career, and advice to students interested in following a similar path. Light refreshments will be served.

  18. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  19. Physicist accused of misappropriating NASA funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Government investigators have accused an Iranian-born physicist of defrauding US taxpayers by transferring millions of dollars of grants from NASA and other agencies into his own bank account. Samim Anghaie, founder and director of the University of Florida's Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPPI), has been accused of receiving funds worth a total of 3.4m, which his family then spent on cars and land.

  20. Martin J. Klein: From Physicist to Historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2012-12-01

    To his friends, colleagues, and students, Martin Klein was a gentle and modest man of extraordinary integrity whose stellar accomplishments garnered him many honors. I sketch his life and career, in which he transformed himself from a theoretical physicist at Columbia University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Case Institute of Technology into a historian of physics while on leave at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Study and the University of Leiden and then pursued this field full time at Yale University.

  1. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  2. Feedback between Accelerator Physicists and magnet builders

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our task is not to record history but to change it. (K. Marx (paraphrased)) How should Accelerator Physicists set magnet error specifications? In a crude social model, they place tolerance limits on undesirable nonlinearities and errors (higher order harmonics, component alignments, etc.). The Magnet Division then goes away for a suitably lengthy period of time, and comes back with a working magnet prototype that is reproduced in industry. A better solution is to set no specifications. Accelerator Physicists begin by evaluating expected values of harmonics, generated by the Magnet Division, before and during prototype construction. Damaging harmonics are traded off against innocuous harmonics as the prototype design evolves, lagging one generation behind the evolution of expected harmonics. Finally, the real harmonics are quickly evaluated during early industrial production, allowing a final round of performance trade-offs, using contingency scenarios prepared earlier. This solution assumes a close relationship and rapid feedback between the Accelerator Physicists and the magnet builders. What follows is one perspective of the way that rapid feedback was used to `change history` (improve linear and dynamic aperture) at RHIC, to great benefit.

  3. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  4. SEEING IS BELIEVING, AND BELIEVING IS SEEING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrow, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience disciplines are filled with visual displays of data. From the first cave drawings to remote imaging of our Planet, visual displays of information have been used to understand and interpret our discipline. As practitioners of the art, visuals comprise the core around which we write scholarly articles, teach our students and make every day decisions. The effectiveness of visual communication, however, varies greatly. For many visual displays, a significant amount of prior knowledge is needed to understand and interpret various representations. If this is missing, key components of communication fail. One common example is the use of animations to explain high density and typically complex data. Do animations effectively convey information, simply "wow an audience" or do they confuse the subject by using unfamiliar forms and representations? Prior knowledge impacts the information derived from visuals and when communicating with non-experts this factor is exacerbated. For example, in an advanced geology course fractures in a rock are viewed by petroleum engineers as conduits for fluid migration while geoscience students 'see' the minerals lining the fracture. In contrast, a lay audience might view these images as abstract art. Without specific and direct accompanying verbal or written communication such an image is viewed radically differently by disparate audiences. Experts and non-experts do not 'see' equivalent images. Each visual must be carefully constructed with it's communication task in mind. To enhance learning and communication at all levels by visual displays of data requires that we teach visual literacy as a portion of our curricula. As we move from one form of visual representation to another, our mental images are expanded as is our ability to see and interpret new visual forms thus promoting life-long learning. Visual literacy is key to communication in our visually rich discipline. What do you see?

  5. The Experiences of an Entrepreneurial Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermani, Moe

    2012-10-01

    The majority of pre- and post-graduate training in physics is focused on the acquisition of hard skills necessary to pursue academic research within a specific discipline of the broader field. Often many physics graduates view a career transition from academia to the private sector with much consternation. In this presentation, Moe Kermani will share his experience in making the transition and discuss how elements of post graduate training in physics provide a good foundation for success as an entrepreneur. This presentation is primarily aimed at young physicists and graduate students that are considering a transition from the academic sector to the world of technology startups.

  6. Iranian physicist 'defects' to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An Iranian physicist who disappeared last June during a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia has apparently defected to the US, where he is working for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Shahram Amiri, who did research in nuclear physics at Malek Ashtar University of Technology in Tehran, is thought to be co-operating with the CIA to confirm their intelligence assessments about Iran's nuclear-weapons programme. The CIA has so far kept quiet on the issue and it remains unclear whether Amiri had any connections with Iran's nuclear programme.

  7. Fun D.C. Jobs for Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Cully

    2009-09-30

    Physicists make valuable contributions in a wide variety of careers, including those in Washington. Many national challenges, including energy, innovation, and security, create a demand for technically-competent individuals across government. Clark will discuss some of the many programs in D.C. designed to attract the best and brightest minds, from grad-students to professors, from short-term assignments to whole new careers. These are great opportunities to use your expertise and enrich your knowledge of the broader scientific enterprise, all while serving society.

  8. What physicists should know about finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    2005-05-01

    There has been growing interest in Econophysics, i.e. analysis and modeling of financial time series using the theoretical Physics concepts (scaling, fractals, chaos). Besides the scientific stimuli, this interest is backed by perception that the financial industry is a viable alternative for those physicists who are not able or are not willing to pursue an academic career. However, the times when any Ph.D. in Physics had a chance to find a job on the Wall Street are gone (if they ever existed). Indeed, not every physicist wields the stochastic calculus, non-normal statistical distributions, and the methods of time series analysis. Moreover, now that many universities offer courses in mathematical finance, the applicants for quantitative positions in finance are expected to know such concepts as option pricing, portfolio management, and risk measurement. Here I describe a synthetic course based on my book [1] that outlines both worlds: Econophysics and Mathematical Finance. The course may be offered as elective for senior undergraduate or graduate Physics majors.

  9. The Holy See.

    PubMed

    1989-04-01

    Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984. PMID:12178005

  10. Psychology: Seeing is believing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Elke U.

    2013-04-01

    Or do we see something, because we believe it? Evidence suggests that personal experience is more likely to influence Americans with no strong beliefs about climate change than those with firm beliefs.

  11. Lyman Spitzer: Astronomer, Physicist, Engineer, and Mountaineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's naming of the Spitzer Space Telescope after Lyman Spitzer was a most appropriate choice, recognizing an outstanding scientist who also contributed extensively to space astronomy. As an astronomer he was a leading authority in the physics of both the interstellar medium and stellar dynamics, wrote textbooks for both fields, and guided many research students. As a physicist he conceived the Stellarator for magnetic confinement, managed a laboratory for controlled fusion, and wrote a textbook on plasma physics. As an engineer he led the development of the payload for the successful Copernicus satellite, which fulfilled his 1946 proposal for an extraterrestrial observatory. His mountaineering included first ascents on Baffin Island and in the Canadian Rockies as well as the summit of the challenging Mt Waddington in the Coast Range.

  12. Paths to Licensure: Things Physicists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2016-03-01

    The path to licensure can be quite complicated, and can thwart a physics department's efforts to produce more and better prepared high school physics teachers. Each state has different pathways to licensure. Acronyms like CAEP and SPA are not within the normal physicist's vocabulary. Some understanding of this topic can allow physics faculty advisers to help our students so that fewer are derailed on their path to the classroom, or take a path that will leave them less well prepared if they do find themselves there. Examples of different approaches that work within state licensure systems from two different states will be presented. Physics teacher preparation efforts in both Arkansas and West Virginia have been supported in part by the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC).

  13. Improving the workplace environment for female physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    The ideal workplace is one in which women and men can work to their potential and are respected and recognized for their contribution. But what are the conditions that would create this environment, and how can we achieve this? This paper highlights some of the best practices, discussed in a single-session workshop, to improve the workplace environment for female (and male) physicists. While there are many actions that can be taken at the personal, local, and even national level, it is necessary to understand when the issues have broader societal implications. Likewise, working toward the ideal environment should not lead us to ignore the necessity of training and assisting women to work effectively in the existing environment.

  14. A Physicist as President of the University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Robert

    2005-03-01

    My wife, physicist Frances Hellman, is fond of referring to me as a ``restless soul,'' and I do not dispute her. In the 40 years since graduating from the University of Western Ontario with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics, I went on to earn master's and doctorate degrees in physics and an honorary doctor of science degree from McMaster University. In 22 years working at AT&T Bell Laboratories, I held five positions, was department head in two departments, and director of one laboratory. At the University of California, San Diego, I was a Professor of Physics, chair of the Department of Physics, senior vice chancellor and then chancellor. Currently, in addition to being a professor of Physics, I am president of the University of California. The ``restless'' trajectory of my career from physics undergraduate to university president follows the nature of physics itself. In physics, you are constantly seeking challenges, experimenting, creating hypotheses, looking for and finding solutions. I recall having a structured view of the world as a boy, a sense that there was a guiding ``master plan'' to most things and that wise, educated, benevolent people were there to implement the plan. ``They'' would do the right thing. Along the way, I realized, ``there is no `they' there; there is only us.'' Acknowledging the laws of thermodynamics-- ``you can't win, you can't break even, and you can't get out of the game'' --I nonetheless believe that if you have a restless mind, an open heart, and intellectual honesty without giving into wishful thinking, physicists can do anything. .

  15. Physicists and Astronomy--Will You Join the Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwit, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on past achievements of physicists beginning with the discovery of gaseous nebulae and listing seven commonly found characteristics of this and other observational discoveries which can foster further discovery. Suggests how theory is related to observation and where physicists make their greatest contributions to astronomy. (Author/JN)

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, William H.

    2002-11-01

    The author, a former American chemistry professor, has organized his book into nine parts with 29 chapters, covering, in a fairly historical sequence and systemtic conceptual progression, all fundamentals of today's physics: i.e., mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astronomy-astrophysics-cosmology. Obviously, the 20th century (when about 90% of professional physicists of all time worked) assumes with five topics the dominant role in this enterprise. For each topic, a small number (ranging from one to eight) of leading personalities is selected and the biographies of these 29 physicists, including two women (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner), are presented in some detail together with their achievements in the particular topic. Important relevant contributions of other scholars to each topic are also discussed. In addition, Cropper provides each of the topics with a short 'historical synopsis' justifying his selection of key persons. One may argue that concentrating on leading physicists constitutes an old-fashioned approach to displaying the history and contents of fundamental topics in physics. However, the mixture of biographies and explanation of leading contributions given here will certainly serve for a larger public, not just professional physicists and scientists, as a guide through the exciting development of physical ideas and discoveries. In general, the presentation of the material is quite satisfactory (with only few slips, e.g., in the Meitner story, where the author follows too closely a new biography) and gives the essence of the great advances in physics since the 15th century. One notices perhaps the limitation of the author in cases where no biography in English is available - this would also explain the omission of some of the main contributors to atomic and particle physics, such as Arnold Sommerfeld and Hideki Yukawa, or that French or Russian readers

  17. Brief, embedded, spontaneous metacognitive talk indicates thinking like a physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Irving, Paul W.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Instructors and researchers think "thinking like a physicist" is important for students' professional development. However, precise definitions and observational markers remain elusive. We reinterpret popular beliefs inventories in physics to indicate what physicists think thinking like a physicist entails. Through discourse analysis of upper-division students' speech in natural settings, we show that students may appropriate or resist these elements. We identify a new element in the physicist speech genre: brief, embedded, spontaneous metacognitive talk (BESM talk). BESM talk communicates students' in-the-moment enacted expectations about physics as a technical field and a cultural endeavor. Students use BESM talk to position themselves as physicists or nonphysicists. Students also use BESM talk to communicate their expectations in four ways: understanding, confusion, spotting inconsistencies, and generalized expectations.

  18. Seeing Both Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2012-01-01

    For many development officers, giving to their alma maters, employers, or local nonprofit agencies makes them better at their jobs by deepening their understanding of donor motivations and reinforcing what to do--and what not to do. Some can testify to the importance of stewardship because they weren't treated well. Others find that seeing their…

  19. Mário Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-17

    Mário Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  20. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Giriunienė, Ramutė; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkunienė, Živilė

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  1. Mário Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-01

    Mário Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  2. Once a physicist: Scott Russell Sanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Scott Russell

    2009-06-01

    Why did you choose to study physics? I spent much of my childhood outdoors, exploring the woods, fields and creeks. I was drawn to science initially as a way of learning about the aspects of nature that I could actually see - rocks, bugs, clouds, fossils, birds, stars and the like. As I grew up in Tennessee and Ohio during the 1950s and 1960s, reading about nuclear weapons and satellite launches, I became more interested in the dimensions of nature that I could not see - the infinitesimally small and the unimaginably large - and in the evolution of the universe. This interest led me, as a high-school student, to the passionate study of physics.

  3. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  4. Believing is seeing.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    2000-01-01

    Useful, well-demonstrated, well-vetted ideas in clinical practice, disease management, health care management, ideas that would save lives, save money, and make life better for the patient, are sometimes simply ignored, dismissed as radical, as completely unfounded, dangerous, and without merit. Why are new ideas so slow to spread in medicine and health care? Because believing is seeing. We do not look for something we don't believe in. In fact, we do not even see a thing if we don't believe in it. We have dedicated ourselves so powerfully to medicine, to health care as we know it, that we often do not even see any alternatives. A combination of factors makes it likely that, in the coming decade or two, we will change almost everything that is fundamental about health care and medicine. In a time of such rapid change, we desperately need to root out and question our deep assumptions and beliefs, to get off the tracks laid down by training and experience and ask questions we have never asked before. PMID:10788121

  5. Physicists in Primary Schools (PIPS) Project: Fun Presentations for Physicists to Take into Schools Worldwide (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Ann

    2009-04-01

    The Physicists in Primary Schools (PIPS) project is a joint venture initiated by the UK Women in Physics Group. A team from the University of Sheffield, with Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funding, has developed fun presentations and novel class activities using everyday articles for physicists to take into primary schools. The objectives are to instill enthusiasm in young children-including girls-through the enjoyment and excitement of physics, and support primary school teachers with a curriculum which includes many abstract concepts. All PIPS material is free to download from the Institute of Physics website (www.iop.org/pips), providing PowerPoint presentations and detailed explanations, as well as videos of the activities in classrooms. The topics are suitable for children age 4 to 11 years. There is interest in translating the presentations into other languages as there are few words on the slides and the material is likely valuable for older age groups. The presentations therefore have the potential to be useful worldwide.

  6. New US philanthropy alliance picks physicist as boss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2015-04-01

    Marc Kastner, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has become the first president of the Science Philanthropy Alliance (SPA) - a new group of six organizations aiming to increase private funding for fundamental research in the US.

  7. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  8. Radiation oncology physicists will need to better understand medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, X Allen; Hendee, William R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is affecting radiation oncology at a dramatically advancing pace and scale and is likely to create a transformation to individualized, biologically conformal radiation therapy. Deploying and improving imaging technologies and ensuring their correct uses in treatment planning and delivery are the responsibilities of radiation oncology physicists. The potential magnitude of errors arising from the incorrect use of imaging may be far greater than that resulting from typical errors in dose calibration. A major effort is required for radiation oncology physicists to raise the quality assurance of image guidance to a level comparable with that achieved in the maintenance of dosimetric performance. Most radiation oncology physicists lack adequate knowledge to assume this emerging responsibility. Their knowledge of imaging must be enhanced, in most cases through on-the-job training and self-learning. Effective learning strategies include routine interactions with diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine physicists and physicians and the use of educational opportunities provided by professional organizations and vendors. PMID:17412223

  9. Brain drain leads to more physicists heading to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2010-01-01

    If budgets are too tight at home, academics often flock abroad in what is known as a "brain drain". But now a study by economists in the UK has revealed that elite physicists seem to be more mobile than ever. Having ana lysed the career paths of 158 of the world's most highly cited physicists, Andrew Oswald of the University of Warwick and colleagues found that half do not now work in the countries where they were born (Economic Journal 119 F231).

  10. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  11. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  12. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way.

    The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light.

    The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light.

    Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The

  13. Seeing the invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Alas, scientists can finally see with their eyes what they have only seen in their heads. Researchers from Boston University's Center for Space Physics, The Aerospace Corporation, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory have produced the first movies of particle activity in the near-Earth space environment. Looking down on much of Earth's magnetosphere from the polar orbit of NASA's POLAR spacecraft, the researchers have compiled high-resolution, sequential images of space weather.Relying primarily on POLAR's imaging proton spectrometer (IPS), the research team amassed data on energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These atoms are created when cold, neutral gases of the atmosphere interact with the energetic, charged particles trapped in Earth's radiation belts. From analyses of ENAs, the team was able to generate images of geomagnetic activity in the shell around Earth.

  14. Radio Seeing Monitor Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiriart, David; Valdez, Jorge; Zaca, Placido; Medina, José L.

    2002-10-01

    A two-element interferometer for monitoring atmospheric phase fluctuations (radio seeing) is presented; this uses the unmodulated beacon signal at 11.715 GHz from a geostationary satellite. The system measures phase differences on the signal received by two small antennas separated by 50 m. The system incorporates the best features from previous designs: a heterodyne phase-lock receiver and an IQ demodulator system. Phase fluctuations measured at this frequency may be extrapolated to millimetric and submillimetric wavelengths since the atmosphere is not dispersive at these frequencies. The instrument has been tested at the Observatory San Pedro Martir (Mexico) at 2800 m above sea level. The final destination of the instrument is Cerro la Negra (Mexico), where the Large Millimeter Telescope is under construction, at an altitude of 4600 m.

  15. The Status of African American Physicists within the DOE Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith

    2005-03-01

    In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.

  16. TU-F-BRD-01: Biomedical Informatics for Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M; Kalet, I; McNutt, T; Smith, W

    2014-06-15

    Biomedical informatics encompasses a very large domain of knowledge and applications. This broad and loosely defined field can make it difficult to navigate. Physicists often are called upon to provide informatics services and/or to take part in projects involving principles of the field. The purpose of the presentations in this symposium is to help medical physicists gain some knowledge about the breadth of the field and how, in the current clinical and research environment, they can participate and contribute. Three talks have been designed to give an overview from the perspective of physicists and to provide a more in-depth discussion in two areas. One of the primary purposes, and the main subject of the first talk, is to help physicists achieve a perspective about the range of the topics and concepts that fall under the heading of 'informatics'. The approach is to de-mystify topics and jargon and to help physicists find resources in the field should they need them. The other talks explore two areas of biomedical informatics in more depth. The goal is to highlight two domains of intense current interest--databases and models--in enough depth into current approaches so that an adequate background for independent inquiry is achieved. These two areas will serve as good examples of how physicists, using informatics principles, can contribute to oncology practice and research. Learning Objectives: To understand how the principles of biomedical informatics are used by medical physicists. To put the relevant informatics concepts in perspective with regard to biomedicine in general. To use clinical database design as an example of biomedical informatics. To provide a solid background into the problems and issues of the design and use of data and databases in radiation oncology. To use modeling in the service of decision support systems as an example of modeling methods and data use. To provide a background into how uncertainty in our data and knowledge can be

  17. Status and Future Manpower Needs of Physicists in Medicine in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Radiological Health.

    This study describes the duties and responsibilities of the medical physicist and estimates the number of medical physicists needed in the next decade. A questionnaire, sent to members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, was designed to cover: characteristics of medical physicists, nature of work in medical physics, distribution…

  18. Introduction to Mathematica® for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozin, Andrey

    We were taught at calculus classes that integration is an art, not a science (in contrast to differentiation—even a monkey can be trained to take derivatives). And we were taught wrong. The Risch algorithm (which is known for decades) allows one to find, in a finite number of steps, if a given indefinite integral can be taken in elementary functions, and if so, to calculate it. This algorithm has been constructed in works by an American mathematician Risch near 1970; many cases were not analyzed completely in these works and were later considered by other mathematicians. The algorithm is very complicated, and no computer algebra system implements it fully. Its implementation in Mathematica is rather complete, even with extensions to some classes of special functions, but details are not publicly known. Strictly speaking, it is not quite an algorithm, because it contains algorithmically unsolvable subproblems, such as finding out if a given combination of elementary functions vanishes. But in practice computer algebra systems are quite good in solving such problems. Here we shall consider, at a very elementary level, the main ideas of the Risch algorithm; see [16] for more details.

  19. Resources to Support Physicists as Versatile and Progressive Innovators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagg, Randall

    Physicists are trained first with broad fundamental knowledge and then through experience with exquisitely refined and specialized models and instrumentation. This is a superb platform from which to address real-world problems when it is augmented by ready access to additional practical resources. We have explored a systematic three-part approach to providing those resources: (1) creating an organized environment that stockpiles technical artifacts, tools, and instruments; (2) developing curriculum for on-demand learning of new technical competencies; (3) providing a community of like-minded physicists who enjoy connecting physics with innovation. For physicists early in their training or careers, we hope that this is a particularly attractive basis for exploring a wider range of professional options.

  20. Seeing through the haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Lambert, A.; Fraser, D.; Swierkowski, L.

    2008-11-01

    Methods to correct for atmospheric degradation of imagery and improve the "seeing" of a telescope are well known in astronomy but, to date, have rarely been applied to more earthly matters such as surveillance. The intrinsically more complicated visual fields, the dominance of low-altitude distortion effects, the requirement to process large volumes of data in near real-time, the inability to pre-select ideal sites and the desirability of ruggedness and portability all combine to pose a significant challenge. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has advanced to the point where modern devices contain hundreds of thousands of logic gates, multiple "hard" processors and multi-gigabit serial communication links. Such devices present an ideal platform to tackle the demands of surveillance image processing. We report a rugged, lightweight system which allows multiple FPGA "modules" to be added together in order to quickly and easily reallocate computing resources. The devices communicate via 2.5Gbps serial links and process image data in a streaming fashion, reducing as much data as possible on-the-fly in order to present a minimised load to storage and/or communication devices. To maximise the benefit of such a system we have devised an open protocol for FPGA-based image processing called "OpenStream". This allows image processing cores to be quickly and easily added into or removed from the data stream and harnesses the benefits of code-reuse and standardisation. It further allows image processing tasks to be easily partitioned across multiple, heterogeneous FPGA domains and permits a designer the flexibility to allocate cores to the most appropriate FPGA. OpenStream is the infrastructure to facilitate rapid, graphical, development of FPGA based image processing algorithms especially when they must be partitioned across multiple FPGAs. Ultimately it will provide a means to automatically allocate and connect resources across FPGA domains in a manner analogous

  1. A day with the women physicists of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Aquila; Ali, Asima; Qureshi, Riffat Mehmood; Qamar, Anisa

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics successfully organized a national-level meeting of women physicists at the National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, to discuss the agenda for the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. This report describes the outcome of the meeting and the status of female physicists in Pakistan. It also includes a comparative study of the enrollment of women in undergraduate and graduate programs in physics, along with a brief description of factors that create hurdles for female students opting for higher education in this field.

  2. Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

  3. Seeing effects on occultation curves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of seeing effects on the light curve of a stellar occultation by the moon. Some theoretical studies of Fried (1966) and Hulett (1967) on the linear size of the downward-looking seeing disk are cited, showing that the seeing blur amounts to a few centimeters for a star in the zenith and that the linear blur must grow approximately as (sec z) to the 3/2 power. For most observations the seeing blur will not exceed 8 to 10 cm. The limitation on angular resolution imposed by this seeing effect is calculated.

  4. Training of Medical Physicists: Some Existing Training Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanzl, Lawrence H.

    As an address to a seminar held in Germany, a summary is made concerning the present status and future development of medical physicist preparation in the U.S.A. A total of 121 programs are discussed on the basis of degree levels. Most training schemes consist of lectures, laboratory courses, and research activities with actual experience provided…

  5. "Angels & Demons" May Help Physicists Explain What Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It's not every day that scientific researchers need to defend themselves against charges of destroying humanity. And yet a group of several dozen physicists associated with the Large Hadron Collider may be getting pretty good at it--and, at the same time, actively engaging in public education and debate in ways that university scientists have…

  6. Physics, Physicists and Revolutionary Capabilities for the Intelligence Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    Over the past several decades, physicists have made seminal contributions to technological capabilities that have enabled the U.S. intelligence community to provide unexpected and unparalleled information to our nation's decision makers and help dispel the cloud of uncertainty they face in dealing with crises and challenges around the world. As we look to the future, we recognize that the ever-quickening pace of changes in the world and the threats we must confront demand continued innovation and improvement in the capabilities needed to provide the information on which our leaders depend. This talk will focus on some of the major technological challenges that the intelligence community faces in the coming years, and the many ways that physicists can help to overcome those challenges. The potential impact of physicists on the future capabilities of the US intelligence community is huge. In addition to the more obvious and direct impact through research in areas ranging from novel sensors to quantum information science, the unique approach physicists bring to a problem can also have an indirect but important effect by influencing how challenges in areas ranging from cybersecurity to advanced analytics are approached and solved. Several examples will be given.

  7. Cooperative Learning Activities Related to Women Chemists and Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reat, Kay

    This collection of activities related to women chemists and physicists is designed for use in cooperative groups of three students each. Each of eight activities consists of a written account of the career and life of an historical woman scientist and four writing activity suggestions. The writings from each group can then be organized into one…

  8. Upper-Division Activities That Foster ``Thinking Like A Physicist''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogue, Corinne A.; Cerny, Leonard; Gire, Elizabeth; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Price, Edward; van Zee, Emily H.

    2010-10-01

    In this targeted poster session, curriculum developers presented their favorite upper-division activity to small groups of session participants. The developers and participants were asked to identify hidden curriculum goals related to "thinking like a physicist" and discuss how the different styles of activities might help students achieve these goals.

  9. Women Physicists Speak Again. AIP Report, Number R-441

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Across the world, women in physics have much in common. In almost all countries, women are largely under represented in physics. In the majority of countries for which data was obtainable for this report from reliable statistical agencies, women earned no more than one-fifth of the PhDs in physics. Many women physicists across the world also…

  10. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  11. Report on student participants at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Julius Dollison, Michael Neuchatz

    2003-07-01

    The first meeting of African American physicists was held in 1973 at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, with around 50 Black physicists in attendance. In 1977, this organization was formally established as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) out of a need to address many concerns of African American physicists. During the ensuing years the Conference began to grow and was hosted by different institutions at various geographic locations. This year, the 2003 Annual Conference of the National Society of Black Physicists and Black Physics Students was hosted by Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia during the weekend of February 12th-15th, 2003. This Conference brought together over 500 African American physics students and working physicists. Also attending were corporate and graduate school recruiters, administrators, professional society representatives and others concerned with the small representation of minorities in the field of physics. The organizers of the Conference contracted with the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics to conduct a formal evaluative study of the meeting, resulting in this report. The evaluation questionnaire was designed by the organizers of the NSBP conference with input from the Statistical Research Center's staff. It included questions on the students' backgrounds and demographic characteristics, physics research experience, career goals, challenges faced in their academic pursuits, and ratings of various aspects of the conference. The questionnaire was distributed at the conference when the students signed in. Of the 330 students who were registered, roughly 304 attended and were given the four-page questionnaire to complete. Responses were collected on the last night of the conference, with 172 (approximately 57%) returning completed questionnaires. This low response rate could be attributed in part to the fact that respondents were asked to provide possibly sensitive personal information

  12. Seeing through the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-03-01

    '. The Chameleon I complex nebula is one beautiful example. When making observations in the near-infrared, art becomes science. Near-infrared radiation can indeed propagate much farther into the cloud than visible light and the maps of scattered light can be used to measure the mass of the material inside the cloud. To put this method to the test and use it for the first time for a quantitative estimation of the distribution of mass within a cloud, the astronomers who made the original suggestion, together with Kalevi Mattila, made observations in the near-infrared of a filament in the Corona Australis cloud [2] . The observations were made in August 2006 with the SOFI instrument on ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla, in the Chilean Atacama Desert. The filament was observed for about 21 hours. Their observations confirm that the scattering method is providing results that are as reliable as the use of background stars while providing much more detail. "We can now obtain very high resolution images of dark clouds and so better study their internal structure and dynamics," says Juvela. "Not only is the level of details in the resulting map no longer dependent on the distribution of background stars, but we have also shown that where the density of the cloud becomes too high to be able to see any background stars, the new method can still be applied." "The presented method and the confirmation of its feasibility will enable a wide range of studies into the interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way and even other galaxies," says co-author Mattila. "This is an important result because, with current and planned near-infrared instruments, large cloud areas can be mapped with high resolution," adds Pelkonen. "For example, the VIRCAM instrument on ESO's soon-to-come VISTA telescope has a field of view hundreds of times larger than SOFI. Using our method, it will prove amazingly powerful for the study of stellar nurseries."

