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Sample records for nocardia rubra cell

  1. Cell-mediated immunity in experimental Nocardia asteroides infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, T; Agarwal, S C

    1977-01-01

    Experimental mycetoma-like lesions developed in guinea pigs after subcutaneous injection of Nocardia asteroides. Although delayed hypersensitivity appeared earlier, increased macrophage migration inhibition and microbicidal activity appeared after 7 weeks. When the lesions healed, high cell-mediated immunity was present. Cell-mediated immunity was transferred to normal recipient guinea pigs from healed donor guinea pigs by spleen cell transfer. Recipient guinea pigs showed marked protection against challenge with N. asteroides. PMID:321348

  2. Hetero-oligomeric cell wall channels (porins) of Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Kläckta, Christian; Knörzer, Philipp; Riess, Franziska; Benz, Roland

    2011-06-01

    The cell wall of Nocardia farcinica contains a cation-selective cell wall channel, which may be responsible for the limited permeability of the cell wall of N. farcinica for negatively charged antibiotics. Based on partial sequencing of the protein responsible for channel formation derived from N. farcinica ATTC 3318 we were able to identify the corresponding genes (nfa15890 and nfa15900) within the known genome of N. farcinica IFM 10152. The corresponding genes of N. farcinica ATTC 3318 were separately expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21DE3Omp8 strain and the N-terminal His10-tagged proteins were purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The pure proteins were designated NfpANHis and NfpBNHis, for N. farcinica porin A and N. farcinica porin B. The two proteins were checked separately for channel formation in lipid bilayers. Our results clearly indicate that the proteins NfpANHis and NfpBNHis expressed in E. coli could only together form a channel in lipid bilayer membranes. This means that the cell wall channel of N. farcinica is formed by a heterooligomer. NfpA and NfpB form together a channel that may structurally be related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis based on amino acid comparison and renaturation procedure. PMID:21092733

  3. Nocardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, and bones. Nocardia bacteria are found in soil around the world. You can get the disease ... bacteria. You can also get the diseaseor if soil containing nocardia bacteria gets into an open wound. ...

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Mycobacteria spp., they have the potential for use as reagents in the purification of Nocardia antigens. Images PMID:2405017

  5. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. PMID:26485638

  6. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  7. Non-inducible, mainly cell-associated beta-lactamase from Nocardia asteroides strain 108.

    PubMed

    Scopetti, F; Fattorini, L; Franceschini, N; Amicosante, G; Orefici, G

    1997-07-01

    The beta-lactamase of the soil-borne strain 108 (parental strain) of Nocardia asteroides is a non-inducible enzyme mainly associated with the cells; it can be efficiently extracted by ultrasonication and SDS treatment. Crude enzyme preparations showed penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity. The kinetics of beta-lactamase production and in-vitro susceptibility to combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics plus beta-lactamase inhibitors have been studied in two stable overproducer mutants (A14 and B1) obtained by mutagenization of the parental strain with nitrosoguanidine. The cell-associated enzyme increased with bacterial growth in parental and mutant strains and was particularly abundant in stationary phase cells. The beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam and clavulanic acid decreased MIC values of penicillins more efficiently in the parental strain than in mutants, thus indicating some involvement of the enzyme in the resistance of N. asteroides strain 108 to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:9249198

  8. Mechanism of angiogenic effects of saponin from ginseng Radix rubra in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, N.; Watanabe, S.; Tezuka, M.; Zenibayashi, M.; Shiina, R.; Koyama, N.; Kanzaki, T.; Saito, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of saponin from Ginseng Radix rubra on angiogenesis (tube formation) and its key steps (protease secretion, proliferation and migration) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined to elucidate the mechanism of the tissue repairing effects of Ginseng Radix rubra. The effect on a wound healing model was also studied. 2. Tube formation was measured by an in vitro system. The activity and immunoreactivity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) as a protease for angiogenesis and the immunoreactivity of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), were measured in conditioned medium of HUVEC stimulated for 24 h with saponin. Cell proliferation was measured by counting the cell numbers at 2-7 days after seeding. Migration was measured by Boyden's chamber method. The effect on wound healing was studied in the skin of diabetic rats. 3. Saponin at 10-100 micrograms ml-1 significantly stimulated tube formation by HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner. Saponin in a similar concentration-range increased the secretion of tPA from HUVEC as estimated by immunoreactivity and enzyme activity. On the other hand, PAI-1 immunoreactivity was slightly increased at 10 micrograms ml-1 of saponin, but then was significantly decreased at 50 and 100 micrograms ml-1. Cell proliferation was only slightly enhanced by 1-100 micrograms ml-1 of saponin, but migration was significantly enhanced by 10-100 micrograms ml-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, saponin stimulated wound healing with enhanced angiogenesis in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 8 PMID:7582543

  9. Nocardia farcinica Activates Human Dendritic Cells and Induces Secretion of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Rather than IL-12p70

    PubMed Central

    Eisenblätter, Martin; Buchal, Ariane; Gayum, Hermine; Jasny, Edith; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Ulrichs, Timo; Schneider, Thomas; Schumann, Ralf R.; Zweigner, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Studying the interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with bacteria controlled by T-cell-mediated immune responses may reveal novel adjuvants for the induction of cellular immunity. Murine studies and the observation that nocardias infect predominantly immunosuppressed patients have suggested that these bacteria may possess an adjuvant potential. Moreover, adjuvants on the basis of the nocardial cell wall have been applied in clinical studies. Since the handling of adjuvants by DCs may determine the type of immune responses induced by a vaccine, the present study aimed at investigating the interaction of immature human monocyte-derived DCs with live or inactivated Nocardia farcinica in vitro and determining the cellular phenotypic changes as well as alterations in characteristic functions, such as phagocytosis, induction of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Human DCs ingested N. farcinica and eradicated the bacterium intracellularly. DCs exposed to inactivated N. farcinica were activated, i.e., they developed a mature phenotype, downregulated their phagocytic capacity, and stimulated allogeneic T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. Soluble factors were not involved in this process. To elucidate the potential adjuvant effect of N. farcinica on the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses, we characterized the cytokines produced by nocardia-exposed DCs and detected substantial amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). However, nocardia-treated DCs secreted only small amounts of IL-12p70, which were significantly smaller than the amounts of IL-23. Thus, N. farcinica activates DCs, but adjuvants based on this bacterium may have only a limited capacity to induce Th1 immune responses. PMID:22988018

  10. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  11. Pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... rubra pilaris - close-up References James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and ... papulosquamous and hyperkeratotic diseases. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: ...

  12. Highly Enantioselective Production of (R)-Halohydrins with Whole Cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 Culture

    PubMed Central

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog’s rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses. PMID:25486054

  13. Nocardia zapadnayensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir-Kocak, Fadime; Saygin, Hayrettin; Saricaoglu, Salih; Cetin, Demet; Pötter, Gabriele; Spröer, Cathrin; Guven, Kiymet; Isik, Kamil; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and mycolic acid containing strain, FMN18(T), isolated from soil, was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties that were consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia and it formed a phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (type IV) and whole cell sugars were galactose, glucose, arabinose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4ω-cyclo). The major phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. Major fatty acids are C16:0, 10-methyl C18:0 (TBSA), C18:1 cis9 and C16:1 trans9. These chemotaxonomic traits are in good agreement with those known for representatives of the genus Nocardia. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain FMN18(T) showed it to be closely related to Nocardia grenadensis GW5-5797(T) (99.2 %), Nocardia speluncae N2-11(T) (99.1 %), Nocardia jinanensis 04-5195(T) (99.0 %) and Nocardia rhamnosiphila 202GMO(T) (98.3 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence of strain FMN18(T) showed it to be closely related to N. rhamnosiphila 202GMO(T) (99.0 %), N. grenadensis DSM 45869(T) (96.6 %), N. jinanensis DSM 45048(T) (93.1 %), N. carnea IFM 0237(T) (89.7 %) and N. speluncae DSM 45078(T) (89.1 %). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain FMN18(T) was clearly distinguished from all closely related Nocardia species. It is proposed that the organism be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia zapadnayensis (type strain FMN18(T) = DSM 45872(T) = KCTC 29234(T)) is proposed. PMID:26547854

  14. Nymphaea rubra ameliorates TNF-α-induced insulin resistance via suppression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-κB in the rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Rahuja, Neha; Ishrat, Nayab; Asthana, R K; Mishra, D K; Maurya, Rakesh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated insulin signaling and the anti-inflammatory effects by the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea rubra flowers in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in the rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 myotubes) to dissect out its anti-hyperglycemic mechanism. N. rubra enhances the GLUT4-mediated glucose transport in a dose dependent manner and also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1, and the IRS-1 associated PI-3 kinase activity in TNF-α-treated L6 myotubes. Moreover, N. rubra decreases Ser(307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the suppression of JNK and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, N. rubra reverses the insulin resistance by the inhibition of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase and Nuclear-κB. PMID:25234391

  15. Nocardia species: host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Beaman, L

    1994-01-01

    The nocardiae are bacteria belonging to the aerobic actinomycetes. They are an important part of the normal soil microflora worldwide. The type species, Nocardia asteroides, and N. brasiliensis, N. farcinica, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. transvalensis cause a variety of diseases in both normal and immunocompromised humans and animals. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are complex, not fully understood, and include the capacity to evade or neutralize the myriad microbicidal activities of the host. The relative virulence of N. asteroides correlates with the ability to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytes; to neutralize phagosomal acidification; to detoxify the microbicidal products of oxidative metabolism; to modify phagocyte function; to grow within phagocytic cells; and to attach to, penetrate, and grow within host cells. Both activated macrophages and immunologically specific T lymphocytes constitute the major mechanisms for host resistance to nocardial infection, whereas B lymphocytes and humoral immunity do not appear to be as important in protecting the host. Thus, the nocardiae are facultative intracellular pathogens that can persist within the host, probably in a cryptic form (L-form), for life. Silent invasion of brain cells by some Nocardia strains can induce neurodegeneration in experimental animals; however, the role of nocardiae in neurodegenerative diseases in humans needs to be investigated. Images PMID:8055469

  16. Nocardia asteroides keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, L W; Harrison, G K; Merz, W G; Stark, W J

    1979-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides has been reported as the cause of keratitis in only 7 cases and of other ocular disease in another 12 cases. We report a case of N. asteroides keratitis that presented 3 weeks after rural trauma and progressed despite trials of appropriate antibiotics. Seven weeks after the origianl injury a successful conjunctival flap was placed over the cornea. The morphology and the sensitivity testing of N. asteroides to antibiotics appears necessary before reliable information can be obtained for clinical use. Moreover, our case did not show the relatively benign course of other reported cases of nocardia keratitis. Images PMID:380634

  17. Nocardia, nocardiosis and mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Boiron, P; Locci, R; Goodfellow, M; Gumaa, S A; Isik, K; Kim, B; McNeil, M M; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Shojaei, H

    1998-01-01

    The recent emergence of invasive infections due to Nocardia spp., including nosocomial outbreak, is now evident. Newer molecular diagnostic and typing methods are developed. Although sulfonamide-based therapy is generally effective, optimal treatment may be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates. The improved classification of nocardiae and other related genera such as actinomadurae, using the 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, provide a sound basis for improved diagnostic methods for the identification of members of clinically significant species. The commonest cause of eumycetoma in Sudan is Madurella mycetomatis, and Streptomyces somaliensis and Actinomadura madurae for actinomycetoma. The humoral immunity response in actinomycetoma patients and in experimental mice was measured and significant titre of anti-P24 antibody was demonstrated. PMID:9988489

  18. The Influence of Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra on the Antiproliferative and Pro-Oxidative Effects of Doxorubicin and Its Accumulation in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Boušová, Iva; Skarka, Adam; Hanušová, Veronika; Králová, Věra; Matoušková, Petra; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO), α-humulene (HUM), trans-nerolidol (NER), and valencene (VAL) are substantial components of the essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves which has exhibited significant antiproliferative effects in several intestinal cancer cell lines, with CaCo-2 cells being the most sensitive. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these sesquiterpenes on the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in CaCo-2 cancer cells and in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that HUM, NER, VAL and CAO inhibited proliferation of CaCo-2 cancer cells but they did not affect the viability of hepatocytes. CAO, NER and VAL synergistically potentiated the efficacy of DOX in cancer cells killing. All sesquiterpenes exhibited the ability to selectively increase DOX accumulation in cancer cells and did not affect DOX concentration in hepatocytes. Additionally, CAO and VAL were able to increase the pro-oxidative effect of DOX in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, CAO mildly ameliorated DOX toxicity in hepatocytes. Based on all results, CAO seems to be the most promising compound for further testing. PMID:26307963

  19. [Pityriasis rubra pilaris].

    PubMed

    Quenan, Sandrine; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2016-03-30

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare heterogeneous disorder characterized by follicular keratosis, perifollicular erythema and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The aetiology is still unknown. In the majority of cases some triggering factors are found such as trauma or bacterial infection, possibly on a predisposed condition. In other cases, some immunological disorders are associated, and in familial cases a genetic disorder of keratinization has been suggested. The evolution is variable according to the clinical type. The treatment is not well defined, and there is a lack of clinical trials. The best results however are obtained with oral retinoids, methotrexate or ciclosporine as alternative therapy. New TNF inhibitors and anti-IL-12/23 showed a good result and could be have interest in the future. PMID:27172696

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  2. Nocardia donostiensis sp. nov., isolated from human respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Bell, Melissa; Marimón, José Maria; Humrighouse, Benjamin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Pötter, Gabrielle; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-05-01

    Three human clinical isolates (X1654, X1655, and W9944) were recovered from the sputum and bronchial washings of two patients with pulmonary infections. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates showed that they share 100 % sequence similarity with each other and belong to the genus Nocardia. Close phylogenetic neighbours are Nocardia brevicatena ATCC 15333(T) (98.6 %) and Nocardia paucivorans ATCC BAA-278T (98.4 %). The in silico DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolates ranges from 96.8 to 100 % suggesting that they belong to the same genomic species. The DNA-DNA relatedness between X1654 and N. brevicatena ATCC 15333(T) is 13.3 ± 2.3 % and N. paucivorans ATCC BAA-278T is 18.95 ± 1.1 % suggesting that they do not belong to the same genomic species. Believed to represent a novel species, these isolates were further characterised to establish their taxonomic standing within the genus. Chemotaxonomic data for isolate X1654 are consistent with those described for the genus Nocardia: this isolate produced saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, tuberculostearic acid (15.9 %), the major menaquinone was MK-8 (H4cyclic), mycolic acid chain lengths ranged from 38 to 58 carbons, produced meso-diaminopimelic acid with arabinose, glucose, and galactose as the whole cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The DNA G+C content is 66.7 mol  %. Based on the combination of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic data for X1654, X1655, and W9944, we conclude that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Nocardia for which we propose the name Nocardia donostiensis sp. nov. with X1654(T) (=DSM 46814(T) = CECT 8839(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26914251

  3. Immunomodulating activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. extracts: activation of rat dendritic cells and improvement of the T(H)1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a T(H)1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  4. Disseminated Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Boamah, H; Puranam, P; Sandre, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram-positive, partially acid-fast, methenamine silver-positive aerobic actinomycete that is infrequently associated with nocardiosis. The relative frequency of Nocardia farcinica isolates in nocardiosis is unknown but thought to be under diagnosis. It is increasingly been recognized in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica causing brain abscess in 55 year old immunocompetent man who was successfully treated with long term antibiotics. The present report illustrates that early detection and treatment of disseminated Nocardia farcinica can lead to a good outcome. PMID:27617207

  5. Genetic Manipulation of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Dipesh; Kumar Jha, Amit; Pokhrel, Anaya; Shrestha, Anil; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase positive, and non-motile actinomycetes. They are associated with human infections. However, some species produce important natural products, degrade toxic chemicals, and are involved in biotransformation of valuable products. The lack of robust genetic tools has hindered detailed studies and advanced research. This unit describes the major genetic engineering approaches using Nocardia sp. CS682 as a prototype. These methods will certainly help in understanding the basis of their pathogenicity as well as biosynthetic and biotransforming abilities. It can be expected that knowledge of the biochemistry behind their pathogenicity will be crucial in developing effective treatment strategies. These genetic tools can be utilized to develop rational metabolic engineering approaches for crafting host strains with higher production or biotransformation ability. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26855280

  6. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Elaine Y. L.; Boutlis, Craig S.; Chen, Darren B.; Liu, Eunice Y.-T.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis. PMID:26041900

  7. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    PubMed

    Yong, Elaine X L; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Boutlis, Craig S; Chen, Darren B; Liu, Eunice Y-T; McKew, Genevieve L

    2015-08-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis. PMID:26041900

  8. Molecular identification and thermoresistance to boiling of Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine bulk tank milk

    PubMed Central

    Condas, L.A.Z.; Ribeiro, M.G.; Gonoi, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Yazawa, K.; Motta, R.G.; Franco, M.M.J.; Listoni, F.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of Nocardia spp. were isolated from bovine milk of two individual bulk tank. Molecular identification classified the strains as Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. The thermorresistance to boiling of the isolates was carried out and was observed bacterial growth after boiling. Our findings indicate the potential risk of pathogen transmission to humans through contaminated milk with Nocardia spp. PMID:24031926

  9. Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.