  13. The role of the health physicist in nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime far

  14. Call a medical physicist: a guide to troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Shearer, D R

    1997-01-01

    A catastrophic problem may occur when an imaging system suddenly fails. In most cases, however, a problem comes on gradually until the imaging quality is so far degraded it becomes clinically unacceptable. In that circumstance, pressure is put on the technologist to do something quickly to improve the quality of the images. There are several guidelines to follow when a similar situation occurs in your workplace. First, any correction should be made rationally using the data at hand. Don't rush to change a lot of things all at once or you'll never know what did work. Putting in a call to a physicist may be in your best interest as the second step to follow. A qualified diagnostic medical physicist has an overview of the principals and applied technology of the imaging process. Both the radiologic technologist and the technical representative from film or x-ray and film processor companies have training in all areas of x-ray technology. It is the physicists' many years of training in the application of scientific methods to medical imaging problems that provide an edge in diagnosing technical problems. Their strength is that they are good with scientific concepts and numbers. Don't let the physicist leave until the problem has been shown to be solved. Bring in the service engineer to run a control strip to show that the remedy has indeed had the desired effect with no undesirable side-effects. Document the problem and the solution is the fourth rule, while rule five is to use the physicist to coordinate the process, objectively measure and assess the results of any change. You'll be back on line more quickly and will know what went wrong. PMID:10168251

  15. The Role of the Health Physicist in Nuclear Security

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Edward J.; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime

  16. Response to "How Do We See What We See?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kinsey

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "How Do We See What We See? Pedagogical Lacunae and Their Pitfalls in the Classroom" by Jennifer A. Rich. McKinney describes how she tweaked a rhetorical analysis assignment to have it produce more summary, description and response. She stresses that teachers can create a more rhetorically viable…

  17. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity -- A New Tool for Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-11-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light.2 But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling close to the speed of light, and one of the first physicists to embark on this effort was George Gamow in his Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland.3 His protagonist is speeding on a bicycle through a city where the speed of light is lower, thus ingeniously taking advantage of the fact that special relativity scales with v/c: for it to kick in, you either have to move very fast (in rather unfamiliar territory), or light has to be slow (in which case special relativity kicks in at everyday velocities in everyday situations). Gamow provides drawings of what Mr. Tompkins and people at the curb would see in this slow-light city, at least, what they would see if one only took into account two of the effects: length contraction and time dilation.4

  18. The Role of Physicists in Anti-Terrorism: Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainberg, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Physicists, along with many other categories of scientists, participate in efforts against terrorism in a multitude of ways, including developing explosive detectors, sensors, security procedures, technical analyses, and decision tools. Transportation, especially civil aviation, is a field of focus within the anti- and counterterrorism arenas. The most spectacular terrorist acts have generally aimed at this sector and this trend is likely to continue. Physicists play their roles in all sectors: government, private industry, and even academia. Defense against terrorism has become a national priority in the United States, and one may expect the roles of scientific experts to become more important. The tactics of terrorists will change and develop, so it will become necessary to develop ever more sophisticated measures to fight them. Technology is part of the answer, but human factors, vulnerability analyses, threat assessment, and security procedures are equally important.

  19. The current status of female physicists in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Ayala, Paola

    2015-12-01

    Although the number of female physicists in Ecuador is still relatively low, many of them have already obtained a postgraduate degree abroad. The return of these women to the country has begun to have a positive effect on the discipline as whole. In particular, the fields of particle physics, biophysics, and condensed matter have experienced significant development in the last few years. The policies for networking and collaboration among local and international universities have changed radically in Ecuador, a country with limited resources. This paper provides the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics with an overview of the work of Ecuadorian female physicists and the changes in laws that aid the development of science in general.

  20. Physicists polish one model while looking to the next.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, A

    1995-09-01

    BRUSSELS, BELGIUM-High-energy physicists' current explanation for the behavior of subatomic particles and forces, known as the Standard Model, is doing just fine. That was the take-home message for the 800 delegates who gathered here from 27 July to 2 August for the International Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics. "Mainly this was a conference of consolidation, steady progress, many very beautiful and detailed results," Christopher Llewellyn Smith, director general of CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, told Science. But while a multitude of presentations described ever more accurate tests and confirmations of the model, physicists also discussed hints that a whole new range of phenomena beyond the Standard Model is lurking just above the energies of current accelerators-and within range of the next generation of experiments. PMID:17732103

  1. Secrecy and Physicists: Intersections of Science and National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftergood, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Physicists have been proponents as well as critics of government secrecy affecting their work. Enrico Fermi once wrote (in Physics Today) that ``Contrary to perhaps what is the most common belief about secrecy, secrecy was not started by generals, was not started by security officers, but was started by physicists.'' Yet Edward Teller, Frederick Seitz and others argued that secrecy in science and technology could profitably be reduced by 90% or more. Secrecy in physics is of course most pronounced in research related to nuclear weapons development. Though this is a longstanding concern it is still not a settled one. Disputes over nuclear weapons-related secrecy continue to resonate today as researchers and authors challenge the boundaries of official disclosure regarding the nuclear weapons enterprise. This paper will survey the current landscape of secrecy in science, and will discuss recent controversies involving publication of nuclear weapons physics, the infrastructure of nuclear research, and the prospects for secrecy reform. )

  2. Topical conference: Opportunities in biology for physicists. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-16

    The conference was aimed at early career physicists who were interested in exploring the possibilities of working at the interface between physics and biology, in particular, graduate students and postdocs considering applying the methods of physics to biological research. Areas of major importance were genomics and evolution, biological networks, biomolecular dynamics, high-resolution imaging of living cells, and technologies for biological investigation. A total of 205 persons attended the conference.

  3. Ground Layer Laser Seeing Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazzani, S.; Rodeghiero, G.; Capraro, I.; Ortolani, S.; Barbieri, C.; Zitelli, V.

    2014-03-01

    The seeing calculation and its evolution during the night is a key point for the operation of telescopes and adaptive optics systems. Currently, there are various instruments able to measure the seeing, for example, the DIMM (differential image motion monitor) and the MASS (multi aperture scintillation sensor). This paper describes a new tool for the local ground layer seeing measurement. In particular, we want to derive the Fried parameter r0 through a laser beam horizontal propagation. This is a new method for the experimental study of low-altitude atmospheric turbulence. Finally, we sketch an experimental setup for the Asiago Ekar Observatory and its possible applications.

  4. Seeing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... eye enable it to translate light into recognizable images. Among these are the cornea, the lens, and ... lobe of the brain, which then interprets the image in the correct perspective. The shape of the ...

  5. Seeing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... lens. The light is then refracted a second time while passing through the lens, finally focusing on the retina. The retina is the light sensitive part of the eye. Impulses travel down the optic nerve to the occipital lobe ...

  6. Solving a problem by using what you know: a physicist looks at a problem in ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenler, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Two philosophical ideas motivate this paper. The first is an answer to the question of what is an appropriate activity for a physicist. My answer is that an appropriate activity is anything where the tools of a physicist enable him or her to make a contribution to the solution of a significant problem. This may be obvious in areas that overlap physics (e.g. chemistry, engineering, geology) but also true in any endeavour where mathematical modelling may contribute insight to the solution of problems (e.g. timing of traffic lights, efficient ways to seat passengers on airplanes, whether it is better to walk or run in a rain shower). The second idea concerns an approach to problem solving. Before some people try to solve a problem, they think they first must learn everything that is known about the subject. However, sometimes an effective approach is to declare, ‘I’m going to solve this problem with what I know now!’ I see a relationship between this approach and the idea of back-of-the-envelope calculations, which many of us appreciate. Of course there are limitations to this method, but I believe that such an aggressive approach to a problem—uninfluenced by the methods everyone else has used—can be productive. This paper describes such an approach to a real-world problem, using only what is known by the teacher of the introductory, calculus-based physics course. The intent of this paper is to encourage students and teachers of physics to look for unconventional areas, outside of physics, where they might use the techniques they have learned to solve problems

  7. Mobility in physics: A bibliography of occupational, geographic and field mobility of physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachý, Jan

    1981-06-01

    The compilation of this literature survey was initiated more than a decade ago as a part of science-of-science bibliographies. The collected 150 studies and data sources are concerned with career migration, cross-disciplinary switching, international academic circulation and brain drain of physicists and in physics. The principal criterion for selection of items for listing was that they present fact-finding information on certain enduring aspect of the mobility process. Papers treating more ephemeral approaches are not included but a few conceptual pieces are the exceptions that prove the rule. Most entries are from the published literature. The arrangement of the bibliography is alphabetical by the first author, for each author a chronological order is used. Anonymous and edited works are filed under title. Cross-referencing will facilitate the use. Elementary techniques, such as following up the references in relevant documents, have been applied whenever possible and most documents have been scrutinized by actual reading. Papers on mobility in physics are rather widely dispersed in the literature, ranging from sociological analyses to science policy considerations. Since the information in numerous publications have important professional implications, the bibliography appears at the eve of the European Physical Society seminar on “Career outlook for physicists in Europe” in Erice, 25 27 June 1981. Though our selection of items does not go beyond physics proper, a few major documents on mobility in physical sciences are added. For a broader literature coverage on mobility in science see the bibliographies by R. T. Barth (1970), S. Dedijer and L. Svenningson (1967), B. M. Gupta (1977) and J. Vlachý (1979). A regular, comprehensive bibliographical service on behalf of the physics community would be desirable to be undertaken on a continuing basis and an appropriate institutional commitment.

  8. Simultaneous seeing measurements at Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyashita, Akihiko; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Soyano, Takao

    2004-10-01

    Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo is now planning to build a 6.5-m optical-infrared telescope in Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Univ. Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO)", and the site evaluation is now under way. As a part of this evaluation process, we started an investigation to compare the astronomical seeing at Atacama with that at Mauna Kea. Here, we report preliminary results of seeing measurements at several sites in Atacama, carried out on October 2003. In order to separate the temporal and site-to-site variation of the seeing, we used two sets of Differential Image Motion Monitors (DIMMs), each of which has two pairs of 7.4 cm sub-apertures with 20.5 cm separation. Three sites were investigated; the point near the TAO weather station (4,950m), the summit of Cello Chico (5,150m) and the point at 5,430m altitude on Cello Toco. Simultaneous measurements were carried out for three half nights out of four half nights measurements. Although the amount of our data is very limited, the results suggest following: 1) Seeing becomes better and more stable as time passing to midnight (eg. From 0."7 to 0."4 at V-band). 2) Higher altitude sites show better seeing than lower altitude sites.

  9. Estimating dome seeing for LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, Jacques; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Begin Dome seeing is a critical effect influencing the optical performance of ground based telescopes. A previously reported combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and optical simulations to model dome seeing was implemented for the latest LSST enclosure geometry. To this end, high spatial resolution thermal unsteady CFD simulations were performed for three different telescope zenith angles and four azimuth angles. These simulations generate time records of refractive index values along the optical path, which are post-processed to estimate the image degradation due to dome seeing. This method allows us to derive the distribution of seeing contribution along the different optical path segments that composed the overall light path between the entrance of the dome up to the LSST science camera. These results are used to recognize potential problems and to guide the observatory design. In this paper, the modeling estimates are reviewed and assessed relative to the corresponding performance allocation, and combined with other simulator outputs to model the dome seeing impact during LSST operations.

  10. Seeing and Seeing: Visual Perception in Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a brief walk through two complex cultures, looking at similarities and differences between them. Visual perception is vital to both art and science, for to see is to understand. The article compares how education in each subject fosters visualization and creative thinking.

  11. New Challenges for Women Physicists in a Rapidly Changing China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2005-10-01

    With the tremendous growth in China's economy, young people now enjoy a much wider choice of careers; but women are also beginning to face new challenges, such as discrimination in employment and retirement policies. The ratio of women in physics in universities has remained more or less constant, but that in research institutes has decreased in recent years, although the ratio of young women awarded research grants seems to be on the rise. More effort must be exerted to guarantee equal opportunity for women physicists, young and old, in a rapidly changing society.

  12. Topical Conference on Oportunities in Biology for Physicists II

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Judy R.

    2004-02-01

    In 2002, the American Physical Society (APS) organized and held the first topical conference in Boston, MA, as a way of informing physicists, particularly those just entering the field, of opportunities emerging at the interface of physics and biology. Because of the tremendous success of the first conference, it was decided to organize a second conference, similar in nature and focus, but with different presentation topic areas. Again the intended audience would be graduate students and postdocs considering applying methods of physics to biological research, and those who advise others on such opportunities.

  13. Managing Inflections in Life and Career: Tale from a Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2010-03-01

    By training, a physicist possesses one of the rarest qualities ever imparted in an educational degree program, namely, the ability to take on complex problems, divide them into ``solvable'' parts, derive solutions and put them back as insightful outputs. Dr Bhattacharya, CEO of Salorix, a research, analytics and consulting firm, explains how he has used these skills learned at the graduate school to build a career as a scientist, management consultant and entrepreneur. He will also speak about how the real-life skillsets of understanding and dealing with ``Inflections'', self discovery and introspection can be a great tool for managing one's life and career progression.

  14. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  15. Lithuanian women physicists: Current situation and involvement in gender projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkūnienė, Živilė; Kupliauskienė, Alicija

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the situation of women in physics since the last Lithuanian country report are discussed on the basis of available statistics. The overall percentage of women physicists in research is 28%. Results show that there is a noticeable increase in female scientists in most phases of the academic career progression except in the highest positions. The results also show a permanent change in the awareness of gender-related issues in research. We also discuss the initiatives taken by Lithuanian women scientists to change the situation during three last years and their outcomes.

  16. Beller Lecture: Dialogue Across Divides - Physicists and the Iran Dossier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    For over a decade, the nuclear activities of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been at the center of international concerns and subsequent track II talks. NGOs, think tanks and analysts played a role to help to find technical solutions in a highly political setting. The talk will give an overview about the role of physicists to understand the Iranian sensitive nuclear fuel-cycle and to prepare the ground for the JCPOA. Furthermore, the experience of the work of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs will be elaborated.

  17. Labor Market Trends for Health Physicists through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005.

  18. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2009-09-01

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  19. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL

    2008-07-08

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  20. Seeing the Benefits of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Budge, David

    2007-01-01

    Although some general practitioners now "prescribe" education to patients it would be wrong to see it as a panacea. Those who claim it can cure everything from memory loss to incontinence are being unduly optimistic. Education is an important mechanism for enhancing the health and well-being of individuals and reducing the health care and…

  1. Seeing Children's Eagerness for Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2009-01-01

    The photo "Rescuing Hug" (www.52best.com/hug.asp) made famous on the Internet a few years ago had a huge impact on the way the author sees children's relationships with each other. With this inspiring story, the author has come to the powerful realization that if she believes children have the capacity and desire for deep connections then she…

  2. How Do Children See Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    In order to name an animal they see, children must use their existing mental models to provide the animal with a name. In this study, pupils between the ages of 4 and 14 are presented with preserved specimens of 6 different animals and asked a series of questions about them. The results indicate that pupils of all ages mainly recognize and use…

  3. Got Skills? On-the-Job Activities of Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    It goes almost without saying that physics doctorates do a lot more than just physics research or teaching at their jobs. But what exactly do they do? First, I will share basic data showing where physics doctorates are employed. Then I will present data from two of AIP's surveys about the employment of physicists. The first set of data comes from our survey of physics PhDs one year after doctorate. We will consider how often physics doctorates do a variety of activities on the job, including management, technical writing, teamwork, design and development, programming, and advanced mathematics. The second set of data comes from AIP's new survey of PhDs in physics 10 to 13 years after graduation. Data for many of the same activities will be shown for physics doctorates who have been in the workplace about a decade. Depending on the type of job, most industrially employed physics doctorates do some type of physics at work, but they are also very likely to report managing projects, writing for technical audiences, working on a team, and collaborating with non-physicists, among many other activities. This examination of the types of activities physics doctorates perform in the workplace will provide insight on the non-scientific training that would benefit graduate students the most.

  4. Science Advisor and Applied Physicist: Joseph Henry Serves His Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    1997-04-01

    When Joseph Henry accepted the postion of secretary of the Smithsonian in 1846, his career changed radically. Although he never ceased thinking of himself as a research scientist and educator, thereafter his chief roles were those of science administrator and advisor to both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government for both science and technology. His effectiveness as an advocate became more important than his skill as an experimental physicist. Even when he entered the laboratory, his role had changed. No longer was he concerned with basic research. As a member of various government boards and committees, Henry spent the last three decades of his life concerned with the application of fundamental knowledge for the improvement of the human condition. This paper will discuss Henry's service on behalf of his country.

  5. Salary Information for Nuclear Engineers and Health Physicists, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    1996-07-15

    Salary information was collected for July 1996 for personnel working as nuclear engineers and health physicists. The salary information includes personnel at the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. levels with zero, one, three, four to seven, and eight to ten years of professional work experience. Information is provided for utilities and non-utilities. Non-utilities include private sector organizations and U.S. Department of Energy contractor-operated facilities. Government agencies, the military, academic organizations, and medical facilities are excluded. In previous years the salary data have been collected for October. In 1996, the data were collected for July; thus, some caution must be exercised in making annual salary trend comparisons.

  6. Imagining and Imaging Future Devices: A Physicist's Dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Scott

    2013-03-01

    In the past device scaling followed conventional Dennard scaling with recent introductions of stress to enhance mobility and high k dielectrics to reduce leakage. Future devices will initially need improved electrostatic confinement with associated geometrical complexity, mobility improvements through new materials, steeper sub-threshold slopes through bandgap engineering and 3D system integration. Eventually new state variables beyond electron charge will be necessary to provide both extremely low power and non-volatility. To enable these changes, improved atomic resolution metrology techniques for both complex 3D geometries and new state variables will be required. While there is still plenty of room at the bottom for the physics of these devices, we are more rapidly running out of room for measuring and controlling these devices. Physicists will have an increasingly important role for both imagining and imaging these devices.

  7. How Physicists Made Stable Lévy Processes Physically Plausible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinckus, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    Stable Lévy processes have very interesting properties for describing the complex behaviour of non-equilibrium dissipative systems such as turbulence, anomalous diffusion or financial markets. However, although these processes better fit the empirical data, some of their statistical properties can raise several theoretical problems in empirical applications because they generate infinite variables. Econophysicists have developed statistical solutions to make these processes physically plausible. This paper presents a review of these analytical solutions (truncations) for stable Lévy processes and how econophysicists transformed them into data-driven processes. The evolution of these analytical solutions is presented as a progressive research programme provided by (econo)physicists for theoretical problems encountered in financial economics in the 1960s and the 1970s.

  8. Radio Recombination Lines as Tools for Astronomers and Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Described by simple atomic theory published in 1913 by Niels Bohr, spectral lines in the radio range arising from transitions between large principal quantum numbers of atoms have proved to be useful tools for astronomers and physicists. Called ``radio recombination lines'' because of the wavelength range where most are observed, they are usually easy to detect, give unique information about astronomical objects, and facilitate the study of physical effects in environments that cannot be created in terrestrial laboratories. Observations have revealed unexpected results regarding thermodynamic populations of the principal quantum levels and about pressure broadening in astronomical environments. Detections of large-n lines, such as the n = 1006-->1010 absorption line of interstellar carbon, show the existence of atoms with classical diameters of about 0.1 mm, the thickness of a sheet of typing paper. This paper briefly discusses observations of Stark broadening reported by Bell et al. in 2002.

  9. Identity and belonging: Are you a physicist (chemist)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sissi L.; Loverude, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    When science undergraduates begin their upper-division coursework, their declaration of major becomes more concrete and meaningful as they have opportunities to interact more deeply with the community of their chosen discipline. In the process of completing a major, students transition their identity towards being a member of their field. In Wenger's community of practice framework, community membership is built on alignment of common goals, participation in social interactions, and perception of belonging in the community. But what does it mean to be a chemist or physicist from the students' perspective? In this study, we examine junior-level chemistry and physics majors' ideas about their science identity through semi-structured interviews and prompted reflective journals. We compare and contrast how chemistry and physics students negotiate their identity as members in their disciplinary field in terms of practice, qualifications, attitude, and in relation to other STEM communities.

  10. Modeling protein synthesis from a physicist's perspective: A toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Aakash; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-10-01

    Proteins are polymers of amino acids. These macromolecules are synthesized by intracellular machines called ribosomes. Although the experimental investigation of protein synthesis has been a traditional area of research in molecular cell biology, important quantitative models of protein synthesis have been reported in research journals devoted to statistical physics and related interdisciplinary topics. From the perspective of a physicist, protein synthesis is the classical transport of interacting ribosomes on a messenger RNA (mRNA) template that dictates the sequence of the amino acids on the protein. We discuss appropriate simplification of the models and methods. In particular, we develop and analyze a simple toy model using some elementary techniques of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and predict the average rate of protein synthesis and the spatial organization of the ribosomes in the steady state.

  11. Review of online educational resources for medical physicists.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, Joann I

    2013-01-01

    Medical physicists are often involved in the didactic training of graduate students, residents (both physics and physicians), and technologists. As part of continuing medical education, we are also involved in maintenance of certification projects to assist in the education of our peers. As such, it is imperative that we remain current concerning available educational resources. Medical physics journals offer book reviews, allowing us an opportunity to learn about newly published books in the field. A similar means of communication is not currently available for online educational resources. This information is conveyed through informal means. This review presents a summary of online resources available to the medical physics community that may be useful for educational purposes. PMID:24257289

  12. How Academic Biologists and Physicists View Science Outreach

    PubMed Central

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; James, Sarah A.; Lincoln, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars and pundits alike argue that U.S. scientists could do more to reach out to the general public. Yet, to date, there have been few systematic studies that examine how scientists understand the barriers that impede such outreach. Through analysis of 97 semi-structured interviews with academic biologists and physicists at top research universities in the United States, we classify the type and target audiences of scientists’ outreach activities. Finally, we explore the narratives academic scientists have about outreach and its reception in the academy, in particular what they perceive as impediments to these activities. We find that scientists’ outreach activities are stratified by gender and that university and disciplinary rewards as well as scientists’ perceptions of their own skills have an impact on science outreach. Research contributions and recommendations for university policy follow. PMID:22590526

  13. Origins of molecular neurobiology: the role of the physicists.

    PubMed

    Smith, C U M

    2005-09-01

    The revolution in the foundations of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century suggested to several of its most prominent workers that biology was ripe for something similar. In consequence, a number of physicists moved into biology. They were highly influential in initiating a molecular biology in the 1950s. Two decades later it seemed to several of these migrants, and those they had influenced, that the major problems in molecular biology had been solved, and that it was time to move on to what seemed to them the final problem: the nervous system, consciousness, and the age-old mind-body problem. This paper reviews this "double migration" and shows how the hopes of the first generation of physicist-biologists were both realized and dashed. No new physical principles were discovered at work in the foundations of biology or neuroscience. On the other hand, the mind-set of those trained in physics proved immensely valuable in analyzing fundamental issues in both biology and neuroscience. It has been argued that the outcome of the molecular biology of the 1950s was a change in the concept of the gene from that of "a mysterious entity into that of a real molecular object" (Watson, 1965, p.6); the gates and channels which play such crucial roles in the functioning of nervous systems have been transformed in a similar way. Studies on highly simplified systems have also opened the prospect of finding the neural correlatives of numerous behaviors and neuropathologies. This increasing understanding at the molecular level is invaluable not only in devising rational therapies but also, by defining the material substrate of consciousness, in bringing the mind-body problem into sharper focus. PMID:16188701

  14. Semiconductor heterojunctions at the Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces: A device physicist`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kroemer, H.

    1993-07-01

    After a very slow start, heterojunctions have emerged as one of the central topics of the Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces. The presentation describes this emergence, starting from such items as the electron affinity rule of conduction band offsets, Dingle`s first determination of the GaAs-(Al,Ga)As band lineups, and the first lineup theories. Some of the blind alleys in this development (85:15 Rule, Common-Anion Rule, and others) are retold by one of the participants. The treatment then turns to a few of the most recent developments, such as the emerging role of ab initio computations as a quasiexperimental tool, plus a few developments this writer finds worth speculating about. The treatment is from the perspective of a device physicist, rather than a surface scientist, and some thoughts are offered on why there is not more commonality between heterojunctions and Schottky barriers. 28 refs., 3 figs.

  15. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized medical physicist, authorized user, nuclear pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. 35.57 Section 35.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE...

  16. Becoming a Physicist: The Roles of Research, Mindsets, and Milestones in Upper-Division Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students, we used a phenomenographic research method to examine students' perceptions of what it means to be a physicist. Analysis revealed six different categories of perception of what it means to be a physicist. We found the following themes: research and its…

  17. 10 CFR 35.51 - Training for an authorized medical physicist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for an authorized medical physicist. 35.51 Section 35.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.51 Training for an authorized medical physicist. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized...

  18. 10 CFR 35.51 - Training for an authorized medical physicist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training for an authorized medical physicist. 35.51 Section 35.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.51 Training for an authorized medical physicist. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized...

  19. 10 CFR 35.51 - Training for an authorized medical physicist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training for an authorized medical physicist. 35.51 Section 35.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.51 Training for an authorized medical physicist. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized...

  20. The Role of the Medical Physicist in Radiation Protection in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is the role of the medical physicist in five areas of medical application, including radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, environmental radioactivity, and dosimetry and personal monitoring. The management contribution of the medical physicist is discussed. Provided are two examples of new techniques influencing radiation…

  1. Is the "glass ceiling" a real problem for women physicists in Argentina?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechero, Marisa A.; Amador, Ana; Pastor, Antonio J. Ramirez; Tamarit, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the distribution of female physicists in the Argentinean workforce, analyzing the distribution of women at different levels of education and research using several indicators. Although important imbalances still occur, our findings are encouraging and the distribution of female physicists seems to be changing for the better.

  2. Solving a Problem by Using What You Know: A Physicist Looks at a Problem in Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Two philosophical ideas motivate this paper. The first is an answer to the question of what is an appropriate activity for a physicist. My answer is that an appropriate activity is anything where the tools of a physicist enable him or her to make a contribution to the solution of a significant problem. This may be obvious in areas that overlap…

  3. Secret Lives of the Hidden Physicists---from Spandex to Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2006-10-01

    What is a physicist? A case is made for defining a physicist as anyone with a bachelor's degree (or higher) in physics. Under this definition, a large fraction of physicists are hidden, that is, they have left, or never belonged to, the traditional lot of Ph.D. academicians. Data from the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics and from a survey of members of the national physics honor society, Sigma Pi Sigma, show the vast array of actual career paths taken by physicists. From spandex to blackberries to bioinformatics to flight control to wind energy to spintronics, physicists can be found in nearly every job sector in some of the coolest and most farfetched careers imaginable.

  4. Seeing - and sometimes moving - atoms. Scanning tunneling microscopes are opening up atomic landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1988-05-01

    Less than two years after the scanning and tunneling microscope won the Nobel prize for its inventors, scientists Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM's Zurich Research Center, the technique appears to be on the brink of changing how physicists and chemists see - and interact with - the atomic landscape of many surfaces. The promise of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is immense. Unlike any other instrument, the microscope can produce three-dimensional or real-space images of single atoms on a surface. Moreover, it obtains such resolution in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), air, and a variety of liquids, including water.

  5. From Crisis to Transition: The State of Russian Science Based on Focus Groups with Nuclear Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2001-12-09

    The collapse of the Soviet system led to a sharp contraction of state funding for science. Formerly privileged scientists suddenly confronted miserly salaries (often paid late), plummeting social prestige, deteriorating research facilities and equipment, and few prospects for improvement. Many departed the field of science for more lucrative opportunities, both within Russia and abroad. The number of inventions, patent applications, and publications by Russian scientists declined. Reports of desperate nuclear physicists seeking work as tram operators and conducting hunger strikes dramatized the rapid collapse of one of the contemporary world's most successful scientific establishments. Even more alarming was the 1996 suicide of Vladimir Nechai, director of the second largest nuclear research center in Russia (Chelyabinsk-70, now known as Snezhinsk). Nechai, a respected theoretical physicist who spent almost 40 years working on Soviet and Russian nuclear programs, killed himself because he could no longer endure his inability to rectify a situation in which his employees had not been paid for more than 5 months and were ''close to starvation.'' The travails of Russia's scientists sparked interest in the West primarily because of the security threat posed by their situation. The seemingly relentless crisis in science raised fears that disgruntled scientists might sell their nuclear weapons expertise to countries or organizations that harbor hostile intentions toward the United States. Such concerns are particularly pressing in the wake of the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. At the same time, we should not overlook other critical implications that the state of Russian science has for Russia's long-term economic and political development. It is in the West's interest to see Russia develop a thriving market economy and stable democracy. A successful scientific community can help on both counts. Science and technology can attract foreign investment and fuel

  6. Seeing you seeing me: Stereotypes and the stigma magnification effect.

    PubMed

    Mikolon, Sven; Kreiner, Glen E; Wieseke, Jan

    2016-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-21000-001). In the article, Table 2 contained a production-related formatting error. Values from column 11 onward were shifted upwards in the table. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Despite an increased interest in the phenomenon of stigma in organizations, we know very little about the interactions between those who are stigmatized and those who stigmatize them. Integrating both the perceptions of the stigmatized worker and the stigmatizing customer into one model, the present study addresses this gap. It examines the role of stereotypes held by customers of stigmatized organizations and metastereotypes held by the stigmatized workers themselves (i.e., their shared beliefs of the stereotypes customers associate with them) in frontline exchanges. To do so, data regarding frontline workers (vendors) of homeless-advocate newspapers from 3 different sources (vendors, customers, trained observers) were gathered. Multilevel path-analytic hypotheses tests reveal (a) how frontline workers' prototypicality for a stigmatized organization renders salient a stigma within frontline interactions and (b) how stereotypes by customers and metastereotypes by frontline workers interact with each other in such contacts. The results support a hypothesized interaction between frontline workers' metastereotypes and customers' stereotypes-what we call the "stigma magnification effect". The study also derives important practical implications by linking stigma to frontline workers' discretionary financial gains. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653529

  7. A Physicist Role in Innovation within IBM Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, William

    2014-03-01

    The broad and deep insight a physicist brings to the goings on in a large technology company lead to many varied and exciting opportunities. Examples in my own career include contributions to important understanding of new breakthroughs (understanding the basic anisotropy of high temperature superconductivity), bringing vital physics understanding to ambitious engineering projects (basic switching and noise margins in digital Josephson junction technology), and initiating and growing large applied projects based on fundamental physics breakthroughs (magnetoresistive random access memory - MRAM). Success at such undertakings within a large enterprise involves a number of factors. Always seeking out the best expert advice and the best collaborators in unfamiliar technical areas as new ideas develop is enormously helpful and not at all difficult within a large innovative organization. While being imaginative and optimistic, one must also remain brutally honest about the potential value of new endeavors, the hurdles ahead, and the likelihood of success. Always, however, there is no substitute hard work. I can attest that the results of efforts along these directions within a technology company can be very exciting and satisfying, and the process along the way a whole lot of fun.