    PubMed

    Godt, M; Hamrick, J

    1998-06-01

    Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

  10. Microbial Transformation of Ibuprofen by a Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijun; Rosazza, John P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The carboxylic acid functional group of ibuprofen [α-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) benzene acetic acid] is reduced to the corresponding alcohol and subsequently esterified to the acetate derivative by cultures of Nocardia species strain NRRL 5646. The alcohol and ester microbial transformation products were isolated, and their structures were determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By derivatization of synthetic and microbiologically produced ibuprofen alcohols with S(+)-O-acetylmandelic acid, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the carboxylic acid reductase of Nocardia sp. is R enantioselective, giving alcohol products with an enantiomeric excess of 61.2%. The R enantioselectivity of the carboxylic acid reductase enzyme system was confirmed by using cell extracts together with ATP and NADPH in the reduction of isomeric ibuprofens. PMID:16349237

  11. Nocardia vulneris sp. nov., isolated from wounds of human patients in North America.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Brent A; Bell, Melissa; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Brown, June M

    2014-09-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment with an increasing number of species isolated from clinical sources. From 2005 to 2009, eight isolates (W9042, W9247, W9290, W9319, W9846, W9851T, W9865, and W9908) were obtained from eight patients from three states in the United States and Canada; all were from males ranging in age from 47 to 81 years old; and all were obtained from finger (n = 5) or leg (n = 3) wounds. Isolates were characterized by polyphasic analysis using molecular, phenotypic, morphologic and chemotaxonomic methods. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the eight isolates are 100 % identical to each other and belong in the genus Nocardia. The nearest phylogenetically related neighbours were found to be the type strains for Nocardia altamirensis (99.33 % sequence similarity), Nocardia brasiliensis (99.37 %), Nocardia iowensis (98.95 %) and Nocardia tenerifensis (98.44 %). The G+C content of isolate W9851T was determined to be 68.4 mol %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain W9851T and the N. brasiliensis type strain was 72.8 % and 65.8 % when measured in the laboratory and in silico from genome sequences, respectively, and 95.6 % ANI. Whole-cell peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid; MK-8-(H4)ω-cyc was identified as the major menaquinone; the major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, 10 Me C18:0, and C18:1 w9c, the predominant phospholipids were found to include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides; whole-cell sugars detected were arabinose and galactose; and mycolic acids ranging from 38 to 60 carbon atoms were found to be present. These chemotaxonomic analyses are consistent with assignment of the isolates to the genus Nocardia. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of the clinical isolates showed genus and species level profiles that were different from other Nocardia species. All

  12. Bioconversion of steroid glycosides by Nocardia restricta.

    PubMed

    Belic, I; Kastelic-Suhadolc, T; Kralj, B

    1985-09-01

    The bioconversion of steroid alkaloid tomatine by Nocardia restricta yields the conjugate with lactic acid. We studied the bioconversion of some steroid glycosides without a nitrogen atom in the molecule to determine the effect of the nitrogen atom. The glycosides were of three different types: sterol glycosides, bufadienolide rhamnoside and steroid saponine. The results of bioconversions showed that Nocardia restricta converts steroid glycosides differently according to the sugar bound to the steroid aglycone. It can be concluded that in the absence of a nitrogen atom in the steroid molecule no conjugation with lactic acid by Nocardia restricta occurs. PMID:4046605

  13. Brain abscess caused by Nocardia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Uneda, Atsuhito; Suzuki, Kenta; Okubo, Shuichi; Hirashita, Koji; Yunoki, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nocardia infection of the central nervous system leading to brain abscess is a rare condition but has a high mortality rate. Among the species of Nocardia, only three cases of brain abscess due to Nocardia asiatica infection have been reported. Case Description: A 65-year-old man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prednisolone presented to our hospital because of occipital headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral occipital lesions. The patient underwent craniotomy and resection of the left occipital lobe lesion. N. asiatica was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing of the resected specimen. Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole led to a complete resolution of the brain lesion. Conclusion: Because of the different antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among Nocardia species, both appropriate subtyping and susceptibility testing of uncommon species such as N. asiatica are required for the successful treatment of nocardial infections. PMID:27563485

  14. Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-01-04

    For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

  15. The Spectrum of Nocardia Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mei-Zahav, Meir; Livnat, Galit; Bentur, Lea; Mussaffi, Huda; Prais, Dario; Stafler, Patrick; Bar-On, Ophir; Steuer, Guy; Blau, Hannah

    2015-08-01

    We reviewed all cases of Nocardia infection in cystic fibrosis patients at 2 centers. Eight of 200 patients had Nocardia in sputum. Four developed severe lung disease, including 3 with associated allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; 4 remained clinically stable. Nocardia is often associated with significant lung disease in cystic fibrosis, possibly associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or steroids. PMID:25973994

  16. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed. PMID:26873179

  17. Isolation of both Pseudozyma aphidis and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum from a mycetoma on the leg.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Zhu, Lin-yu; Xuan, Xuan; Wu, Ling-jian; Zhou, Tie-li; Zhang, Xue-qi; Li, Bing-xu

    2011-06-01

    We describe a case of mycetoma which typified the classic presentation of the disease: a male farmer with affection of the lower limbs and a history of trauma. The patient presented with a swollen right lower limb showing multiple discharging sinuses for 25 years. Histopathologically, grains were found by HE stain, and clustered yeast-like cells were observed by PAS stain. The distinctive 'dot-in-circle' sign was found through MRI. Besides Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Pseudozyma aphidis was isolated from deep tissue culture, and the identification of the etiologic species was ascertained by DNA sequencing. Generally speaking, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is an infrequent cause of mycetoma, and Pseudozyma species are usually isolated from plant material rather than clinical specimens. This is the first case of mycetoma from which both Nocardia otitidiscaviarum and Pseudozyma aphidis were isolated. PMID:21595667

  18. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)). PMID:26297293

  19. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  20. Pityriasis rubra pilaris following exposure to dolomite

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Siadat, Amir H.

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we present a 30-year-old man who developed pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) following exposure to Dolomite. The diagnosis of PRP was confirmed histologically and the patient was successfully treated with acitretin and cyclosporine. PMID:24516497

  1. A rapid and gentle method for isolation of genomic DNA from pathogenic Nocardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, R D; Oletta, C A; Zlotnik, H

    1996-01-01

    The lack of simple and efficient methods for extraction of DNA from Nocardia spp. has hampered molecular manipulation of the DNA for diagnostic purposes. In the present study, a method for the rapid extraction of undegraded genomic nocardial DNA was established. Briefly, 14 pathogenic Nocardia strains were grown at 37 degrees C for 3 to 5 days in Sauton broth containing 0.05% Tween 80. Subsequently, the cultures were treated for 48 h with 1.2 mg of cycloserine per ml (final concentration). Cells were then harvested by centrifugation and treated with a lysis solution containing 3 mg of lysozyme per ml. This was followed by the addition of proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulfate to final concentrations of 0.2 mg/ml and 0.5%, respectively, and incubation for 1 h at 50 degrees C. DNA was precipitated with isopropanol after phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extractions and RNase treated before being quantitated and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The average undegraded DNA yields obtained were 101 micrograms for Nocardia brasiliensis and 121 micrograms for N. asteroides. This DNA was suitable for restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR amplification, which are methods being applied to the characterization and diagnosis of slowly growing organisms such as Nocardia spp. PMID:8877144

  2. Nocardia farcinica bacteraemia presenting as a prostate abscess.

    PubMed

    Scorey, Hana; Daniel, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is characterised as a Gram positive filamentous rod and is found worldwide in soil, decaying vegetable matter and aquatic environments. Localised pulmonary infection is the most common clinical presentation. However, Nocardia can present in a wide variety of clinical manifestations, especially in the immunocompromised individual. We present the first case of a prostate abscess caused by Nocardia farcinica in a man with a history of severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. He had been on long term immunosuppression for this with prednisolone and etanercept. His Nocardia was likely contracted through direct skin inoculation while gardening with haematological dissemination to the prostate. He responded well to long term sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. PMID:27419070

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  4. Nocardia Arthritis: 3 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, Hélène; Lebeaux, David; Gras, Guillaume; Catherinot, Emilie; Rammaert, Blandine; Poiree, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Hervé; Zeller, Valérie; Bernard, Louis; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria responsible for infections ranging from opportunistic life-threatening disseminated diseases to chronic skin and soft-tissue infections. Even if virtually all organs can be infected, articular involvement is rare. Therefore, we report 3 recent cases and performed a literature review of cases of Nocardia arthritis in order to describe clinical features, therapeutic challenges, and outcome of these patients. Among 34 patients (31 in the literature plus our 3 cases), 21 (62%) were due to hematogenous dissemination, 9 (26%) were due to direct bacterial inoculation through the skin, and in 4 cases, the mechanism of infection was unknown. Four out of these 34 cases occurred on prosthetic joints. Whereas hematogenous infections mostly occurred in immunocompromised hosts (17 of 21, 81%), direct inoculation was mostly seen in immunocompetent patients. Eighty-two percent of patients (28 out of 34) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-containing regimens and median antibiotic treatment duration was 24 weeks (range, 12–120) for hematogenous infections and 12 weeks (range, 6–24) for direct inoculations. Outcome was favorable in 27 cases despite unsystematic surgical management (17 cases) without sequelae in 70% of the cases. Nocardia arthritis is rare but its management is complex and should rely on a combined approach with rheumatologist, infectious diseases expert, and surgeon. PMID:26496274

  5. [Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves].

    PubMed

    Chain, Sergio; Luciardi, Hector; Feldman, Gabriela; Berman, Sofia; Estrella, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution. PMID:17628917

  6. [GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN SURFACTANTS PRODUCER NOCARDIA VACCINII IMV B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A

    2015-01-01

    Key enzymes of glucose metabolism were detected in the cells of surfactants producer Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 grown on this substrate. It has been established that glucose catabolism is performed through gluconate (FAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase activity 698 ± 35 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). Oxidation of gluconate to 6-phosphogluconate is catalised by gluconokinase (178 ± 9 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). 6-Phosphogluconate was involved into pentose phosphate cycle by constitutive NADP(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (activity 357 ± 17 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). The data obtained serve as the basis for theoretical calculations of optimal molar ratio of concentrations of energetically nonequivalent substrates for intensifying the surfactants synthesis on their mixture. PMID:26638479

  7. Nocardia casuarinae sp. nov., an actinobacterial endophyte isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Nouioui, Imen; Salem, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gtari, Maher

    2014-06-01

    An actinobacterium strain BMG51109a was isolated from surface sterilized root nodules of Casuarina glauca collected in Tunisia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BMG51109a showed most similarity (96.53-96.55 %) to the type strains of Nocardia transvalensis, N. aobensis and N. elegans. Chemotaxonomic analysis supported the assignment of the strain to Nocardia genus. The major menaquinone was MK-8(H4c) while the polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, glycophospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, one uncharacterized phospholipid and three glycolipids. Whole-cell sugar analysis revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as diagnostic sugars, complemented by glucose, mannose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were tuberculostearic, oleic, palmitoleic and stearic acids. Physiological and biochemical tests showed that strain BMG51109a could be clearly distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of these results, strain BMG51109a(T) (= DSM 45978(T) = CECT 8469(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the novel species Nocardia casuarinae sp. nov. PMID:24715251

  8. First Spanish case of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia takedensis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, A; Rezusta, A; Lezcano, M A; Villuendas, M C; Revillo, M J; Boiron, P; Rodríguez-Nava, V

    2009-06-01

    Nocardia takedensis is a recently described species isolated from soil. The first clinical isolate in Japan has recently been reported. This report describes the first clinical isolate of N. takedensis in Spain from a respiratory specimen. PMID:19386840

  9. First Spanish Case of Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia takedensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, A.; Rezusta, A.; Lezcano, M. A.; Villuendas, M. C.; Revillo, M. J.; Boiron, P.; Rodríguez-Nava, V.

    2009-01-01

    Nocardia takedensis is a recently described species isolated from soil. The first clinical isolate in Japan has recently been reported. This report describes the first clinical isolate of N. takedensis in Spain from a respiratory specimen. PMID:19386840

  10. Bevacizumab-induced pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruption

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shannon; Fletcher, J. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by follicular papules on an erythematous base often exhibiting islands of unaffected skin, follicular plugging, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. While vitamin A deficiency and autoimmune reactions have been hypothesized as possible etiologies of this condition, pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruptions secondary to medications are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three other cases have been reported, and pityriasis rubra pilaris has never been reported in association with bevacizumab. We present a 70-year-old man who developed erythroderma both clinically and histologically consistent with pityriasis rubra pilaris 10 days after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for age-related macular degeneration. As immune-modulating drugs grow in their application for a host of diseases, recognition of associated medication complications is important. PMID:27365893

  11. Bevacizumab-induced pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruption.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shannon; Fletcher, J Wesley; Fiala, Katherine H

    2016-07-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by follicular papules on an erythematous base often exhibiting islands of unaffected skin, follicular plugging, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. While vitamin A deficiency and autoimmune reactions have been hypothesized as possible etiologies of this condition, pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruptions secondary to medications are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three other cases have been reported, and pityriasis rubra pilaris has never been reported in association with bevacizumab. We present a 70-year-old man who developed erythroderma both clinically and histologically consistent with pityriasis rubra pilaris 10 days after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for age-related macular degeneration. As immune-modulating drugs grow in their application for a host of diseases, recognition of associated medication complications is important. PMID:27365893

  12. A French multicentric study and review of pulmonary Nocardia spp. in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Nava, Verónica; Durupt, Stéphane; Chyderiotis, Sandra; Freydière, Anne-Marie; Karsenty, Judith; de Montclos, Michèle; Reix, Philippe; Durieu, Isabelle; Nove-Josserand, Raphaele; Chiron, Raphael; Bremont, François; Têtu, Laurent; Murris, Marlène; Terru, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean; Boiron, Patrick; Vandenesch, François; Marchandin, Hélène; Segonds, Christine; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Some bacterial species recovered from the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are indisputably associated with lung infections, whereas the clinical relevance of others, such as Nocardia spp., remains unclear. Sixteen French CF cases of colonization/infection with Nocardia spp. were reviewed in order to evaluate the epidemiology, the clinical impact and the potential treatment of these bacteria, and results were compared to those of the literature. Five Nocardia species were identified, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica being the major species (50 % of cases). At first isolation, Nocardia was the sole pathogen recovered in six patients. Seven patients presented pulmonary exacerbation. For 12 patients, antimicrobial treatment against Nocardia was started immediately, mainly based on cotrimoxazole (6 of the 12 cases). In this study, we highlight the heterogeneity of the clinical management of Nocardia spp. in CF. Guidelines for the clinical management of Nocardia infections in CF patients are proposed. PMID:25344657

  13. Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov., isolated from Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Boiron, Patrick; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Laurent, Frédéric; Couble, Andrée; Laiz, Leonila; Klenk, Hans-Peter; González, Juan M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Mouniée, Delphine; Bergeron, Emanuelle; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2008-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, OFN S17(T), was isolated from a sample collected from Altamira Cave, Cantabria, Spain. This strain was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences of the strain were determined and compared with those of representative Nocardia species. The results showed that strain OFN S17(T) should be assigned to the genus Nocardia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain OFN S17(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Nocardia tenerifensis (98.6, 96.2 and 96% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed 29% relative reassociation between the DNA of strain OFN S17(T) and N. tenerifensis DSM 44704(T). The phenotypic and genotypic data show that strain OFN S17(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN S17(T) (=CIP 109606(T) =DSM 44997(T)). PMID:18768631

  14. Molecular Identification of Nocardia Isolates from Clinical Samples and an Overview of Human Nocardiosis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; Soriano, Morgana Fonseca; Ladeira, Elisa Martins; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia sp. causes a variety of clinical presentations. The incidence of nocardiosis varies geographically according to several factors, such as the prevalence of HIV infections, transplants, neoplastic and rheumatic diseases, as well as climate, socio-economic conditions and laboratory procedures for Nocardia detection and identification. In Brazil the paucity of clinical reports of Nocardia infections suggests that this genus may be underestimated as a cause of human diseases and/or either neglected or misidentified in laboratory specimens. Accurate identification of Nocardia species has become increasingly important for clinical and epidemiological investigations. In this study, seven clinical Nocardia isolates were identified by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and their antimicrobial susceptibility was also determined. Most Nocardia isolates were associated to pulmonary disease. Methodology/Principal Findings The majority of Brazilian human isolates in cases reported in literature were identified as Nocardia sp. Molecular characterization was used for species identification of Nocardia nova, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia asiatica and Nocardia exalbida/gamkensis. Data indicated that molecular analysis provided a different Nocardia speciation than the initial biochemical identification for most Brazilian isolates. All Nocardia isolates showed susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the antimicrobial of choice in the treatment nocardiosis. N. nova isolated from different clinical specimens from one patient showed identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and two distinct clones. Conclusions/Significance Although Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country in terms of land mass and population, pulmonary, extrapulmonary and systemic forms of nocardiosis were reported in only 6 of the 26 Brazilian states from 1970 to 2013. A least 33.8% of these 46 cases of nocardiosis proved fatal. Interestingly, coinfection by two clones may

  15. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  16. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  17. Pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroids

    PubMed Central

    Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Janah, Hind; El Khattabi, Wiam; Aichane, Abdelaziz; Afif, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    La pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroides est rare. Elle survient le plus souvent sur un terrain d'immunodépression. Nous rapportons une observation d'une pleurésie à Nocardia asteroides chez une patiente âgée de 60 ans, chez qui nous avons découvert un diabète. A travers ce travail les auteurs soulignent l'intérêt de la multiplication de prélèvements, de rechercher ce germe sur terrain d'immunodépression et en cas d'isolement, de rechercher la comorbidité. PMID:25574322

  18. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  19. First report of Nocardia fusca isolated in humans.