  8. The Training of Industrial Physicists in Zimbabwe: a Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carelse, Xavier F.

    In 1992-93 the Department of Physics decided that there was a need for physicists to participate in the industrial development in Zimbabwe. The idea of a Master of Science in Applied Physics programme was conceived. Before designing the programme, a postal survey was conducted to discover the needs of industry particularly in relation to industrial processes. There was a 20% response to our survey with many indicating the area of specialisation required in Zimbabwe. Based on their response, the programme was drawn up and was launched in 1994. The programme has optional specialisations in Industrial Physics, Medical Physics, Laser and Plasma Physics and Environmental Physics. Most of the candidates choose the Industrial Physics option. The programme includes courses in Workshop Practice, Computer Applications Software, Theory of Devices, Computer Interfacing, Instrumentation Physics, Metrology (which includes Quality Control), Digital Signal Processing and Data Communications and Networks, Industrial Applications of Laser and Plasma Physics, Biomedical Instrumentation, and many others. Nearly 30 Zimbabweans and some foreign students have thus far graduated with this degree. On graduation, they have, with relative ease, found employment in indeustry. In two cases, graduates were appointed as Research Officers with firms who set up research divisions specially for them. Many are now teaching at universities and technical colleges throughout the country where they continue to promote an industrial approach to the teaching of physics.

  9. Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat

    2013-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass mχ, for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (``PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels.

  10. Future trends in the supply and demand for radiation oncology physicists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael D; Thornewill, Judah; Esterhay, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the 2012 / 2014 decision announced by the Trustees of the American Board of Radiology (ABR) in October of 2007. According to the ABR, only medical physicists who are graduates of a Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs, Inc. (CAMPEP) accredited academic or residency program will be admitted for examination in the years 2012 and 2013. Only graduates of a CAMPEP accredited residency program will be admitted for examination beginning in the year 2014. An essential question facing the radiation oncology physics community is an estimation of supply and demand for medical physicists through the year 2020. To that end, a Demand & Supply dynamic model was created using STELLA software. Inputs into the model include: a) projected new cancer incidence and prevalence 1990-2020; b) AAPM member ages and retirement projections 1990-2020; c) number of ABR physics diplomates 1990-2009; d) number of patients per Qualified Medical Physicist from Abt Reports I (1995), II (2002) and III (2008); e) non-CAMPEP physicists trained 1990-2009 and projected through 2014; f) CAMPEP physicists trained 1993-2008 and projected through 2014; and g) working Qualified Medical Physicists in radiation oncology in the United States (1990-2007). The model indicates that the number of qualified medical physicists working in radiation oncology required to meet demand in 2020 will be 150-175 per year. Because there is some elasticity in the workforce, a portion of the work effort might be assumed by practicing medical physicists. However, the minimum number of new radiation oncology physicists (ROPs) required for the health of the profession is estimated to be 125 per year in 2020. The radiation oncology physics community should plan to build residency programs to support these numbers for the future of the profession. PMID:20592690

  11. Color Discriminability for Partially Seeing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, William A.

    1971-01-01

    Investigated was whether partially seeing children see the Snellen E, printed in selected colored inks on various colored backgrounds, at different distances in terms of initial recognition and best focus. (Author)

  12. A journey into medical physics as viewed by a physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The world of physics is usually linked to a large variety of subjects spanning from astrophysics, nuclear/high energy physics, materials and optical sciences, plasma physics etc. Lesser is known about the exciting world of medical physics that includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. These physicists are typically based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology, and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. This talk will focus on providing a bridge between selected areas of physics and their medical applications. The journey will first start from our understanding of high energy beam production and transport beamlines for external beam treatment of diseases (e.g., electron, gamma, X-ray and proton machines) as they relate to accelerator physics. We will then embrace the world of nuclear/high energy physics where detectors development provide a unique tool for understanding low energy beam distribution emitted from radioactive sources used in Brachytherapy treatment modality. Because the ultimate goal of radiation based therapy is its killing power on tumor cells, the next topic will be microdosimetry where responses of biological systems can be studied via electromagnetic systems. Finally, the impact on the imaging world will be embraced using tools heavily used in plasma physics, fluid mechanics and Monte Carlo simulations. These various scientific areas provide unique opportunities for faculty and students at universities, as well as for staff from research centers and laboratories to contribute in this field. We will conclude with the educational training related to medical physics programs.

  13. Physicists band together to support a new megaproject

    SciTech Connect

    Flam, F.

    1993-07-23

    As the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) flirts with death in the congressional budget process for a second year, another mammoth science project is coming to life. Just a few days after the House voted to kill the $10 billion particle accelerator last month, it approved next year's funding for a megaproject that is a little cheaper and a lot less familiar: a $2.7 billion nuclear reactor known as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), to be built at Tennessee's Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a national facility for probing materials with beams of neutrons. The project's success in the House is a sign that physicists can still make a case for big science-at least when the project has a broad scientific constituency and plausible links to national competitiveness. When the facility is completed in 2002, it will be the world's most powerful neutron source, delivering 10 times the flux of neutrons produced by its nearest competitor, at the Institute Lau-Langevin in Grenoble, France. For now, designs call for a reactor about one-tenth the size of a power reactor, says project director West. Fission in the reactor core will send out a steady stream of neutrons. Slowed by heavy water to little more than walking speed, the neutrons will be carried through guides that work like fiber optic cables-by reflecting the neutrons internally, like tennis balls ricocheting down a pipe-to experiments tens or hundreds of meters away. There the neutrons will probe the atomic-scale structure of materials in a way that depends on quantum mechanical quality. Like any subatomic particles, neutrons can be thought of as waves as well as particles. When they bombard matter, their wave nature comes into play. The slow neutrons from the ANS will have a wavelength about equal to the spacing between atoms in a typical solid, making the neutrons especially sensitive to atom-by-atom architecture.

  14. Becoming a physicist: The roles of research, mindsets, and milestones in upper-division student perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students, we used a phenomenographic research method to examine students' perceptions of what it means to be a physicist. Analysis revealed six different categories of perception of what it means to be a physicist. We found the following themes: research and its association with being a physicist, differences in mindset, and exclusivity of accomplishments. The paper highlights how these perceptions relate to two communities of practice that the students are members of, and also highlights the importance of undergraduate research for students to transition from the physics undergraduate community of practice to the community of practicing physicists.

  15. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  16. The role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the development of treatment planning and optimization.

    PubMed

    Orton, Colin G; Bortfeld, Thomas R; Niemierko, Andrzej; Unkelbach, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Developments in radiotherapy treatment planning and optimization by medical physicists and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine are reviewed, with emphasis on recent work in optimization. It is shown that medical physicists have played a vital role in the creation of innovative treatment planning techniques throughout the past century, most significantly since the advent of computerized tomography for three-dimensional (3D) imaging and high-powered computers capable of 3D planning and optimization. Some early advances in 3D planning made by physicists include development of novel planning algorithms, beam's-eye-view, virtual simulation, dose-volume histogram analysis tools, and bioeffect modeling. Most of the recent developments have been driven by the need to develop treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy, especially intensity modulated radiation therapy. These advances include inverse planning, handling the effects of motion and uncertainty, biological planning, and multicriteria optimization. PMID:19070225

  17. Career Opportunities for Physicists - Where are the jobs? How do I get one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripin, Barrett H.

    1997-11-01

    I will review the current status of traditional and nontraditional employment sectors for physicists as well as outline some strategies being undertaken by the APS and others to help improve the employability of physicists in both the short and long term. Specific suggestions in this regard will be offered to students, postdocs, as well as faculty advisors and physics departments. The session will be very interactive and views and suggestions offered by attendees will be discussed.

  18. The Many Worlds of Leo Szilard: Physicist, Peacemaker, Provocateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanouette, William

    2014-03-01

    Best known for being the first to conceive and patent the nuclear chain reaction in the 1930s, Leo Szilard should also be remembered for other insights in both physics and biology, and for historical initiatives to control the A-bomb he helped create. In physics, Szilard applied entropy to data in a seminal 1929 paper that laid the basis for ``information theory.'' Szilard co-designed an electromagnetic refrigerator pump with Einstein in the 1920s, in 1939 he co-designed the first nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and he later thought up and named the nuclear ``breeder'' reactor. Biologist Francois Jacob called Szilard an ``intellectual bumblebee'' for the many novel ideas he shared, including one that earned Jacob and others the Nobel Prize. James D. Watson said that for intellectual stimulation he liked being around Szilard because ``Leo got excited about something before it was true.'' A political activist, Szilard proposed and drafted the 1939 letter Einstein sent to President Franklin Roosevelt that warned of German A-bomb work and led to the Manhattan Project - where Szilard was ``Chief Physicist.'' Yet Szilard then worked tirelessly to curb nuclear weapons, organizing a scientists' petition to President Truman and lobbying Congress for civilian control of the atom. Szilard loved dreaming up new institutions. He helped to create the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, and founded the Council for a Livable World - the first political action committee for arms control. In biology, Szilard proposed the European Molecular Biology Organization modeled on CERN, and helped create the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he was one of the first fellows. Shy, witty, and eccentric, Szilard wrote a political satire in 1960 that predicted when the US-Soviet nuclear arms race would end in the late 1980s. Another satire, ``My Trial as a War Criminal'' about scientists' responsibilities for weapons of mass destruction, is credited with prompting

  19. Seeing through Frost on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.

    2012-12-01

    (cf. Spencer et al. 2009, In "Saturn after Cassini-Huygens", Springer-Verlag. 683-724; Helfenstein et al. 2010; American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P23C-04). More recent Cassini high-resolution imaging of the region over a wide range of illumination geometry reveals a systematic change in the appearance of the circular albedo features as the phase angle decreases from α=124° to α=31° -- the circular albedo features that are so clearly visible at large phase angles are completely masked at small phase angles. The decrease in the albedo contrast with decreasing phase angle is dramatic: The average albedo contrast between the circular P1 and P2 features diminishes from 27±3% at phase α=124° to only 1.3±0.2% at α=31°. A likely explanation for this photometric behavior is that it reveals a top layer of frost or snow that scatters light strongly at relatively small phase angles, but which becomes more transparent as phase angles increase allowing Cassini to see through to underlying features. It is also possible that the changing photometric contrasts arise from terrain-dependent differences in regolith properties like surface roughness or regolith grain-size.

  20. Core curriculum for medical physicists in radiology. Recommendations from an EFOMP/ESR working group.

    PubMed

    Geleijns, Jacob; Breatnach, Eamann; Cantera, Alfonso Calzado; Damilakis, John; Dendy, Philip; Evans, Anthony; Faulkner, Keith; Padovani, Renato; Van Der Putten, Wil; Schad, Lothar; Wirestam, Ronnie; Eudaldo, Teresa

    2012-06-01

    Some years ago it was decided that a European curriculum should be developed for medical physicists professionally engaged in the support of clinical diagnostic imaging departments. With this in mind, EFOMP (European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics) in association with ESR (European Society of Radiology) nominated an expert working group. This curriculum is now to hand. The curriculum is intended to promote best patient care in radiology departments through the harmonization of education and training of medical physicists to a high standard in diagnostic radiology. It is recommended that a medical physicist working in a radiology department should have an advanced level of professional expertise in X-ray imaging, and additionally, depending on local availability, should acquire knowledge and competencies in overseeing ultrasound imaging, nuclear medicine, and MRI technology. By demonstrating training to a standardized curriculum, medical physicists throughout Europe will enhance their mobility, while maintaining local high standards of medical physics expertise. This document also provides the basis for improved implementation of articles in the European medical exposure directives related to the medical physics expert. The curriculum is divided into three main sections: The first deals with general competencies in the principles of medical physics. The second section describes specific knowledge and skills required for a medical physicist (medical physics expert) to operate clinically in a department of diagnostic radiology. The final section outlines research skills that are also considered to be necessary and appropriate competencies in a career as medical physicist. PMID:22696082

  1. THE EDUCATION OF A PHYSICIST. AN ACCOUNT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE EDUCATION OF PROFESSIONAL PHYSICISTS, LONDON 15-21 JULY 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, SANBORN C.; CLARKE, NORMAN

    CONTAINED IN THIS BOOK ARE INTERPRETATIONS OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS PRESENTED AT THE "THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE EDUCATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL PHYSICIST" WHICH WAS HELD IN LONDON IN JULY, 1965, AND WAS ATTENDED BY REPRESENTATIVES FROM 25 COUNTRIES. THE MATERIAL WAS EDITED, AND ORGANIZED TO STRESS THE ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCES IN POINT OF…

  2. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  3. Seeing the Implications of Zero Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2015-01-01

    Composing and decomposing numbers with base-ten blocks depends on children being able to see ten both as ten units and as one group of ten units (a long), cognizant that its value is the same in either case. Being able to see, or deciding when to see, an object or collection of objects as a unit is a key skill that children must develop to solve…

  4. Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Budnitz, Robert J.; Winick, Herman

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the distinguished career of Andrew M. Sessler, the visionary former director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), one of the most influential accelerator physicists, and a strong, dedicated human-rights activist. Andy died on 17 April 2014 from cancer at age 85. He grew up in New York City, and attended Harvard (BA in Mathematics, 1949) and then Columbia (PhD in Physics, 1953.) After an NSF postdoc at Cornell with Hans Bethe and a stint on the faculty at the Ohio State University in 1954-59, he joined the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (now LBNL) in 1959, and spent the remainder of his career there. Although Andy l his mark on several areas of physics, including nuclear structure theory, elementary-particle physics, and many-body problems, his lasting and most important contributions came from his efforts in accelerator physics and engineering, to which he devoted most of his life's work. In collaboration with his colleagues of the legendary Midwestern Universities Research Association, he developed theories for the RF acceleration process and the collective instability phenomena, helping to realize the colliding-beam accelerators with which most of the high-energy-physics discoveries of the last few decades have been made. His work in connection with the free-electron-laser (FEL) amplifier for high-power microwave generation constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory anticipated the optical-guiding and the self-amplified spontaneous-emission principles, upon which the success of the X-ray FELs as the fourth-generation light sources is based. Throughout his career Andy made major contributions to issues related to the impact of science and technology on society. He helped usher in a new era of research on energy efficiency and sustainable-energy technology and was instrumental in building the research agendas in those areas for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Department of Energy. With a lifelong

  5. Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Budnitz, Robert J.; Winick, Herman

    This article describes the distinguished career of Andrew M. Sessler, the visionary former director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), one of the most influential accelerator physicists, and a strong, dedicated human-rights activist. Andy died on 17 April 2014 from cancer at age 85. He grew up in New York City, and attended Harvard (BA in Mathematics, 1949) and then Columbia (PhD in Physics, 1953.) After an NSF postdoc at Cornell with Hans Bethe and a stint on the faculty at the Ohio State University in 1954-59, he joined the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (now LBNL) in 1959, and spent the remainder of his career there. Although Andy left his mark on several areas of physics, including nuclear structure theory, elementary-particle physics, and many-body problems, his lasting and most important contributions came from his efforts in accelerator physics and engineering, to which he devoted most of his life's work. In collaboration with his colleagues of the legendary Midwestern Universities Research Association, he developed theories for the RF acceleration process and the collective instability phenomena, helping to realize the colliding-beam accelerators with which most of the high-energy-physics discoveries of the last few decades have been made. His work in connection with the free-electron-laser (FEL) amplifier for high-power microwave generation constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory anticipated the optical-guiding and the self-amplified spontaneous-emission principles, upon which the success of the X-ray FELs as the fourth-generation light sources is based. Throughout his career Andy made major contributions to issues related to the impact of science and technology on society. He helped usher in a new era of research on energy efficiency and sustainable-energy technology and was instrumental in building the research agendas in those areas for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Department of Energy. With a

  6. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  7. The role, responsibilities and status of the clinical medical physicist in AFOMP.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H; Cheung, K Y; Hu, Y M; Inamura, K; Kim, H J; Krisanachinda, A; Leung, J; Pradhan, A S; Round, H; van Doomo, T; Wong, T J; Yi, B Y

    2009-12-01

    This document is the first of a series of policy statements being issued by the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (AFOMP). The document was developed by the AFOMP Professional Development Committee (PDC) and was endorsed for official release by AFOMP Council in 2006. The main purpose of the document was to give guidance to AFOMP member organizations on the role and responsibilities of clinical medical physicists. A definition of clinical medical physicist has also been provided. This document discusses the following topics: professional aspects of education and training; responsibilities of the clinical medical physicist; status and organization of the clinical medical physics service and the need for clinical medical physics service. PMID:20169835

  8. Dr. Inside and Dr. Outside: Physicists Involved With National Security and Foreign Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Peter D.

    2009-05-01

    Physicists have had a special interest in American national security and arms control since at least the Manhattan Project. They have served our country in uniform and in the career civil service. Some have left academic careers for brief periods to work as political appointees, consultants, or resident scholars and then returned to an academic life, but often with changed goals. Some have tried government life and left nearly immediately, while others dipped a toe in and decided to stay. I will look at real-life examples, mostly using real names, drawn from my career and circle of colleagues to try to explain why some physicists have been extremely successful, why others have not, and what happens to a physicist who moved to Washington and decides to stay. I will also discuss routes into public service for those interesting in giving it a try.

  9. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J; Choi, H

    2014-06-15

    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of information that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues.

  10. Rejoice in the hubris: useful things biologists could do for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert H.

    2014-10-01

    Political correctness urges us to state how wonderful it is to work with biologists and how, just as the lion will someday lie down with the lamb, so will interdisciplinary work, where biologists and physicists are mixed together in light, airy buildings designed to force socialization, give rise to wonderful new science. But it has been said that the only drive in human nature stronger than the sex drive is the drive to censor and suppress, and so I claim that it is OK for physicists and biologists to maintain a wary distance from each other, so that neither one censors or suppresses the wild ideas of the other.

  11. Back pain - when you see the doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007494.htm Back pain - when you see the doctor To use the ... nih.gov/pubmed/21282698 . Dixit R. Low back pain. Low back pain. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  12. NASA Sees Holiday Lights from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    It’s official — our holiday lights are so bright we can see them from space. Thanks to the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite, a joint mission between NASA and NOAA, scientists are present...

  13. Artificial intelligence: Learning to see and act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    An artificial-intelligence system uses machine learning from massive training sets to teach itself to play 49 classic computer games, demonstrating that it can adapt to a variety of tasks. See Letter p.529

  14. In memoriam Yurii Fedorovich Smirnov: Some personal reminiscences on a great physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Kibler, M. R.

    2012-01-15

    Yurii Fedorovich Smirnov (1935-2008) was a famous theoretical physicist. He achieved his career mainly at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow. These notes describe some particular facets of the contributions of the late Professor Smirnov in theoretical physics and mathematical physics. They also relate some personal reminiscences on Yurii Smirnov in connection with some of his numerous works.

  15. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 2: Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a review of the work of quantum physicists on the "hard part" of the problem of mind. After an introduction which sets the scene and a brief review of contemporary work on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) the work of four prominent modern investigators is examined: J.C. Eccles/Friedrich Beck; Henry Stapp;…

  16. Why Aren?t Lightsabers Real Yet? Get the Lowdown from a Laser Physicist

    ScienceCinema

    Hunsberger, Maren; Liao, Zhi

    2016-03-22

    The release of "Star Wars: The Force Awakens" begs the obvious question: Why aren't lightsabers real yet? LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger gets the lowdown from laser physicist Zhi Liao in this first installment of "Inside the Lab," a new YouTube series exploring crazy-cool science questions.

  17. E-Print Depositing Behavior of Physicists and Astronomers: An Intradisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamali, Hamid R.; Nicholas, David

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the e-print depositing behavior of physicists and astronomers. Fifty-six PhD students and staff at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University College London were interviewed. A survey was also carried out (47.1% response rate). The study investigates the relation between variables such as research area,…

  18. A Beginner's Guide To a Physicist Starting Out on an Internet Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Lists 31 useful physics-related Internet sites to help physicists who are just starting to use the Internet. The sites are also useful in teaching or to assist students in doing research. Sites have a range of sponsors including physics organizations, government agencies, universities, and corporations. (PVD)

  19. Williams Holistic Approach Model (WHAM): Sustainable University Leadership from the Perspective of a Woman Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Elvira S.

    2010-01-01

    University leadership from career and organizational viewpoints are discussed from the perspective of a woman physicist. Laws of physics are used, through appropriate analogies, as templates for structuring useful life lessons on holistic WHAM leadership. Interactive university skill sets and program policies based on holistic WHAM approaches are…

  20. Ya.B. Zel''dovich (1914-1987). Chemist, Nuclear Physicist, Cosmologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Varun

    2011-06-01

    A scientific biography of the outstanding Soviet Chemist, Physicist and Cosmologist Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (1914-1987) has been given by one of his pupils. A special concern has been given to cosmological works by Zel'dovich. Figures 4,Bibliography: 9.

  1. Why Aren’t Lightsabers Real Yet? Get the Lowdown from a Laser Physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, Maren; Liao, Zhi

    2015-12-18

    The release of "Star Wars: The Force Awakens" begs the obvious question: Why aren't lightsabers real yet? LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger gets the lowdown from laser physicist Zhi Liao in this first installment of "Inside the Lab," a new YouTube series exploring crazy-cool science questions.

  2. Internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    In the arena of radiation oncology special procedures, medical physicists are often the focus professionals for implementation and administration of advanced and complex technologies. One of the most vexing and challenging aspects of managing complexity concerns the ongoing internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures. To demonstrate ongoing qualification, a physicist must: (a) document initial training and successful completion of competencies to implement and perform this procedure, (b) demonstrate familiarity with all aspects of the commissioning and quality assurance process, (c) demonstrate continuing education respecting this procedure, (d) demonstrate the peer-reviewed completion of a minimum number of patient special procedures during a specified time span, and (e) demonstrate satisfactory overall progress toward maintenance of specialty board certification. In many respects, this information complement is similar to that required by an accredited residency program in therapy physics. In this investigation, we report on the design of a management tool to qualify staff radiation oncology physicists to deliver patient procedures. PMID:24427742

  3. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed. PMID:26643309

  4. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  5. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, Roger

    1999-07-01

    designed the platework of ships and bridges, we see the upper elastic layer of the Earth bending under the loads applied by mountains and ice sheets: about 11 000 years ago, a 2 km load of ice melted, and Scandinavia and northern Canada are still springing back into shape at about 10 mm per year. About 100 million years ago, the plate supporting North America and Europe fractured, and we can measure their continuing separation with lasers and microwaves at a few cm per year. We are now just able to make acoustic images of turbulent plumes churning up the Earth's deep interior as heat from radioactive decay is converted into the motion of convective overturn: the Earth is a heat engine! So how is all this `knowledge' possible when there are absolutely no direct observations of the interior of the Earth or its remote past? Over the course of the last few centuries, careful laboratory observations have identified patterns in the way natural materials behave which we now codify as the laws of physics. They enable us to construct a model of how materials would behave under more exotic conditions and at past and future times. As one example, we measure the rate at which radioactive atoms decay and identify that the half-life of a particular species is a `constant of nature', that is, we have so far found no ambient conditions that cause it to vary. With this experience, we measure radioactive isotopes in a rock to find the proportion of parent atoms remaining to the daughter atoms produced by its decay. Knowing the half-life makes the rock a natural clock with which to date an event in the remote past. In the special feature on Geophysics in this issue, we have picked just a few examples to show how basic physics - gravity, electricity, magnetism and sound - can be harnessed to investigate what we can never observe directly. `Antarctic seismology' is an example of the Earth being doubly remote: its surface as well as its interior are inaccessible. Here, practical fieldwork

  6. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, Roger

    1999-07-01

    designed the platework of ships and bridges, we see the upper elastic layer of the Earth bending under the loads applied by mountains and ice sheets: about 11 000 years ago, a 2 km load of ice melted, and Scandinavia and northern Canada are still springing back into shape at about 10 mm per year. About 100 million years ago, the plate supporting North America and Europe fractured, and we can measure their continuing separation with lasers and microwaves at a few cm per year. We are now just able to make acoustic images of turbulent plumes churning up the Earth's deep interior as heat from radioactive decay is converted into the motion of convective overturn: the Earth is a heat engine! So how is all this `knowledge' possible when there are absolutely no direct observations of the interior of the Earth or its remote past? Over the course of the last few centuries, careful laboratory observations have identified patterns in the way natural materials behave which we now codify as the laws of physics. They enable us to construct a model of how materials would behave under more exotic conditions and at past and future times. As one example, we measure the rate at which radioactive atoms decay and identify that the half-life of a particular species is a `constant of nature', that is, we have so far found no ambient conditions that cause it to vary. With this experience, we measure radioactive isotopes in a rock to find the proportion of parent atoms remaining to the daughter atoms produced by its decay. Knowing the half-life makes the rock a natural clock with which to date an event in the remote past. In the special feature on Geophysics in this issue, we have picked just a few examples to show how basic physics - gravity, electricity, magnetism and sound - can be harnessed to investigate what we can never observe directly. `Antarctic seismology' is an example of the Earth being doubly remote: its surface as well as its interior are inaccessible. Here, practical fieldwork

  7. As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See (QTVR)

    This expansive view of the martian real estate surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is the first 360 degree, high-resolution color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The airbag marks, or footprints, seen in the soil trace the route by which Opportunity rolled to its final resting spot inside a small crater at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The exposed rock outcropping is a future target for further examination. This image mosaic consists of 225 individual frames.

  8. Scaling and Single Event Effects (SEE) Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the potential for scaling down transistors and other components to fit more of them on chips in order to increasing computer processing speed. It also addresses technical challenges to further scaling. Components have been scaled down enough to allow single particles to have an effect, known as a Single Event Effect (SEE). This paper explores the relationship between scaling and the following SEEs: Single Event Upsets (SEU) on DRAMs and SRAMs, Latch-up, Snap-back, Single Event Burnout (SEB), Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR), and Ion-induced soft breakdown (SBD).

  9. Seeing the Unseen: Molecular Visualization in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Jeff; Taylor-Papp, Kim; Duran, Mesut

    2005-01-01

    In high school biology, students are challenged by many molecular concepts and structures. They meander through a number of molecular structures, some in macromolecular form: carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides. Student difficulties arise in part from inability to visualize what they can't easily see. Students struggle moving from…

  10. How Lecturers See Their Teaching Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter Hebron, C. C.

    The results of a project to determine how English polytechnic lecturers see their teaching objectives are presented. Development of a behaviorally referenced student feedback questionnaire and the theory behind behavioral referencing are described. The definitions of teaching and learning are explored and the relationship between teaching and…

  11. PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM, 1966-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Special Education District, Gurnee, IL.

    THIS ADMINISTRATIVE OUTLINE OF THE PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM IN LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS, PRESENTS THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TWO ITINERANT TEACHERS AND THEIR IMMEDIATE SUPERVISORS. THE PROGRAM'S PHILOSOPHY, GOALS, HISTORY AND PLACEMENT IN THE COUNTY'S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IS PRESENTED. THE ITINERANT TEACHER'S ADMINISTRATIVE…

  12. Space Environments and Effects Program (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yhisreal-Rivas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The need to preserve works and NASA documented articles is done via the collection of various Space Environments and Effects (SEE) related articles. (SEE) contains and lists the various projects that are ongoing, or have been conducted with the help of NASA. The goal of the (SEE) program is to make publicly available the environment technologies that are required to design, manufacture and operate reliable, cost-effective spacecraft for the government and commercial sectors. Of the many projects contained within the (SEE) program the Lunar-E Library and Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) have been selected for a more user friendly means to make the tools easily available to the public. This information which is still available required a person or entity to request access from a point of contact at NASA and wait for the requested bundled software DVD via postal service. Redesigning the material presentation and availability has been mapped to a single step process with faster turnaround time via Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database. This process requires users to register and be verified in order to gain access to the information contained within. Aiding in the progression of making the software tools/documents available required a combination of specialized in-house data gathering software tools and software archeology.

  13. Multiple-Aperture Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Ren, Deqing

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of daytime atmospheric turbulence profile up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) systems. To measure seeing profiles up to 30km, we introduce the Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler (MASP). It bases on the principle of S-DIMM+ and consists of two portable small telescopes similar to SHABAR. Thus the MASP take the advantages of both S-DIMM+ and SHABAR. It is portable and can be used without big telescope, while it has ability to measure turbulence profile up to 30km. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of WFS data, which is quite similar with the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can well retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at BBSO showed that daytime turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  14. Who Gets to See Published Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The battle over public access to federally financed research is heating up again. The basic question is this: When taxpayers help pay for scholarly research, should those taxpayers get to see the results in the form of free access to the resulting journal articles? Actions in Washington this month highlight how far from settled the question is,…

  15. Scholars See Comics as No Laughing Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Once fuel for mass book burnings, comic books are gaining a foothold in the nation's schools, with teachers seeing them as a learning tool and scholars viewing them as a promising subject for educational research. Evidence of the rising credibility of Spiderman, Batman, and Archie came last month when Fordham University's graduate school of…

  16. Seeing the Body Distorts Tactile Size Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Sadibolova, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Vision of the body modulates somatosensation, even when entirely non-informative about stimulation. For example, seeing the body increases tactile spatial acuity, but reduces acute pain. While previous results demonstrate that vision of the body modulates somatosensory sensitivity, it is unknown whether vision also affects metric properties of…

  17. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  18. Women physicists in Russia: Problems and solutions at a time of fiscal crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyuk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2013-03-01

    Recently Russia has been affected by the global financial crisis, which has had both positive and negative effects on women physicists. The feminization of science and the stratification that characterize the Russian scientific community in general also affect the field of physics. This paper discusses the proportion of women in leadership and managerial positions in different areas of science and education and highlights the differences between women and men in their careers in physics and defense of their theses. Lomonosov Moscow State University is used to demonstrate the dynamics of gender in different academic positions. The professional activity of young women physicists is illustrated by their participation in all-Russian scientific forums, demonstrating their commitment to remain active in their careers despite the challenges of the current economic conditions.

  19. Harnessing materials from the Paradigms Project to help students learn to ``think like a physicist'''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridget Kustusch, Mary

    2011-10-01

    One of the major goals of upper-division courses is and should be to help the next generation of physics majors learn to ``think like a physicist'' instead of merely reproducing ``correct'' answers to problems from the text or lectures. To accomplish this goal often requires a shift in our instructional approach that may seem time-consuming and overwhelming. The Paradigms in Physics Project provides the tools and support to aid in this shift at the lecture, activity, course, and even program level. This presentation will present an overview of the project and some of the many ways that these tools can be used to help our students learn to ``think like a physicist.''

  20. Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard: Two Distinguished Physicists, Two Disparate Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1999-12-01

    Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) both had distinguished careers as physicists. They were together in Bonn from April 1891 to January 1894, Hertz as Director of the Bonn Physics Institute, and Lenard as his assistant. Each did important experimental work on cathode rays and the photoelectric effect, and in 1905 Lenard received the Nobel Prize for his work in these fields. Lenard had great respect and admiration for Hertz before going to Bonn and while there, but gradually allowed his esteem for his mentor (who died in 1894) to diminish as Lenard became increasingly anti-Semitic and involved in National Socialism and the Nazi movement. This article illustrates how differences in their characters and personalities, together with the tragic events of the Great War and its aftermath, resulted in Hertz deservedly being much more highly regarded today both as a physicist and as a man than is Lenard.

  1. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  2. Chimpanzees strategically manipulate what others can see.

    PubMed

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Humans often strategically manipulate the informational access of others to their own advantage. Although chimpanzees know what others can and cannot see, it is unclear whether they can strategically manipulate others' visual access. In this study, chimpanzees were given the opportunity to save food for themselves by concealing it from a human competitor and also to get more food for themselves by revealing it to a human cooperator. When knowing that a competitor was approaching, chimpanzees kept more food hidden (left it covered) than when expecting a cooperator to approach. When the experimenter was already at the location of the hidden food, they actively revealed less food to the competitor than to the cooperator. They did not actively hide food (cover up food in the open) from the competitor, however. Chimpanzees thus strategically manipulated what another could see in order to maximize their payoffs and showed their ability to plan for future situations. PMID:25964096

  3. Seeing the Real Atomic Correlation in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2006-02-01

    Bragg's law is an ultimate magic, because it reduces the positions of 10(23) atoms to just a few numbers. This, of course, is a lucky consequence of translational symmetry. Unfortunately, we are not always lucky with many materials that are important today, including ourselves (biological matter), since they (and we) are not crystalline, or only poorly crystalline. But it is possible to see, more or less directly, the real atomic correlations in these disordered matters by using the method of atomic pair-density function (PDF) analysis using neutron or x-ray scattering. Due to advances in instrumentation we now can determine the PDF up to 20 nm, and see even the dynamics of correlation by the dynamic PDF method. This talk will address some examples of this approach facilitates understanding of complex matter, and where the field may be heading.

  4. Physicists & Engineers in the Spy Business--What Does the Record Say About National Reconnaissance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Readers of John LeCarre novels most likely have heard about ``Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy.'' Is there another story, ``Engineer, Mathematician, Physicist, Spy?'' There may very well be when you consider that a physicist was part of the October 1962 intelligence find of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, or when you consider that another student of physics made critical contributions to the U.S. intelligence that debunked the 1960s myth of an American-Soviet ``missile gap.'' The record suggests the fictions that LeCarre, Ian Fleming, Tom Clancy, and other authors invented have their counterparts in the real world of physics, engineering, and foreign intelligence activities. In fact, I would argue that without the contributions of physicists and engineers to the intelligence discipline of national reconnaissance, the world might not have acquired the intelligence necessary to bring the Cold War to an end, and terrorists might now have an unending advantage as we start our journey through the 21st century.

  5. Lee C. Bradley III (Phillips Exeter Class of 1943): Physicist, Officer, and Gentleman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    2004-03-01

    Lee Carrington Bradley's career as a physicist began as an accomplished student at Phillips Exeter Academy, where he was influenced by Professor John C. Hogg, chairman of the Science Department. He graduated in 1943 and entered the V-12 program for naval officers and completed his undergraduate degree in physics at Princeton University. After a brief tour as a Navy Ensign he joined the first group of American Rhodes Scholars to attend Oxford University, in 1947, following the conclusion of World War II. Under the guidance of H.G. Kuhn of Clarendon Laboratory, Lee completed his Ph.D. in physics in 1950. He then accepted an instructorship in physics at Princeton until he was called to MIT as an assistant professor in 1954 and later as a research associate in the Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory. In 1966 he joined the technical staff of MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and became a senior staff member in 1978, a position he held until his retirement in 1992. From 1947 to 1966 Lee's interest was primarily in the field of optical spectroscopy, where his work brought him into contact with many of the outstanding physicists of his era. Upon joining Lincoln Laboratory, his physics interests shifted toward optics and laser propagation, the latter a field in which he made significant contributions. My illustrated tribute will discuss Lee's passage from Phillips Exeter to Lincoln Laboratory, describing his physics and some of the notable physicists with whom he worked.

  6. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  7. Why can we see visible light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    Visible light constitutes only a very narrow part of the wide electromagnetic spectrum. This article outlines several reasons why the human eye can see only within this limited range. Solar emissions and low absorption in the atmosphere are determining causes, but not the only ones. The energy of chemical bonds, the optical properties of matter, black body emissions and the wave character of light cause further limitations, all of which have a remarkable congruence.

  8. Space Environment and Effects System (SEES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashio, Nana; Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu; Koshiishi, Hideki

    Space environment group in JAXA has installed insturments to measure space environment on eleven satellites. In the last year, the biggest instrument called SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquision equipment -Attached Paylod) was atteched to the palette of JEM (ISS). On the other hand, we have a web site, "Space Environment and Effects System(SEES)". This system consisits of four parts. First part is to provide data that were obtained from these insturments. There are 18 kinds of mesurments, for example, radiation, magnetic field and so on. In 1994, Anik E-1 and Anik E-2 were broken by solar storm and we could catch the abnormal data from our instrument. Second part is a warning system. Many Japanese satellites are working around the earth and they are always exposed to radioactivity in space. So we predict the the radiation data in two days and if the expected value is over the threshold of safety, we inform a warning massage to users who want to keep their satellites safe. And we also provide the warning massage for Japanese astronauts who stay at ISS. Third part is the tool of the space environment /satellite environment models. There are 12 kinds of environment models which are constructed from 90 space environment models, for example, radiation model, solar activity model and so on. If you register your infomation in the SEES web site, you can simulate space environment by using them. Fourth part is providing the 2D and 3D infomations of satellite's orvits. This show the satelllite's position on the world map at a paticular time. If you want to use this system, please visit our SEES page at (http://seesproxy.tksc.jaxa.jp/fw/dfw/SEES/index.html ).

  9. Multiple-Aperture-Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Yongtian; Yang, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Characterization of day-time atmospheric turbulence profiles up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of future solar multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems. Recently, the S-DIMM+ method has been successfully used to measure the vertical profile of turbulence. However, to measure profile up to 30 km employing the S-DIMM+ method, a telescope with a diameter of at least 1.0 m is needed, which restricts the usage of S-DIMM+, since large telescopes are scarce and their time is limited. To solve this problem, we introduce the multiple-aperture seeing profiler (MASP), which consists of two portable small telescopes instead of a single large aperture. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of wavefront sensor (WFS) data, which is quite similar to the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120 mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can effectively retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at Big Bear Solar Observatory showed that day-time turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, the MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  10. Remarkable Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Prologue; 1. From Galileo to Daniel Bernoulli; 2. From Franklin to Laplace; 3. From Rumford to Oersted; 4. From Somerville to Henry; 5. From Helmholtz to Rayleigh; 6. From Boltzmann to Volterra; 7. From Bragg to Langevin; 8. From Meitner to Born; 9. From Bohr to Simon; 10. From Bose to Heisenberg; 11. From Dirac to Yukawa; Epilogue; Further reading; Acknowledgements.

  11. Evaluating Constraints on Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility Imposed by Proton SEE Testing and Other Mixed Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, R. L.; Lauenstein, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop metrics for assessing the effectiveness of proton SEE data for bounding heavy-ion SEE susceptibility. The metrics range from simple geometric criteria requiring no knowledge of the test articles to bounds of SEE rates.

  12. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  13. ``To See Cosmology in a Quetzal..."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L.

    2002-05-01

    High in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica, our university maintains a field station called the Quetzal Education Research Center (QERC), in cloud forest habit of the magnificent Resplendent Quetzal. At these latitudes, where every surface is alive, the astronomical realities that constrain life's options acquire an in-your-face immediacy. Three years ago we began team-teaching a general astrobiology course featuring a 10-day trip to the QERC and other Costa Rican sites, including the Arenal Volcano and Manuel Antonio National Park. This experience places the student smack in the middle of an environment that dramatically shows how stellar evolution provides the energy, materials, and timescale for biological evolution. For example, discussion of tidal forces occurs when we are up to our necks in the tide at Manuel Antonio's beaches; discussions of nuclear reactions that power the Sun are followed with extended forest hikes to see the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; as an astronomical system, quetzal DNA is a ``metal," a product of nucleosynthesis. Our time in Costa Rica also features an astronomy education program for the residents of San Gerardo de Dota (in the rural valley where the QERC is located), with presentations at the local school and astronomy ``open house" evenings at the QERC. As one travels the country one also sees the rapid destruction of tropical forest biodiversity. We therefore encourage through astrobiology the formation of another kind of ``ecosystem:" the global network of young people who are valiantly confronting the challenges of environmental sustainability. Solutions to these problems must take into account economic, cultural, and political realities as well as scientific realities. The importance of seeing these immediate problems in terms of astronomical and biological evolution timescales forms another splendid motivation for the study of astrobiology.

  14. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  15. Hierarchical modelling of mobile, seeing robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Cheng-Jye; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a hierarchical robot simulation which supports the design of robots with vision and mobility. A seeing robot applies a classification expert system for visual identification of laboratory objects. The visual data acquisition algorithm used by the robot vision system has been developed to exploit multiple viewing distances and perspectives. Several different simulations have been run testing the visual logic in a laboratory environment. Much work remains to integrate the vision system with the rest of the robot system.

  16. See around the corner using active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Elmqvist, Magnus; Larsson, Håkan

    2011-11-01

    This paper investigates the prospects of "seeing around the corner" using active imaging. A monostatic active imaging system offers interesting capabilities in the presence of glossy reflecting objects. Examples of such surfaces are windows in buildings and cars, calm water, signs and vehicle surfaces. During daylight it might well be possible to use mirrorlike reflection by the naked eye or a CCD camera for non-line of sight imaging. However the advantage with active imaging is that one controls the illumination. This will not only allow for low light and night utilization but also for use in cases where the sun or other interfering lights limit the non-line of sight imaging possibility. The range resolution obtained by time gating will reduce disturbing direct reflections and allow simultaneous view in several directions using range discrimination. Measurements and theoretical considerations in this report support the idea of using laser to "see around the corner". Examples of images and reflectivity measurements will be presented together with examples of potential system applications.

  17. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody

    2001-01-01

    The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on a spacecraft, its sub-systems, materials and instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other US and international government agencies, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program (agency-wide in scope but managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center) provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment. It does this by defining the best techniques for both flight- and groundbased experimentation, updating models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft and ensuring that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and discuss several current technology development activities associated with the spacecraft charging phenomenon.

  18. Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America: Their scientific contributions and their impact on China's higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jing Cheng

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation records the historical paths of Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America, explores their representative achievements in modern physics that have not been recognized by Chinese scholars, and provides sociological analyses of their contributions to China's higher education. We have found that Chinese students of physics in Germany and America were not passive recipients of Western science, but active contributors. They were also crucial contributors to science education and important scientific projects upon their return to China. Chapter One briefly describes physics knowledge in ancient China and introduces the transplantation of modern science and technology to China. Three distinct historical periods have been identified. In Chapter Two and Chapter Three, 30 Chinese physicists educated in Germany and 89 in America have been investigated. This research analyzes the significant achievements of these physicists. It also examines the political changes, the social background, and other factors impacting on their studies in the two countries. The selected cases in the two chapters are Li Fo-ki, Chinese physics students in Berlin, Werner Heisenberg and his Chinese students, Max Born and his Chinese students, Robert Millikan and Chinese physicists, the first two Chinese physicists from Harvard, and the Science Society of China. Chapter Four explores the geographical distribution, education and careers, return and expatriation, and the social influence exerted by these Chinese physicists. Statistical compilation and quantitative analyses comprise the basic methodology. In terms of two periods and two generations, this dissertation explores the physicists' contributions to the development of modern science in China and to education in China. Significant cases from Beijing University, Qinghua University, and Yanjing University are analyzed. The last chapter, Chapter Five, concludes that some of the achievements of these Chinese physicists were

  19. A theoretical physicist's journey into biology: from quarks and strings to cells and whales.

    PubMed

    West, Geoffrey B

    2014-01-01

    Biology will almost certainly be the predominant science of the twenty-first century but, for it to become successfully so, it will need to embrace some of the quantitative, analytic, predictive culture that has made physics so successful. This includes the search for underlying principles, systemic thinking at all scales, the development of coarse-grained models, and closer ongoing collaboration between theorists and experimentalists. This article presents a personal, slightly provocative, perspective of a theoretical physicist working in close collaboration with biologists at the interface between the physical and biological sciences. PMID:25291966

  20. The Dürrenmatt's ``Physicists'' as a Tool in Understanding the Ethics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapor, Darko

    2007-04-01

    Part of the course of the History of Physics taught by the author is dedicated to the ethics of science, in particular to moral responsibility of the scientist towards society. In order to make the subject more interesting to the students, the first step is reading the play ``Physicists'' by Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1962). The students are then asked to relate some of the events connected to the nuclear studies before and during the World War II and armaments race with some situations in the play or the author's theses related to it.

  1. PPPC 4 DM secondary: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for secondary radiation from Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Jatan; Cirelli, Marco; Giesen, Gaëlle; Taoso, Marco

    2015-09-01

    We enlarge the set of recipes and ingredients at disposal of any poor particle physicist eager to cook up signatures from weak-scale Dark Matter models by computing two secondary emissions due to DM particles annihilating or decaying in the galactic halo, namely the radio signals from synchrotron emission and the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung. We consider several magnetic field configurations and propagation scenarios for electrons and positrons. We also provide an improved energy loss function for electrons and positrons in the Galaxy, including synchrotron losses in the different configurations, bremsstrahlung losses, ionization losses and Inverse Compton losses with an updated InterStellar Radiation Field.

  2. PPPC 4 DM secondary: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for secondary radiation from Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Buch, Jatan; Cirelli, Marco; Giesen, Gaëlle; Taoso, Marco

    2015-09-11

    We enlarge the set of recipes and ingredients at disposal of any poor particle physicist eager to cook up signatures from weak-scale Dark Matter models by computing two secondary emissions due to DM particles annihilating or decaying in the galactic halo, namely the radio signals from synchrotron emission and the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung. We consider several magnetic field configurations and propagation scenarios for electrons and positrons. We also provide an improved energy loss function for electrons and positrons in the Galaxy, including synchrotron losses in the different configurations, bremsstrahlung losses, ionization losses and Inverse Compton losses with an updated InterStellar Radiation Field.

  3. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Lecture: A physicist in Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2013-03-01

    In the 1980s I inherited a famous ellipsometry laboratory. To speed up data acquisition and analysis I associated myself with creative scientists and engineers. We started a company which grew. Together we rapidly improved acquisition speed, accuracy, precision, spectral range, and types of applications. Yet, a business is much more than technology. In this talk I outline how a high-tech business functions, and illustrate the role of physicists and engineers in making a company successful. It is fast-paced, exciting, and enormously gratifying to provide quality instruments for researchers and industry.

  4. Discriminating neutrino see-saw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; King, S. F.

    2001-09-01

    We consider how well current theories can predict neutrino mass and mixing parameters, and construct a statistical discriminator which allows us to compare different models to each other. As an example we consider see-saw models based on family symmetry, and single right-handed neutrino dominance, and compare them to each other and to the case of neutrino anarchy with random entries in the neutrino Yukawa and Majorana mass matrices. The predictions depend crucially on the range of the undetermined coefficients over which we scan, and we speculate on how future theories might lead to more precise predictions for the coefficients and hence for neutrino observables. Our results indicate how accurately neutrino masses and mixing angles need to be measured by future experiments in order to discriminate between current models.

  5. Fully "Eqwipped" to See the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory over the past decade with an excess of $15 million of government research and development investment, quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are infrared imaging sensors that can operate in the long wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where objects at an ambient temperature emit the most energy. QWIPTECH was formed in July 1998 to offer JPL's QWIPs in a commercial format. The company currently holds an exclusive worldwide license to manufacture and sell the infrared photodetector sensors as part of a focal plane array called a QWIP Chip(TM). The QWIP Chip provides high thermal sensitivity (0.001 C) and possesses a broad dynamic range, permitting precise observations over a wide range of temperatures. Since the technology uses heat rather than light, it can "see" in complete darkness and through conditions such as dust, smoke, and light fog.

  6. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  7. Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring After Seeing Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Lynch, Zachary R.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Schlenke, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Hosts have numerous defenses against parasites, of which behavioral immune responses are an important but under-appreciated component. Here we describe a behavioral immune response Drosophila melanogaster utilizes against endoparasitoid wasps. We found that when flies see wasps they switch to laying eggs in alcohol-laden food sources that protect hatched larvae from infection. This oviposition behavior change, mediated by neuropeptide F, is retained long after wasps are removed. Flies respond to diverse female larval endoparasitoids but not to pupal endoparasitoids or males, showing they maintain specific wasp search images. Furthermore, the response evolved multiple times across the genus Drosophila. Our data reveal a behavioral immune response based on anticipatory medication of offspring, and outline a non-associative memory paradigm based on innate parasite recognition by the host. PMID:23430653

  8. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth ? approximately 21 million light-years away ? than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  9. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face. PMID:15629711

  10. Do You "See'" What I "See"? Differentiation of Visual Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Joël; Cirelli, Laura; Szeligo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Dickinson and Szeligo ("Can J Exp Psychol" 62(4):211--222, 2008) found that processing time for simple visual stimuli was affected by the visual action participants had been instructed to perform on these stimuli (e.g., see, distinguish). It was concluded that these effects reflected the differences in the durations of these various…

  11. Non-Traditional Careers for Physicists: an Inter-American Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottis, Daniel

    1998-04-01

    At a recent international conference sponsored by the Inter- American Council on Physics Education (http://http://cabbat1.cnea.edu.ar/iacpe/iacpec.htm), a work-group spent several days discussing ways of better preparing physics students (both graduate and undergraduate) for careers outside of the traditional academic and national laboratory tracks. This discussion topic was prompted by the increasingly widespread discrepancies between quantities of degrees granted in physics and job openings in "traditional" areas. The group established a set of recommendations (available on the IACPE website) for improving the employability of physicists. In an effort to follow through on those recommendations, a project has been initiated collecting resources to assist both physics educators and students to learn about (and prepare for) opportunities for physicists in a variety of careers. This presentation will describe this project, which currently is collecting information about existing resources and requesting contributions in the form of "case studies" from the physics community. Information about this project is available on the WWW (http://www.muohio.edu/ LottisDK/careers.htmlx).

  12. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  13. The individual success of musicians, like that of physicists, follows a stretched exponential distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Over the last five years or so, a number of studies have focussed on the distribution of `success' in physics and other sciences; in these studies, `success' is measured by the number of times a paper, or an author, is cited. The distribution of citations of individual papers approximates to a power-law [S. Redner, Eur. Phys. J. B 4, 131 (1998)], while lifetime total citations of the 1120 most-cited physicists follows a stretched exponential [J. Laherrère, D. Sornette, Eur. Phys. J. B 2, 525 (1998)]. Here, I examine the distribution of success in popular music, a field of creativity that has social structures very different from those of physics, and which is generally held to be controlled primarily by fashion. For this study, the lifetime total success of bands was measured by the total number of weeks they were in the weekly `top 75' list of best-selling recordings. Like the lifetime success of physicists reported by Laherrere and Sornette, the success of the 6107 bands that appeared in the UK `top 75' from 1950 until 2000 follows a stretched exponential of the form P(x)dx = c(xc - 1/x0c)exp[- (x/x0)c]dx; for the music data, c = 0.5 and x0 = 9.37.

  14. Leo Szilard and the role of physicists in countering nuclear threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Even before the first nuclear bomb was tested, Leo Szilard led efforts by physicists to assert leadership on the use of nuclear weapons. He warned about the future possibility of delivering nuclear weapons by missiles and also pointed out the ease by which nuclear bombs could simply be carried across borders. The U.S. has had an anti-ballistic missile program since the 1950's. Initially it was intended to counter a Soviet nuclear threat but with the end of the cold war the goal was changed to dealing with accidental or unauthorized launches of Russian ICBMs. More recently, the goal of the U.S. missile defense program was shifted to countering a possible future threat posed by emerging missile states. The APS Study of boost- phase intercept was carried out in the Szilard tradition of physicists providing leadership on public policy issues involving science ad technology, in the hope that factual analysis of technical problems can contribute to better public policy.

  15. Multifield of view see-spot optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Scott; Vizgaitis, Jay; Everett, Jonathan; Spinazzola, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The increasing availability of sensors that can image in the 1 to 5 μm region has allowed for systems to be developed that utilize the full spectrum. Current mid-wave infrared (MWIR) systems have typically only imaged in the 3 to 5 μm region, but the new detectors allow imaging in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) and MWIR bands on the same image plane. Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) had a requirement to design and build a multiple field of view (FOV) optical system that could image the 1 to 5 μm spectral band utilizing a single, cooled infrared detector. The primary challenge of designing this particular optical system was to get the 1 to 2 (SWIR) μm band to focus at the same image plane as the 3 to 5 (MWIR) μm band in all FOVs. A three-FOV broadband optical system that can image the 1 to 5 μm band on the same image plane was designed and built. Several optical concepts were looked at, and it was decided that a combination of a reflective afocal and refractive imager was the best way to meet the system requirements. The use of a catadioptric system with a single focal plane that images in the 1 to 5 μm spectrum reduces the size of the system and provides the user with see-spot capability.

  16. Seeing the Invisible with the IMAGE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Global Positioning System, communication, power transmission, and oil pipelines are only a few of the technologies upon which we depend in research and in everyday life. Each is at risk from invisible storms in near-Earth space. The astrophysical plasmas near our planet store and deliver vast amounts of energy from the Sun in the form of high energy particles, electric currents, and heating of the upper atmosphere. This natural plasma environment is the only one routinely measured in situ over the last 40 years and until recently one of the few we haven't been able to see. Much like atmospheric weather satellites brought global context to that field many decades ago, the IMAGE Mission is now revealing a global context for space weather. The contributions being made by the IMAGE Mission to understanding space weather will be presented along with a brief overview of this dynamic environment. Special emphasis will be placed on research involving the plasmasphere, a toroidal region of relatively dense, cold plasma surrounding the Earth that plays a key role in energy and mass transport through near-Earth space.

  17. New video probe sees gas pipe abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, P. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that initial results indicate the PLS 3000 pipeline inspection system can significantly reduce the time and cost required to locate and repair leaks in low-pressure natural gas distribution system without interrupting the flow of gas. The system uses a sealed miniature color TV probe into live low-pressure piping to see the leak and other piping problems, such as water infiltration, pipe distortions, structural cracks, broken or misaligned service connections and the presence of foreign matter. The camera is housed in a sealed stainless steel probe that is 1.96-in in diameter and 5.7-in. long. It can travel up to 6000 linear ft in 3- 4- and 6-in piping from a single 3-ft by 5-ft excavation. The probe enters the pipe through a patented Easy Dual Access fitting. The fitting allows the technician to cut into the pipe, remove the coupon and insert the camera probe under sealed conditions. At the conclusion of the examination, the technician seals the access hole with a gasketed steel band clamp.

  18. Moonlet Propellor: What are we seeing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mark C.; Stewart, G. R.

    2008-09-01

    The presence of a band of moonlets in the A ring has now been established by the identification of bright regions in the rings (Sremcevic, et al., Nature 449, 1019-1021, Tiscareno et al., Astron. J. 135, 1083-1091, 2008). These bright regions are often called propellers based on the characteristic shape seen in simulations. The propeller structures in these simulations are actually low density regions that are edges with high density wakes. The masses of the moonlets in observations are estimated by characteristic scalings seen in simulations where the radial separation between the features scales as the Hill sphere of the moonlet. More recent simulations that include the added realism of particle self-gravity and size distributions find that these interfere with the formation of the high density wakes. This leads to the question of what exactly we are seeing in Cassini observations of the propellers. This work presents large scale simulations ( 25 million particles) aimed at determining whether the bright propellers can be caused by moonlets disrupting gravitational aggregates. Scaling rules for such structures and conditions under which they do or don't form are explored. This work has been supported by NASA PG&G.

  19. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  20. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  1. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  2. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  3. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  4. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  5. PhySIC_IST: cleaning source trees to infer more informative supertrees

    PubMed Central

    Scornavacca, Celine; Berry, Vincent; Lefort, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Ranwez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. Results To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content) criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction) to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter. Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC+PhySIC_IST infers much

  6. See your brands through your customers' eyes.

    PubMed

    Lederer, C; Hill, S

    2001-06-01

    Subaru markets an L.L. Bean Outback station wagon. Dell stamps Microsoft and Intel logos on its computers. Such inter-weaving of different companies' brands is now commonplace. But one of the central tools of brand management-portfolio mapping--has not kept pace with changes in the marketplace. Most conventional brand maps include only those brands owned by a company, arranged along organizational lines with little regard for how the brands influence customer perceptions. In this article, the authors present a new mapping tool--the brand portfolio molecule--that reveals the way brands appear to customers. The brand portfolio molecule includes all the brands that factor into a consumer's decision to buy, whether or not the company owns them. The first step in creating a brand portfolio molecule is to determine which brands should or should not be included. The second step is to classify each brand by asking five key questions: 1) How important is this brand to customers' purchase decisions about the brand you're mapping? 2) Is its influence positive or negative? 3) What market position does this brand occupy relative to the other brands in the portfolio? 4) How does this brand connect to the other brands in the portfolio? 5) How much control do you have over this brand? The last step is to map the molecule using a 3-D modeling program or by hand with pen and paper. Individual brands take the form of atoms, and they're clustered in ways that reflect how customers see them. The usefulness of the tool lies in its ability to show the many forces that influence a customer's buying decision--and to provide a powerful new way to think about brand strategy. PMID:11408973

  7. A half-century ago physicists missed a major public service opportunity, costing the human race widespread chronic illness and many deaths!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2005-03-01

    Radar-pulsed microwave (MW) radiation-helped the Allies win World War II but health concerns soon arose. Alerted to a syndrome resembling mild radiation poisoning,^1 a worried M.D. surveyed radar-exposed workers, finding a high incidence of internal bleeding, 2 leukemia cases in 600 radar operators, 2 brain tumor cases in a 5-man MW research team and many complaints of headache. He sent his report^2 to the Pentagon in 1953. Alarmed Navy officers convened a meeting^3 [mostly of electrical engineers (EEs)] to identify a safe level of MW exposure for servicemen. Biophysicist Herman Schwan attended, playing a major role in establishing 10 mW/cm^2 as a thermally safe MW exposure limit. The IEEE became sole sponsor of ANSI C95 [an early health standard for radiofrequency (RF) exposure] with negative long-term consequences for human health! I review RF health standards development since 1953, comparing what physicists might have done, had they-not EEs-had this responsibility! [See also my technical abstract.] ^1 N.H. Steneck, The Microwave Debate, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984; p. 33. ^2 J.T. McLaughlin, A Study of Possible Health Hazards from Exposure to Microwave Radiation (Hughes Aircraft, Culver City CA, Feb. 9, 1953). ^3 Biological Effects of Microwaves, meeting minutes (Navy Dept. Conference, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda MD, Apr. 29, 1953).