    PubMed

    Ercibengoa Arana, María; Marimón Ortiz de Zarate, José María

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia fusca was first described in 1983; however, to date, no report of human infection has been done. In this work, we report the first case of N. fusca isolation during an episode of acute exacerbation in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The extent of the role of N. fusca as human pathogen still has to be determined. PMID:26038381

  20. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  1. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  2. Naphthalene metabolism in Nocardia otitidiscaviarum strain TSH1, a moderately thermophilic microorganism.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Majid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Ardestani, Sussan K

    2008-06-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Nocardia otitidiscaviarum strain TSH1, originally isolated in our laboratory from a petroindustrial wastewater contaminated soil in Iran, grows at 50 degrees C on a broad range of hydrocarbons. Transformation of naphthalene by strain TSH1 which is able to use this two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a sole source of carbon and energy was investigated. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The identification of metabolites suggests that strain TSH1 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-2 positions to give 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene. The intermediate 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol was identified in the acidic extract. Apart from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles, benzoic acid was identified as an intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Nocardia strain. Neither phthalic acid nor salicylic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts. Enzymatic experiments with cell extract showed the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity while transformation of phthalic acid and protocatechuic acid was not observed. The results of enzyme activity assays and identification of benzoic acid in culture extract provide strong indications that further degradation goes through benzoate and beta-ketoadipate pathway. Our results indicate that naphthalene degradation by thermophilic N. otitidiscaviarum strain TSH1 differs from the known pathways found for the thermophilic Bacillus thermoleovorans Hamburg 2 and mesophilic bacteria. PMID:18471862

  3. Nocardia wallacei sp. nov. and Nocardia blacklockiae sp. nov., Human Pathogens and Members of the “Nocardia transvalensis Complex”▿

    PubMed Central

    Conville, Patricia S.; Brown, June M.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Witebsky, Frank G.

    2008-01-01

    Nocardia isolates that share the property of in vitro amikacin resistance are grouped together by some authors in the Nocardia transvalensis complex. Our examination of 13 isolates that are amikacin resistant has revealed the existence of three distinct species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, 65-kDa heat shock protein, and secA1 genes, coupled with DNA-DNA hybridization, indicated that “N. asteroides drug pattern IV,” “N. transvalensis new taxon 1,” and N. transvalensis sensu stricto should each be considered a distinct species. The phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the proposed new species Nocardia wallacei (N. asteroides drug pattern IV) and N. blacklockiae (N. transvalensis new taxon 1) are presented and compared with those of N. transvalensis sensu stricto. The relative genetic diversity of isolates best placed with the species N. blacklockiae is also discussed. Case studies demonstrating the pathogenicity of N. wallacei and N. blacklockiae are presented. The type strain of N. wallacei is ATCC 49873 (DSM 45136), and that of N. blacklockiae is ATCC 700035 (DSM 45135). PMID:18256227

  4. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

  5. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M.; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  6. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  7. Oxidation of gaseous and volatile hydrocarbons by selected alkene-utilizing bacteria. [Mycobacterium; Nocardia

    SciTech Connect

    van Ginkel, C.G.; Welten, H.G.J.; de Bont, J.A.M.

    1987-12-01

    Eleven strains of alkene-utilizing bacteria belonging to the genera Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Xanthobacter were tested for their ability to grow with C/sub 1/ to C/sub 6/ alkanes, C/sub 2/ to C/sub 6/ alkenes, alkadienes, and monoterpenes furnished individually as sole sources of carbon and energy in a mineral salts medium. A limited number of alkenes and alkanes supported growth of the bacteria; some bacteria were unable to grow on any of the saturated hydrocarbons tested. Monoterpenes were frequently used as carbon and energy sources by alkene-utilizing bacteria belonging to the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia. Washed cell suspensions of alkene-grown bacteria attack the whole range of alkenes tested, whereas only three strains were able to oxidize alkanes as well. The alkenes tested were oxidized either to water and carbon dioxide or to epoxyalkanes. Few epoxides accumulated in stoichiometric amounts from the corresponding alkenes, because most epoxides formed were further converted to other compounds like alkanediols.

  8. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949

  9. Nocardia nova mycetoma over forehead in a lepromatous leprosy patient.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, M; Kaistha, N; Bansal, N; Solanki, L S; Chander, J; Thami, G P; van de Sande, W W

    2012-07-01

    We present a case of a 31-year-old male, a known patient with lepromatous leprosy with a type 2 lepra reaction, who presented with a slowly growing asymptomatic swelling with multiple discharging sinuses over the forehead that developed over 6 months. Smears of the serosanguinous discharge on Gram staining showed Gram-positive branching filamentous bacilli, which on culture on blood agar showed chalky-white colonies. Histology of the lesion showed suppurative granulomas with polymorphs surrounding characteristic grains. The isolate was identified as Nocardia nova by gene sequencing and the patient was started on combined antibiotic therapy that resulted in complete resolution of the infection in six months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mycetoma related to Nocardia nova in association with leprosy. PMID:22863625

  10. Nocardia veterana: disseminated infection with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Poisnel, Elodie; Roseau, Jean-Baptiste; Landais, Cécile; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Bussy, Emmanuel; Gaillard, Tiphaine

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:25636185

  11. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  12. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  13. Polycythaemia rubra vera presenting with depression: recognising the syndrome abulia.

    PubMed

    Fones, C; Tsoi, W F

    1995-01-01

    A patient with polycythaemia rubra vera is described, presenting primarily with symptoms attributed to depression. While in the ward she developed a stroke, confirmed on CT scan of the head. Venesection alone produced marked improvement in her neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The clinical picture corresponds most accurately to the neurological syndrome of abulia, which is an important differential diagnosis of depression with psychomotor retardation. The pathophysiology of impaired cerebral blood flow causing neuropsychiatric symptoms in polycythaemia is discussed. PMID:7779654

  14. Advocacy and hope for the patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Nunemacher, Kathy J

    2008-10-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare skin disease that can cause severe physical and psychological manifestations. A short case study of an adult with PRP who was denied access to medications and his journey towards improved health is discussed. Through advocacy and support, health care providers can make a difference in the care of patients with PRP and improve their quality of life. PMID:19051784

  15. [Potential nosocomial disseminated infection due to Nocardia asteroides after a prosthesis insertion in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Mrozek, N; Hamizi, S; Gourdon, F; Laurichesse, H; Beytout, J; Lesens, O

    2008-12-01

    Nocardia infections are rare and usually occurred in immunocompromised patients with systemic dissemination from a lung infection. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient in whom Nocardia asteroides had cause psoas and cerebral abcess without pulmonary infection, a short period after a hip prosthesis insertion. The clinical history is highly suggestive of a hospital-acquired infection. PMID:18395304

  16. Nocardia thailandica Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a Post-Solid Organ Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Canterino, Joseph; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Vientos, Wilson; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wallace, Richard J.; Campbell, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia thailandica is a rare pathogen related to Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia neocaledoniensis, and Nocardia caishijiensis that, since its original description in 2004, has only been reported to cause wound and ocular infections in humans. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia thailandica in a 66-year-old solid organ transplant patient from Connecticut, which was identified at the molecular taxonomic level by secA1 analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of N. thailandica in the United States and the first report of pulmonary infection by this pathogen in the literature. PMID:26292312

  17. Nocardia thailandica Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a Post-Solid Organ Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Canterino, Joseph; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vientos, Wilson; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wallace, Richard J; Campbell, Sheldon

    2015-11-01

    Nocardia thailandica is a rare pathogen related to Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia neocaledoniensis, and Nocardia caishijiensis that, since its original description in 2004, has only been reported to cause wound and ocular infections in humans. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia thailandica in a 66-year-old solid organ transplant patient from Connecticut, which was identified at the molecular taxonomic level by secA1 analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of N. thailandica in the United States and the first report of pulmonary infection by this pathogen in the literature. PMID:26292312

  18. A study on L-asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis. PMID:22619604

  19. A Study on L-Asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis. PMID:22619604

  20. Brasiliquinones A, B and C, new benz[alpha]anthraquinone antibiotics from Nocardia brasiliensis. I. Producing strain, isolation and biological activities of the antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, A; Tanaka, Y; Karasaki, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Tojo, T; Kadowaki, K; Tsuda, M; Kobayashi, J

    1997-01-01

    New benz[alpha]anthraquinone antibiotics (brasiliquinones A, B and C) with an ethyl group at C-3 were isolated. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotics were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Mycobacterium sp., but not active against Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. They were also active against multiple drug-resistant P388/ADR tumor cells. PMID:9066761

  1. Mitochondrial protective effects of Myrica rubra extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gou, Wenwen; Xu, Lizhi; Wang, Yucai; Yu, Wen; Zhong, Zengtao; Gao, Jing; Chen, Huimei; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. extract (MCE) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced liver damage and elucidates the possible mechanisms behind the hepatoprotection observed. Serum alanine aminotransferase and serum aspartate aminotransferase activities were detected and liver histopathology was observed. Mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) gene transcription were also investigated. The results showed that 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg MCE could restore AAP-induced changes in mice liver in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms behind the hepatoprotective effects of MCE may be related to the mitochondrial protection of liver cells, especially of VDAC, an important protein on the outer membrane of the mitochondria. PMID:24117068

  2. Long-term treatment of persistent disseminated Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection.

    PubMed

    Ozgenç, Onur; Avcı, Meltem; Arı, Alpay; Celebi, Ismail Yunus; Coşkuner, Seher Ayten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a disseminated persistent Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection in an immunocompetent patient is described. The patient's long-term treatment, as well as its implications for managing similar cases in the future, is emphasized. Presenting with high fever, multiple nodules, and ulcerative cutaneous lesions of body sites, the patient was treated with various antimicrobials. Under combined therapy, empyema and arthritis, leading to disseminated nocardiosis, were seen. The overall treatment course was 28 months. It can be concluded that the choice of the antibiotics and optimal duration of treatment are uncertain; therefore the treatment of nocardiosis requires expertise. PMID:24833199

  3. Nocardia cerebral abscess: New concepts in diagnosis, management, and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, E; Brophy, B P; Perrett, L V

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of multiple cerebral nocardial abscess are presented. All were cured by a combination of chemotherapy and surgery, a unique experience. Early detection, appropriate chemotherapy, absence of underlying immune malfunction, and surgically remediable disease are good prognostic indices in cerebral nocardiosis. If other adverse prognostic factors are absent, however, multiple abscess formation does not preclude the possibility of cure. Accurate localisation of nocardia cerebral abscesses by computerised axial tomography is a great help in management if multiple lesions are present. Images PMID:501368

  4. Hypolipidemic effects of Myrica rubra extracts and main compounds in C57BL/6j mice.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Xuegang; Xiao, Yubo; Yong, Yang; Zhang, Zaiqi; Li, Shuping; Zhou, Taimei; Yang, Daqing; Gao, Pincao; Xin, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-10

    The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of myricetin, myricetrin, the alcohol fraction (AF) and the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) obtained from the bark of Myrica rubra (MR) in high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6j mice. Mice were treated with myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF with a dose of 130 mg per kg per day for 35 days. After treatment, serum parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA), etc., were examined. The results revealed that EF showed the highest weight lowering activity (P < 0.01). All tested samples decreased the levels of the TC, TG, LDL-C, TBA and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) content in the serum of mice to different extents. Liver fat deposition was significantly reduced after myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF therapy (P < 0.01). Additionally, the cell size of epididymal adipose tissue was also decreased in myricetin, AF and EF groups (P < 0.05). The antihyperlipidemic activity of these samples may be attributed to the inhibition of lipid synthesis via suppressing the expression of HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) and ACC1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), promoting the metabolism and excretion of lipids via up-regulating the expression of SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element binding proteins), LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor), UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) and CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase). These results may provide a powerful foundation for seeking and utilizing Myrica rubra bio-active compounds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27459037

  5. Genotyping of Nocardia farcinica with multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Du, P; Hou, X; Xie, Y; Xu, S; Li, L; Zhang, J; Wan, K; Lou, Y; Li, Z

    2016-05-01

    Nocardia are aerobic Gram-positive saprophytes that are widely distributed in nature, but some species cause nocardiosis, especially opportunistic infections that affect immunocompromised patients mostly. In this study, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme using seven housekeeping genes (gyrB, hsp65, secA1, rpoB, rpoA, recA, and trpB) for genotyping the most common clinical species, Nocardia farcinica (37 clinical isolates from the patients with nocardiosis and seven from animals in China and 15 reference strains). The results showed that using these loci could perform accurate identification among different species, and high discriminative power within the N. farcinica species. Of the 59 N. farcinica isolates, 44 sequence types have been identified; 32 STs covering 46 isolates could be assigned to six clonal complexes that encompassed most of the collected strains. The results showed that these strains displayed a sufficiently informative population structure using this method. Our study also provided a suitable approach for epidemiological studies of N. farcinica. A large clonal complex comprising 16 strains was identified, and was notable for its wide distribution and host adaptation. This complex should be monitored closely and merits further study. PMID:26972429

  6. Fatal nocardiosis in a dog caused by multiresistant Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Kilwinski, Jochen; Peters, Martin; Verspohl, Jutta; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Among pathogenic Nocardia species in humans and animals, infections caused by Nocardia (N.) veterana have rarely been described and so far, all non-human cases are linked to bovine mastitis in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the causative microorganism involved in the death of a three-month-old dog suffering from dyspnea and neurological deficits ante mortem. Pathomorphological investigation revealed (pyo-)granulomatous lesions in various organs. Bacteriological examination was performed and the respective bacteria were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rDNA sequencing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. Gram-staining and colony morphology suggested the presence of an actinomycete which was identified as N. veterana by MALDI-TOF MS. This identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Distemper-associated immunosuppression may have played a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nocardiosis in this dog. Retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status showed that the N. veterana isolate was multiresistant and displayed high minimal inhibitory concentrations to all antimicrobial agents used for the dog's therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic nocardiosis caused by N. veterana in a dog with a concurrent canine distemper virus infection. PMID:26790938

  7. A novel aryl acylamidase from Nocardia farcinica hydrolyses polyamide.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Sonja; Eberl, Anita; Fischer-Colbrie, Gudrun; Pobeheim, Herbert; Kaufmann, Franz; Ribitsch, Doris; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Guebitz, Georg M

    2009-03-01

    An alkali stable polyamidase was isolated from a new strain of Nocardia farcinica. The enzyme consists of four subunits with a total molecular weight of 190 kDa. The polyamidase cleaved amide and ester bonds of water insoluble model substrates like adipic acid bishexylamide and bis(benzoyloxyethyl)terephthalate and hydrolyzed different soluble amides to the corresponding acid. Treatment of polyamide 6 with this amidase led to an increased hydrophilicity based on rising height and tensiometry measurements and evidence of surface hydrolysis of polyamide 6 is shown. In addition to amidase activity, the enzyme showed activity on p-nitrophenylbutyrate. On hexanoamide the amidase exhibited a K(m) value of 5.5 mM compared to 0.07 mM for p-nitroacetanilide. The polyamidase belongs to the amidase signature family and is closely related to aryl acylamidases from different strains/species of Nocardia and to the 6-aminohexanoate-cyclic dimer hydrolase (EI) from Arthrobacter sp. KI72. PMID:18942140

  8. Nocardia asteroides peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: First case in pediatrics, treated with protracted linezolid.