  8. Do you see what I see? Infants' reasoning about others' incomplete perceptions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who always pointed to a red object, as opposed to a black or a yellow object, suggesting that she preferred red over the other colours. Next, two screens were introduced while the agent was absent. The screens were (1) red or green on both sides; (2) red on the front (infants' side) but green on the back (the agent's side) or vice versa; or (3) only coloured red or green on the front. During test, the agent, who could see only the back of the screens, pointed to one of the two screens. The results revealed that while infants expected the agent to continue acting on her colour preference and point to the red rather than the green screen during test, they did so in accord with the agent's perception of the screens, rather than their own perceptions: they expected the agent to point to the red screen in (1), but to the green-front screen in (2), and they had no prediction of which screen the agent should point to in (3). The implications of the present findings for early psychological reasoning research are discussed. PMID:20121869

  9. A Browser-Based Multi-User Working Environment for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Glaser, C.; Klingebiel, D.; Komm, M.; Müller, G.; Rieger, M.; Steggemann, J.; Urban, M.; Winchen, T.

    2014-06-01

    Many programs in experimental particle physics do not yet have a graphical interface, or demand strong platform and software requirements. With the most recent development of the VISPA project, we provide graphical interfaces to existing software programs and access to multiple computing clusters through standard web browsers. The scalable clientserver system allows analyses to be performed in sizable teams, and disburdens the individual physicist from installing and maintaining a software environment. The VISPA graphical interfaces are implemented in HTML, JavaScript and extensions to the Python webserver. The webserver uses SSH and RPC to access user data, code and processes on remote sites. As example applications we present graphical interfaces for steering the reconstruction framework OFFLINE of the Pierre-Auger experiment, and the analysis development toolkit PXL. The browser based VISPA system was field-tested in biweekly homework of a third year physics course by more than 100 students. We discuss the system deployment and the evaluation by the students.

  10. Dr. Smith Goes to Washington: A Physicist Wanders the Halls of Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2005-03-23

    Dr. Tannenbaum was the 2002-2003 APS Congressional Science Fellow. He worked in the office of U.S. Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning 'underinformed and uninformed' decision-making in Congress. He will also briefly discuss goals of the Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Finally, he will discuss ways in which physicists can get more involved in the political process.

  11. Recent Results from RHIC&Some Lessons for Cosmic-RayPhysicists

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-10-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) studies nuclear matter under a variety of conditions. Cold nuclear matter is probed with deuteron-gold collisions, while hot nuclear matter (possibly a quark-gluon plasma (QGP)) is created in heavy-ion collisions. The distribution of spin in polarized nucleons is measured with polarized proton collisions, and photoproduction is studied using the photons that accompany heavy nuclei. The deuteron-gold data shows less forward particle production than would be expected from a superposition of pp collisions, as expected due to saturation/shadowing. Particle production in AA collisions is well described by a model of an expanding fireball in thermal equilibrium. Strong hydrodynamic flow and jet quenching shows that the produced matter interacts very strongly. These phenomena are consistent with new non-perturbative interactions near the transition temperature to the QGP. This report discusses these results, and their implications for cosmic-ray physicists.

  12. Documenting and Interpreting Ways to Engage Students in `Thinking Like a Physicist'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, Emily; Manogue, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    The Paradigms in Physics Program at Oregon State University has adapted a variety of interactive pedagogies to engage students in `thinking like a physicist.' Video recordings of class sessions document what the students and instructor say and do. This paper discusses development of narrative interpretations of such videos. Examples are drawn from two detailed narratives of activities during which the main ideas emerged during the wrap-up discussions rather than during the tasks that the students had been doing in their small groups. The goal of these `compare and contrast' wrap-up discussions was to help the students envision connections among geometric and algebraic representations of the mathematics they would be using during the coming weeks of instruction in quantum mechanics. The purpose of the narratives is to provide examples of wrap-up discussions with commentary about ways in which the instructor was choosing to guide this process.

  13. Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, 1911-1998: Nuclear Physicist Against the Odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, Michael H.

    2016-07-01

    The author's mother, Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, was a prominent nuclear physicist who had to overcome steep odds to pursue her work. She lived and worked at a time when it was very uncommon for any woman to be a scientist and even more uncommon for a mother of young children. She also faced Nazi persecution and a series of other challenges in growing up in Germany. Drawing on personal conversations and testimony of her friends, this brief account includes a number of intimate details to illustrate some of the difficulties she faced and the zest for life and for understanding the world that pushed her forward anyway. Details of her work and a bibliography are included.

  14. Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, 1911-1998: Nuclear Physicist Against the Odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    The author's mother, Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, was a prominent nuclear physicist who had to overcome steep odds to pursue her work. She lived and worked at a time when it was very uncommon for any woman to be a scientist and even more uncommon for a mother of young children. She also faced Nazi persecution and a series of other challenges in growing up in Germany. Drawing on personal conversations and testimony of her friends, this brief account includes a number of intimate details to illustrate some of the difficulties she faced and the zest for life and for understanding the world that pushed her forward anyway. Details of her work and a bibliography are included.

  15. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  16. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  17. 1996 Forum Award Lecture: Preparing Physicists for Careers in a Turbulent Job Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Kevin

    1996-05-01

    The job market in the United States is undergoing a revolution. The average worker can no longer expect to have a single job, or even a single career. For physicists, career prospects are complicated by the uncertain federal funding outlook, and the declining budget for basic research in industry. How the physics community reacts to these sweeping changes will determine if the field thrives or withers. The post World War II history of science funding in the U.S. and its effect on training and careers will be examined along with a discussion of future funding constraints. The new funding policies will seriously challenge the physics community. There are four ways it can respond to the coming changes. It can do nothing, lobby for increased funding, decrease enrollments, or broaden the training of students. The consequences of adopting each of these strategies will be explained.

  18. Willie Hobbs Moore (1934-1994): The First Female African American Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, Ronald

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the life and career of Willie Hobbs Moore, the first African American woman to receive a doctorate degree in physics. This achievement occurred in June 1972 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Her dissertation, directed by the renowned spectroscopist Samuel Krimm, was on the subject of ``A Vibrational Analysis of Secondary Chlorides," and focused on a theoretical analysis of the secondary chlorides for polyvinal-chlorine polymers. From 1972--1977, she, Krimm, and collaborators published more than thirty papers on this and related research issues. In addition to an overview of her family background, her careers as a research physicist and scientist working in various industrial laboratories, we discuss the obstacles and successes she encountered at various stages of her life.

  19. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in

  20. Students Know What Physicists Believe, but They Don't Agree: A Study Using the CLASS Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara E.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2008-01-01

    We measured what students perceive physicists to believe about physics and solving physics problems and how those perceptions differ from the students' personal beliefs. In this study, we used a modified version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey which asked students to respond to each statement with both their personal belief…

  1. A Superannuated Physicist's Attempts to Master Music Theory: Resolving Cognitive Conflicts and a Paradigm Clash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page-Shipp, Roy; van Niekerk, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A sexagenarian retired physicist (the first author) set out, with the assistance of members of a university music department, to acquire some insight into Western music theory. For a lifelong singer and seasoned autodidact, this appeared to be a not too formidable challenge, yet he experienced significant difficulty in penetrating the music theory…

  2. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  3. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    faster in some directions than others, leading to an irregular shape with some parts stretching out further into space. The first material to be ejected from the explosion travelled at an incredible 100 million km per hour, which is about a tenth of the speed of light or around 100 000 times faster than a passenger jet. Even at this breakneck speed it has taken 10 years to reach a previously existing ring of gas and dust puffed out from the dying star. The images also demonstrate that another wave of material is travelling ten times more slowly and is being heated by radioactive elements created in the explosion. "We have established the velocity distribution of the inner ejecta of Supernova 1987A," says lead author Karina Kjær. "Just how a supernova explodes is not very well understood, but the way the star exploded is imprinted on this inner material. We can see that this material was not ejected symmetrically in all directions, but rather seems to have had a preferred direction. Besides, this direction is different to what was expected from the position of the ring." Such asymmetric behaviour was predicted by some of the most recent computer models of supernovae, which found that large-scale instabilities take place during the explosion. The new observations are thus the first direct confirmation of such models. SINFONI is the leading instrument of its kind, and only the level of detail it affords allowed the team to draw their conclusions. Advanced adaptive optics systems counteracted the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere while a technique called integral field spectroscopy allowed the astronomers to study several parts of the supernova's chaotic core simultaneously, leading to the build-up of the 3D image. "Integral field spectroscopy is a special technique where for each pixel we get information about the nature and velocity of the gas," says Kjær. "This means that besides the normal picture we also have the velocity along the line of sight. Because we

  4. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    faster in some directions than others, leading to an irregular shape with some parts stretching out further into space. The first material to be ejected from the explosion travelled at an incredible 100 million km per hour, which is about a tenth of the speed of light or around 100 000 times faster than a passenger jet. Even at this breakneck speed it has taken 10 years to reach a previously existing ring of gas and dust puffed out from the dying star. The images also demonstrate that another wave of material is travelling ten times more slowly and is being heated by radioactive elements created in the explosion. "We have established the velocity distribution of the inner ejecta of Supernova 1987A," says lead author Karina Kjær. "Just how a supernova explodes is not very well understood, but the way the star exploded is imprinted on this inner material. We can see that this material was not ejected symmetrically in all directions, but rather seems to have had a preferred direction. Besides, this direction is different to what was expected from the position of the ring." Such asymmetric behaviour was predicted by some of the most recent computer models of supernovae, which found that large-scale instabilities take place during the explosion. The new observations are thus the first direct confirmation of such models. SINFONI is the leading instrument of its kind, and only the level of detail it affords allowed the team to draw their conclusions. Advanced adaptive optics systems counteracted the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere while a technique called integral field spectroscopy allowed the astronomers to study several parts of the supernova's chaotic core simultaneously, leading to the build-up of the 3D image. "Integral field spectroscopy is a special technique where for each pixel we get information about the nature and velocity of the gas," says Kjær. "This means that besides the normal picture we also have the velocity along the line of sight. Because we

  5. NASA's Chandra Sees Brightest Supernova Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    WASHINGTON - The brightest stellar explosion ever recorded may be a long-sought new type of supernova, according to observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based optical telescopes. This discovery indicates that violent explosions of extremely massive stars were relatively common in the early universe, and that a similar explosion may be ready to go off in our own galaxy. "This was a truly monstrous explosion, a hundred times more energetic than a typical supernova," said Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led a team of astronomers from California and the University of Texas in Austin. "That means the star that exploded might have been as massive as a star can get, about 150 times that of our sun. We've never seen that before." Chandra X-ray Image of SN 2006gy Chandra X-ray Image of SN 2006gy Astronomers think many of the first generation of stars were this massive, and this new supernova may thus provide a rare glimpse of how the first stars died. It is unprecedented, however, to find such a massive star and witness its death. The discovery of the supernova, known as SN 2006gy, provides evidence that the death of such massive stars is fundamentally different from theoretical predictions. "Of all exploding stars ever observed, this was the king," said Alex Filippenko, leader of the ground-based observations at the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton, Calif., and the Keck Observatory in Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "We were astonished to see how bright it got, and how long it lasted." The Chandra observation allowed the team to rule out the most likely alternative explanation for the supernova: that a white dwarf star with a mass only slightly higher than the sun exploded into a dense, hydrogen-rich environment. In that event, SN 2006gy should have been 1,000 times brighter in X-rays than what Chandra detected. Animation of SN 2006gy Animation of SN 2006gy "This provides strong evidence that SN 2006gy was, in fact, the death of an

  6. Chien-Shiung Wu: An Icon of Physicist and Woman Scientist in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuelin

    2014-03-01

    Chien-Shiung Wu, the first female president of APS, is a well-known figure in China, a figure who serves as an inspiration for youths, especially young women, to study science and particularly physics. In this presentation, a historical perspective will be used to show how such an icon was formed. Born in 1912, the year of the Republic Revolution, Wu was in the first generation of physicists in China and her college mentor was a student of Marie Curie. When Wu came to the U.S. for graduate studies in the 1930s, it was a ``golden age'' for nuclear physics, and the invention of the cyclotron by E. O. Lawrence put UC Berkeley at the frontier. Wu was trained there, with Lawrence as her advisor, and later became an expert in Beta-decay. In 1956, Wu conceived and initiated the experiment of Cobalt-60, which, together with other two experiments, eventually proved the asymmetry of parity in weak-interactions, a hypothesis proposed by T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang. The importance of the experiment gained Wu an enormous reputation which spread even to China, when this was a period of hostility in Sino-American relations, and near total isolation due to the Cold-War. Wu was the daughter of a revolutionary, and an activist in college in patriotic student movements, and she combined this background with her scientific career as the way of ``Saving China with Science,'' a common belief reflecting the Zeitgeist of her time. Although she spent most of her life in the U.S., Wu never wavered in her love for or loyalty to her motherland. Her patriotism, as well as her scientific achievement, made Wu a legend in China, being called ``the Chinese Madam Curie.'' Even during the Cultural Revolution, a novel supposedly taking Wu as the original model was very popular in underground circles, widely spread by hand-written-copies. From 1979-1988, the CUSPEA program enrolled hundreds of China's best graduate students into physics departments in American universities. Although Wu herself was not

  7. Women Physicists of Color Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2006-03-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African and Hispanic descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter and Scott Page remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important since most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences however. While American women are 15 percent of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60 percent of all black scientists and engineers. Yet less than 3 black women and 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S." Donna Nelson's study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors at all. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40 percent of bachelor's degrees to women, 7 are Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Black women are earning degrees from HBCUs at rates above equity, and many singles and firsts at predominantly white institutions continue to persevere despite the obstacles. Prudence Carter. 2005. Intersectional Matters and Meanings: Ethnicity, Gender, and Resistance to ``Acting White

  8. Minority American Women Physicists Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2005-10-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are

  9. Information seeking behavior of scientists in the electronic information age: Astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cecelia M.

    1999-07-01

    The information seeking behavior of astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists at the University of Oklahoma was assessed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. All of the scientists surveyed relied greatly on the journal literature to support their research and creative activities. The mathematicians surveyed indicated an additional reliance on monographs, preprints, and attendance at conferences and personal communication to support their research activities. Similarly, all scientists responding scanned the latest issues of journals to keep abreast of current developments in their fields, with the mathematicians again reporting attendance at conferences and personal communication. Despite an expression by the scientists for more electronic services, the majority preferred access to journal articles in a print, rather than an electronic, form. The primary deficit in library services appeared to be in access to electronic bibliographic databases. The data suggest that a primary goal of science libraries is to obtain access to as many appropriate electronic bibliographic finding aids and databases possible. Although the results imply the ultimate demise of the printed bibliographic reference tool, they underscore the continued importance to scientists of the printed peer-reviewed journal article.

  10. SBRT for prostate cancer: Challenges and features from a physicist prospective.

    PubMed

    Mancosu, Pietro; Clemente, Stefania; Landoni, Valeria; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Alongi, Filippo; Scorsetti, Marta; Stasi, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Emerging data are showing the safety and the efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in prostate cancer management. In this context, the medical physicists are regularly involved to review the appropriateness of the adopted technology and to proactively study new solutions. From the physics point of view there are two major challenges in prostate SBRT: (1) mitigation of geometrical uncertainty and (2) generation of highly conformal dose distributions that maximally spare the OARs. Geometrical uncertainties have to be limited as much as possible in order to avoid the use of large PTV margins. Furthermore, advanced planning and delivery techniques are needed to generate maximally conformal dose distributions. In this non-systematic review the technology and the physics aspects of SBRT for prostate cancer were analyzed. In details, the aims were: (i) to describe the rationale of reducing the number of fractions (i.e. increasing the dose per fraction), (ii) to analyze the features to be accounted for performing an extreme hypo-fractionation scheme (>6-7Gy), and (iii) to describe technological solutions for treating in a safe way. The analysis of outcomes, toxicities, and other clinical aspects are not object of the present evaluation. PMID:27061869

  11. [IAEA Training Course Series TCS-37 Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology].

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kiyonari

    2015-01-01

    Training program IAEA TCS-37 (Training course series No.37) "Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology (2009)" was fixed to practical training syllabus at faculty and graduate course of medical physics of a university. TCS-47 for diagnostic radiology (2010) and TCS-50 for nuclear medicine (2011) were also involved in the syllabus. These training courses had been developed by IAEA RCA RAS6038 project since 2002. In this paper, first, comparison with other training programs in the world was made in terms of (1) Degree of extent of subject or field, (2) Concreteness or specificity, (3) Degree of completion, (4) Method of certification and (5) Practicability. IAEA TCS series got the most points among ten programs such as EMERALD/EMIT, AAPM rpt.No.90 and CAMPEP accredited programs. Second, TCS-37, TCS47 and TCS50 were broken down to 6, 5 and 6 subjects of training course respectively. Third, each subject was further broken down to 15 times of training schedule where every time was composed by 3 hours of training. Totally 45 hours of a subject were assigned to one semester for getting one unit of credit. Seventeen units should be credited up to three years in graduate course to finish the whole program. PMID:26882699

  12. Do the Math - The Role of Physicists in the Climate Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan

    2014-03-01

    ``It's simple math: we can emit 565 more gigatons of carbon dioxide and stay below 2°C of warming - anything more than that risks catastrophe for life on earth. The only problem? Burning the fossil fuel that corporations now have in their reserves would result in emitting 2,795 gigatons of carbon dioxide - five times the safe amount.\\xE2\\x80[2] Physicists stand in a powerful position to help the world wiggle out of this circumstance: our profession not only has the technical capacity to work on renewable energy development but also is popularly recognized as a source of scientific authority. This ability to influence public perception and politics is arguably even more important than our technological skills in the fight to stop rapid climate change. I will discuss several strategic campaigns presently underway at universities across the country, such as fossil fuel divestment, and how the physics community can become a valuable asset. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  13. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity--A New Tool for Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light. But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling…

  14. Seeing Deep Structure from the Interactions of Surface Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer is typically thought of as requiring individuals to "see" what is the same in the deep structure between a new target problem and a previously encountered source problem, even though the surface features may be dissimilar. We propose that experts can "see" the deep structure by considering the first-order interactions of the explicit…

  15. Overview of Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarthy, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Smith, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    A fifth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications (1,2,3,4) in December issues for 1985, 1987, 1989, and 1991. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of-the-art parts are evaluated.

  16. The Neon Paintbrush: Seeing, Technology, and the Museum as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Discusses visual perception; the way technology can change the way people see; combining seeing and technology to create visual cultures; the influence of the World Wide Web on visual technologies; and changes in visual culture, including museums and their Web sites. (LRW)

  17. Considerations for a Proton Single Event Effects (SEE) Guideline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this document is to provide guidance on when and what type of SEE tests should be performed on a device under test (DUT) based on orbit, technology, existing data, and application. It is NOT intended to provide a detailed guideline for how to perform proton SEE radiation tests on electronics.

  18. MedlinePlus: The ForeSee Customer Satisfaction Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/survey/foreseesurvey.html The ForeSee Customer Satisfaction Survey To use the sharing features on this ... and MedlinePlus en español. NLM uses the ForeSee Customer Satisfaction Survey to measure online user satisfaction. The survey ...

  19. Trends in Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarty, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Swift, G. M.; Watson, R. K.; Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The sixth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications in December issues of IEEE - Nuclear Science Transactions for 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and the IEEE Workshop Record, 1993. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of- are evaluated.

  20. 40 CFR 267.74 - Who sees the records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who sees the records? 267.74 Section 267.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Notifying § 267.74 Who sees the records? (a) You must furnish all...

  1. 40 CFR 267.74 - Who sees the records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who sees the records? 267.74 Section 267.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Notifying § 267.74 Who sees the records? (a) You must furnish all...

  2. 22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-D), FORD ASSEMBLY PLANT (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-H), AND RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3, SW. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 40 CFR 267.74 - Who sees the records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who sees the records? 267.74 Section 267.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Notifying § 267.74 Who sees the records? (a) You must furnish all...

  4. 40 CFR 267.74 - Who sees the records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who sees the records? 267.74 Section 267.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Notifying § 267.74 Who sees the records? (a) You must furnish all...

  5. 40 CFR 267.74 - Who sees the records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who sees the records? 267.74 Section 267.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Notifying § 267.74 Who sees the records? (a) You must furnish all...

  6. Helping Children to See Themselves and Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2012-01-01

    Seeing children--noticing the details of their actions and words and seeking their perspective to catch a glimpse of how they experience the world--brings joy and deeper understanding to the author's work and life. Over the years she has cultivated the practice of slowing down and observing closely to see the child's point of view. She has…

  7. Seeing a singer helps comprehension of the song's lyrics.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Alexandra; Massaro, Dominic W

    2010-06-01

    When listening to speech, we often benefit when also seeing the speaker's face. If this advantage is not domain specific for speech, the recognition of sung lyrics should also benefit from seeing the singer's face. By independently varying the sight and sound of the lyrics, we found a substantial comprehension benefit of seeing a singer. This benefit was robust across participants, lyrics, and repetition of the test materials. This benefit was much larger than the benefit for sung lyrics obtained in previous research, which had not provided the visual information normally present in singing. Given that the comprehension of sung lyrics benefits from seeing the singer, just like speech comprehension benefits from seeing the speaker, both speech and music perception appear to be multisensory processes. PMID:20551353

  8. The Use of "See" and "See Also" References in the Public Library Catalogs in Franklin County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Kristen L.

    The "see" and "see also" references in a library's catalog are supposed to provide the cross-references necessary to guide the user to the appropriate subject heading. However, libraries have difficulty maintaining the current, accurate subject authority files needed to facilitate this. A review of the literature in this subject area revealed the…

  9. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department.

  10. SU-D-18C-06: Initial Experience with Implementing MRI Safety Guidelines for Patients with Pacemakers - Medical Physicist Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    James, J; Place, V; Panda, A; Edmonson, H; Felmlee, J; Pooley, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Several institutions have developed MRI guidelines for patients with MR-unsafe or MR-conditional pacemakers. Here we highlight the role of a medical physicist in implementing these guidelines for non-pacemaker dependent patients. Guidelines: Implementing these guidelines requires involvement from several medical specialties and a strong collaboration with the site MRI supervisor to develop a structured workflow. A medical physicist is required to be present during the scan to supervise the MR scanning and to maintain a safety checklist that ensures: 1) uninterrupted patient communication with the technologist, 2) continuous patient physiologic monitoring (e.g. blood pressure and electrocardiography) by a trained nurse, 3) redundant patient vitals monitoring (e.g. pulse oximetry) due to the possibility of in vivo electrocardiography reading fluctuations during image acquisition. A radiologist is strongly recommended to be available to review the images before patients are discharged from the scanner. Pacemaker MRI should be restricted to 1.5T field strength. The MRI sequences should be optimized by the physicist with regards to: a) SAR: limited to <1.5 W/Kg for MR-unsafe pacemakers in normal operating mode, b) RF exposure time: <30 min, c) Coils: use T/R coils but not restricted to such, d) Artifacts: further optimization of sequences whenever image quality is compromised due to the pacemaker. In particular, cardiac, breast and left-shoulder MRIs are most susceptible to these artifacts. Possible strategies to lower the SAR include: a) BW reduction, 2) echo-train-length reduction, 3) increase TR, 4) decrease number of averages, 5) decrease flip angle, 6) reduce slices and/or a combination of all the options. Conclusion: A medical physicist in collaboration with the MR supervisor plays an important role in the supervision/implementation of safe MR scanning of pacemaker patients. Developing and establishing a workflow has enabled our institution to scan over

  11. TH-A-16A-01: Image Quality for the Radiation Oncology Physicist: Review of the Fundamentals and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J; Imbergamo, P

    2014-06-15

    The expansion and integration of diagnostic imaging technologies such as On Board Imaging (OBI) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) into radiation oncology has required radiation oncology physicists to be responsible for and become familiar with assessing image quality. Unfortunately many radiation oncology physicists have had little or no training or experience in measuring and assessing image quality. Many physicists have turned to automated QA analysis software without having a fundamental understanding of image quality measures. This session will review the basic image quality measures of imaging technologies used in the radiation oncology clinic, such as low contrast resolution, high contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, and contrast scale, and how to measure and assess them in a meaningful way. Additionally a discussion of the implementation of an image quality assurance program in compliance with Task Group recommendations will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of automated analysis methods. Learning Objectives: Review and understanding of the fundamentals of image quality. Review and understanding of the basic image quality measures of imaging modalities used in the radiation oncology clinic. Understand how to implement an image quality assurance program and to assess basic image quality measures in a meaningful way.

  12. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  13. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 53: quality assurance for clinical radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Fraass, B; Doppke, K; Hunt, M; Kutcher, G; Starkschall, G; Stern, R; Van Dyke, J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years, the sophistication and complexity of clinical treatment planning and treatment planning systems has increased significantly, particularly including three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems, and the use of conformal treatment planning and delivery techniques. This has led to the need for a comprehensive set of quality assurance (QA) guidelines that can be applied to clinical treatment planning. This document is the report of Task Group 53 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The purpose of this report is to guide and assist the clinical medical physicist in developing and implementing a comprehensive but viable program of quality assurance for modern radiotherapy treatment planning. The scope of the QA needs for treatment planning is quite broad, encompassing image-based definition of patient anatomy, 3D beam descriptions for complex beams including multileaf collimator apertures, 3D dose calculation algorithms, and complex plan evaluation tools including dose volume histograms. The Task Group recommends an organizational framework for the task of creating a QA program which is individualized to the needs of each institution and addresses the issues of acceptance testing, commissioning the planning system and planning process, routine quality assurance, and ongoing QA of the planning process. This report, while not prescribing specific QA tests, provides the framework and guidance to allow radiation oncology physicists to design comprehensive and practical treatment planning QA programs for their clinics. PMID:9800687

  14. A Different Kind of Physics Competition-the 12th International Young Physicists Tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Hugh

    1999-11-01

    This May, five seniors from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics and their adult leaders, Hugh Haskell and Chuck Britton, were the first US team to compete in the International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT), which took place in Vienna, Austria. They challenged and were challenged by eighteen similar teams from sixteen other countries. The IYPT differs from the Physics Olympiad, which is an examination, whereas the Tournament is a debate on the solution of seventeen open-ended problems published in October, on the IYPT website . The five students, Adriane Boyd, Dahl Clark, Mark Blevins, Zach Keane, and Adam Simpkins spent from mid-January until our departure on May 20, preparing their responses to the questions. In Vienna, the team was joined by Ron Edge, of the University of South Carolina, who served as jurist for the tournament. Each team pays for transportation, but once there, the host country bears all other costs. For each event, called a "physics fight," three teams are assigned their roles-reporter, opponent and reviewer. First, the opposing team selects a question. The reporters have twelve minutes to present a report. The opposing team then has five minutes to critique the report. After a rebuttal by the reporter, the reviewers discuss effectiveness of both presentations . Finally, the jurors ask questions and score each team. This year's overall winner was Germany. Taking second was the team from the Republic of Georgia. The US team did not make the semifinal round, but did well enough for a first-time competitor. Will there be another United States Team? This is an open question. Efforts are being made to find a school that can send a team to next year's competition which is scheduled for Budapest, Hungary.

  15. Large Scale Management of Physicists Personal Analysis Data Without Employing User and Group Quotas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Diesbug, M.; Gheith, M.; Illingworth, R.; Lyon, A.; Mengel, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of modern HEP experiments to acquire and process unprecedented amounts of data and simulation have lead to an explosion in the volume of information that individual scientists deal with on a daily basis. Explosion has resulted in a need for individuals to generate and keep large personal analysis data sets which represent the skimmed portions of official data collections, pertaining to their specific analysis. While a significant reduction in size compared to the original data, these personal analysis and simulation sets can be many terabytes or 10s of TB in size and consist of 10s of thousands of files. When this personal data is aggregated across the many physicists in a single analysis group or experiment it can represent data volumes on par or exceeding the official production samples which require special data handling techniques to deal with effectively. In this paper we explore the changes to the Fermilab computing infrastructure and computing models which have been developed to allow experimenters to effectively manage their personal analysis data and other data that falls outside of the typically centrally managed production chains. In particular we describe the models and tools that are being used to provide the modern neutrino experiments like NOvA with storage resources that are sufficient to meet their analysis needs, without imposing specific quotas on users or groups of users. We discuss the storage mechanisms and the caching algorithms that are being used as well as the toolkits are have been developed to allow the users to easily operate with terascale+ datasets.

  16. View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See HABS No. CA 2774-B) in background. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  17. How Do We Recognize a Fault When We See One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ralph David

    1991-01-01

    Describes activities to help students see discontinuities as faults. Students collect data, manipulate data, and use the data to formulate explanations. Schematic diagrams help students with the conceptual component of thinking. (PR)

  18. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159863.html Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss Older people and those who ... half of people with no new symptoms or vision problems receive new prescriptions or treatment changes as ...

  20. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  1. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: We consider the approach outlined here as a living document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  2. How a Physicist Can Add Value In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The talk will focus on some specific examples of innovative and fit-for-purpose physics applied to solve real-world oil and gas exploration and production problems. In addition, links will be made to some of the skills and areas of practical experience acquired in physics education and research that can prove invaluable for success in such an industrial setting with a rather distinct and unique culture and a highly-collaborative working style. The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most geographically and organizationally diverse areas of business activity on earth; and as a `mature industry,' it is also characterized by a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21st. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To be successful at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most exotic or improbable technologies can take off in this industry if they honestly offer the best solution to a real problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. On the other hand, any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well would prevail, no matter how inelegant! The speaker started out in atomic spectroscopy (Harvard), post-doc'ed in laser cooling and trapping of ions for high-accuracy time and frequency metrology (NIST), and then jumped directly into Drilling Engineering with Schlumberger Corp. in Houston. Since then, his career has moved through applied electromagnetics, geological imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, some R and D portfolio

  3. ATST seeing monitor: February 2002 observations at Fuxian Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jacques M.; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhenyu

    2003-02-01

    We describe a solar seeing monitor used for the site testing for the 4 meter US Advanced Technology Solar Telescope and the 1 meter Yunnan Observatory Solar Telescope. It has two parts: a solar Differential Image Motion Monitor (S-DIMM) and a linear array of 6 solar scintillometers (SHABAR= SHAdow BAnd Ranger). The results obtained by both methods are compared on the basis of observations obtained in February 2002 at the Yunnan Observatory Fuxian Lake solar station. Analysis showed that these two ways of measuring the Fried parameter give consistent results. We confirm earlier observations that showed that the boundary layer seeing over lakes is strongly suppressed. The amount of this boundary layer seeing depends on the temperature difference between lake and air and on the wind velocity. We have also carried out seeing observation along a 9.15 km horizontal path across the lake. The Cn2 values derived from these is consistent with the solar observations. They confirm the dependence of Cn2 on the lake-to-air temperature difference. From the SHABAR we find a typical scale height for the boundary layer seeing of 20 meters and from inter-comparison of the S-DIMM and SHABAR observations we derive an outer scale of turbulence of about 50 meters.

  4. The Local Seeing Environment at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Angelo; Denker, Carsten

    2007-07-01

    The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) of the National Solar Observatory was initiated in 2002 to find the best location for a 4 m aperture solar telescope. At the end of a 4 year survey, three sites (Big Bear Solar Observatory [BBSO] in California, Mees Solar Observatory [MSO] on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, on La Palma, Spain) were identified as excellent sites for high-resolution solar observations. MSO was ultimately chosen as the future ATST site. We present a subset of the ATST site survey data, focusing on the local seeing environment at BBSO. In particular, we are interested in the seeing characteristics at a mountain lake-site observatory, its relation to the local environment and climate, and its implications for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) currently being built at BBSO. We find a close correlation of very good seeing conditions with the prevailing wind direction and speed. The observatory building, located at the end of a 300 m causeway, is surrounded by the cool waters of Big Bear Lake, which effectively suppress the ground-layer seeing. Very good seeing conditions from sunrise to sunset are a unique feature of BBSO, which makes it ideally suited for synoptic observations and sustained high-resolution studies of solar activity and space weather.

  5. Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S; Ashley, Michael C B; Tokovinin, Andrei; Travouillon, Tony

    2004-09-16

    One of the most important considerations when planning the next generation of ground-based optical astronomical telescopes is to choose a site that has excellent 'seeing'--the jitter in the apparent position of a star that is caused by light bending as it passes through regions of differing refractive index in the Earth's atmosphere. The best mid-latitude sites have a median seeing ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 arcsec (refs 1-5). Sites on the Antarctic plateau have unique atmospheric properties that make them worth investigating as potential observatory locations. Previous testing at the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station has, however, demonstrated poor seeing, averaging 1.8 arcsec (refs 6, 7). Here we report observations of the wintertime seeing from Dome C (ref. 8), a high point on the Antarctic plateau at a latitude of 75 degrees S. The results are remarkable: the median seeing is 0.27 arcsec, and below 0.15 arcsec 25 per cent of the time. A telescope placed at Dome C would compete with one that is 2 to 3 times larger at the best mid-latitude observatories, and an interferometer based at this site could work on projects that would otherwise require a space mission. PMID:15372024

  6. Integrating seeing measurements into the operations of solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Verdoni, A. P.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is an innovative 1.6-meter, off-axis, open telescope currently being developed and built at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observatory is situated on a small peninsula in Big Bear Lake, a mountain lake at an altitude of about 2100 m in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California. The lake effectively suppresses the boundary layer seeing. Thus, providing consistently very good daytime seeing conditions. BBSO has been identified by the site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) as one of the best sites for solar observations. It is uniquely qualified for long-duration observations requiring high-spatial resolution. This type of observations is typically encountered in solar activity monitoring and space weather forecast. The ATST site survey has collected more than two years of data linking seeing conditions to geographical parameters and local climate. We have integrated these data in a MySQL database and we will use this information in connection with a real-time seeing monitor and weather station to predict the seeing conditions at Big Bear such that scheduling and prioritization of observing programs (e.g., synoptic vs. high-resolution modes) becomes possible.

  7. Wishful seeing: more desired objects are seen as closer.

    PubMed

    Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David

    2010-01-01

    Although people assume that they see the surrounding environment as it truly is, we suggest that perception of the natural environment is dependent upon the internal goal states of perceivers. Five experiments demonstrated that perceivers tend to see desirable objects (i.e., those that can fulfill immediate goals-a water bottle to assuage their thirst, money they can win, a personality test providing favorable feedback) as physically closer to them than less desirable objects. Biased distance perception was revealed through verbal reports and through actions toward the object (e.g., underthrowing a beanbag at a desirable object). We suggest that seeing desirable objects as closer than less desirable objects serves the self-regulatory function of energizing the perceiver to approach objects that fulfill needs and goals. PMID:20424036

  8. Solar Seeing Measurements at the Fuxian Lake Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Liu, Zhong

    2002-05-01

    A collaborative effort between the Yunnan Observatory (YO) of the Chinese Academy of Science and the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has led to the development of the seeing monitor now being used by the NSO for the site testing for the 4 meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). The ATST seeing monitor contains a solar differential image motion monitor (S-DIMM) modeled after the one used by the YO for the site testing at Fuxian Lake. The S-DIMM results in a determination of the Fried Parameter r0. NSO added a linear array of 6 scintillometers which measure cloud cover, the scintillation index and the spatial co-variance of the solar shadow bands. This array is called the SHABAR = SHAdow BAnd Ranger because of its ability to give the height structure of the atmospheric seeing (see the attached web page). In February this year we combined the ATST SHABAR with the S-DIMM at the Fuxian Lake site. We describe the results of 5 days of observations in the February 9 to 14 period. In summary they are: (a) the average seeing was 1.6 arcsec in the solar direction, 1.2 arcsec for zenith direction, (b) for half of the time the boundary layer seeing contribution was negligible (<10%), (c) at the times when it was significant the scale height of the refractive index structure constant Cn2 was determined to be 20 meters, (d) at those times the r0 derived from the SHABAR agreed well with that observed with the S-DIMM, and (e) the r0 derived from the SHABAR at times when it is small exceeds that of the S-DIMM. This is almost certainly due to the outer scale of turbulence being around 10 - 30 meters in the free atmosphere at heights 1 km and above.

  9. Optics for Biophysics: An Interdisciplinary course in Optics for Physicists and Life Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Optics is an applied sub-field of physics that life science researchers utilize daily. Indeed, one cannot open a biological science research journal without seeing five beautiful images of cells. To bridge the gap and educate more life science students in the field of physics, I have developed a new course called ``Optics for Biophysics,'' an interdisciplinary course engaging students from physics, chemistry, life science, and engineering. The course is a team-based learning or studio physics approach combined with a semester-long project. Mini-lectures of 20 minutes are given before students do hands-on group work to understand the concepts. In the project, the students design and build a modern transmitted light microscope. The final aspect of the project is to build a unique module onto the microscope to address a specific biological question.

  10. Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components. PMID:27386299

  11. Launching a social enterprise see-and-treat service.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Elaine; Mayo, Amanda

    2009-06-01

    Many children who attend emergency departments with minor injuries or illnesses can be cared for by primary care services. This article describes an innovative partnership between a primary care trust and a social enterprise company to develop a see-and-treat primary care service that has reduced the number o children attending the traditional emergency department at a London hospital. PMID:19552329

  12. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  13. 31. ELEVATION WEST FACE BLDG. 27, SEE SERVICE DRIVE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ELEVATION WEST FACE BLDG. 27, SEE SERVICE DRIVE TUNNEL INTO COURTYARD. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. The Relation between Components of Naming and Conditioned Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanman, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, I tested for the presence of conditioned seeing as a measureable behavior, which was measured by participants' accuracy in drawing a stimulus, and how this behavior was related to the demonstration of the naming capability. In Experiment 1, participants demonstrated a correlation between drawing responses and speaker…

  15. Changing Interpretations of the Scientific Observation: Observations without Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we studied the paradigm of observation which has been restructured since the beginning of modern sciences. In order to interpret this observation paradigm, an expression, "observation without seeing" was formulated. It was noticed that our interpretation of the observation depends on our knowledge and experiences. Finally, it was…

  16. Observation in Learning to Teach: Forms of "Seeing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Leshem, Shosh

    2009-01-01

    The learning value attributed to perceptual and conceptual modes of "seeing" in context, underscore their significance as integral to the practice teaching experience. Programmatically, it challenges teacher educators to design observation approaches and activities that allow for associating perceptual experiences with conceptual understandings.…

  17. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  18. Learning to See Landscape through a Flexible Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    Students' established conclusions about the world can often hinder a teacher's efforts to suggest new ideas and new ways to pursue alternative explanations. Flexible thinking helps students practice the value that one's present conclusions should remain tentative and subject to re-evaluation. Meinig's ten alternative perspectives for seeing a…

  19. Seeing Is Believing? Insights from Young Children in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne

    2015-01-01

    If the eye is a window to the soul, an important question to ask in the early years is "What do children see?" in their encounters with the world. Gaining a better understanding of children's interpretations is central to the pedagogical task of early childhood teachers, yet children are seldom asked to provide their points of view…

  20. Humpty Dumpty Reconsidered: Seeing Things Whole in Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    For education to make a lasting difference in people's lives, it must touch all dimensions of being human in ways that are integrated or holistic. Content and instructional methods, such as those of Kurt Hahn and Charity James, that are based on images of the intact human being see things whole from the beginning. But our school experience and the…

  1. Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy; Chapin, Suzanne; O'Connor, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6" provides preservice and inservice instructors, coaches and facilitators with real, classroom-based video examples that illustrate the principles and practices covered in the authors' best-selling book, "Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grade K-6,…

  2. Seeing Our Lives Intertwined: Teacher Education for Cultural Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and feelings of United States public school teachers about those they often see as "others"--people unlike themselves. What does research tell us might be the consequences of teachers' attitudes and feelings towards students and their families? What can we learn about diversifying the teacher pool from…

  3. SEE Tolerant Self-Calibrating Simple Fractional-N PLL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    We show a reliable on-chip clock multiplier for SEE testing or RHBD applications. Fine control of clock frequency is provided without complex delta-sigma schemes. Conflicts that can occur with voted PLLs are discussed, and how to avoid them.

  4. "See Translation": Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendus, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…

  5. What You See Is Not What You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-McMahon, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    When upset, 15-year-old Peter overreacts, dumping verbal hostility on everyone, even those trying to help. Peter's attempt to see the principal--who was out of the office--led to an emotionally explosive crisis. In this life space crisis intervention (LSCI), staff calmly tried to help Peter clarify distorted reality. But patient questioning raised…

  6. Long-Term Seeing Characteristics at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Espinosa, O. D.; Nenow, J.; Marquette, W. H.

    2003-05-01

    We present observations of long-term seeing characteristics from June 1997 to September 2002 obtained with Seykora-type scintillometers at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). BBSO is an ideal site for ground-based campaign-style observations. Since BBSO is situated on a small island in a 2,000 m high mountain lake in the cloudless mountains of Souther California, it benefits from excellent seeing conditions all day long. The atmospheric turbulence that degrades images originates primarily from two layers near the ground and at the level of the jet stream. BBSO's dome is located at the end of a 300 m long causeway jutting into the lake. Since the lake, with its cool waters, provides a natural inversion, and the dome has three kilometers of open water to its west, the boundary layer seeing is effectively suppressed. In addition, the east-west orientation of the Big Bear Valley provides a natural channel for the prevailing winds from the west resulting in a nearly laminar flow at the observatory site. We present a comparison of scintillometer data with climate data and analyze a one year long sub-set for local seeing variations near the lake shore and at the observatory island. We would like to thank Jacques Beckers and the National Solar Observatory for providing the scintillometer data. This work was supported by NSF under grant ATM 00-86999, ATM 00-76602, and ATM 02-36945 and by NASA under grant NAG 5-9682.

  7. Seeing and being seen: Shame in the clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John

    2015-12-01

    Shame may prevent the patient from emerging from a psychic retreat. As begins to do so he confronts two fears, first of seeing the object more clearly and second of being seen become prominent. Seeing leads to deeper and more distressing feelings connected with guilt and depression as the damage done to good objects is recognized. However it cannot be faced if shame leads to a demand for immediate relief. Shame is a prominent feature of the analytic situation and recognizing this may help the analyst to support his patients to tolerate the discomfort of being seen so that the conflicts about seeing can be worked through. Two clinical examples are briefly discussed. In the first feelings of inferiority lessened as they were analysed and allowed appreciative and depressive feelings to emerge. In the second embarrassment was associated with progress that the patient felt he had made but was embarrassed to admit. It is argued that the analysis of shame in the analytic situation is necessary so that being seen can be tolerated and allow the conflicts over seeing to be worked through. PMID:26481856

  8. 6. Detail, main floor, gullotine charging door with counterweights (see ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, main floor, gullotine charging door with counterweights (see #8 for section of furnace immediately below in basement). - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See photographs AZ-21-13 and AZ-21-14 for views of the completed bridge. Source: city of Phoenix Engineering Department. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. The Eye as a Theoretician: Seeing Structures in Generalizing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I focus on what can be termed "the domestication of the eye"--that is to say, the lengthy process during which we come to see and recognize things according to "efficient" cultural means. This is the process that converts the eye into a sophisticated intellectual organ--a "theoretician" as Marx put it. In particular, I focus on…

  11. Learning to See: Developing the Perception of an Expert Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schempp, Paul G.; Johnson, Sophie Woorons

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the perceptual skills of expert teachers and offer suggestions for teachers to learn to see like an expert. Being able to perceptively read the critical cues in a learning environment allows teachers to recognize present problems, anticipate potential problems, link immediate problems with previously…

  12. Seeing and Hearing Students' Lived and Embodied Critical Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that teachers and researchers must expand current verbo- and logo-centric definitions of critical literacy to recognize how texts and responses are embodied. Ethnographic data illustrate the ways that youth perform critical literacy in ways that educators might not always be prepared to see, hear, or acknowledge.…

  13. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  14. A comprehensive SWOT audit of the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of healthcare professionals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Caruana, C J; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M; Aurengo, A; Dendy, P P; Karenauskaite, V; Malisan, M R; Meijer, J H; Mihov, D; Mornstein, V; Rokita, E; Vano, E; Weckstrom, M; Wucherer, M

    2010-04-01

    Although biomedical physicists provide educational services to the healthcare professions in the majority of universities in Europe, their precise role with respect to the education of the healthcare professions has not been studied systematically. To address this issue we are conducting a research project to produce a strategic development model for the role using the well-established SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) methodology. SWOT based strategic planning is a two-step process: one first carries out a SWOT position audit and then uses the identified SWOT themes to construct the strategic development model. This paper reports the results of a SWOT audit for the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of the healthcare professions in Europe. Internal Strengths and Weaknesses of the role were identified through a qualitative survey of biomedical physics departments and biomedical physics curricula delivered to healthcare professionals across Europe. External environmental Opportunities and Threats were identified through a systematic survey of the healthcare, healthcare professional education and higher education literature and categorized under standard PEST (Political, Economic, Social-Psychological, Technological-Scientific) categories. The paper includes an appendix of terminology. Defined terms are marked with an asterisk in the text. PMID:19800276

  15. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Rodriguez, S.; SanAntonio, G.

    2012-12-01

    High power HF radio waves exciting the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaksa is the world's largest heating facility, providing effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. Experiments performed at HAARP have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. Typical SEE experiments at HAARP have focused on characterizing the parametric decay of the electromagnetic pump wave into several different wave modes such as upper and lower hybrid, ion acoustic, ion-Bernstein and electron-Bernstein. These production modes have been extensively studied at HAARP using traditional beam heating patterns and SEE detection. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Unlike traditional heating beams used at HAARP or other heating facilities, the twisted beam attempts to impart orbital angular momentum (OAM) into the heating region. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are nearly identical to the modes without OAM. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of artificial airglow layers. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  16. iSeeChange: Crowdsourced Climate Change Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapkin, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Directly engaging local communities about their climate change experiences has never been more important. As weather and climate become more unpredictable, these experiences provide a baseline for community decisions, developing adaptation strategies, and planning for the future. Typically, climate change is documented in a top-down fashion: a scientist has a question, makes observations, and publishes a study; in the best case scenario, a journalist reports on the results; if there's time, a local anecdote is sought to put the results in a familiar context. iSeeChange, a public media project funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, reports local environmental change in reverse and turns community questions and conversations with scientists into reported stories that promote opportunities to learn about climate change's affects on the environment and daily life. iSeeChange engages residents of the North Fork Valley region of western Colorado in a multiplatform conversation with scientists about how they perceive their environment is changing through the course of a year - season to season. By bringing together public radio, a mobile reporting and cellular engagement strategy, and a custom crowdsourcing multimedia platform, iSeeChange provides a central access point to collect observations (texts, photographs, voice recordings, and video), organize conversations and interviews with scientists, and report stories online and on air. In this way, iSeeChange is building a dynamic crowdsourced reservoir of information that can increase awareness of environmental problems and potentially disseminate useful information about climate change and successful adaptation strategies. Ultimately, by understanding the community's information needs in a localized question-driven context, the iSeeChange platform presents opportunities for the science community to better understand the value of information and develop better ways to tailor information for communities to use

  17. Layers of Seeing and Seeing through Layers: The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Louisa Wood

    2008-01-01

    In consulting on or creating a Web site designed to use works of art for teaching purposes, it is extremely important to be aware of the differences between seeing an artwork "in the flesh" and in reproduction. Museum educators are highly aware of this disparity and are therefore eager to have students visit museums to experience authentic works…

  18. Comparative analysis of female physicists in the physical sciences: Motivation and background variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2014-06-01

    The majority of existing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following question: On average, do females who select physics as compared to chemistry doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? This question is analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey data set through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists (n =1137). A logistic regression analysis and prototypical odds ratio uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their academic achievement and experiences ranging from high school through undergraduate education. Results indicate that females who have negative undergraduate chemistry experiences as well as higher grades and positive experiences in undergraduate physics are more likely to pursue a career in physics as opposed to chemistry. Conclusions suggest that a greater emphasis should be placed on the classroom experiences that are provided to females in gateway physics courses. Analyses show that women are not a single entity that should only be examined as a whole group or in comparison to men. Instead women can be compared to one another to see what influences their differences in educational experiences and career choice in STEM-based fields as well as other academic areas of study.

  19. Peer Development of Undergraduate Astronomers and Physicists at the University of Wisconsin - Madison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abler, Melissa; UW-Madison, Physics Club of

    2014-01-01

    The physics club at the University of Wisconsin - Madison is actively engaged in many peer-led activities that foster development of career-oriented skills. Peer mentoring through drop-in tutoring provides peer support to promote retention in the astronomy and physics majors, as well as developing valuable teaching and communication strategies. The physics club is also heavily involved in outreach and education through demonstrations on campus, strengthening student connections to and aiding in retention of classroom information. Public demonstrations also develop valuable communication skills which will be required as a professional. Application-oriented development of students is further enhanced by semiannual visits to research facilities in the surrounding area which provide interested students the opportunity to see non-university facilities firsthand. Close contact with faculty - a valuable resource for undergraduates - is achieved through faculty attendance at club events and presentation of faculty research to interested students. Undergraduates also have the opportunity through the physics club to speak with the weekly colloquium presenter, learning more about each presenter’s experiences with graduate school, research, and career path.

  20. Testing of the SEE and OEE post-hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Hawkes, William; Golden, Justine; Werner-Bronzert, Michelle; Magaziner, Jay

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in a sample of 166 older women post-hip fracture. There was some evidence of validity of the SEE and OEE based on confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch model testing, criterion based and convergent validity, and evidence of internal consistency based on alpha coefficients and separation indices and reliability based on R2 estimates. Rasch model testing demonstrated that some items had high variability. Based on these findings suggestions are made for how items could be revised and the scales improved for future use. PMID:16829639

  1. See it with feeling: affective predictions during object perception

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, L.F.; Bar, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    People see with feeling. We ‘gaze’, ‘behold’, ‘stare’, ‘gape’ and ‘glare’. In this paper, we develop the hypothesis that the brain's ability to see in the present incorporates a representation of the affective impact of those visual sensations in the past. This representation makes up part of the brain's prediction of what the visual sensations stand for in the present, including how to act on them in the near future. The affective prediction hypothesis implies that responses signalling an object's salience, relevance or value do not occur as a separate step after the object is identified. Instead, affective responses support vision from the very moment that visual stimulation begins. PMID:19528014

  2. SEE Rate Estimation: Model Complexity and Data Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Statistical Methods outlined in [Ladbury, TNS20071 can be generalized for Monte Carlo Rate Calculation Methods Two Monte Carlo Approaches: a) Rate based on vendor-supplied (or reverse-engineered) model SEE testing and statistical analysis performed to validate model; b) Rate calculated based on model fit to SEE data Statistical analysis very similar to case for CREME96. Information Theory allows simultaneous consideration of multiple models with different complexities: a) Model with lowest AIC usually has greatest predictive power; b) Model averaging using AIC weights may give better performance if several models have similar good performance; and c) Rates can be bounded for a given confidence level over multiple models, as well as over the parameter space of a model.

  3. See Change: Classifying single observation transients from HST using SNCosmo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiatti Nunes, Caroline; Perlmutter, Saul; Nordin, Jakob; Rubin, David; Lidman, Chris; Deustua, Susana E.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Aldering, Greg Scott; Brodwin, Mark; Cunha, Carlos E.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jee, Myungkook J.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Santos, Joana; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Dana R.; Fassbender, Rene; Richard, Johan; Rosati, Piero; Wechsler, Risa H.; Muzzin, Adam; Willis, Jon; Boehringer, Hans; Gladders, Michael; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman; Hook, Isobel; Huterer, Dragan; Huang, Jiasheng; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric; Pain, Reynald; Saunders, Clare; Suzuki, Nao; Barbary, Kyle H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Meyers, Joshua; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Hayden, Brian; Wilson, Gillian; Rozo, Eduardo; Hilton, Matt; Dixon, Samantha; Yen, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) is executing "See Change", a large HST program to look for possible variation in dark energy using supernovae at z>1. As part of the survey, we often must make time-critical follow-up decisions based on multicolor detection at a single epoch. We demonstrate the use of the SNCosmo software package to obtain simulated fluxes in the HST filters for type Ia and core-collapse supernovae at various redshifts. These simulations allow us to compare photometric data from HST with the distribution of the simulated SNe through methods such as Random Forest, a learning method for classification, and Gaussian Kernel Estimation. The results help us make informed decisions about triggered follow up using HST and ground based observatories to provide time-critical information needed about transients. Examples of this technique applied in the context of See Change are shown.

  4. Preoperative surgical marking: a case of seeing double.

    PubMed

    Rughani, Milap; Kokkinakis, Michail; Davison, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative marking is an integral part of the care of patients undergoing surgical procedures. It occurs on a daily basis in hospitals and involves all members of the healthcare staff and the patient. Incorrect marking or errors can lead to devastating consequences for the patient and staff involved. We present an unusual case of seeing double arrows on a patient undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery, despite standard preoperative marking procedures. This was recognised in the anaesthetic room and the correct site was confirmed. We aim to highlight this specific problem and remind all involved in preoperative marking of the dangers of a mirror imprint, thereby avoiding seeing double in the anaesthetic or operating room. PMID:22315636

  5. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  6. Good Teachers (the Movie You Will Never See)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    It began with a trip to the cinema to see Cameron Diaz in her new comedy, "Bad Teacher." It was a bad choice. Not a great flick, but as a parody of bad employees, in terms of things that can get one fired--drugs, alcohol , cheating, foul language, inappropriate sexual behavior--Diaz slams pedal to the metal. She nips out of airline booze bottles…

  7. Solar Eruptive Events (SEE) Mission for the Next Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert P.; Krucker, S.; Caspi, A.; Hurford, G.; Dennis, B.; Holman, G.; Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Bandler, S.; Davila, J.; Milligan, R.; Kahler, S.; Weidenbeck, M.; Doschek, G.; Vourlidas, A.; Share, G.; Raymond, J.; McConnell, M.; Emslie, G.

    2011-05-01

    Major solar eruptive events consisting of both a large flare and a near simultaneous large fast coronal mass ejection (CME), are the most powerful explosions and also the most powerful and energetic particle accelerators in the solar system, producing solar energetic particles (SEPs) up to tens of GeV for ions and 10s-100s of MeV for electrons. The intense fluxes of escaping SEPs are a major hazard for humans in space and for spacecraft. Furthermore, the solar plasma ejected at high speed in the fast CME completely restructures the interplanetary medium, producing the most extreme space weather in geospace, at other planets, and in the heliosphere. Thus, the understanding of the flare/CME energy release process and of the related particle acceleration processes in SEEs is a major goal in Heliophysics. Here we present a concept for a Solar Eruptive Events (SEE) mission, consisting of a comprehensive set of advanced new instruments on the single spacecraft in low Earth orbit, that focus directly on the coronal energy release and particle acceleration in flares and CMEs. SEE will provide new focussing hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of energetic electrons in the flare acceleration region, new energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging spectroscopy of SEPs being accelerated by the CME at altitudes above 2 solar radii, gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy of flare-accelerated energetic ions, plus detailed EUV/UV/Soft X-ray diagnostics of the plasmas density, temperature, and mass motions in the energy release and particle acceleration regions. Together with ground-based measurements of coronal magnetic fields from ATST, FASR, and COSMO, SEE will enable major breakthroughs in our understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved in major solar eruptive events.

  8. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time similar reductions occur in the human motor cortex and whether they originate from excitatory or inhibitory processes. Using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), here we tested the hypothesis that the observer's motor cortex implements extremely fast suppression of motor readiness when seeing emotional bodies - and fearful body expressions in particular. Participants observed pictures of body postures and categorized them as happy, fearful or neutral while receiving TMS over the right or left motor cortex at 100-125 msec after picture onset. In three different sessions, we assessed corticospinal excitability, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Independently of the stimulated hemisphere and the time of the stimulation, watching fearful bodies suppressed ICF relative to happy and neutral body expressions. Moreover, happy expressions reduced ICF relative to neutral actions. No changes in corticospinal excitability or SICI were found during the task. These findings show extremely rapid bilateral modulation of the motor cortices when seeing emotional bodies, with stronger suppression of motor readiness when seeing fearful bodies. Our results provide neurophysiological support for the evolutionary notions that emotion perception is inherently linked to action systems and that fear-related cues induce an urgent mobilization of motor reactions. PMID:25835523

  9. The Martians of Science - Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2006-07-01

    If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the twentieth century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the twentieth century. They were an extraordinary group of talents: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Kármán became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. István Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries.

  10. Seeing yourself seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Sandford-Richardson, Elizabeth; Bernardo, Luis Miguel; Crespo, Helder

    2015-03-01

    Through two temporal modalities, the time of the holographic image (the performance recorded time) and the performance time of the public, we create "a new space for the image", whose structure is influenced by the holographic images and the public as performer. In the tension between the action space of the participants and the virtual space of holographic images, it exists the time image that goes beyond the issue of the movement and has a direct relationship with the participant's thought. In this series of digital holographic images and lenticulars, we are using an old camera Canon IS3 and a new HD Canon, on the HOLOrail, to capture old fashion scenes and other scenes having a "nowadays" look and put them on the surface of the holographic plate.

  11. A Physicist in the Corridors of Power: P. M. S. Blackett's Opposition to Atomic Weapons Following the War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, M. J.

    1999-06-01

    . Blackett had been a naval officer during the First World War, a veteran of Ernest Rutherford's Cavendish Laboratory and head of the physics department at Manchester in the interwar years, and he was a founder of operational research during the Second World War. Vilified in the British and American press in the 1940s and 1950s, he continued to contest prevailing nuclear weapons strategy, finding a more favorable reception for his arguments by the early 1960s. This paper examines the publication and reception of Blackett's views on atomic weapons, analyzing the risks to a physicist who writes about a subject other than physics, as well as the circumstances that might compel one to do so.

  12. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93.

    PubMed

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R

    2011-07-01

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. PMID:21897559

  13. [The physicist Félix Savart (1791-1841). Physician/Surgeon, pioneer in the study of acoustics].