    PubMed

    El-Naggari, Mohamed; El Nour, Ibtisam; Al-Nabhani, Dana; Al Muharrmi, Zakaria; Gaafar, Heba; Abdelmogheth, Anas A W

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides is a rare pathogen in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. We report on a 13-year-old female with Nocardia asteroides peritonitis complicated by an intra-abdominal abscess. Linezolid was administered intravenously for 3 months and followed by oral therapy for an additional 5 months with close monitoring for adverse effects. The patient was discharged after 3 months of hospitalization on hemodialysis. The diagnosis and management of such cases can be problematic due to the slow growth and difficulty of identifying Nocardia species. The optimal duration of treatment for Nocardia peritonitis is not known. Linezolid can be used for prolonged periods in cases of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant cases with close monitoring for adverse effects. PMID:26768669

  9. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  10. The role of oral co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neharika; O'Hagan, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Nocardia farcinica is one of the more recently identified species of the Nocardia genus. Nocardia farcinica keratitis is a rare occurrence, with only eight previously reported cases. Semi-permeable rigid contact lens use was associated with one of these reported cases. We report the first case of an extended wear soft contact lens-related Nocardia farcinica keratitis and recommend a new treatment regime. A 47-year-old lady presented with a right eye keratitis after wearing her extended wear soft contact lenses for five continuous weeks. There was no history of trauma or swimming with contact lenses in. Empirical ciprofloxacin and tobramycin eye drops were not tolerated due to ocular surface irritation on application, and instead, empirical treatment was with chloramphenicol and fortified gentamicin 1.5 % eye drops. Corneal scrapings grew Nocardia farcinica after 3 weeks-sensitive to amikacin and co-trimoxazole. Treatment was changed to amikacin 2.5 % eye drops, resulting in partial resolution of the corneal infiltrates. Oral co-trimoxazole 160 mg/800 mg BD was added, due to cultured drug sensitivity and its high ocular penetration, with good results and a final right eye best-corrected visual acuity of 6/5. Nocardia farcinica keratitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of contact lens-related keratitis. We report the first case occurring in association with extended wear soft contact lenses. Nocardia species can mimic fungal and acanthamoeba keratitis. Treatment with oral co-trimoxazole has not been previously reported. This case demonstrates the role of co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis based on cultured drug sensitivities. PMID:27294730

  11. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) < or = 8 mg.kg-1 body weight, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV. PMID:9421927

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  13. Nocardia Colonization: A Risk Factor for Lung Deterioration in Cystic Fibrosis Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Adi; Keller, Nathan; Vilozni, Daphna; Ramon-Saraf, Reut; Bar, Bat-El; Sarouk, Ifat; Ashkenazi, Moshe; Lavie, Moran; Efrati, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are predisposed to infection and colonization with different microbes. Some cause deterioration of lung functions, while others are colonizers without clear pathogenic effects. Our aim was to understand the effects of Nocardia species in sputum cultures on the course of lung disease in CF patients. Material/Methods A retrospective study analyzing the impact of positive Nocardia spp. in sputum of 19 CF patients over a period of 10 years, comparing them with similar status patients without Nocardia growth. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are used as indicators of lung disease severity and decline rate in functions per year is calculated. Results No significant difference in PFTs of CF patients with positive Nocardia in sputum was found in different sub-groups according to number of episodes of growth, background variables, or treatment plans. The yearly decline in PFTs was similar to that recognized in CF patients. The control group patients showed similar background data. However, a small difference was found in the rate of decline of their PFTs, which implies a possibly slower rate of progression of lung disease. Conclusions The prognosis of lung disease in CF patients colonized with Nocardia does not seem to differ based on the persistence of growth on cultures, different treatment plans or risk factors. Apparently, Nocardia does not cause a deterioration of lung functions with time. However, it may show a trend to faster decline in PFTs compared to similar status CF patients without isolation of this microorganism in their sputum. PMID:26125407

  14. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Condas, Larissa Anuska Zeni; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Muro, Marisol Domingues; de Vargas, Agueda Palmira Castagna; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; Salerno, Tatiana; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Risseti, Rafaela Mastrangelo; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp) identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%), cephalexin (100%) and ceftiofur (100%), while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%) and ampicillin (29%). However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test), only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. PMID:26200967

  15. Disseminated Nocardia paucivorans infection in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, M; Kraft, C; Pulst-Korenberg, J; Chenoweth, C; Gregg, K S

    2014-10-01

    Nocardia paucivorans is a recently discovered species that has been shown to have a predilection for CNS involvement in cases of disseminated infection. We present a 50-year-old man with one year of weight loss admitted to the hospital with cough and confusion. Imaging revealed pulmonary and iliopsoas masses as well as innumerable ring-enhancing brain lesions. N. paucivorans was eventually identified in a subcarinal lymph node biopsy. The diagnosis was expedited by utilizing 16s rRNA gene sequencing on the biopsy tissue, resulting in species-level identification several weeks prior to culture positivity. He was treated with 12 months of parenteral and oral antibiotics, with resolution of pulmonary and brain lesions on repeat imaging. PMID:24634088

  16. Pulmonary Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia concava with a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Tatsuro; Takazono, Takahiro; Horai, Yoshiro; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Kosai, Kosuke; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Kurihara, Shintaro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kawakami, Atsushi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with anorexia and leg pain. He was diagnosed with ANCA-associated vasculitis through a renal biopsy. Immunosuppression with two courses of steroid pulse therapies and intravenous cyclophosphamide followed by oral prednisolone at 40 mg/day were administered. About one month after starting the immunosuppression therapy, he complained of hemosputum. Chest computed tomography showed a cavitary lesion in the lung. Cultures from his sputum showed Nocardia species, and we were able to identify the species as N. concava using a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Only three detailed reports of N. concava infection have so far been published worldwide. PMID:27150883

  17. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  18. Mechanisms of competitive displacement of native ant fauna by invading Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Garnas, Jeffrey; Groden, Eleanor; Drummond, Francis A

    2014-12-01

    Exotic ants have become invasive in many regions around the world, with variable ecological impacts. Postinvasion, native ant communities are often found to be depauperate, though the causes of this apparent lack of coexistence are rarely well known. Myrmica rubra (L.), a Palearctic Myrmecine ant, is currently expanding its range as an invasive in North America. This aggressive ant forms dense, patchy local infestations and appears to aggressively displace native ant fauna. We measured behavioral interactions and rates of recruitment in experimental field assays pitting native foragers against captive colonies of M. rubra at tuna-jelly or aphid baits in uninfested areas of Mt. Desert Island, ME. Behavioral interactions were idiosyncratic with respect to the native opponent, but M. rubra generally showed significantly higher levels of recruitment, aggression, and displacement of native foragers. As with other invasive ant species shown to have broken the "dominance-discovery trade-off," M. rubra was consistently faster to discover baits and disproportionately displaced native foragers, providing a plausible proximate mechanism for native ant exclusion. Finally, we surveyed ant recruitment at baits for 24 h in August 2004 at four sites with varying M. rubra abundance but found little evidence of temporal niche partitioning. Taken together, these results indicate competitive superiority by M. rubra with respect to native ant communities of the northeastern North America and suggest direct aggression and competitive exclusion at food resources can lead to local native displacement. PMID:25268214

  19. Structures and anti-HSV-2 activities of neutral polysaccharides from an edible plant, Basella rubra L.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Xia; Hayashi, Kyoko; Mizukoshi, Yusuke; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    Four neutral polysaccharides (BRN-1, BRN-2, BRN-3 and BRN-4) were isolated from the hot water extract of the aerial part of Basella rubra L. They were found to consist of a large amount of D-galactose (81.0-92.4%) and small amounts of L-arabinose (5.4-7.8%), D-glucose (2.2-11.0%) and mannose (~2.9%). Linkage analysis revealed that all these neutral polysaccharides might be arabinogalactan type I polysaccharides in different molecular weight and chain length. Among them, only BRN-3 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with 50% inhibitory concentration of 55 μg/mL without showing the cytotoxicity up to 2300 μg/mL. Furthermore, the main antiviral target of BRN-3 was shown to be the inhibition of virus adsorption to host cells. This is the first report on the neutral polysaccharide with anti-HSV-2 activity obtained from B. rubra L. PMID:22085753

  20. Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Forest-Derived Soil Actinomycete, Nocardia sp. PB-52

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kalita, Mohan C.; Thakur, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic actinomycete strain designated as PB-52 was isolated from soil samples of Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, India. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, the strain was identified as Nocardia sp. which shares 99.7% sequence similarity with Nocardia niigatensis IFM 0330 (NR_112195). The strain is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium with rugose spore surface which exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Optimization for the growth and antimicrobial activity of the strain PB-52 was carried out in batch culture under shaking condition. The optimum growth and antimicrobial potential of the strain were recorded in GLM medium at 28°C, initial pH 7.4 of the medium and incubation period of 8 days. Based on polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene-targeted PCR amplification, the occurrence of both of these biosynthetic pathways was detected which might be involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds in PB-52. Extract of the fermented broth culture of PB-52 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract of PB-52 (EA-PB-52) showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus MTCC 96 (0.975 μg/mL) whereas highest was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (62.5 μg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment of the test microorganisms with EA-PB-52 destroyed the targeted cells with prominent loss of cell shape and integrity. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its antimicrobial activity, EA-PB-52 was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twelve different chemical constituents in the extract, some of which are reported to possess diverse biological activity. These

  1. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27491997

  2. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27491997

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Features of the Nocardia spp. Based on Current Molecular Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Brown, June M.; Conville, Patricia S.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent explosion of newly described species of Nocardia results from the impact in the last decade of newer molecular technology, including PCR restriction enzyme analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. These molecular techniques have revolutionized the identification of the nocardiae by providing rapid and accurate identification of recognized nocardiae and, at the same time, revealing new species and a number of yet-to-be-described species. There are currently more than 30 species of nocardiae of human clinical significance, with the majority of isolates being N. nova complex, N. abscessus, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, N. asteroides type VI (N. cyriacigeorgica), and N. brasiliensis. These species cause a wide variety of diseases and have variable drug susceptibilities. Accurate identification often requires referral to a reference laboratory with molecular capabilities, as many newer species are genetically distinct from established species yet have few or no distinguishing phenotypic characteristics. Correct identification is important in deciding the clinical relevance of a species and in the clinical management and treatment of patients with nocardial disease. This review characterizes the currently known pathogenic species of Nocardia, including clinical disease, drug susceptibility, and methods of identification. PMID:16614249

  4. Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication to its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-02-23

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram positive, filamentous bacterium, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, the highly expressed genes in N. farcinica were predicted using the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a numerical estimator of gene expressivity. Using ribosomal protein (RP) genes as references, the top {approx}10% of the genes were predicted to be the predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in N. farcinica using a CAI cutoff of greater than 0.73. Consistent with early analysis in Streptomyces genomes, most of the PHX genes in N. farcinica were involved in various ''house-keeping'' functions important for cell growth. However, fifteen genes putatively involved in no cardial virulence were predicted as PHX in N. farcinica, which included genes encoding four Mce virulence proteins, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase which is involved in the modification of cell wall important for nocardia virulence, polyketide synthase PKS13 for mycolic acid synthesis and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in biosynthesis of a mycobactin-related siderophore. In addition, multiple genes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte were predicted with high expressivity, which included alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpC), catalase (katG), superoxide dismutase (sodF), thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that combating against ROS was essential for survival of N. farcinica in host cells. The study also showed that the distribution of PHX genes in the N. farcinica circular chromosome was uneven, with more PHX genes located in the regions close to replication initiation site. The results provided the first approximates of global gene expression patterns in N. farcinica, which will be useful in guiding experimental design for further investigation.

  5. Phylogeography of the ant Myrmica rubra and its inquiline social parasite

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Jenni; Vepsäläinen, Kari; Savolainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Widely distributed Palearctic insects are ideal to study phylogeographic patterns owing to their high potential to survive in many Pleistocene refugia and—after the glaciation—to recolonize vast, continuous areas. Nevertheless, such species have received little phylogeographic attention. Here, we investigated the Pleistocene refugia and subsequent postglacial colonization of the common, abundant, and widely distributed ant Myrmica rubra over most of its Palearctic area, using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The western and eastern populations of M. rubra belonged predominantly to separate haplogroups, which formed a broad secondary contact zone in Central Europe. The distribution of genetic diversity and haplogroups implied that M. rubra survived the last glaciation in multiple refugia located over an extensive area from Iberia in the west to Siberia in the east, and colonized its present areas of distribution along several routes. The matrilineal genetic structure of M. rubra was probably formed during the last glaciation and subsequent postglacial expansion. Additionally, because M. rubra has two queen morphs, the obligately socially parasitic microgyne and its macrogyne host, we tested the suggested speciation of the parasite. Locally, the parasite and host usually belonged to the same haplogroup but differed in haplotype frequencies. This indicates that genetic differentiation between the morphs is a universal pattern and thus incipient, sympatric speciation of the parasite from its host is possible. If speciation is taking place, however, it is not yet visible as lineage sorting of the mtDNA between the morphs. PMID:22393482

  6. Nocardia and Lungs in COPD: Beyond Immuno-deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Maggiorelli, Claudia; Di Pierro, Irene; Manta, Carmen; Maccari, Uberto; Galanti, Irene; Scala, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen and Pulmonary Nocardiosis (PN) occurred in more than half of the cases in subjects with immuno-suppressed status. COPD is one of the most common comorbidity observed in immuno-competent patients with PN. In this perspective study, we report the clinical patterns, the outcomes and the comorbidities of all cases of PN admitted in our Unit in the years 1999-2012. Among 6545 patients admitted in our Unit during the study time, we identified PN in 4 patients. COPD was coexistent in 3 out of 4 cases. A delayed time for the diagnosis was observed. Clinical-radiological improvement was detected in all cases after one month of specific anti-PN therapy. According to our experience, PN is a rare disease that should be suspected also in immuno-competent patients. COPD is confirmed to be a risk factor for the development of PN, probably due to reduced respiratory defenses and prolonged steroid therapy. PMID:25093624

  7. Oxidation of Alkyl-substituted Cyclic Hydrocarbons by a Nocardia during Growth on n-Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. B.; Raymond, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    Nocardia 107-332, a soil isolate, oxidizes short-chain alkyl-substituted cyclic hydrocarbons to cyclic acids while growing on n-alkanes. Cyclic acids are produced also from relatively long-chain alkyl-substituted cyclics such as n-nonylbenzene or n-dodecylbenzene which alone support growth in a mineral-salts medium. ω-Oxidation of the alkyl substituents is followed by β-oxidation. It is of particular interest that cyclic acids such as cyclohexaneacetic and phenylacetic with C2 residual carboxylic acid substituents are resistant to further oxidation by the nocardia but cyclic acids with C1 or C3 substituents are readily oxidized and utilized for growth. The specificity of microbial oxidations is demonstrated by the conversion of p-isopropyltoluene (p-cymene) to p-isopropylbenzoic acid in n-alkane, growth-supported nocardia cultures. PMID:13720182

  8. Postoperative Nocardia Endophthalmitis and the Challenge of Managing with Intravitreal Amikacin

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G. Ashok Kumar; Sunder, C. Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is a rare cause of delayed onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and it usually carries a guarded visual prognosis. Purpose. To highlight the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in a case of nocardial endophthalmitis after manual small incision cataract surgery. Methods. This case report highlights the typical features of Nocardia endophthalmitis, which presented six weeks after undergoing small incision cataract surgery. The case was managed by pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravitreal amikacin was used based on microbiologic work-up. Results. The endophthalmitis part was controlled but the case developed amikacin induced macular infarction which jeopardized a good visual outcome. Conclusion. Nocardia endophthalmitis manifests late after cataract surgery in an aggressive manner and carries a poor visual prognosis. An early diagnosis and the use of correct antibiotic regimen may salvage the vision. But the present case shows that one should always be wary of potential retinal toxicity with intravitreal amikacin. PMID:27034869

  9. Postoperative Nocardia Endophthalmitis and the Challenge of Managing with Intravitreal Amikacin.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Sikander A K; Reddy, G Ashok Kumar; Sunder, C Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is a rare cause of delayed onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and it usually carries a guarded visual prognosis. Purpose. To highlight the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in a case of nocardial endophthalmitis after manual small incision cataract surgery. Methods. This case report highlights the typical features of Nocardia endophthalmitis, which presented six weeks after undergoing small incision cataract surgery. The case was managed by pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravitreal amikacin was used based on microbiologic work-up. Results. The endophthalmitis part was controlled but the case developed amikacin induced macular infarction which jeopardized a good visual outcome. Conclusion. Nocardia endophthalmitis manifests late after cataract surgery in an aggressive manner and carries a poor visual prognosis. An early diagnosis and the use of correct antibiotic regimen may salvage the vision. But the present case shows that one should always be wary of potential retinal toxicity with intravitreal amikacin. PMID:27034869

  10. Microsatellite loci development for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila is an elm species, non-native to the United States which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra. In order to study the genetic structure and hybridization patterns between these two elm species, we developed fifteen primer pairs for microsatellite loci in U. rubra and tested their cross-amplifica...

  11. Susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria and Nocardia isolates from cats and dogs to pradofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Govendir, M; Norris, J M; Hansen, T; Wigney, D I; Muscatello, G; Trott, D J; Malik, R

    2011-12-15

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and Nocardiae can cause severe or refractory infections in cats and dogs. Prolonged antibacterial therapy is required to cure these infections. As fluoroquinolones have been used in combination therapy for treating RGM infections, isolates from the Mycobacterium smegmatis cluster (n=64), Mycobacterium fortuitum cluster (n=17), and M. mageritense cluster (n=2), collected from feline and canine patients, underwent susceptibility testing to pradofloxacin. The MIC(50), MIC(90) and tentative epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values as determined by microbroth dilution susceptibility testing that inhibited growth of the M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum clusters were 0.063, 0.125 and ≤ 0.25; and 0.125, 0.250 and ≤ 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. E-Test results showed similar trends but MICs were lower than those for microbroth dilution. In summary, pradofloxacin demonstrated effective in vitro activity against RGM isolates. Additionally, veterinary isolates of Nocardia nova (n=18), Nocardia farcinica (n=3) and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (n=1) underwent microbroth dilution testing to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and pradofloxacin. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin that inhibited growth of Nocardia nova isolates were 2 (4), 8 (16), 16 (32) μg/mL, respectively. The tentative ECOFF values for pradofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were 32 μg/mL and for enrofloxacin 64 μg/mL. The MIC or MIC range for the three N. farcinica isolates of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin were 0.25-0.5, 2 and 2 μg/mL and for the single N. cyriacigeorgica isolate were 1, 4 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. On the basis on these results, fluoroquinolones appear to have limited therapeutic potential for most Nocardia infections. PMID:21726965

  12. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  13. Nocardia nova causing empyema necessitatis afterlung re-transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Vargas, Agueda Palmira Castagna; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report herein a case of thoracic infection due to Nocardia nova following lung re-transplantation performed for emphysema related to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. The infection extended from the lung into the pleural space, thoracic wall, and mediastinum, presenting as pericarditis and empyema necessitatis. Nocardia nova was identified by 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. According to a literature search of PubMed, LILACS and MEDLINE databases, we describe herein the first case of empyema necessitatis caused by N. nova species in a transplanted patient. PMID:27598645

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical Nocardia isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis].

    PubMed

    Uner, Mahmut Celalettin; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Müştak, Hamit Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment and responsible for various human infections such as pulmonary, cutaneous, central nervous system and disseminated nocardiosis. Since the clinical pictures and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia species exhibit variability, susceptibility testing is recommended for every Nocardia isolates. The aims of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia clinical isolates and to compare the results of broth microdilution and disc diffusion susceptibility tests. A total of 45 clinical Nocardia isolates (isolated from 17 respiratory tract, 8 brain abscess, 7 pus, 3 skin, 3 conjunctiva, 2 blood, 2 tissue, 2 pleural fluid and 1 cerebrospinal fluid samples) were identified by using conventional methods and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing was performed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria recommended in 2011 approved standard (M24-A2) and disk diffusion method used as an alternative comparative susceptibility testing method. Among the 45 Nocardia strains, N.cyriacigeorgica (n: 26, 57.8%) was the most common species, followed by N.farcinica (n: 12, 26.7%), N.otitiscaviarum (n: 4, 8.9%), N.asteroides (n: 1, 2.2%), N.neocaledoniensis (n: 1, 2.2%) and N.abscessus (n: 1, 2.2%). Amikacin and linezolid were the only two antimicrobials to which all isolates were susceptible for both broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests. In broth microdilution test, resistance rates to TMP-SMX, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were found as 15.6%, 37.8% and 84.4% respectively, whereas in the disk diffusion test, the highest resistance rate was observed against ciprofloxacin (n: 33, 73.3%), followed by TMP-SMX (n: 22, 48.9%) and ceftriaxone (n: 15, 33.3%). In both of these tests, N.cyriacigeorgica was the species with the

  15. Purification and properties of alpha-pinene oxide lyase from Nocardia sp. strain P18.3.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E T; Harries, P C; Jeffcoat, R; Trudgill, P W

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Pinene oxide is an intermediate in the degradation of alpha-pinene by Nocardia sp. strain P18.3 and some Pseudomonas strains. The epoxide is cleaved by a lyase which catalyzes a concerted reaction in which both rings of the bicyclic structure are cleaved with the formation of cis-2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from Nocardia sp. strain P18.3. It was induced by growth with alpha-pinene and constituted 6 to 7% of the soluble protein of cell extracts. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was 50,000 by ultracentrifugal analysis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave two dissimilar subunits with apparent molecular weights of 17,000 and 22,000. The enzyme was devoid of prosthetic groups, had no cofactor requirement, and had a broad pH activity range, a Km for alpha-pinene oxide of 9 microM, and a turnover number of 15,000. Inhibitors included sulfhydryl reactive compounds, terpene epoxides, and pinane derivatives with substituent groups at carbon 3. A mechanism for the concerted reaction has been proposed in which decyclization is initiated by donation of a proton from the catalytic center to the oxygen of the epoxide with consequent destabilization. In vitro the enzyme was inactivated during catalysis, and a reactive cationic intermediate may be responsible for this phenomenon. The enzyme should be classified as a lyase EC 4.99.-.-. Images PMID:3667522

  16. Nocardia asteroides sinusitis in a pediatric patient: Case report with 20 year follow-up and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Westerberg, Brian D; Tan, Rusung; Kozak, Frederick K

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia Asteroides infection in a non-immunocompromised pediatric patient is extremely rare. We present a case of ethmoid sinusitis and orbital subperiosteal abscess caused by N. asteroides with a 20 year follow up and a review of the literature. N. asteroides was grown from intraoperative cultures for mycobacteria following surgical incision and drainage of the abscess. Postoperatively, the patient received a seven month course of trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole and had no subsequent sequelae. Nocardia infections are common in immunocompromised patients. We present what we believe to be the first case of pediatric Nocardia sinusitis with 20-year follow up. PMID:25943955

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythromycin- and Oxytetracycline-Sensitive Nocardia seriolae Strain U-1 (NBRC 110359)

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Yamane, Jin; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the emergence of macrolide- and oxytetracycline-resistant strains of Nocardia seriolae has previously been reported. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of N. seriolae strain U-1, isolated in 2011 from a diseased yellowtail in Kagoshima Prefecture. The draft genome does not have any genes responsible for macrolide and tetracycline resistance. PMID:26798107

  18. Mediastinal mass and pericardial tamponade in a renal transplant recipient: A rare case of nocardia infection

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Maria Nieva; Wray, Dannah; Denlinger, Chadrick; Srinivas, Titte; Thomas, Beje; Posadas, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 30 Final Diagnosis: Nocardiosis Symptoms: Cardiac tamponade • cough • dyspnea • hoarseness • mediastinal mass • pericardial effusion • short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Nocardia infections can complicate solid organ transplantation. The usual clinical presentations include pulmonary infiltrates with or without cavitation and subcutaneous and brain abscesses. We report an unusual case of nocardia infection in a kidney transplant recipient that presented as mediastinal mass and was associated with pericardial tamponade. Case Report: A 30 year old African American renal transplant recipient presented with cough, hoarseness and shortness of breath nine months after kidney transplantation. She received basiliximab perioperatively and her maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large mediastinal mass with a large pericardial effusion. An echocardiogram revealed collapse of the right ventricle consistent with tamponade. We performed emergent pericardiocentesis to treat the tamponade. A mediastinoscopic biopsy of the mediastinal mass was done to establish a diagnosis. The mediastinal biopsy confirmed the growth of Nocardia. After 2 weeks of imipenem and 6 weeks of linezolid, there was marked radiographic improvement in the size of the mediastinal mass. Conclusions: We report a rare case of a large mediastinal mass associated with pericardial tamponade from nocardia infection in a renal transplant recipient. An invasive approach may be necessary to obtain tissue diagnosis to direct treatment in these cases. Prompt and appropriate medical therapy leads to marked radiographic improvement. PMID:23940824

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis. The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  20. Novel method for rapid identification of Nocardia species by detection of preformed enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Biehle, J R; Cavalieri, S J; Felland, T; Zimmer, B L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to devise a method for the identification of Nocardia species that is more technically simple, accurate, and rapid than current standard methods of identification. We focused on a commercial bacteria identification system that contained chromogenic test substrates. Two MicroScan products were selected for use in the study on the basis of their content of chromogenic and conventional substrates. They were the Rapid Anaerobe Identification and the HNID panels. A total of 85 strains of Nocardia representing five species were used in the study. All isolates were identified as Nocardia species by the use of standard methods. The beta-naphthylamide-labeled substrate L-pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide (PYR), the nitrophenyl-labeled substrate p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (MNP), and indoxyl phosphate were found to be useful for identification purposes. N. farcinica and N. nova were the only species positive for PYR, whereas N. brasiliensis was the only species that hydrolyzed MNP. All strains of N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscavarium, and N. farcinica were positive for indoxyl phosphate, whereas strains of N. nova and N. asteroides sensu stricto were always negative. Agreement between the standard and enzymatic identification methods was 100%. In summary, detection of preformed enzymes appears to be a simple and reproducible method for the identification of Nocardia spp. PMID:8748283

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species among patients with nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of clinically isolated Nocardia species. One hundred twenty-seven patients with nocardiosis were randomly selected from 5 provinces of Iran. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrase B of the β subunit of DNA topoisomerase (gyrB), and 16S rRNA and subunit A of SecA preproteintranslocase (secA1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Thirty-five N. cyriacigeorgica, 30 N. asteroides, 26 N. farcinica, 12 N. otitidiscaviarum, and 10 N. abscessus cultures were studied. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid. All isolates of N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. abscessus, and N. otitidiscaviarum were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 8% of N. farcinica isolates were resistant to this drug. All N. otitidiscaviarum isolates were highly resistant to imipenem, but N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. abscessus were only moderate resistant. The susceptibility patterns vary with different species of Nocardia. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Iran is low and this drug should be first line therapy, unless drug susceptibility testing shows resistance. Linezolid also covers Nocardia well and could be a second line agent. PMID:26638771

  2. Actinomycetoma of the chest wall attributed to Nocardia nova after reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Joana; Pacheco, David; Travassos, Rita; Sequeira, Hortênsia; Filipe, Paulo; Marques, Manuel Sacramento

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old man, presented with multiple ulcers, nodules, abscesses, fistulae, and atrophic scars, over the right chest wall. Six years prior, the patient had a car accident, which resulted in skin loss of the right arm, shoulder, thoracic wall. In addition, he suffered a supracondylar fracture; orthopedic surgery and skin grafts were required. Material discharging from sinus tracts was obtained for mycological and bacteriological studies. Direct microscopic examination revealed small white grains. Cultures on Sabouraud and Lowenstein-Jensen media isolated orange-white colonies suggestive of Nocardia. PCR assay identified Nocardia nova. Thoracic and right upper limb CT showed signs of chronic osteomyelitis. Treatment with imipenem/cilastatin for 8 weeks, followed by amoxicillin clavulanate for 6 months, resulted in healing of lesions and improvement in the patient's general health. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis remains a diagnostic challenge. Nocardia are soil-borne filamentous gram-positive bacteria. Identification of characteristic granules on examination of discharge smears from discharge or tissue biopsy is essential for diagnosing mycetoma. Because grain discharge is discontinuous, multiple clinical specimens should be submitted for microscopic examination and culture. Sulfonamides have been the mainstay of Nocardia actinomycetoma treatment. However, our patient's strain was resistant to Co-trimoxazole. Therefore, treatment with imipenem followed by amoxicillin clavulanate was favored, with good clinical and analytical response. PMID:22301041

  3. First Case of Disseminated Infection with Nocardia cerradoensis in a Human

    PubMed Central

    Kerjouan, Mallorie; Le Mouel, Marc; Patrat-Delon, Solene; Henaux, Pierre-Louis; Brun, Vanessa; Morin, Marie-Pascale; Gautier, Philippe; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Here we report in a human, a renal transplant patient, the first disseminated infection with Nocardia cerradoensis, isolated after a brain biopsy. Species identification was based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and hsp65 gene analyses. Antibiotic treatment was successful by combining carbapenems and aminoglycosides and then switching to oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:25568436

  4. Fatal pneumonia and empyema thoracis caused by imipenem-resistant Nocardia abscessus in a cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-12-01

    We describe a case of pneumonia and empyema thoracis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-susceptible, but imipenem-resistant Nocardia abscessus in a cancer patient. The isolate was confirmed to the species level by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The patient did not respond to antibiotic therapy, including ceftriaxone and imipenem, and died of progressing pneumonia and multiple organ failure. PMID:23523047

  5. Genetic relatedness analysis of nocardia strains by random amplification polymorphic Dna: validation and applications.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Provost, F; Couble, A; Casoli, E; Boiron, P

    2000-05-01

    Until now, no simple and rapid technique existed for epidemiological study of strains belonging to the Nocardia genus. The application of the arbitrarily primed PCR procedure to generate randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints for such analysis of Nocardia isolates was investigated. Fifty-one unrelated clinical isolates of N. asteroides were tested. Two conditions of RAPD using two different primers generated RAPD fingerprints that allowed the differentiation of all strains. The patterns were reproducible and discriminating. The results highlight the diversity of N. asteroides species and confirm that RAPD analysis is a highly valuable tool for studying the epidemiology of the Nocardia genus. Several examples describe the advantage of RAPD analysis for establishing the relationship between isolates from a given patient (long-term infections, coinfections) and from different patients (i.e. during an outbreak). In the future, this technique will help us to investigate the source of infection in cases of nosocomial transmission, to understand the outcome of nocardiosis, and to follow the evolution and acquisition of resistance to Nocardia strains. PMID:10875283

  6. Outbreak of Nocardia farcinica infection with the same pattern in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Kachi, S; Okazaki, M; Takeda, H; Igarashi, H; Kobayashi, O; Watanabe, H; Nakata, K; Kawai, S; Aoshima, M; Watanabe, T; Goto, H

    2006-04-01

    We experienced three cases of nocardiosis by Nocardia farcinica in the same ward within a six-month period. The result of gene analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA gave the same pattern. Thus, these three cases were considered to be caused by the same strain of N. farcinica, implying the presence of nosocomial infection. PMID:16483691

  7. Direct Detection of Nocardia spp. in Clinical Samples by a Rapid Molecular Method

    PubMed Central

    Couble, Andrée; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica; de Montclos, Michèle Pérouse; Boiron, Patrick; Laurent, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    We developed a 16S PCR-based assay for the rapid detection of Nocardia spp. directly from human clinical samples. The applicability of the assay was confirmed by using 18 samples from patients with nocardiosis as diagnosed by conventional cultures and 20 clinical samples from patients with confirmed tuberculosis used as negative controls. PMID:15815019

  8. Insights into the Microbial Degradation of Rubber and Gutta-Percha by Analysis of the Complete Genome of Nocardia nova SH22a

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nocardia nova SH22a was determined in light of the remarkable ability of rubber and gutta-percha (GP) degradation of this strain. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 8,348,532 bp with a G+C content of 67.77% and 7,583 predicted protein-encoding genes. Functions were assigned to 72.45% of the coding sequences. Among them, a large number of genes probably involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and hardly degradable compounds, as well as genes that participate in the synthesis of polyketide- and/or nonribosomal peptide-type secondary metabolites, were detected. Based on in silico analyses and experimental studies, such as transposon mutagenesis and directed gene deletion studies, the pathways of rubber and GP degradation were proposed and the relationship between both pathways was unraveled. The genes involved include, inter alia, genes participating in cell envelope synthesis (long-chain-fatty-acid–AMP ligase and arabinofuranosyltransferase), β-oxidation (α-methylacyl-coenzyme A [α-methylacyl-CoA] racemase), propionate catabolism (acyl-CoA carboxylase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and transmembrane substrate uptake (Mce [mammalian cell entry] transporter). This study not only improves our insights into the mechanism of microbial degradation of rubber and GP but also expands our knowledge of the genus Nocardia regarding metabolic diversity. PMID:24747905

  9. Transmission of nocardiosis and molecular typing of Nocardia species: a short review.

    PubMed

    Provost, F; Laurent, F; Blanc, M V; Boiron, P

    1997-02-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment and may be found in the soil. They are generally responsible for sporadic pulmonary diseases acquired by inhalation of spores, with secondary localizations in the central nervous system and subcutaneous tissues. There is no absolute evidence for person to person transmission. Presumptive outbreaks of nocardiosis were observed in immunocompromised patients, more frequently in kidney transplant patients than in cardiac transplant patients. Nocardia spp., being present in dust particles, closure and disinfection of the transplantation unit with formaldehyde arrested the sequence of cases of nocardiosis. The original sources of the Nocardia sp. remain doubtful. Other possible sources of contamination are other patients, medical staff and the hospital environment. The first studies of Nocardia spp. typing were based on the detection of extracellular antigens, on the susceptibility of actinomycete strains to killer yeasts, and on the biochemical profiles with fluorogenic substrate. The use of molecular typing techniques have given very promising results. Analysis of plasmid profiles is an interesting way to compare the identity of isolates, although the reliability of this method depends of the presence of plasmids in the isolates. Other typing methods, including analysis of restriction length fragment polymorphism of total DNA, ribosomal DNA fingerprinting, require further investigations to evaluate their discriminating power or to be easily interpretable, whereas a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was successful for epidemiological purposes. Progress in epidemiological analysis of cases of nocardiosis will be consistent when an improved diagnosis of this infection (molecular and serological diagnosis) will be available, when the genetic diversity of Nocardia spp. isolates will be better known, and when molecular typing, that hold promise in complementing investigations of outbreak of these infections, will

  10. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa supsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, U.S.A. is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp with 51.7% G+C content and comprises 2,903 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 50 RNA g...

  11. Patterns of Hybridization and Introgression Between Invasive Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae) and Native U. Rubra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been strongly affected by DED. Putative p...

  12. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  13. EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON THE ROOT AND NODULE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF 'ALNUS RUBRA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alnus rubra (Bong.) was grown for three months in a greenhouse and given 0, 6, 12, 31 and 62 migrograms cadmium/liter of nitrogen-free nutrient solution for 11 weeks. Segments of nodules and secondary roots were collected from plants grown at the different Cd levels. Thin section...