    PubMed

    Ségal, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Félix Savart (1791-1841) was both a physician and a physicist, and also a pioneer of acoustics and psycho-acoustics. In 1819 Savart scientifically devised and contructed a trapezoidal violin with the advice of Paris string-instrument maker J-B Vuillaume. This violin drew the attention of J-B Biot who suggested young Savart to work with him on such acoustic researches. From this collaboration proceeded the so-called "law of Biot-Savart" about magnetic power which was in fact formulated by Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827). Savart worked on numerous and diversified acoustic researches. Lord John Rayleigh described them as "beautiful experiments", and he became a foreign correspondant member of the Royal Society in 1839. PMID:26050430

  14. Training PhD Physicists for Industrial Careers: The Industrial Leadership in Physics Program at Georgetown University.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keuren, Edward

    2009-03-01

    The Physics department at Georgetown University has a unique PhD level graduate program designed to prepare PhD physicists for positions in high-tech business. Launched in 2001, the Industrial Leadership in Physics (ILP) graduate program combines training in technical subjects and business topics with a focus on group learning, communication skills, and practical work experience. Some highlights of the program include a modular curriculum in fundamental physics, centered on solid-state physics, instrumentation, problem solving and computer modeling; a year-long apprenticeship at the site of an industrial partner chosen to match the interests of the student and coursework in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown. This presentation will give an overview of the program.

  15. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: From Reductionism to Complexity; A Theoretical Physicist's Journey into Biology and the Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Geoffrey

    2013-04-01

    In this talk I review how a high energy physicist serendipitously migrated from quarks and gluons, dark matter and string theory to thinking about equally big topics like why we live for 100 years (and not a thousand or 2-3 like a mouse), how is this generated from molecular time scales, why do we sleep and where does 8 hours come from, and how is this related to the rate at which we evolve, can there be a quantitative, mathematisable science of cities and companies, and can our exponentially expanding socio-economic universe be sustained, etc, etc? I consider these as integral parts of physics, related to the interface between Reductionism and Complexity, Thermodynamics and Information Theory. The saga will be a personal one ranging from issues connected with the demise of the SSC and attacks on science to the future role of physics and transdisciplinary thinking.

  16. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    PubMed Central

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers’ characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. PMID:21897559

  17. Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P

    2016-09-14

    For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined. PMID:27400801

  18. 23. Photocopy of ca. 1890 photograph showing DRAWING ROOM (see ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of ca. 1890 photograph showing DRAWING ROOM (see also PA-1524-12). Photographed during the occupancy of Dr. and Mrs. Erwin Agnew. Note the following furnishings: 1) Chandeliers, possibly by Cornelius and Sons of Philadelphia; 2) Ceiling painting at top of photocopy is copy of Guido Reni's Aurora, one of the two most popular Renaissance paintings in the mid-19th century; 3) Scagliola columns; 4) 'Turkish' upholstered chairs (typical of the period); 5) Neo-renaissance mirror at extreme left - Parry House, 1921 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Is [symbol: see text] Yasmin a "truly different" pill?

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    A combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing the progestogen drospirenone (pronounced dro-spi-re-known) plus the oestrogen ethinylestradiol ([symbol: see text] Yasmin--Schering Health Care) is now available in the UK. Company advertising claims that Yasmin is "truly different", as reliable and safe as other COCs and is "the pill for well-being", with "no associated weight gain" and "a demonstrable positive effect" on premenstrual symptoms and skin condition. Such claims have also appeared in the lay media. Are they justified? PMID:12216337

  20. Kristian Camilleri: Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics—The Physicist as Philosopher. Cambridge University Press, 2009, ISBN-13:9780521884846, 211 pp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleemans, Machiel

    2010-11-01

    The book Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics—The Physicist as Philosopher, by Kristian Camilleri is critically reviewed. The work details Heisenberg’s philosophical development from an early positivist commitment towards a later philosophy of language. It is of interest to researchers and graduate students in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics.

  1. Multi-field of view see-spot optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Scott; Vizgaitis, Jay; Everett, Jonathan; Spinazzola, Bob

    2012-06-01

    The increasing availability of sensors that can image in the 1-5 micron region has allowed for systems to be developed that utilize the full spectrum. Past MWIR systems have typically only imaged in the 3-5 micron region, but the new detectors allow imaging in the SWIR and MWIR bands with the same system. The use of a single FPA reduces SWAP and allows the user to see laser rangefinder and laser designator wavelengths. NVESD and Axsys have designed and built a SWIR/MWIR optical system that images in the 1-5 micron band. The optical system utilizes a cooled infrared detector that images in the 3-5 micron band as well as 1.04 - 1.08 and 1.54 microns without having to refocus the system to see the SWIR wavelengths. This provided an optical challenge to design a system that would image from 1-5 microns on the same detector. A combination reflective/refractive design was chosen in order to minimize packaging and meet the different FOV requirements. This paper discusses the design and development of a multi-FOV optical system with the capability to image across the 1-5 micron spectral band utilizing a combination of reflective and refractive components.

  2. Innovative system architecture for spatial volumetric acoustic seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene; Sergeyev, Aleksandr V.

    2009-04-01

    Situational awareness is a critical issue for the modern battle and security systems improvement of which will increase human performance efficiency. There are multiple research project and development efforts based on omni-directional (fish-eye) electro-optical and other frequency sensor fusion systems implementing head-mounted visualization systems. However, the efficiency of these systems is limited by the human eye-brain system perception limitations. Humans are capable to naturally perceive the situations in front of them, but interpretation of omni-directional visual scenes increases the user's mental workload, increasing human fatigue and disorientation requiring more effort for object recognition. It is especially important to reduce this workload making rear scenes perception intuitive in battlefield situations where a combatant can be attacked from both directions. This paper describes an experimental model of the system fusion architecture of the Visual Acoustic Seeing (VAS) for representation spatial geometric 3D model in form of 3D volumetric sound. Current research in the area of auralization points to the possibility of identifying sound direction. However, for complete spatial perception it is necessary to identify the direction and the distance to an object by an expression of volumetric sound, we initially assume that the distance can be encoded by the sound frequency. The chain: object features -> sensor -> 3D geometric model-> auralization constitutes Volumetric Acoustic Seeing (VAS). Paper describes VAS experimental research for representing and perceiving spatial information by means of human hearing cues in more details.

  3. OWL site survey: first seeing measurement with ADIMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Abahamid, Abdelouahed; El Azhari, Youssef; Siher, El Arbi

    2004-10-01

    The ESO OWL site survey plan includes the analysis of the astronomical quality of the Atlas mountains in Morocco. In this paper we are presenting the first long time measurement of optical turbulence at Oukaimeden site. For this work we built an instrument called ADIMM for an Automated Differencial Image Motion Monitor, and we use it to the measure the optical turbulence at the Oukaimeden Site. We are describing the instrument and reporting the first results obtained after six month of working on this project. The results of night-time seeing measurements carried out during the period from Jun 14 up to October 01 2003 are presented. The median and mean values of the seeing for the entire period of observations are respectively 0.75" and 0.84". This work was organized in the framework of contract Num.69651/ODG/02/9005/GWI between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Astrophysics and Physics of High Energy Laboratory of the Faculty of Sciences, Cadi Ayyad University (LPHEA).

  4. Local thermal seeing modeling validation through observatory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Travouillon, Tony; Angeli, George

    2012-09-01

    Dome and mirror seeing are critical effects influencing the optical performance of ground-based telescopes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to obtain the refractive index field along a given optical path and calculate the corresponding image quality utilizing optical modeling tools. This procedure is validated using measurements from the Keck II and CFHT telescopes. CFD models of Keck II and CFHT observatories on the Mauna Kea summit have been developed. The detailed models resolve all components that can influence the flow pattern through turbulence generation or heat release. Unsteady simulations generate time records of velocity and temperature fields from which the refractive index field at a given wavelength and turbulence parameters are obtained. At Keck II the Cn2 and l0 (inner scale of turbulence) were monitored along a 63m path sensitive primarily to turbulence around the top ring of the telescope tube. For validation, these parameters were derived from temperature and velocity fluctuations obtained from CFD simulations. At CFHT dome seeing has been inferred from their database that includes telescope delivered Image Quality (IQ). For this case CFD simulations were run for specific orientations of the telescope respect to incoming wind, wind speeds and outside air temperature. For validation, temperature fluctuations along the optical beam from the CFD are turned to refractive index variations and corresponding Optical Path Differences (OPD) then to Point Spread Functions (PSF) that are ultimately compared to the record of IQ.

  5. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Han, S.-M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Scales, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions of high power HF radio waves in the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska is the world's largest heating facility, yielding effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are identical to more traditional patterns. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region from a pencil beam. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of stable artificial airglow layers because of the horizontal structure of the ring. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  6. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James

    2004-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-II Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However, these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. To use the Virtex-II Pro reliably in space applications, these devices must first be tested to determine if they are susceptible to single event latchup (SEL), the degree to which they are susceptible to single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET), and how these effects are manifested in the device. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptiblities of these devices. This initial SEE test uses a commercial off the shelf Virtex-II Pro evaluation board, with a single processor XC2VP7 FPGA. The FPGA on this board is an acid etched device, which can be partially covered with a shield. The shield covers a portion of the logic, routing, and memory resources along with some of the RocketIO transceivers. The processor, along with a large portion of logic, routing, memory, and transceivers are left exposed. This test will be performed at the Cyclotron Laboratories at Texas A&M University and Michigan State University using ions of varying energy levels and fluencies.

  7. Seeing measurements with autonomous, short-baseline shadow band rangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2010-07-01

    There is growing interest in measuring seeing at existing and prospective telescope sites. Several methods exist to quantify seeing, one among them is by measuring the scintillation of solar or lunar light using a photodiode. A shadow band ranger (SHABAR) analyses the covariance of the signals from an array of such photodiodes, which allows for the spatial resolution of the index of refraction above the SHABAR device. This allows one to estimate the index of refraction structure parameter as a function of height, C2n(h). Although a SHABAR has a limited range compared to a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) or the latest wavefront sensors, the advantage is that it does not need telescope optics to work. A SHABAR device can be made very compact and can operate independent of other instruments. We describe the design of such a SHABAR device with six photodiodes that can operate virtually indefinitely without requiring human intervention. An inversion algorithm is used to convert the raw scintillation signals of the photodiodes to the desired C2n(h) profile and a value for the Fried parameter r0 at height zero. We show that it is possible to perform inversions of 10 s periods in real time on relatively low-end hardware, such as an Intel Atom based computer, which allows the results to be presented live to astronomers, who can use this information to help make decisions about their observation schedule.

  8. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  9. To see or not to see: a qualitative interview study of patients’ views on their own diagnostic images

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Leslie E; Smith, Helen E; Henwood, Flis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain what meaning individuals attach to perceiving images of their own interior body and how the images and their meanings affect the clinical consultation. Design Face-to-face semistructured interviews. Participants 25 adult patients in southern England who, within the preceding 12 months, had been referred for diagnostic imaging. Setting Community. Results For patients, being shown their own X-rays, MRIs or CT images creates a variety of effects: (1) a sense of better understanding of the diagnosis; (2) validation of their sensory and emotional response to the illness or injury and (3) an alteration to the tenor and nature of the clinical encounter between patient and physician. In addition to meanings attached to these images, patients also impute meaning to the physician's decision not to share an image with them. The desire to see their image was greater in those patients with a skeletal injury; patients are less keen on viewing abdominal or other soft tissue images. Conclusions Viewing images of one's interior, invisible body is powerful and resonant in a number of ways. The experience of not seeing, whether through the patient's or the physician's choice, is also fraught with meaning. PMID:25082418

  10. More Than Your Eyes Can See: SIRTF's Public Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, M. L.; Bicay, M. D.; Daou, D.

    2000-12-01

    How do you communicate what infared radiation is to the public? The SIRTF Science Center has established a series of educational products based around the theme, "Infrared: More Than Your Eyes Can See." Students can discover infrared for themselves, using a classroom activity that replicates William Herschel's original 1800 experiment. We also have a video (free for educators) that uses the latest color infrared cameras to show students the contrast between visible and infrared light. For the web, we have websites that range from the general (a tutorial about infrared light) to the specific (links to infrared applications in geology, medicine, law inforcement, and astronomy). Visit our website or come by our booth to pick up an assortment of educational products, including slide sets, lithographs, posters, brochures, and videos.

  11. Seeing is Believing? Evidence from Property Prices in Inundated Areas.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Ajita; Ferreira, Susana

    2015-05-01

    We use hedonic property models to estimate the changes in implicit flood risk premium following a large flood event. Previous studies have used flood hazard maps to proxy flood risk. In addition to knowing whether a property lies in the floodplain, we use a unique data set with the flood inundation map. We find that the price discount for properties in the inundated area is substantially larger than in comparable properties in the floodplain that did not get inundated. This suggests that, in addition to capturing an information effect, the larger discount in inundated properties reflects potential uninsurable flood damages, and supports a hypothesis that homeowners respond better to what they have visualized ("seeing is believing"). PMID:25515187

  12. Ukaliq: Seeing Long-Term with Small, Precise Arctic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric; Leckie, Brian; Murowinski, Rick

    2015-04-01

    Time-domain astrophysics benefits from extreme-latitude sites, which can combine intrinsically extended nighttime with good sky conditions. One such location is the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), at 80° North latitude, on the northwestern edge of Ellesmere Island, Canada. Experience gained deploying seeing monitors there has been incorporated into an automated system called “Ukaliq” after the common arctic hare, which is also very well suited to its local environment. Even with modest aperture, high photometric reliability may be achieved using simple adaptive optics together with observing strategies that best fit the unique set of advantages available at PEARL: excellent image quality maintained during many clear, calm, dark periods of 100 hours or more. A potential multi-year search for gravitational microlensing of quasars with Ukaliq helps illustrate this niche in the era of large wide-field survey facilities.

  13. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  14. Seeing Earth Through the Eyes of an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office within the ARES Directorate has undertaken a new class of handheld camera photographic observations of the Earth as seen from the International Space Station (ISS). For years, astronauts have attempted to describe their experience in space and how they see the Earth roll by below their spacecraft. Thousands of crew photographs have documented natural features as diverse as the dramatic clay colors of the African coastline, the deep blues of the Earth's oceans, or the swirling Aurora Borealis of Australia in the upper atmosphere. Dramatic recent improvements in handheld digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera capabilities are now allowing a new field of crew photography: night time-lapse imagery.

  15. WYSIWYG (What You See is What You Get) volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Mao, Ningyu; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a volume visualization system that accepts direct manipulation through a sketch-based What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) approach. Similar to the operations in painting applications for 2D images, in our system, a full set of tools have been developed to enable direct volume rendering manipulation of color, transparency, contrast, brightness, and other optical properties by brushing a few strokes on top of the rendered volume image. To be able to smartly identify the targeted features of the volume, our system matches the sparse sketching input with the clustered features both in image space and volume space. To achieve interactivity, both special algorithms to accelerate the input identification and feature matching have been developed and implemented in our system. Without resorting to tuning transfer function parameters, our proposed system accepts sparse stroke inputs and provides users with intuitive, flexible and effective interaction during volume data exploration and visualization. PMID:22034329

  16. Albert Einstein and Wernher von Braun - the two great German-American physicists seen in a historical perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-04-01

    It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.

  17. Do we see what we should see? Describing non-covalent interactions in protein structures including precision.

    PubMed

    Gurusaran, Manickam; Shankar, Mani; Nagarajan, Raju; Helliwell, John R; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2014-01-01

    The power of X-ray crystal structure analysis as a technique is to 'see where the atoms are'. The results are extensively used by a wide variety of research communities. However, this 'seeing where the atoms are' can give a false sense of security unless the precision of the placement of the atoms has been taken into account. Indeed, the presentation of bond distances and angles to a false precision (i.e. to too many decimal places) is commonplace. This article has three themes. Firstly, a basis for a proper representation of protein crystal structure results is detailed and demonstrated with respect to analyses of Protein Data Bank entries. The basis for establishing the precision of placement of each atom in a protein crystal structure is non-trivial. Secondly, a knowledge base harnessing such a descriptor of precision is presented. It is applied here to the case of salt bridges, i.e. ion pairs, in protein structures; this is the most fundamental place to start with such structure-precision representations since salt bridges are one of the tenets of protein structure stability. Ion pairs also play a central role in protein oligomerization, molecular recognition of ligands and substrates, allosteric regulation, domain motion and α-helix capping. A new knowledge base, SBPS (Salt Bridges in Protein Structures), takes these structural precisions into account and is the first of its kind. The third theme of the article is to indicate natural extensions of the need for such a description of precision, such as those involving metalloproteins and the determination of the protonation states of ionizable amino acids. Overall, it is also noted that this work and these examples are also relevant to protein three-dimensional structure molecular graphics software. PMID:25075321

  18. 1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI-50 50-2 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 8 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 9 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 17 (see photograph VI-50-5 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 56 (see photograph VI-50-8 for elevation), & KONGENSGADE 57 (see photograph VI-50-9 for elevation) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  19. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Learning to Teach beyond the Curriculum. How Can Student Teachers Be Helped to See beyond the National Literacy Strategy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiselton, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    "With the NLS--they can see how everything is important if we want our English to be good and it's helped me to see it that way too. Before, we just used to see it all separately. This way is much better" (Rebecca Graham, Year 4 English specialist after Final Block Placement). This quote was collected in the final stage of a study involving…

  20. How the Maori community sees the dental-care system.

    PubMed

    Edward, S J

    1992-10-01

    This report has addressed the question of how the Maori community sees the system of oral health care by indicating the complex factors influencing the Maori community's attitude toward health issues. These factors preclude the Maori community from many of the perceived benefits of the present oral health-care system. There is a need in this current climate of debate over health policies to re-focus on primary prevention policies that will be relevant to the Maori community of today. No one is seen in the Maori community to be articulating concern for oral health issues. The challenge for the Dental Council of New Zealand is how then to create a focus on oral health issues within the Maori community, and to actively promote oral health care and encourage usage of a system that is affordable, available, accessible, and appropriate. Practical and relevant recommendations arising from Rapuora: Health and Maori Women 1984 and the Hui Hauora Mokopuna, 1990(10) should be considered when planning future health-care systems. Health was one of the four key areas highlighted in the Ka Awatea report, and it will be an important feature of the work of the new Ministry of Maori Development. It is timely that the Dental Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Maori Development should facilitate oral health-care systems for the future in partnership with the Maori community. PMID:1484641

  1. Radiation microscope for SEE testing using GeV ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Knapp, James Arthur; Rossi, Paolo; Hattar, Khalid M.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Brice, David Kenneth; Branson, Janelle V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation Effects Microscopy is an extremely useful technique in failure analysis of electronic parts used in radiation environment. It also provides much needed support for development of radiation hard components used in spacecraft and nuclear weapons. As the IC manufacturing technology progresses, more and more overlayers are used; therefore, the sensitive region of the part is getting farther and farther from the surface. The thickness of these overlayers is so large today that the traditional microbeams, which are used for REM are unable to reach the sensitive regions. As a result, higher ion beam energies have to be used (> GeV), which are available only at cyclotrons. Since it is extremely complicated to focus these GeV ion beams, a new method has to be developed to perform REM at cyclotrons. We developed a new technique, Ion Photon Emission Microscopy, where instead of focusing the ion beam we use secondary photons emitted from a fluorescence layer on top of the devices being tested to determine the position of the ion hit. By recording this position information in coincidence with an SEE signal we will be able to indentify radiation sensitive regions of modern electronic parts, which will increase the efficiency of radiation hard circuits.

  2. Do Patients and Dentists See Ethics the Same Way?

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The most common approach to ethics in dentistry and bioethics generally is through principles. To be effective, principles must be interpreted in particular situations, and the skill of interpretation requires many years of practice with feedback. The opinions of 91 dentists and 54 patients regarding multiple potential actions and justifications for these actions were gathered for eight dental ethics cases. The summary responses of dentists and patients have been integrated as feedback in an online ethics education exercise that individual dentists can use (see www.dental ethics.org/idea). The dataset of responses was also analyzed for general findings. It emerged that patients and dentists agree to a substantial extent on the average approaches, but they differ systematically on certain of the details. Some ethical issues stimulated a narrow range of responses while others, especially those of a nonclinical nature were regarded as ambiguous and are thus good candidates for future ethics training. A factor analysis revealed a five-dimension structure underlying dental ethics. Patients are most apt to view dentistry using a lens of oral health outcomes while practitioners prefer to stress the process and the technical dimensions of practice. The largest area of difference was patients' much greater interest in dentists assuming an active role as patient oral health advocates with their colleagues. PMID:26562981

  3. Seeing the Light (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, Axel; Segalman, Rachel; Westphal, Andrew

    2011-09-12

    Berkeley Lab's Science at the Theater event "Seeing the Light" took place on Sept 12, 2011, at Berkeley Repertory's Roda Theatre. Learn how the Advanced Light Source is improving medicine, paving the way for clean energy, changing the future of computers, and much more. Featured speakers are Berkeley Lab's Roger Falcone, Rachel Segalman, Andrew Westphal, and Stanford University's Axel Brunger. Rachel Segalman: The future of clean energy technology relies on a better understanding of materials at the nanoscale. Berkeley Lab's Rachel Segalman uses the ALS to conduct this research, which could lead to improved photovoltaics and fuel cells. Axel Brunger: Improved treatment for human diseases hinges on understanding molecular-scale processes. Stanford University's Axel Brunger will discuss a new melanoma drug that was developed by a local company, Plexxikon, using the ALS for X-ray data collection. Andrew Westphal: What's comet dust made of? Andrew Westphal of UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory uses the ALS to study comet dust and interplanetary space dust collected by a NASA spacecraft. Moderated by Roger Falcone, Division Director of the Advanced Light Source

  4. Emergency providers see big potential for Google Glass.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Emergency providers are among the first in health care to experiment with Google Glass, a computer that is worn like a traditional set of glasses, enabling clinicians to pull up critical information from a patient's electronic medical record (EMR) or call for assistance without looking away from the patient. Special applications of the device can also be used to facilitate telemedicine consults with specialists while patients are still in the ED. According to early users, protecting patient privacy has not been a problem in early applications of the device. However, state-level laws remain a barrier to large-scale implementation of the technology in some regions. Emergency providers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA, see Google Glass as another platform for their ED information system. The approach is being used to facilitate hands-free communications and to expedite workflow. At Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, RI, emergency providers are testing a telemedicine application for Glass that enables providers to connect patients with off-site dermatologists while they are still in the ED, eliminating the need for additional specialty appointments. Early users believe that Glass and similar innovations will eventually play a strong role in preventing readmissions by providing remote care to patients--especially in the first few days following discharge from the hospital or ED. PMID:24897783

  5. Robotic SLODAR Development for Seeing Evaluation at the Bohyun Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Wilson, R.; Butterley, T.; Choi, Y.; Lee, S.

    We had developed a robotic SLODAR (SLOpe Detection And Ranging) for characterization of the vertical profile of atmospheric optical turbulence at the Bohyun observatory, South Korea. The SLODAR had been developed in partnership between Kongju National Univ. South Korea and Durham Univ., U.K. The SLODAR instrument consists of a robotic 50 cm telescope feeding into a pair of Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors. SLODAR analysis of the wavefront sensor data yields turbulence profiles of the surface layer of turbulence, with the vertical resolution depending on the separation and elevation of the target stars.The total seeing ( r0 ) is also measured, and by subtracting the directly measured turbulence from the total the unresolved strength (above the maximum sensing altitude) can also be determined. The instrument has two observing modes, "wide" and "narrow" depending on the angular sepration of pairs of stars. In wide mode regime, narrower targets are chosen ( 2 ~ 4 arcmin) such that the ground layer profile is measured up to ~500m. In narrow mode, very narrow targets (10 ~ 15 arcsec) are measured to provide the turbulence profile with coarse resolution up to ~6km. The automated SLODAR turbulence profiler at the Boyun Observatory is currently under remote and robotic operation since last June. We reports herein the development of the SLODAR with first observation results.

  6. The solar seeing monitor MISOLFA: presentation and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Corbard, T.; Assus, P.; Borgnino, J.; Dufour, C.; Ikhlef, R.; Martin, F.; Meftah, M.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C.; Simon, E.

    2010-07-01

    PICARD is a space mission developed to observe the Sun at high angular resolution. One of the main space objectives of PICARD is to measure the solar diameter with few milli arc-seconds accuracy. A replica of the space instrument will be installed at Calern Observatory in order to test our ability to make such measurement from ground with enough accuracy. High angular resolution observations with ground-based instrument are however limited by atmospheric turbulence. The seeing monitor MISOLFA is developed to give all observation conditions at the same moments when solar images will be recorded with the twin PICARD instruments. They will be used to link ground and space measurements. An overview of the PICARD mission and the solar ground-based experiments will be rst given. Optical properties of MISOLFA will be after presented. The basic principles to measure atmospheric parameters and the methods used to obtain them from solar images will be given. Finally, some recent results obtained at Calern Observatory will be presented and discussed.

  7. Do Peers See More in a Paper Than Its Authors?

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Nakov, Preslav; Hearst, Marti A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown a gradual shift in the content of biomedical publications that is freely accessible, from titles and abstracts to full text. This has enabled new forms of automatic text analysis and has given rise to some interesting questions: How informative is the abstract compared to the full-text? What important information in the full-text is not present in the abstract? What should a good summary contain that is not already in the abstract? Do authors and peers see an article differently? We answer these questions by comparing the information content of the abstract to that in citances—sentences containing citations to that article. We contrast the important points of an article as judged by its authors versus as seen by peers. Focusing on the area of molecular interactions, we perform manual and automatic analysis, and we find that the set of all citances to a target article not only covers most information (entities, functions, experimental methods, and other biological concepts) found in its abstract, but also contains 20% more concepts. We further present a detailed summary of the differences across information types, and we examine the effects other citations and time have on the content of citances. PMID:23227044

  8. Engineering a visual system for seeing through fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, J.; Pavel, M.; Ahumada, A.; Sweet, B.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the requirements for on-board aircraft sensor systems that would allow pilots to 'see through' poor weather, especially fog, and land and rollout aircraft under conditions that currently cause flight cancellations and airport closures. Three visual aspects of landing and rollout are distinguished: guidance, hazard detection and hazard recognition. The visual features which support the tasks are discussed. Three broad categories of sensor technology are examined: passive millimeter wave (PMMW), imaging radar, and passive infrared (IR). PMMW and imaging radar exhibit good weather penetration, but poor spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging radar exhibits good weather penetration, but typically relies on a flat-earth assumption which can lead to interpretive errors. PMMW systems have a narrow field of view. IR has poorer weather penetration but good spatial resolution. We recommend using both millimeter-wave and infrared sensor systems, blending the images using multiresolution digital-image pyramid-processing technology, and fusing the resulting real-time images with stored database imagery of the same scene.

  9. Is Seeing Believing? Perceptions of Wildfire Risk Over Time.

    PubMed

    Champ, Patricia A; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set collected from a survey of homeowners living in a fire-prone area of Colorado, we find that study participants' initial high levels of perceived probability and consequences of a wildfire did not change substantially after extreme wildfire events in the intervening years. More specifically, perceived probability of a wildfire changed very little, whereas the perceived consequences of a wildfire went up a bit. In addition, models of risk perceptions show that the two components of overall risk perception are correlated with somewhat different factors, and experience is not found to be one of the strongest correlates with perceived risk. These results reflect the importance of distinguishing the components of overall risk and modeling them separately to facilitate additional insights into the complexities of risk perceptions, factors related to perceived risk, and change in risk perceptions over time. PMID:26268447

  10. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  11. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis. PMID:27430909

  12. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  13. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  14. SU-E-I-90: Medical Physicists' Implication in Diagnostic CT in Switzerland: Results of After One Year of Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ryckx, N.; Elandoy, C.; Bize, J.; Verdun, F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Since January 1st 2008, the Swiss ordinance on radiation protection requires the involvement of a medical physicist to support the optimization process of medical imaging techniques using ionizing radiation. After a long process of implementation, this requirement is satisfied all over the country since the beginning of 2013. The goal of this contribution is to summarize the main results obtained in this first year of experience in CT. Methods: We assessed the output and clinical use of 45 CT units using a three-pronged approach. First, we assessed the output of the device (CTDIvol, primary beam collimation and HU in water at different tube tensions). Secondly, we characterized the local chest and abdomen acquisition and reconstruction protocols using the Catphan 600 phantom. Lastly, we assessed the clinical use of the machine by analyzing an extract of a dozen clinical examinations per unit. Results: 9 out of 45 units had incorrect collimator settings, e.g. 4mm instead of 1mm. We witnessed also a large spread in reconstruction parameters, especially for reconstructed slice thickness, thus showing notable variations in low contrast detectability performances. Clinical practice is also clearly spread out. For example, estimated patient effective dose per abdomen examination lies at 18.7+/−12.7mSv (min: 2.0mSv — max: 112.0mSv). Chest and brain scans have a narrower dispersion, but patient effective dose is also spread by about a factor of 10 to 20. Conclusion: The spread in clinical practice being fairly large, it appears of crucial importance to collaborate more closely with radiologists and technologists to assess it. The lack of statistical precision will imply that we analyze clinical practice according to a specific medical demand rather than an anatomical region. Furthermore, low contrast sensitivity (LCD) being a crucial parameter, an objective method using a model observer will be used to assess LCD.