  14. Nocardia globerula NHB-2 nitrilase catalysed biotransformation of 4-cyanopyridine to isonicotinic acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Isonicotinic acid (INA) is an important pyridine derivative used in the manufacture of isoniazid (antituberculosatic drug) and other pharmaceutically important drugs. Nitrilase catalysed processes for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important acids from their corresponding nitriles are promising alternative over the cumbersome, hazardous, and energy demanding chemical processes. Nitrilase of Nocardia globerula NHB-2 (NitNHB2) is expressed in presence of isobutyronitrile in the growth medium (1.0% glucose, 0.5% peptone, 0.3% beef extract, and 0.1 % yeast extract, pH 7.5). NitNHB2 hydrolyses 4-cyanopyridine (4-CP) to INA without accumulation of isonicotinamide, which is common in the reaction catalysed via fungal nitrilases. The NitNHB2 suffers from substrate inhibition effect and hydrolysing activity up to 250 mM 4-CP was recorded. Complete conversion of 200 mM 4-CP to INA was achieved in 40 min using resting cell concentration corresponding to 10 U mL-1 nitrilase activity in the reaction. Substrate inhibition effect in the fed batch reaction (200 mM substrate feed/40min) led to formation of only 729 mM INA. In a fed batch reaction (100 mM 4-CP/20min), substrate inhibition effect was encountered after 7th feed and a total of 958 mM INA was produced in 400 min. The fed batch reaction scaled up to 1 L and 100% hydrolysis of 700 mM of 4-CP to INA at 35°C achieved in 140 min. The rate of INA production was 21.1 g h-1 mgDCW-1. This is the fastest biotransformation process ever reported for INA production with time and space productivity of 36 g L-1 h-1 using a bacterial nitrilase. PMID:22537922

  15. Degradation of Methoxylated Benzoic Acids by a Nocardia from a Lignin-Rich Environment: Significance to Lignin Degradation and Effect of Chloro Substituents

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. L.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Harkin, J. M.; Kirk, T. K.; Obst, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Strain A81 of Nocardia corallina hydroxylates or demethylates p-anisic acid to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and isovanillic acid. It demethylates veratric acid to a mixture of vanillic and isovanillic acids. These are both demethylated to protocatechuic acid, which undergoes ring cleavage to afford β-carboxy-cis-cis-muconic acid. The intermediacy of protocatechuic acid in the catabolic pathway of veratric acid was confirmed by blocking ring cleavage with an additional substituent in the ring: 5-chlorovanillic acid was demethylated to 5-chloro-protocatechuic acid, which accumulated. Chloro substituents in the ring of other methoxylated benzoic acids also arrested their normal metabolism by the Nocardia: an ortho-chloro substituent thwarted both demethylation and ring-opening. ortho-Hydroxylation of p-methoxybenzoic acid to isovanillic acid was unaffected by a chlorine ortho to the methoxyl group. Washed whole cells of veratric acid-grown N. corallina A81 produced no detected structural changes in an isolated lignin. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:4743871

  16. Rapid detection of Nocardia amarae in the activated sludge process using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Iwahori, K; Miyata, N; Morisada, S; Suzuki, N

    2000-01-01

    Nocardia amarae, a mycolic acid-containing bacterium, has often been reported to cause foaming of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the number of N. amarae cells in the activated sludge process was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-N. amarae polyclonal antibody. Use of the antibody enabled N. amarae to be detected at levels of 10(4) to 10(7) colony forming units. On the other hand, the antibody reacted with only a small portion of activated sludge, in which no N. amarae cells were detected by the plate count method. Competitive ELISA was employed to estimate the N. amarae cells in samples taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, including raw wastewater and activated sludge foam. The cell numbers estimated by competitive ELISA corresponded well with those obtained by plate counts. Hence, the antibody produced in this study was shown to be effective for the rapid monitoring of N. amarae in the activated sludge process. PMID:16232779

  17. Resistance gene pool to co-trimoxazole in non-susceptible Nocardia strains

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, María J.; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Nocardia sp. causes severe cutaneous, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. Against them, co-trimoxazole (SXT) constitutes the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy. However, some Nocardia strains show resistance to SXT, but the underlying genetic basis is unknown. We investigated the presence of genetic resistance determinants and class 1–3 integrons in 76 SXT-resistant Nocardia strains by PCR and sequencing. By E test, these clinical strains showed SXT minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥32:608 mg/L (ratio of 1:19 for trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole). They belonged to 12 species, being the main representatives Nocardia farcinica (32%), followed by N. flavorosea (6.5%), N. nova (11.8%), N. carnea (10.5%), N. transvalensis (10.5%), and Nocardia sp. (6.5%). The prevalence of resistance genes in the SXT-resistant strains was as follows: sul1 and sul2 93.4 and 78.9%, respectively, dfrA(S1) 14.7%, blaTEM-1 and blaZ 2.6 and 2.6%, respectively, VIM-2 1.3%, aph(3′)-IIIa 40.8%, ermA, ermB, mefA, and msrD 2.6, 77.6, 14.4, and 5.2%, respectively, and tet(O), tet(M), and tet(L) 48.6, 25.0, and 3.9%, respectively. Detected amino acid changes in GyrA were not related to fluoroquinolone resistance, but probably linked to species polymorphism. Class 1 and 3 integrons were found in 93.42 and 56.57% strains, respectively. Class 2 integrons and sul3 genes were not detected. Other mechanisms, different than dfrA(S1), dfrD, dfrF, dfrG, and dfrK, could explain the strong trimethoprim resistance shown by the other 64 strains. For first time, resistance determinants commonly found in clinically important bacteria were detected in Nocardia sp. sul1, sul2, erm(B), and tet(O) were the most prevalent in the SXT-resistant strains. The similarity in their resistome could be due to a common genetic platform, in which these determinants are co-transferred. PMID:25972856

  18. Use of PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis and sequencing database for hsp65 gene-based identification of Nocardia species.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica; Couble, Andrée; Devulder, Gregory; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Boiron, Patrick; Laurent, Frédéric

    2006-02-01

    Nocardia identification required laborious and time-consuming phenotypic and chemotaxonomic methods until molecular methods were developed in the mid-1990s. Here we reassessed the capacity of PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene to differentiate Nocardia species, including 36 new species. Our results confirm that hsp65 PRA must no longer be used for Nocardia species identification, as many species have the same restriction pattern. We then compared sequencing-based strategies using an hsp65 database and a 16S rRNA database and found that the hsp65 region contained sufficient polymorphisms for comprehensive Nocardia species identification. PMID:16455910

  19. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  20. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  1. Photoinhibition of photosystem I under high light in the shade-established tropical tree species Psychotria rubra

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic sensitivity to high light differs among understory plants of shade- and sun- established tree species. Shade-established tree species are sensitive to high light but the underlying photosynthetic mechanism has not been fully resolved. In the present study, we examined the responses of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to high light in shade leaves of a shade-established tree species Psychotria rubra and a sun-established tree species Pometia tomentosa. After exposure to 2000 μmol photons m–2 s–1 for 2 h, the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) decreased by 40 and 9% in P. rubra and P. tomentosa, respectively. These results indicate that the shade-established species P. rubra is incapable of protecting PSI under high light. Strong photoinhibition of PSII under high light led to large depression of electron transfer from PSII to PSI and then prevented further photodamage to PSI. During the high light treatment of 2000 μmol photons m–2 s–1, PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra was accompanied with high levels of cyclic electron flow (CEF) and P700 oxidation ratio. Therefore, we propose that PSI photoinhibition under high light in P. rubra is dependent on electron transfer from PSII to PSI, and CEF is unlikely to play a major role in photoprotection for PSI in P. rubra. These findings suggest that photoinhibition of PSI is another important mechanism underlying why shade-established species cannot survive under high light. PMID:26483816

  2. Infection caused by Nocardia farcinica mimicking pulmonary metastasis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Babayigit, Arzu; Olmez, Duygu; Sozmen, Sule C; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan; Anal, Ozden; Gulay, Zeynep

    2010-03-01

    Nocardia farcinica infections are rare and potentially life threatening. Herein, we describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. farcinica. This 13-year-old girl admitted with 1-year history of cough, intermittent fever, and recurrent hemoptysis. She was examined for multiple pulmonary nodules mimicking pulmonary metastasis that were detected with chest radiography and computed tomography of the thorax. Eventually, N. farcinica was yielded in culture of sputum and aspiration material of pulmonary nodules. No predisposing factor could be shown for Nocardia infection. Although infections caused by N. farcinica have tendency to disseminate, and are mostly resistant to antibiotics, the patient was successfully treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy followed with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:20216281

  3. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  4. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  5. Nocardia farcinica Meningitis Masquerading as Central Nervous System Metastasis in a Child With Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer; Kreppel, Andrew J; Brady, Rebecca C; Jones, Blaise; Stevenson, Charles B; Fouladi, Maryam; Hummel, Trent R

    2015-08-01

    Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common pediatric central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm, characteristically displays an indolent growth pattern and rarely demonstrates metastatic dissemination. Reports of infections mimicking CNS metastatic disease are also rare and can impact treatment. We report the youngest known case of a child with a CNS Nocardia farcinica infection who had a known cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, review other infections that may masquerade as CNS neoplasms, and discuss N. farcinica CNS infections. PMID:26181420

  6. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    PubMed

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:25443661

  7. Hemimandibulectomy and vascularized fibula flap in bisphosphonate-induced mandibular osteonecrosis with polycythaemia rubra vera.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, N; Collyer, J C; Tighe, J V

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the successful management of an advanced and refractory bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) by hemimandibulectomy and an osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction in a patient with polycythaemia rubra vera, a rare haematological condition in which there is increased risk of thrombosis and haemorrhage. Union of the vascularized bone with the mandible depends on obtaining a BRONJ-free margin and rigid fixation of the bony ends. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide accurate delineation of necrotic bone and area of osteomyelitis. Placement of a 1cm margin beyond this can envisage a BRONJ-free margin. Aggressive medical management of polycythaemia rubra vera by venesection, asprin and cytoreduction therapy along with anticoagulant prophylaxis against thromboembolic events in the first 2 weeks following major surgery can provide the basis of a good surgical and flap outcome. Nevertheless, the possibility of unpredictable haemorrhage must be considered throughout. PMID:22520725

  8. [Pulmonary Nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in a Patient with ANCA-associated Vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Suemori, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Jun; Matsumoto, Takuya; Murakami, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia asiatica is a rare causative organism responsible for opportunistic infection, and was first reported by Kageyama et al. in 2004. We report herein on a very rare case of N. asiatica infection in a 76-year old male patient with ANCA-associated vasculitis and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient developed pulmonary nocardiosis due to N. asiatica while receiving glucocorticoid therapy. Chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple granules and cavity formation mainly in the left lower lobe. From the images, we suspected opportunistic infection, possibly pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary damage due to ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nocardia sp. was detected from a bronchoalveolar lavage culture and N. asiatica was identified by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormality. Administration of Doripenem (1.5g/day) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4g/day) was started, and the patient's clinical and imaging findings promptly improved. Thereafter, he received sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (2g/day) and prednisolone (10 mg/day) as maintenance therapy for ANCA-associated vasculitis for more than one year, and there has since been no recurrence of the Nocardia infection. PMID:26554223

  9. A Case of Nocardia farcinica Pneumonia and Mediastinitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kang, Minkyu; Kim, Juri; Jung, Sohee; Park, Junhung; Lee, Dongkyu

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive pathogens found worldwide in soil. Nocardia is considered an opportunistic pathogen, and its infection mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of Nocardia farcinica induced mediastinitis and pneumonia that occurred in a 64-year-old male patient who had no significant medical history except for hypertension. He visited another hospital with a complaint of dyspnea and left chest wall pain. The symptoms arose 7 days ago without any trauma and they worsened. A mediastinal mass was found on computed tomography scan. After being transferred to our hospital for further evaluation, he was diagnosed with mediastinitis and pneumonia. As N. farcinica was found to be the causative organism by 16S rRNA sequencing, proper antibiotic therapy including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was initiated immediately. After this, the patient improved and he was discharged. If an infection has a disseminating course, nocardiosis cannot be excluded even in immunocompetent patients. Once the diagnosis is established, prompt antibiotic therapy should be performed based on the severity. PMID:27066088

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. PMID:25348540

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Clinical Nocardia Species Identified by Multilocus Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247T, and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. PMID:25348540

  12. Diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans central nervous system infection by DNA sequencing from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; De Carolis, Elena; Mello, Enrica; Pallotto, Carlo; Leli, Christian; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Baldelli, Franco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Infections by Nocardia spp. are generally regarded as opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients, but can also affect immunocompetent subjects. Such infections represent an important diagnostic challenge for clinicians and microbiologists, and diagnosis is frequently delayed or even conducted post mortem. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of ventriculitis and relapsing brain abscess. Five months prior, this patient had undergone external ventricular drain and surgery for a cerebellar abscess. Histopathology demonstrated pyogenic inflammatory reaction, microbiologic investigations proved negative and empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered for a total of eight weeks. Six weeks later, the patient developed relapsing neurologic manifestations. On reviewing the patient's clinical history it emerged that the patient had suffered pneumonia two months prior to neurosurgery, treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate 3g a day and levofloxacin 500mg a day for three weeks. On the CNS relapsing manifestations, nocardiosis was suspected and DNA sequencing from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue collected during neurosurgery allowed diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans infection. The patient received medical therapy for 11 months. At follow-up, eight months after treatment was discontinued, the patient was aymptomatic. Nocardia spp. infections need to be suspected not only in immunocompromised, but also in immunocompetent patients. Proper samples need to be collected for proper microbiologic investigations. Paraffin-embedded tissue genomic sequencing can be a useful tool for diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:27367327

  13. A Case of Nocardia farcinica Pneumonia and Mediastinitis in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kang, Minkyu; Kim, Juri; Jung, Sohee; Park, Junhung; Lee, Dongkyu; Yoon, Heejung

    2016-04-01

    Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive pathogens found worldwide in soil. Nocardia is considered an opportunistic pathogen, and its infection mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of Nocardia farcinica induced mediastinitis and pneumonia that occurred in a 64-year-old male patient who had no significant medical history except for hypertension. He visited another hospital with a complaint of dyspnea and left chest wall pain. The symptoms arose 7 days ago without any trauma and they worsened. A mediastinal mass was found on computed tomography scan. After being transferred to our hospital for further evaluation, he was diagnosed with mediastinitis and pneumonia. As N. farcinica was found to be the causative organism by 16S rRNA sequencing, proper antibiotic therapy including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was initiated immediately. After this, the patient improved and he was discharged. If an infection has a disseminating course, nocardiosis cannot be excluded even in immunocompetent patients. Once the diagnosis is established, prompt antibiotic therapy should be performed based on the severity. PMID:27066088

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

  15. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes. PMID:22710794

  16. Late onset pityriasis rubra pilaris type IV treated with low-dose acitretin.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology and great clinical variability. It has been divided into six categories. Types III, IV, and V occur in childhood and are distinguished by their clinical presentation, age of onset, and course. We report a 19-year-old male patient with a 2-week history of pruritic, scaling dermatosis of the hands, feet, elbows, and knees. He had no family history of skin disease. On physical examination, we observed circumscribed, reddish-orange, scaling plaques affecting the elbows and knees and a waxy palmoplantar keratoderma. The skin biopsy showed acanthosis, alternating orthokeratosis, parakeratosis, and follicular plugging suggestive of pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient started treatment with oral acitretin, 25 mg every other day. The treatment was tolerated well, and after 6 months the lesions had resolved completely. Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic papulosquamous disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by reddish-orange scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, and keratotic follicular papules. There is still no consensus regarding the treatment, but therapeutic options include systemic retinoids, particularly acitretin in the recommended dose of 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg/day. In our case, the patient was treated with a low-dose regimen of acitretin, which was effective and well tolerated. PMID:27014774

  17. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocardia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributing to geosmin-related off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 degree...

  18. Report of an immunocompetent case with disseminated infection due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: Identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Eren, Esma; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Atalay, Altay; Demiraslan, Hayati; Parkan, Omur; Koc, Nedret

    2016-03-01

    Nocardia otitidiscaviarum belongs to the agents of opportunistic infections seen in immunocompromised patients, but may occur rarely in immunocompetent patients. In this report we described a case of a previously healthy 69-year-old woman with cerebral and retroperitoneal abscess due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. The patient was admitted to hospital because of loss of strength in her right arm and leg. Nocardia spp. was isolated from the abscess material. The intracranial lesions were drained by stereotactic craniotomy. The large abscess located around the left kidney was drained and microscopic examination of aspirated material showed Nocardia spp. For species identification, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was carried out and was 100% concordant with Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. Use of 16S rDNA gene sequencing for identification permits detection of rare aetiologic agents that cause brain abscesses. PMID:27031902

  19. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763

  20. Trehangelins A, B and C, novel photo-oxidative hemolysis inhibitors produced by an endophytic actinomycete, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Okuyama, Ryuki; Kamiya, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Inahashi, Yuki; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Yōko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Three new natural products, designated trehangelins A, B and C, were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel and octadecylsilyl silica gel column chromatographies and subsequent preparative HPLC from the cultured broth of an endophytic actinomycete strain, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510. The trehangelins consisted of a trehalose moiety and two angelic acid moieties. Trehangelins A (IC50 value, 0.1 mg ml(-1)) and C (IC50 value, 0.4 mg ml(-1)), with symmetric structures, showed potent inhibitory activity against hemolysis of red blood cells induced by light-activated pheophorbide a. However, trehangelin B, with an asymmetric structure, displayed only a slight inhibition (IC50 value, 1.0 mg ml(-1)). PMID:23591606

  1. Peptidolipins B-F, Antibacterial Lipopeptides from an Ascidian-derived Nocardia sp

    PubMed Central

    Wyche, Thomas P.; Hou, Yanpeng; Vazquez-Rivera, Emmanuel; Braun, Doug; Bugni, Tim S.

    2012-01-01

    A marine Nocardia sp. isolated from the ascidian Trididemnum orbiculatum was found to produce five new lipopeptides, peptidolipins B-F (1–5), which show distinct similarities to the previously reported L-Val(6) analog of peptidolipin NA. Synthetic modification of peptidolipin E (4) was used to determine the location of an olefin within the lipid chain. Advanced Marfey’s method was used to determine the absolute configurations of the amino acids. Peptidolipins B (1) and E (4) demonstrated moderate antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). PMID:22482367

  2. Suppurative granulomatous sinorhinitis associated with Nocardia spp. infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    NAKANISHI, Ataru; MASHITA, Tadahisa; AKIYAMA, Kyoko; NAKANISHI, Wakana; MORI, Takashi; YANO, Masaki; ASAI, Tetsuo; KANO, Rui; SHIMAMURA, Syunsuke; YASUDA, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female cat was examined for cheek skin drainage. The skin lesion did not respond to medical therapy; thereafter, facial deformity developed. A computed tomography revealed an intranasal mass and maxillary osteolysis. The mass was histopathologically diagnosed as suppurative granulomatous inflammation caused by filamentous bacteria. The lesion responded well to radiation therapy. Although actinomycosis was suspected histopathologically, no actinomycetes were detected in the nasal lesion by a bacterial culture conducted at a commercial laboratory. The submandibular lymph node and subcutaneous tissue exhibited swelling. Microbiological examination and genetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequence revealed that Nocardia spp. were isolated from both lesions. PMID:25648934

  3. Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842, harboring a putative conjugative plasmid pMBL6842.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Zeng, Zhenshun; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-04-20

    Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of Gram-negative and is ubiquitously distributed in the ocean. Many Pseudoalteromonas species are capable of producing pigments, which can serve as an alternative source to replace synthetic pigments used in the food industry. Prodigiosins belong to a family of secondary metabolite characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethane skeleton, and have been successfully applied to yogurt, milk and carbonated drinks as substitutes for synthetic additives. The strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842 can produce cycloprodigiosin and harbors a conjugative plasmid. Here we report the complete genome of P. rubra SCSIO 6842 for a better understanding of the molecular basis of cycloprodigiosin production and regulation. PMID:26970053

  4. Degradation of trichloroethene by a linear-plasmid-encoded alkene monooxygenase in Rhodococcus corallinus (Nocardia corallina) B-276.

    PubMed

    Saeki, H; Akira, M; Furuhashi, K; Averhoff, B; Gottschalk, G

    1999-07-01

    Rhodococcus corallinus (formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276, isolated with propene as sole carbon and energy source, is able to oxidize trichloroethene (TCE). Glucose- or propene-grown R. corallinus B-276 cells exhibited no difference in TCE degradation efficiency. TCE degradation was found to be growth-phase-dependent and maximum rates were monitored with stationary-phase cells. K(m) and Vmax values for TCE degradation of R. corallinus B-276 grown in nutrient broth medium in the presence of glucose were 187 microM and 2.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, respectively. Escherichia coli recombinants harbouring and expressing the alkene monooxygenase genes of R. corallinus B-276 exhibited the ability to degrade TCE. This result provides clear evidence that the alkene monooxygenase of R. corallinus B-276 catalyses TCE oxidation. R. corallinus B-276 was shown to contain four linear plasmids, pNC10 (70 kb), pNC20 (85 kb), pNC30 (185 kb) and pNC40 (235 kb). The observation that pNC30-deficient strains had lost the ability to grow on propene suggested that the genes of the propene degradation pathway are encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Southern blot analysis with cloned alkene monooxygenase genes from R. corallinus B-276 revealed a positive hybridization signal with the linear plasmid pNC30. This result clearly shows that the alkene monooxygenase is encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Eleven short-chain-alkene-oxidizing strains were screened for the presence of linear plasmids. Among these, four propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus strains and one ethene-oxidizing Mycobacterium strain were found to contain linear megaplasmids. Southern blot analysis with the alkene monooxygenase revealed positive signals with linear plasmids of two propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus ruber strains. These results indicate that homologous alkene monooxygenases are encoded by linear plasmids in R. ruber strains. PMID:10439411

  5. Mycetoma due to Pseudallescheria boydii and co-isolation of Nocardia abscessus in a patient injured in road accident.

    PubMed

    Horré, R; Schumacher, G; Marklein, G; Stratmann, H; Wardelmann, E; Gilges, S; De Hoog, G S; Schaal, K P

    2002-10-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed a mycetoma after experiencing a road accident. From surgical biopsies Pseudallescheria boydii was isolated. Subsequently, after the infection had been treated with itraconazole, a Gram-positive bacterium, identified as the newly described species Nocardia abscessus, was cultured from wound fluids. PMID:12462533

  6. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:22825801

  7. Novel bioactive metabolites from a marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Hawas, Usama W; Jaspars, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Extracts of the Egyptian marine actinomycete, Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000, were found to be highly bioactive. It was isolated from the marine red alga Laurenica spectabilis collected off the Ras-Gharib coast of the Red Sea, Egypt. According to detailed identification studies, the strain was classified as a member of the genus Nocardia. The cultivation and chemical analysis of this species yielded four structurally related compounds namely, chrysophanol 8-methyl ether (1), asphodelin; 4,7'-bichrysophanol (2) and justicidin B (3), in addition to a novel bioactive compound ayamycin; 1,1-dichloro-4-ethyl-5-(4-nitro-phenyl)-hexan-2-one (4) which is unique in contain both chlorination and a rarely observed nitro group. The compounds were isolated by a series of chromatographic steps and their structures of 1approximately 3 secured by detailed spectroscopic analysis of the MS and NMR data whereas that of 4 was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds displayed different potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi with MIC ranging from 0.1 to 10 microg/ml. PMID:18667786

  8. Protective effect of Morus rubra L. leaf extract on diet-induced atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suman Bala; Tanwar, Reenu Singh; Rini, A C; Singh, Usha Rani; Gupta, Shipra; Shukla, Santosh Kumar

    2010-02-01

    The antiatherosclerotic effect of aqueous leaves extract of Morus rubra was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with atherosclerotic (Ath) diet [1.5 ml olive oil containing 8 mg (3, 20,000 IU) vitamin D2 and 40 mg cholesterol] for 5 consecutive days. A short-term toxicity assessment was also conducted in healthy rats to examine toxic effects of the extract. Oral administration of extract to diabetic rats (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per day for a period of 30 days) produced significant (p<0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with the extract (400 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) improvement in body weight and serum lipid profile i.e., total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, when compared with diabetic control. Endothelial dysfunction parameters (sVCAM-1, Fibrinogen, total NO levels and oxidized LDL), apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B were significantly (p<0.001) reversed to near normal, following treatment with the extract. Thus, our study shows that aqueous leaf extract of Morus rubra (400 mg/kg) significantly improves the homeostasis of glucose and fat and possesses significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. PMID:21086751

  9. PSI photoinhibition is more related to electron transfer from PSII to PSI rather than PSI redox state in Psychotria rubra.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been believed that wild-type plants are capable of protecting photosystem I (PSI) under high light, our previous study indicates that PSI is sensitive to high light in the shade-established tree species Psychotria rubra. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of electron transfer from PSII to PSI and PSI redox state in PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra by treatments with lincomycin (Lin), diuron (DCMU), and methyl viologen (MV). After exposure to 2000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for 2 h, PSI activity decreased by 35, 29, 3, and 49 % in samples treated with H2O, Lin, DCMU, and MV, respectively. Meanwhile, the MV-treated samples showed higher P700 oxidation ratio than the H2O-treated samples, suggesting the PSI photoinhibition under high light was accompanied by high levels of P700 oxidation ratio. PSI photoinhibition was alleviated in the DCMU-treated samples but was accelerated in the MV-treated samples, suggesting that PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra was mainly controlled by electron transfer from PSII to PSI. Taking together, PSI photoinhibition is more related to electron transfer from PSII to PSI rather than PSI redox state in P. rubra, which is different from the mechanisms of PSI photoinhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana and cucumber. PMID:27236700

  10. GAS EXCHANGE IN QUERCUS RUBRA DURING A DROUGHT: ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS AMONG PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION, AND LEAF CONDUCTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quercus rubra L. caused a marked midday depression in photosynthesis(A) and transpiration (E). t external CO2 partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant temperature of 30 degrees C and a constant photosynthetic photon flux density ...

  11. Genome Sequence of Gammaproteobacterial Pseudohaliea rubra Type Strain DSM 19751, Isolated from Coastal Seawater of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Anne; Riedel, Thomas; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pseudohaliea rubra strain DSM 19751T is an aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from surface coastal seawater of the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll-a and the reserve compound glycogen. PMID:25414506

  12. Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per μg of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, β-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

  13. The Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows ongoing adaptation of an environmental Actinobacteria to a pathogen’s lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia cyriacigeorgica is recognized as one of the most prevalent etiological agents of human nocardiosis. Human exposure to these Actinobacteria stems from direct contact with contaminated environmental matrices. The full genome sequence of N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 was studied to infer major trends in its evolution, including the acquisition of novel genetic elements that could explain its ability to thrive in multiple habitats. Results N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 genome size is 6.19 Mb-long, 82.7% of its CDS have homologs in at least another actinobacterial genome, and 74.5% of these are found in N. farcinica. Among N. cyriacigeorgica specific CDS, some are likely implicated in niche specialization such as those involved in denitrification and RuBisCO production, and are found in regions of genomic plasticity (RGP). Overall, 22 RGP were identified in this genome, representing 11.4% of its content. Some of these RGP encode a recombinase and IS elements which are indicative of genomic instability. CDS playing part in virulence were identified in this genome such as those involved in mammalian cell entry or encoding a superoxide dismutase. CDS encoding non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) were identified, with some being likely involved in the synthesis of siderophores and toxins. COG analyses showed this genome to have an organization similar to environmental Actinobacteria. Conclusion N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows features suggesting a diversification from an ancestral saprophytic state. GUH-2 ability at acquiring foreign DNA was found significant and to have led to functional changes likely beneficial for its environmental cycle and opportunistic colonization of a human host. PMID:23622346

  14. Brain Abscesses Caused by Nocardia paucivorans in a Multiple Myeloma Patient Treated with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone: a Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Jacopo; Luzzati, Roberto; Maurel, Cristina; Rosin, Chiara; Valentinotti, Romina; Farina, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of multiple brain abscesses caused by Nocardia paucivorans in a patient suffering from multiple myeloma on treatment with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. N. paucivorans is a recently described species of the genus Nocardia, which is supposed to have a heightened neurotropism in cases of disseminated infection. Although nocardiosis itself is an uncommon infectious complication in multiple myeloma so far, nocardial brain abscess should be added to the spectrum of adverse effects due to this novel chemotherapy regimen. PMID:25574370

  15. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from a genome survey of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is a subtropical evergreen tree originating in China. It has been cultivated in southern China for several thousand years, and annual production has reached 1.1 million tons. The taste and high level of health promoting characters identified in the fruit in recent years has stimulated its extension in China and introduction to Australia. A limited number of co-dominant markers have been developed and applied in genetic diversity and identity studies. Here we report, for the first time, a survey of whole genome shotgun data to develop a large number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the genetic diversity of the common cultivated Chinese bayberry and the relationship with three other Myrica species. Results The whole genome shotgun survey of Chinese bayberry produced 9.01Gb of sequence data, about 26x coverage of the estimated genome size of 323 Mb. The genome sequences were highly heterozygous, but with little duplication. From the initial assembled scaffold covering 255 Mb sequence data, 28,602 SSRs (≥5 repeats) were identified. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 84.73%, followed by 13.78% trinucleotide, 1.34% tetranucleotide, 0.12% pentanucleotide and 0.04% hexanucleotide. From 600 primer pairs, 186 polymorphic SSRs were developed. Of these, 158 were used to screen 29 Chinese bayberry accessions and three other Myrica species: 91.14%, 89.87% and 46.84% SSRs could be used in Myrica adenophora, Myrica nana and Myrica cerifera, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram tree showed that cultivated Myrica rubra is closely related to Myrica adenophora and Myrica nana, originating in southwest China, and very distantly related to Myrica cerifera, originating in America. These markers can be used in the construction of a linkage map and for genetic diversity studies in Myrica species. Conclusion Myrica rubra has a small genome of about 323 Mb with a high level of

  16. Nocardia abscessus-related intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery with associated brain abscess: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farran, Yvette; Antony, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia infections primarily begin in the lungs and spread hematogenously to other sites in the body. Thus, a Nocardia brain abscess is not a completely uncommon occurrence. However, a Nocardia brain abscess complicated by a middle cerebral artery and infectious intracranial aneurysm is a very rare clinical entity. We present a case of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with an associated Nocardia brain abscess that required surgical intervention and resection. The patient was an immunocompetent 60-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of headache and was found to have an infected intracranial aneurysm and cerebral abscess. He underwent drainage of the abscess with subsequent resection of the infected aneurysm. Cultures from both the blood vessel and brain tissue grew Nocardia abscessus. He was successfully treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Infectious intracranial aneurysms of the brain caused by Nocardia are rare occurrences, and only a single previous case has been described in the literature. The outcomes of this condition can be catastrophic if it is not treated with a combination of surgery and intravenous antibiotics. The guidelines for the management of this infection are not well defined at this time. PMID:26724261

  17. Pulmonary nocardiosis due to Nocardia farcinica in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Gowrinath, K; Baig, Waqas Wahid; Prabhu, Attur Ravindra; Chawla, Kiran; Bairy, Indira

    2009-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is an infrequent cause of nocardiosis among the renal transplant recipients and it has not been reported so far from India. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis due to N. farcinica in a 32-year-old woman with hypothyroidism and post-renal transplant status, currently on immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone, azathioprine and tacrolimus). The N. farcinica isolate was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), linezolid, imipenem, gentamicin but resistant to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, erythromycin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and tetracycline. Treatment with TMP-SMZ and linezolid resulted in marked clinico-radiological improvement but after two weeks both of the drugs had to be stopped due to severe pancytopenia as adverse effect of their use. Currently, the patient is on imipenem and remains stable after four weeks of treatment. In N. farcinica infections, multi antibiotic resistance and toxicity of some specific drugs enhances the risk of therapeutic failure in renal transplant recipients. PMID:20073376

  18. Pyothorax caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in a patient with rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Bandoh, Shuji; Fujita, Jiro; Tokuda, Michiaki; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2004-07-01

    We report a case of pyothorax caused by Nocardia (N.) otitidiscaviarum infection in a 69-year-old man with rheumatoid vasculitis, who was regularly treated with prednisolone in our hospital. Initially, the patient responded poorly to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (IPM/CS), minocyclin (MINO), and oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), but later improved after treatment with levofloxacin (LVFX) and gentamicin sulfate (GM) according to in vitro susceptibility tests. To our knowledge, this is the first description of pyothorax caused by N. otitidiscaviarum infection. It is a rare disease, but recognition of the disease in immunocompromised patients and the prompt initiation of appropriate treatments based on isolation of the pathogen and susceptibility testing can lead to a successful outcome. PMID:15335193

  19. Microbial transformations of warfarin: stereoselective reduction by Nocardia corallina and Arthrobacter species.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P J; Rizzo, J D

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological metabolism of warfarin was examined as a model of metabolism in higher organisms, including humans, and to determine the chirality of microbial reductases for application in organic synthesis. Nineteen cultures were examined based on their reported abilities to reduce ketonic substrates, and several were shown to catalyze the desired reaction. Nocardia corallina (ATCC 19070) exhibited complete substrate and product stereoselectivity as it reduced S-warfarin to the corresponding S-alcohol. Arthrobacter species (ATCC 19140) exhibited marked substrate and complete product stereoselectivity since S-warfarin, and to a lesser extent R-warfarin, were reduced to the corresponding S-alcohols. These reductions parallel those reported to occur in mammalian species. PMID:7081986

  20. Diesel and kerosene degradation by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 and Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans NCIM 2386.

    PubMed

    Kalme, Satish; Parshetti, Ganesh; Gomare, Sushma; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 (Pd 2112) and Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans NCIM 2386 (Nh 2386) demonstrated an ability to degrade diesel and kerosene. Triton X-100 had enhanced the diesel degradation process by reducing the time required for the maximum utilization of total petroleum hydrocarbon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of degraded diesel indicates the presence of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, C=C aromatic nuclei, and substituted benzenes. Surface tension reduction and stable emulsification was increased using consortium when compared to individual strains. Triton X-100 showed increase in microbial attachment to hydrocarbon among the various chemical surfactants tested. For generating a rapid assay to screen microorganisms capable of degrading kerosene, the acetaldehyde produced in the degradation process could be used as an indicator of degradation. These results indicate diesel and kerosene degradation ability of both of the strains. PMID:18330635

  1. Unusual presentation of disseminated Nocardia abscessus infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sherbuk, Jacqueline; Saly, Danielle; Barakat, Lydia; Ogbuagu, Onyema

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with AIDS presented with symptoms of a chronic cough, subacute headache, generalised weakness with falls, urinary and faecal incontinence, and acute onset subcutaneous nodules. A chest CT scan showed multiple cavitary and nodular pulmonary infiltrates. MRI of his brain and spinal cord revealed innumerable ring-enhancing lesions. Pathological examination of the purulent material obtained from his subcutaneous lesions, as well as transbronchial tissue specimens obtained by biopsy, revealed beaded and branching Gram-positive rods, subsequently identified by 16S RNA sequencing to be Nocardia abscessus species. We observed an excellent therapeutic response to a combination antimicrobial therapy with resolution of the subcutaneous, pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Infections caused by N. abscessus are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised patients. In this article, we will review the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of N. abscessus infection. PMID:27440848

  2. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Nocardithiocin Gene Cluster in Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kanae; Komaki, Hisayuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardithiocin is a thiopeptide compound isolated from the opportunistic pathogen Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. It shows a strong activity against acid-fast bacteria and is also active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of the nocardithiocin gene cluster in N. pseudobrasiliensis IFM 0761 based on conserved thiopeptide biosynthesis gene sequence and the whole genome sequence. The predicted gene cluster was confirmed by gene disruption and complementation. As expected, strains containing the disrupted gene did not produce nocardithiocin while gene complementation restored nocardithiocin production in these strains. The predicted cluster was further analyzed using RNA-seq which showed that the nocardithiocin gene cluster contains 12 genes within a 15.2-kb region. This finding will promote the improvement of nocardithiocin productivity and its derivatives production. PMID:26588225

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of Nocardia seriolae from snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Khac, Hung; Duong, Van Quy; Chen, Shih-Chu; Pham, Trung Hieu; Nguyen, Thi Thu; Trinh, Thi Thu