  15. 29 CFR 1918.61 - General (See also appendix IV of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General (See also appendix IV of this part). 1918.61... and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.61 General (See also appendix IV of this part). (a... initial use (see Table A in paragraph (f)(2) of this section). In addition, any special stevedoring...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.61 - General (See also appendix IV of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General (See also appendix IV of this part). 1918.61... and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.61 General (See also appendix IV of this part). (a... initial use (see Table A in paragraph (f)(2) of this section). In addition, any special stevedoring...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.61 - General (See also appendix IV of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General (See also appendix IV of this part). 1918.61... and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.61 General (See also appendix IV of this part). (a... initial use (see Table A in paragraph (f)(2) of this section). In addition, any special stevedoring...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.61 - General (See also appendix IV of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General (See also appendix IV of this part). 1918.61... and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.61 General (See also appendix IV of this part). (a... initial use (see Table A in paragraph (f)(2) of this section). In addition, any special stevedoring...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.61 - General (See also appendix IV of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General (See also appendix IV of this part). 1918.61... and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.61 General (See also appendix IV of this part). (a... initial use (see Table A in paragraph (f)(2) of this section). In addition, any special stevedoring...

  20. Normal growth of the "see-through" medaka.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ozato, Kenjiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2003-05-01

    The see-through stock in the medaka Oryzias latipes, causes pigments to be absent from the whole body and has a transparent body in the adult stage as well as during embryonic stages. To establish a standard table of growth stages for this model fish, morphological features were examined during the growing period from hatching to adulthood. The main observations were performed on morphological changes in external and internal organs that could be seen through the body wall of the living fish during growth. Finally, five growth stages from just after hatching to the adult stage were defined on the basis of synchronized or definite changes in morphology as follows: (1) stage 40 in which the nodes (joints) in bony rays of the caudal and pectoral fins first appear, (2) the stage 41 in which the ribs and the anal, dorsal and ventral fins are formed by degeneration of the membrane fin folds, as recognized by the first appearance of nodes in the fin rays of the anal, pectoral and dorsal fins, and the parallel distribution of the dorsal artery and ventral vein of the tail, (3) stage 42 in which the 2-spiral pattern of the gut, the ray nodes in the ventral fins, and the scales first appear, (4) stage 43 in which early secondary sexual characters such as urinogenital protruberances (female) and papillar processes (male) appear, (5) stage 44 in which the 3-spiral pattern of the gut and the papillar process on the 2nd ray of pectral fins (male) appear. PMID:12777831

  1. Can we see living structure in a cell?

    PubMed

    Ling, G N

    1992-06-01

    Colloid chemistry (kappa o lambda lambda alpha: glue, or gelatin) was introduced in 1861 after the discovery of protoplasm which exhibits gelatin-like properties. Some 80 years later, colloid chemistry (and with it, the concept of protoplasm) was largely abandoned. The membrane (pump) theory, according to which cell water and cell solute like K+ are free as in a dilute KCl solution, became dominant. Later studies revealed that rejecting the protoplasmic approach to cell physiology was not justified. Evidence against the membrane (pump) theory, on the other hand, has stood the test of time. In a new theory of the living cell called the association-induction (AI) hypothesis, the three major components of the living cell (water, proteins and K+) are closely associated; together they exist in a high-(negative)-energy-low entropy state called the living state. The bulk of cell water is adsorbed as polarized multilayers on some fully extended protein chains, and K+ is adsorbed singly on beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups carried on aspartic and glutamic residues of cell proteins. Extensive evidence in support of the AI hypothesis is reviewed. From an extension of the basic concepts of the AI hypothesis and the new knowledge on primary structure of the proteins, one begins to understand at long last what distinguishes gelatin from other proteins; in this new light, new definitions of protoplasm and of colloid chemistry have been introduced. With the return of the concept of protoplasm, living structure takes on renewed significance, linking cell anatomy to cell physiology. Finally, evidence is presented showing that electron microscopists have come close to seeing cell structure in its living state. PMID:1462129

  2. Can we see living structure in a cell?

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    Colloid chemistry (κολλα: glue, or gelatin) was introduced in 1861 after the discovery of protoplasm, which exhibits gelatin-like properties. Some 80 years later, colloid chemistry (and with it, the concept of protoplasm) was largely abandoned. The membrane (pump) theory, according to which cell water and cell solute like K+ are free as in a dilute KC1 solution, became dominant. Later studies revealed that rejecting the protoplasmic approach to cell physiology was not justified. Evidence against the membrane (pump) theory, on the other hand, has stood the test of time. In a new theory of the living cell called the association-induction (AI) hypothesis, the three major components of the living cell (water, proteins and K+) are closely associated; together they exist in a high- (negative)-energy-low entropy state called the living state. The bulk of cell water is adsorbed as polarized multilayers on some fully extended protein chains, and K+ is adsorbed singly on β- and γ-carboxyl groups carried on aspartic and glutamic residues of cell proteins. Extensive evidence in support of the AI hypothesis is reviewed. From an extension of the basic concepts of the AI hypothesis and the new knowledge on primary structure of the proteins, one begins to understand at long last what distinguishes gelatin from other proteins; in this new light, new definitions of protoplasm and of colloid chemistry have been introduced. With the return of the concept of protoplasm, living structure takes on renewed significance, linking cell anatomy to cell physiology. Finally, evidence is presented showing that electron microscopists have come close to seeing cell structure in its living state. PMID:25854101

  3. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  4. Designing the SALT facility to minimize dome seeing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, Mariana; Venter, Sarel J.

    2003-02-01

    Aspects of the design and experience of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) were incorporated in the SALT facility design. The characteristics of the local environment were taken into account to ensure a building that is cost effective and functional. The effect of heat from the control room and other warm areas were studied and their locations changed to limit thermal effects. A steel false floor, incorporating forced ventilation and extending around the telescope azimuth pier, was installed. This prevents heat radiating from large concrete surfaces with temperatures potentially higher than ambient. Because site testing (i.e. micro thermal measurements) indicated high turbulence within ~5 m of the ground level, the telescope and pier were raised to improve dome seeing. The SALT site is significantly windy all year round (median velocity = 4.8 m/s), and this was utilized to design better ventilation of the facility using adjustable louvers for natural ventilation. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) are presented which show an adequate temperature distribution at wind speeds as low as 0.5 m/s. The telescope chamber and dome are build out of insulation panels to ensure low thermal losses during the day when the chamber is air conditioned and thus limit electricity consumption and thermal gradients. Large equipment that emit heat or vibration are housed in a separate utility building 50 m from the telescope in the non-prevailing wind direction in order to limit their effect on the telescope. Vented air from the building is also released at this site.

  5. Beckham as Physicist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Gren

    2001-01-01

    If football captures the interest of students, it can be used to teach physics. In this case, a Beckham free-kick can be used to introduce concepts such as drag, the Bernoulli principle, Reynolds number, and the Magnus effect by asking the simple question: How does he curve the ball so much? Introduces basic mechanics along the way. (Author/ASK)

  6. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2015-12-01

    Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the world, and education has been a major focus of the government. Half of the population is female, and providing education to women has been one of the biggest challenges to the government. Encouraging science education for girls, with a focus on physics, is even more of a Herculean task. Enrollment of girls in higher education is just over 25%. Data from 2002 to mid-2014 shows that the number of women in physics is increasing gradually, although their numbers are still very low.

  7. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  8. Physicists thriving with paperless

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, H.B.

    2000-02-03

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) libraries have been comprehensively cataloguing the High Energy Particle Physics (HEP) literature since 1974 and the core database, SPIRES-HEP, now indexes over 400,000 research articles, with almost 50% linked to fulltext electronic versions. This database motivated the creation of the first web implementation in the United States (and the second in the world). With this database and the invention of the Los Alamos E-print archives in 1991, the HEP community pioneered the trend to ``paperless publishing'' and the trend to paperless access, in other words, the ``virtual library.'' the authors examine the impact this has had both on the way scientists research and on paper-based publishing. With the E-print distribution having evolved from an established tradition of sending out hard-copy pre-prints, the standard of work archived at Los Alamos is very high (70% of papers are eventually published in journals and another 20% are conference proceedings). To allow authors to ``thrive'' the SPIRES-HEP collaboration has been ensuring that as much information as possible is included with each bibliographic entry for a paper. Such meta-data can include, tables of the experimental data that researchers can easily use to perform their own analyses as well as detailed descriptions of the experiment, citation tracking and links to full-text documents.

  9. Women Physicists in Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrah, Nora

    2010-02-01

    The last decade marked the emergence of several important studies and workshops worldwide that focused attention on women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) of the American Physical Society (APS) is very active in organizing national workshops and follow up ``conversations'' with physics departments and national laboratories [1,2] to address the gender gap in the field of physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is also very devoted to this issue, and the US is involved by contributing our lesson learned and our plans to increase the number of women in physics. In the US, our goal of doubling the number of women in physics by 2022 is ambitious but could be achieved. I will present the present status on this issue and our plans for the future. [4pt] [1] http://www.aps.org/programs/women/workshops/gender-equity/index.cfm [0pt] [2] Report, ``Gender Equity: Strengthening the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'', 2007. )

  10. Geometric Algebra for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.

  11. From Frontiersman to Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert Rathbun

    This interview covers Robert Rathbun Wilson's life from his early years in Frontier, Wyoming, through his graduate studies in physics in Ernest O. Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley.

  12. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  13. Comparison of optical and video see-through, head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Jannick P.; Holloway, Richard L.; Fuchs, Henry

    1995-12-01

    One of the most promising and challenging future uses of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is in applications where virtual environments enhance rather than replace real environments. To obtain an enhanced view of the real environment, the user wears a see-through HMD to see 3D computer-generated objects superimposed on his/her real-world view. This see-through capability can be accomplished using either an optical or a video see-through HMD. We discuss the tradeoffs between optical and video see-through HMDs with respect to technological, perceptual, and human factors issues, and discuss our experience designing, building, using, and testing these HMDs.

  14. You Don't See What I See: Individual Differences in the Perception of Meaning from Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Partos, Timea R; Cropper, Simon J; Rawlings, David

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has their own unique version of the visual world and there has been growing interest in understanding the way that personality shapes one's perception. Here, we investigated meaningful visual experiences in relation to the personality dimension of schizotypy. In a novel approach to this issue, a non-clinical sample of subjects (total n = 197) were presented with calibrated images of scenes, cartoons and faces of varying visibility embedded in noise; the spatial properties of the images were constructed to mimic the natural statistics of the environment. In two experiments, subjects were required to indicate what they saw in a large number of unique images, both with and without actual meaningful structure. The first experiment employed an open-ended response paradigm and used a variety of different images in noise; the second experiment only presented a series of faces embedded in noise, and required a forced-choice response from the subjects. The results in all conditions indicated that a high positive schizotypy score was associated with an increased tendency to perceive complex meaning in images comprised purely of random visual noise. Individuals high in positive schizotypy seemed to be employing a looser criterion (response bias) to determine what constituted a 'meaningful' image, while also being significantly less sensitive at the task than those low in positive schizotypy. Our results suggest that differences in perceptual performance for individuals high in positive schizotypy are not related to increased suggestibility or susceptibility to instruction, as had previously been suggested. Instead, the observed reductions in sensitivity along with increased response bias toward seeing something that is not there, indirectly implicated subtle neurophysiological differences associated with the personality dimension of schizotypy, that are theoretically pertinent to the continuum of schizophrenia and hallucination-proneness. PMID:26954696

  15. You Don’t See What I See: Individual Differences in the Perception of Meaning from Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Partos, Timea R.; Cropper, Simon J.; Rawlings, David

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has their own unique version of the visual world and there has been growing interest in understanding the way that personality shapes one’s perception. Here, we investigated meaningful visual experiences in relation to the personality dimension of schizotypy. In a novel approach to this issue, a non-clinical sample of subjects (total n = 197) were presented with calibrated images of scenes, cartoons and faces of varying visibility embedded in noise; the spatial properties of the images were constructed to mimic the natural statistics of the environment. In two experiments, subjects were required to indicate what they saw in a large number of unique images, both with and without actual meaningful structure. The first experiment employed an open-ended response paradigm and used a variety of different images in noise; the second experiment only presented a series of faces embedded in noise, and required a forced-choice response from the subjects. The results in all conditions indicated that a high positive schizotypy score was associated with an increased tendency to perceive complex meaning in images comprised purely of random visual noise. Individuals high in positive schizotypy seemed to be employing a looser criterion (response bias) to determine what constituted a ‘meaningful’ image, while also being significantly less sensitive at the task than those low in positive schizotypy. Our results suggest that differences in perceptual performance for individuals high in positive schizotypy are not related to increased suggestibility or susceptibility to instruction, as had previously been suggested. Instead, the observed reductions in sensitivity along with increased response bias toward seeing something that is not there, indirectly implicated subtle neurophysiological differences associated with the personality dimension of schizotypy, that are theoretically pertinent to the continuum of schizophrenia and hallucination-proneness. PMID:26954696

  16. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  17. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  18. Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

    Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

    Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

    The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth

  19. ISO sees the pattern in the cosmic wallpaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Two dozen distant galaxies that are undergoing a process of intense evolution --either merging to build larger ones or reaching their final shape-- have been detected by a team of French astronomers using the European Space Agency's ISO space telescope. These are the first individual objects known to contribute their energy to the bulk of the Cosmic Infrared Background, a radiation that fills the entire universe like a wallpaper, emitted at the era when galaxies were formed. The new-found distant galaxies are indeed like the 'pattern' in this 'cosmic wallpaper'. This discovery will for the first time enable scientists to test different theories of galaxy formation, and therefore to tackle a key problem of astronomy --the birth process of galaxies which has remained a mystery so far, mainly because current telescopes cannot reach that far back in time, about 12,000 million years ago. This obstacle has been partially overcome by the French team headed by Jean-Loup Puget, at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Paris, precisely because they searched for the primeval galaxies by focusing first on the study of the cosmic wallpaper, the 'Cosmic Infrared Background' (see note to editors below). This background glow that fills the whole universe is a by-product of the galaxy formation itself, a relic of the era when the first galaxies were being born. Its existence was predicted three decades ago and it was known to be detectable only at infrared wavelengths, as the dust enshrouding young galaxies causes them to be both opaque in visible light but bright at infrared wavelengths. However, this cosmic wallpaper turned out to be very dim: only two years ago Puget's team detected it after a careful analysis of data from NASA's COBE satellite. Once the 'Cosmic Infrared Background' had been found, the next step was to disentangle it into the sources contributing to it, that is, into the young galaxies in evolution or the 'pattern' in the wallpaper. The two dozen distant

  20. Prototype for Long Wavelength Array Sees First Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    to that from a more traditional dish style telescope with a diameter of 70 feet. The antenna design, which resembles a household ceiling fan, with blades that have drooped down at an angle of 45 degrees, was conceived to allow the array to see the full sky and cover a wide range of frequencies with a single antenna "The sophisticated digital electronics used in the LWDA allow it to change observing frequency or point in a new direction in an instant, and even allow it to look in two directions at the same time," says Dr. Paul Ray, an astrophysicist at NRL who is overseeing the overall performance of the LWDA. When completed, the LWA will operate in a similar manner, but on a much grander scale. Plans call for over 13,000 individual antennas, divided into 50 stations. These stations will be spread over a 250-mile area across New Mexico, and possibly beyond. Dr. Ray explains, "With so many antennas required for the final LWA, it is vital that we have a testbed on which we can demonstrate the performance of a small number of them before construction of the full LWA begins in earnest." NRL's LWDA serves this purpose, allowing the astronomers and engineers to test the dipole antennas and related computer hardware and software on a small scale, before embarking on construction. The LWA, funding for which is managed by the Office of Naval Research, is a project of the Southwest Consortium, led by the University of New Mexico, and including NRL, ARL:UT, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, with important contributions from Virginia Tech and cooperation from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  2. On the Difference between Seeing and Image Quality: When the Turbulence Outer Scale Enters the Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.; Kolb, J.; Sarazin, M.; Tokovinin, A.

    2010-09-01

    We attempt to clarify the frequent confusion between seeing and image quality for large telescopes. The full width at half maximum of a stellar image is commonly considered to be equal to the atmospheric seeing. However the outer scale of the turbulence, which corresponds to a reduction in the low frequency content of the phase perturbation spectrum, plays a significant role in the improvement of image quality at the focus of a telescope. The image quality is therefore different (and in some cases by a large factor) from the atmospheric seeing that can be measured by dedicated seeing monitors, such as a differential image motion monitor.

  3. Comparative Solar Seeing and Scintillation Studies at the Fuxian Lake Solar Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liu; Beckers, Jacques M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting November 1999 we are carrying out simultaneous seeing observations with the Solar Differential Image Motion Monitor (S-DIMM) at the Fuxian Lake station of the Yunnan Observatory and a solar scintillometer of the type used in the recent site survey by one of us (Beckers et al., 1997). The purpose was to compare the two methods of assessing the daytime atmospheric seeing for a lake site. We report here the first results of this comparison. We find that the relation between the seeing as measured by the S-DIMM (the Fried parameter r 0) and the scintillation in the solar irradiance (σI) differs greatly from the relation found by Seykora (1993) for NSO/Sac Peak. We conclude that the σI measurements give a good indication for the amount of near-Earth seeing but that they are a poor proxy for the total atmospheric seeing. We interpret the simultaneous ( r 0, σI) observations in terms of an atmospheric seeing model and find good quantitative agreement with a model in which a fraction (α) of the seeing originated near the Earth (ground or water) and the rest (1-α) originates at higher layers. For lake sites α is small all day and the seeing is determined primarily by the refractive index variations at higher atmospheric layers. For land sites α is small in the early morning but rapidly increases as the day progresses, near-Earth seeing dominating there most of the time.

  4. Comparative Solar Seeing and Scintillation Studies at the Fuxian Lake Solar Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Beckers, Jacques M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting November 1999 we are carrying out simultaneous seeing observations with the Solar Differential Image Motion Monitor (S-DIMM) at the Fuxian Lake station of the Yunnan Observatory and a solar scintillometer of the type used in the recent site survey by one of us (Beckers et al., 1997). The purpose was to compare the two methods of assessing the daytime atmospheric seeing for a lake site. We report here the first results of this comparison. We find that the relation between the seeing as measured by the S-DIMM (the Fried parameter r_0) and the scintillation in the solar irradiance (σ_I) differs greatly from the relation found by Seykora (1993) for NSO/Sac Peak. We conclude that the σ_I measurements give a good indication for the amount of near-Earth seeing but that they are a poor proxy for the total atmospheric seeing. We interpret the simultaneous (r_0, σ_I) observations in terms of an atmospheric seeing model and find good quantitative agreement with a model in which a fraction (α) of the seeing originated near the Earth (ground or water) and the rest (1-α) originates at higher layers. For lake sites α is small all day and the seeing is determined primarily by the refractive index variations at higher atmospheric layers. For land sites α is small in the early morning but rapidly increases as the day progresses, near-Earth seeing dominating there most of the time.

  5. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

    2010-07-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

  6. 29 CFR 1607.17 - Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B... affirmative action (see section 13B). The Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council was established by... policies concerning the role of affirmative action in the overall equal employment opportunity...

  7. 29 CFR 1607.17 - Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B... affirmative action (see section 13B). The Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council was established by... policies concerning the role of affirmative action in the overall equal employment opportunity...

  8. Seeing, Inquiring, Witnessing: Using the Equity Audit in Practitioner Inquiry to Rethink Inequity in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Teacher," Jonathan Kozol (2007) describes the need for teachers to "speak out as witnesses to the injustices they see each day in public schools" (p. 93). Sometimes beginning teachers need help learning to see injustices, as well as in making sense of the sociopolitical systems of which schooling is a part. Or, as in the…

  9. Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See

    SciTech Connect

    Lienhard, John

    2004-07-12

    Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

  10. The Role of the Holy See in Fostering the Identity of Catholic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Holy See plays an important role in encouraging the 1300 Catholic universities around the world to appropriate more fully their freely chosen Catholic identity. I use the word "identity" rather than "mission" because this follows the terminology most frequently used in documents from the Holy See. In this article, I discuss how the Holy See…

  11. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  17. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The study of the natural space environment and its effects on spacecraft is one of the most important and least understood aspects of spacecraft design. The Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program prepared the Meteoroids and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan, a SEE-focused high school curriculum to engage students in creative activities that will…

  18. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.22 Hazardous cargo 2...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.22 Hazardous cargo 2...

  5. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.28 - Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)). 1917.28 Section 1917.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi))....

  7. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.28 - Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)). 1917.28 Section 1917.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi))....

  9. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do not provide...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.28 - Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)). 1917.28 Section 1917.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi))....

  11. 29 CFR 1917.28 - Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)). 1917.28 Section 1917.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi))....

  12. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.22 Hazardous cargo 2...

  14. 76 FR 50752 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request for the Landslide Report: Did You See It?

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Comments On December 9, 2010 we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 76752) announcing that we would... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request for the Landslide Report: Did You See It... information collection request (ICR) for the USGS Landslide Hazards Program's Landslide Report: Did You See...

  15. Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See

    ScienceCinema

    Lienhard, John [NPR, United States

    2010-09-01

    Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

  16. Tell Me What You See: Pre-Service Teachers' Recognition of Exemplary Digital Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Margaret; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    How do you identify "good" teaching practice in the complexity of a real classroom? How do you know that beginning teachers can recognise effective digital pedagogy when they see it? How can teacher educators see through their students' eyes? The study in this paper has arisen from our interest in what pre-service teachers…

  17. Conservation of the Ustilago maydis effector See1 in related smuts

    PubMed Central

    Redkar, Amey; Villajuana- Bonequi, Mitzi; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that induces formation of tumors in maize (Zea mays L). In a recent study we identified See1 (Seedling efficient effector 1) as an U. maydis organ-specific effector required for tumor formation in leaves. See1 is required for U. maydis induced reactivation of plant DNA synthesis during leaf tumor progression. The protein is secreted from biotrophic hyphae and localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of plant cell. See1 interacts with maize SGT1, a cell cycle and immune regulator, interfering with its MAPK-triggered phosphorylation. Here, we present new data on the conservation of See1 in other closely related smuts and experimental data on the functionality of See1 ortholog in Ustilago hordei, the causal agent of barley covered smut disease. PMID:26357869

  18. A Change of Perspective: Seeing through Children at the Front of the Classroom, to Seeing Children from the Back of the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kerryn

    2013-01-01

    This article considers a noted trend by teacher educators at a South African University where student teachers seem to have very little connection with children they teach on their teaching practicals. This lack of engagement and ability to see individual children that are being taught and respond to them is the focus of the paper. The paper…

  19. Volcano-tectonic structures and CO2-degassing patterns in the Laacher See basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goepel, Andreas; Lonschinski, Martin; Viereck, Lothar; Büchel, Georg; Kukowski, Nina

    2015-07-01

    The Laacher See Volcano is the youngest (12,900 year BP) eruption center of the Quarternary East-Eifel Volcanic Field in Germany and has formed Laacher See, the largest volcanic lake in the Eifel area. New bathymetric data of Laacher See were acquired by an echo sounder system and merged with topographic light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data of the Laacher See Volcano area to form an integrated digital elevation model. This model provides detailed morphological information about the volcano basin and results of sediment transport therein. Morphological analysis of Laacher See Volcano indicates a steep inner crater wall (slope up to 30°) which opens to the south. The Laacher See basin is divided into a deep northern and a shallower southern part. The broader lower slopes inclined with up to 25° change to the almost flat central part (maximum water depth of 51 m) with a narrow transition zone. Erosion processes of the crater wall result in deposition of volcaniclastics as large deltas in the lake basin. A large subaqueous slide was identified at the northeastern part of the lake. CO2-degassing vents (wet mofettes) of Laacher See were identified by a single-beam echo sounder system through gas bubbles in the water column. These are more frequent in the northern part of the lake, where wet mofettes spread in a nearly circular-shaped pattern, tracing the crater rim of the northern eruption center of the Laacher See Volcano. Additionally, preferential paths for gas efflux distributed concentrically inside the crater rim are possibly related to volcano-tectonic faults. In the southern part of Laacher See, CO2 vents occur in a high spatial density only within the center of the arc-shaped structure Barschbuckel possibly tracing the conduit of a tuff ring.

  20. See Attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Since e-mail generates itself on a round-the-clock, daily basis, it's not unusual for me to receive an average of fifty e-mails a day, or more than 300 a week. That s a lot of e-mail. I have spoken with many of my fellow project managers about my relationship with e-mail. In my case, reading and responding to it is a temptation almost too hard to resist. When I receive an e-mail I tend to want to stop everything I m doing, and open and answer it. Indeed, in my life you could say e-mail is a force to be reckoned with. Interestingly, my fascination with mail began a long time ago. I trace it back to my days as a young boy when I started receiving my first letters from friends and family. Walking home from school, I was often filled with curiosity, wondering if I had received any mail that day. In college, I knew the exact time the mail was delivered, and I headed for my mailbox as close to that hour as I could. After that, I served in an Army Reserve Post Office Unit, where I came to realize how important a postal unit was to the military. There were many others like myself, far from home, who relied on the written word to stay connected to the people in their lives. Over the years I have changed in many ways, and so has the mail. But the same sense of connection, and the same urge to respond to someone who has written me, remains. The 24/7 nature of e-mail has compounded the situation. It is relentless in its pursuit of my time and attention-and, as such, e-mail has become something I have had to manage in a variety of situations

  1. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  2. Seeing Red

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study by the National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute that reveals increasing debt further threatens the financial security of U.S. colleges and universities in the aftermath of the recession. Debt increases rapidly as endowments drop and deficit-racked state governments…

  3. Seeing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2008-01-01

    The daily reality of working with a group of young children presents many demands for adults in early childhood programs. There are the ongoing chores of caretaking and cleaning up, planning and providing an engaging curriculum, communicating with families and coworkers, and the ever-growing pressures for outcomes, assessment, and documentation to…

  4. Seeing rainbows.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D M

    2001-04-01

    Mammals generally have colour vision inferior to that of other vertebrates. This is partially redressed in primates, but the underlying mechanisms differ in Old World and New World primate groups. How has this occurred and what were the key events in the molecular evolution of primate colour vision? PMID:11313537

  5. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists"). PMID:26851162

  6. Research Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle from Human Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle From Human Stem Cells Could be a major advance for regenerative medicine, ... muscle and 10 other cells types from human stem cells within a matter of days. The researchers from ...

  7. Preschoolers' mutualistic conception of seeing is related to their knowledge of the pronoun "each other".

    PubMed

    Moll, Henrike; Arellano, Daniel; Guzman, Ambar; Cordova, Xochitl; Madrigal, John A

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has shown that young children deny being able to see an agent whose eyes are covered. The current study explored this phenomenon further. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds denied that they could "see," but affirmed that they could "look at," a doll whose eyes were covered--indicating that they demand mutuality for seeing another but not for looking at another. In Experiment 2, 3.5-year-olds drew the same distinction between "see" and "look at" when facing a doll or a human. A strong correlation between children's knowledge of the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and their adherence to the mutuality demand was found. The results are discussed with respect to children's bias for second personal encounters and children's relational concept of persons. PMID:25558861

  8. Study Sees No Link Between Common Epilepsy Drug, Certain Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158169.html Study Sees No Link Between Common Epilepsy Drug, Certain Birth Defects Large review found no ... Despite initial concern from early studies, taking the epilepsy drug lamotrigine (Lamictal) during pregnancy may not raise ...

  9. Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule Allow Parents the Right to See Their Children's Medical Records?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule allow parents the right to see their children’s medical records? Answer: Yes, ... your contact information below. Email Office for Civil Rights Headquarters U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 ...

  10. The education of an astronomical maverick: T. J. J. See and the University of Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Charles J.

    2004-08-01

    The educational background of the controversial astronomer Thomas Jefferson Jackson See is recounted. See failed in successive employment and research opportunities; coworkers and superiors apparently were repelled by his intense egotism, his inability to work with others, his refusal to operate within established codes of conduct, and questions arising from both the source and the reliability of his scientific work. See's approach to his scientific career was shaped, to a large degree, by his undergraduate education, and the professional turmoil of his later life was paralleled by his tumultuous career as a student at the University of Missouri, which included bitter political infighting and accusations of plagiarism. Combined with a tendency to make fundamental errors in both observational and theoretical research, See's flaws ultimately cost him his scientific credibility and destroyed his professional career and reputation.

  11. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  17. 43 CFR 4.120 - Subpoenas. (See § 4.100(a)(2).)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoenas. (See § 4.100(a)(2).) 4.120 Section 4.120 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND... Procedure Rules § 4.120 Subpoenas. (See § 4.100(a)(2).) (a) General. Upon written request of either...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.55 - Cranes (See also § 1918.11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cranes (See also § 1918.11). 1918.55 Section 1918.55 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.55 Cranes (See also § 1918.11). The following requirements shall apply to the use of cranes forming part of a...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.55 - Cranes (See also § 1918.11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cranes (See also § 1918.11). 1918.55 Section 1918.55 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.55 Cranes (See also § 1918.11). The following requirements shall apply to the use of cranes forming part of a...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.55 - Cranes (See also § 1918.11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cranes (See also § 1918.11). 1918.55 Section 1918.55 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.55 Cranes (See also § 1918.11). The following requirements shall apply to the use of cranes forming part of a...