    2016-07-01

    A total of 480 cage-cultured fish were collected from 4 coastal provinces in central Vietnam to investigate the causative agent of nocardiosis. Fish displayed unique characteristics such as paleness and lethargy and exhibited haemorrhages and ulcers on the skin. Prominent white nodules varying in size were observed in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, histopathological sections showed typical granulomatous lesions in these organs. Using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, isolated bacteria exhibited acid-fast, bead-like filament morphology when cultured in brain-heart infusion medium or Ogawa medium. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Nocardia seriolae. This study demonstrates for the first time an outbreak of N. seriolae in snubnose pompano in central Vietnam. PMID:27409241

  4. Nocardia prosthetic knee infection successfully treated by one-stage exchange: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Cornu, O; Vandercam, B; Yombi, J C

    2015-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with a history of sarcoidosis on corticosteroids and azathioprine was admitted to our hospital with complaints of worsening left knee pain and swelling for the past 3 weeks. His past medical history is also significant for severe osteoarthritis requiring a cemented total left knee arthroplasty 1 year ago. Diagnostic investigation during his hospital admission eventually led to the diagnosis of Nocardia nova knee prosthetic joint infection in the setting of a disseminated nocardiosis. He was successful treated by one-stage complete hardware exchange in conjunction with an adapted antibiotic therapy regimen (meropenem and doxycycline followed by ceftriaxone and doxycycline). Two years later, his recovery was deemed excellent. PMID:25560058

  5. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  6. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  7. Bacterial metabolism of alpha-pinene: pathway from alpha-pinene oxide to acyclic metabolites in Nocardia sp. strain P18.3.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E T; Bociek, S M; Harries, P C; Jeffcoat, R; Sissons, D J; Trudgill, P W

    1987-01-01

    Over 20 gram-positive bacteria were isolated by elective culture with (+/-)-alpha-pinene as the sole carbon source. One of these strains, Nocardia sp. strain P18.3, was selected for detailed study. alpha-Pinene-grown cells oxidized, without lag, alpha-pinene, alpha-pinene oxide (epoxide), and the cis and trans isomers of 2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. No other tested terpene was oxidized at a significant rate. alpha-Pinene was not metabolized by cell extracts in the presence or absence of NADH or NADPH. Cell extracts catalyzed a rapid decyclization of alpha-pinene oxide, in the absence of added cofactors, with the formation of cis-2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. Further oxidation of the aldehyde to the corresponding acid occurred in the presence of NAD. Both activities were induced by growth with alpha-pinene. A rapid, nonenzymic transformation of the cis aldehyde into the trans isomer occurred in glycine buffer. The trans isomer was also a substrate for the NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase. The distribution of the alpha-pinene oxide lyase in alpha-pinene-utilizing Pseudomonas spp. was also investigated and was compatible with the two alternative ring-cleavage sequences that have been proposed on the basis of accumulated metabolites. PMID:3667521

  8. Continuous Culture of Rhodotorula rubra: Kinetics of Phosphate-Arsenate Uptake, Inhibition, and Phosphate-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Button, D. K.; Dunker, Sally S.; Morse, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    The pink yeast Rhodotorula rubra of marine origin was found to be capable of extended growth at very low phosphate concentrations (K0.5 = 10.8 nm). Average intracellular phosphate concentrations, based on isotope exchange techniques, were 15 to 200 nm, giving concentration gradients across the cell envelope of about 106. Sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors occurred at micromolar concentrations. Inability of the phosphate transport system, Ks = 0.5 to 2.8 μm, Vmax = 55 μmoles per g of cells per min, to discriminate against arsenate transport led to arsenate toxicity at 1 to 10 nm, whereas environmental arsenate levels are reportedly much higher. Phosphate competitively prevented arsenate toxicity. The Ki for phosphate inhibition of arsenate uptake was 0.7 to 1.2 μm. Phosphate uptake experiments showed that maximal growth rates could be achieved with approximately 4% of the total phosphate-arsenate transport system. Organisms adapted to a range both of concentration of NaCl and of pH. Maximal affinity for phosphate occurred at pH 4 and at low concentrations of NaCl; however, Vmax for phosphate transport was little affected. Maximal specific growth rates on minimal medium were consistent in batch culture but gradually increased to the much higher rates found with yeast extract media when the population was subjected to long-term continuous culture with gradually increasing dilution rates. Phosphate initial uptake rates that were in agreement with the steady-state flux in continuous culture were obtained by using organisms and medium directly from continuous culture. This procedure resulted in rates about 500 times greater than one in which harvested batch-grown cells were used. Discrepancies between values found and those reported in the literature for other organisms were even larger. Growth could not be sustained below a threshold phosphate concentration of 3.4 nm. Such thresholds are explained in terms of a system where growth rate is set by intracellular

  9. New fungal pathogens of the red ant, Myrmica rubra, from the UK and implications for ant invasions in the USA.

    PubMed

    Evans, Harry C; Groden, Eleanor; Bischoff, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    The red ant, Myrmica rubra, is an increasingly invasive pest species in north-eastern USA, where it is known as the European fire ant. During surveys for natural enemies in part of its native range in the UK, three previously unreported fungal pathogens developed on ants when incubated in the laboratory. These are described and illustrated: Paraisaria myrmicarum sp. nov., Hirsutella stilbelliformis var. myrmicarum var. nov., and Hirsutella subramanianii var. myrmicarum var. nov. Based on analyses of the protein coding region EF-1α and LSU rDNA, all three described taxa are shown to be affiliated with the hypocrealean family Ophiocordycipitaceae. The implications for the management of M. rubra in its exotic North American range using classical biological control are discussed. PMID:20943156

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. PMID:25157803

  11. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    PubMed

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:17899785

  12. Sublethal toxicity of trace metals to larvae of the blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jacquelle; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2006-05-01

    The availability of literature regarding sublethal and chronic toxicity of heavy metals to early life stages of marine species is restricted to a few species of invertebrate mollusks. The early life stage of abalone, an important gastropod both environmentally and commercially, has been involved in limited research investigating the effects of heavy metal toxicity. Fertilized eggs of Haliotis rubra were exposed to a range of dissolved nominal concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, and zinc in individual solutions for 48 h. After 48 h of exposure, the test was completed by recording survival success and morphological abnormalities of veliger larvae in each heavy metal treatment. The mean 48-h median effective concentrations affecting normal morphological development of veliger larvae determined in this test shows a decreasing order of toxicity of copper (7 mg/L), mercury (21 mg/L), zinc (35 mg/L), iron (4102 mg/L), cadmium (4515 mg/L), and lead (5111 mg/L). PMID:16704070

  13. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Davila, Ulysses; Cohen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands’ of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life. PMID:25969677

  14. New-onset vitiligo during long-term, stable infliximab treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Adam R; Chappell, Jeaneen A; Hurley, M Yadira

    2013-02-01

    Incidents of new-onset vitiligo attributed to infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis have been reported. Reported cases share a common theme in that symptoms manifested in close proximity to the initiation or significant dose increase of the medication. This case describes the presentation of infliximab-induced vitiligo in a patient using it for long-term treatment of stable pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient was initiated and titrated to a stable dose of infliximab totaling 27 months' duration. He was able to achieve near-complete resolution of symptoms before developing depigmented patches consistent with vitiligo. Infliximab was discontinued. Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and narrow-band ultraviolet B light successfully repigmented the patches. The association of discontinuing infliximab and resolution of vitiligo suggests infliximab had a role in this case. Though the mechanism of involvement is undetermined, infliximab may have induced an autoimmune process by paradoxically activating lymphocytes. Alternatively, infliximab antibodies may have led to the process by disrupting the normal balance of cytokines. PMID:23377397

  15. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  16. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  17. Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    [14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks. PMID:16345541

  18. Nocardia asteroides recovery from a dog with steroid- and antibiotic-unresponsive idiopathic polyarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, A M; Beaman, B L; Pedersen, N C; Anderson, M; Scott, J L

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a fatal case of idiopathic polyarthritis in a dog that was partially responsive to vigorous immunosuppressive treatment. Synovial fluids were cultured for L-forms at the following stages of disease: (i) acute arthritic relapse, (ii) incomplete remission, and (iii) death. Nocardia asteroides UCD 1-581 was recovered from the L-form broth culture of the specimen taken during acute relapse, 5 weeks after inoculation, but not at any other stage of disease. Numerous conventional microbiological cultures were unproductive during all phases. Changes occurring in L-form plates included the formation of large irregular mineral deposits and many transferable bodies resembling pseudocolonies. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of many intracellular golden-brown granules and acid-fast bodies in macrophages of the lung and bronchial lymph node tissues. The granules are believed to be the variants embedded in calcium deposits similar to those which developed in the L-form cultures in vitro. Fluorescence of these acid-fast bodies with antibody specific for superoxide dismutase of N. asteroides GUH-2 and labeled anti-immunoglobulin G established their relationship to the isolate. The unrelenting course of disease and the persistence of N. asteroides as an L-form in this animal despite vigorous immunosuppression suggest that this organism plays a direct role in the etiology of this disease. Images PMID:6355155

  19. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  20. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  1. Nocardia farcinica sternotomy site infections in patients following open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Wenger, P N; Brown, J M; McNeil, M M; Jarvis, W R

    1998-11-01

    Although Nocardia farcinica surgical site infection outbreaks have been reported (though rarely), no source for these has been identified. From May 1992 through June 1993, 5 patients contracted N. farcinica sternotomy site infections following open heart surgery at hospital A. A case-control study comparing case-patients (n=5) with open heart surgery patients without subsequent sternotomy site infections (n=50) identified as risk factors diabetes (4/5 vs. 11/50, P<.02) and exposure to a particular anesthesiologist (anesthesiologist A; 4/5 vs. 9/50, P<.01). Four case-patients' isolates and a hand isolate of anesthesiologist A had an identical ribotype pattern (strain 1); the remaining case-patient's isolate and multiple isolates from anesthesiologist A's hands and home had a different ribotype pattern (strain 2). An intensified hand-washing regimen, barriers (gloves, gowns), and cleaning of anesthesiologist A's house were associated with termination of the outbreak. This is the first reported nosocomial N. farcinica outbreak to document the source and person-to-person transmission epidemiologically and molecularly. PMID:9780283

  2. In vitro germicidal activity of teat dips against Nocardia asteroides and other udder pathogens.

    PubMed

    Larocque, L; Malik, S S; Landry, D A; Presseault, S; Sved, S; Matula, T

    1992-05-01

    Nine commercial teat dip formulations containing 1.94% linear dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid, or 1% available iodine from nonylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol-iodine complex, or .5% chlorhexidine acetate were tested for contamination with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and their in vitro germicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Nocardia asteroides. All products were free of bacteria when neutralized samples were tested on blood agar or liquid thioglycollate media. To test for in vitro efficacy, each teat dip preparation was mixed with a suspension of one of the pathogenic test organisms containing 10(8) bacteria/ml (final concentration) for .5 to 15 min. Viable bacteria were evaluated by direct plating of neutralized aliquots and by filtration techniques. All products were effective against E. coli, Staph. aureus, and Strep. agalactiae. With N. asteroides, the direct plating method gave equivocal results. The filtration experiments indicated that all teat dips containing dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and nonylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol-iodine complex were effective against all four pathogens. Three of the teat dips containing chlorhexidine acetate were ineffective against N. asteroides. The fourth teat dip, containing chlorhexidine acetate and an emollient, was partially effective. PMID:1597578

  3. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lin; Fan, Cai-rong; Li, Huang; Huang, Ming-qing; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-dan; Lin, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore the differences of chemical constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra, a qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an HPLC-DAD analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 14 major compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, paeoniflorin sulfonate, protocatechuic aldehyde, methyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, benzoic acid, pentagaloylglucose, benzoyl-paeoniflorin, and paeonol) in Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Q-TOF/MS qualitative analysis was performed under negative ion mode and inferred 38 components of Paeoniae Radix Alba and 30 components of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. HPLC-DAD quantitative method result showed the contents of 8 ingredients were different between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. PMID:26323145

  4. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  5. Isolation and structure of nocobactin NA, a lipid-soluble iron-binding compound from Nocardia asteroides

    PubMed Central

    Ratledge, Colin; Snow, G. Alan

    1974-01-01

    Nocobactin NA, a lipid-soluble iron-chelating product with an unusual and characteristic u.v.-absorption spectrum, was isolated from Nocardia asteroides grown under conditions of iron deficiency. Its structure was determined by physical methods and by synthesis of one of its degradation products. Nocobactin NA was obtained as a homologous mixture of compounds with side chains of differing length, and resembles mycobactin M in structure except that it has an oxazole ring in place of an oxazoline ring, and the side chains in the cobactin fragment are considerably shorter. PMID:4614794

  6. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem. PMID:26504154

  7. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects −positive, negative or none − on ants’ demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants. PMID:26414161

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit development and ripening using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is an important subtropical fruit crop and an ideal species for fruit quality research due to the rapid and substantial changes that occur during development and ripening, including changes in fruit color and taste. However, research at the molecular level is limited by a lack of sequence data. The present study was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and examine gene expression in bayberry developing fruit based on RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis, to provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling fruit quality changes during ripening. Results RNA-Seq generated 1.92 G raw data, which was then de novo assembled into 41,239 UniGenes with a mean length of 531 bp. Approximately 80% of the UniGenes (32,805) were annotated against public protein databases, and coding sequences (CDS) of 31,665 UniGenes were determined. Over 3,600 UniGenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening, with 826 up-regulated and 1,407 down-regulated. GO comparisons between the UniGenes of these two types and interactive pathways (Ipath) analysis found that energy-related metabolism was enhanced, and catalytic activity was increased. All genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were up-regulated during the fruit ripening processes, concurrent with color change. Important changes in carbohydrate and acid metabolism in the ripening fruit are likely associated with expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Conclusions Mass sequence data of Chinese bayberry was obtained and the expression profiles were examined during fruit ripening. The UniGenes were annotated, providing a platform for functional genomic research with this species. Using pathway mapping and expression profiles, the molecular mechanisms for changes in fruit color and taste during ripening were examined. This provides a reference for the study of complicated metabolism in non

  9. Topical management of striae distensae (stretch marks): prevention and therapy of striae rubrae and albae.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, S; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-02-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are common dermal lesions, with significant physical and psychological impact. Many therapeutic modalities are available but none can completely eradicate SD. The most common therapy is the application of topicals used both therapeutically and prophylactically. Even though there are many commercially available topical products, not all have sufficient level of evidence to support their continued use in SD. The aim here was to assess the evidence for the use of topicals in SD and to propose a structured approach in managing SD. A systematic search of published literature and manufacturer website information for topicals in SD was carried out. The results showed that there are few studies (n = 11) which investigate the efficacy of topicals in management of SD. Trofolastin and Alphastria creams demonstrated level-2 evidence of positive results for their prophylactic use in SD. Additionally, tretinoin used therapeutically showed varying results whilst cocoa butter and olive oil did not demonstrate any effect. Overall, there is a distinct lack of evidence for each topical formulation. The majority of topicals failed to mention their effect on early vs. later stages of SD (striae rubrae compared to striae albae) and their role in both prevention and treatment. In conclusion, there is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD. A structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of topical products for treatment and prevention of different stages of SD. PMID:26486318

  10. Dankookia rubra gen. nov., sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from sediment of a shallow stream.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Hoe; Kim, Do-Hak; Kang, Keunsoo; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2016-06-01

    WS-10(T)-a Gram-negative, non-motile, and aerobic bacterial strain-was isolated from the sediment of a shallow stream in Korea. The optimum ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 20-40°C (optimum 28°C) and pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-10(T) was 72.7 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5%) were summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, and C18:1 2-OH. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unidentified aminolipids. Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The highest similarities in the 16S rRNA gene sequence were shown with Paracraurococcus ruber (95.3%), Belnapia soli (95.3%), B. moabensis (95.1%), and B. rosea (95.0%). A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain WS-10T formed a distinct line within a clade containing the genera Paracraurococcus, Craurococcus, and Belnapia in the family Acetobacteraceae. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, strain WS-10(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Dankookia rubra gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is WS-10(T) (= KACC 18533(T) = JCM 30602(T)). PMID:27225458

  11. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Audrey; Detrain, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants. PMID:26414161

  12. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  13. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of bioactive metabolites from Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Narasimhulu, Manchala; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Rao, Karanam Venkateswara; Raju, Venkata Balaraju Subba

    2010-03-31

    An Actinomycete isolate found to be prominent in the laterite soils of Acharya Nagarjuna University (ANU) Campus, Guntur was identified as Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of the strain were recorded. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from 4-day old culture broth of the strain led to the isolation of two fractions active against a wide variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra and identified as 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol which is first time reported as a natural product. The compound exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antifungal activity of the strain and its metabolite were further confirmed with in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence for the antagonism of the strain against Fusarium oxysporum, causing wilt disease in sorghum was demonstrated by the formation of inhibition zone in in vitro plate assay and reduction in the incidence of wilt of sorghum plants by using a green house trial. Analysis of the rhizosphere soil extracts by high performance liquid chromatography also demonstrated the production of the compound by the strain under in vivo conditions. As compared to the commercial fungicide mancozeb, the bioactive compound, 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol was highly effective in controlling wilt of sorghum. Besides, the partially purified second fraction (PPF) subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of phenylethyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3-nitro. PMID:19577444

  14. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

  15. Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Basella rubra (L.) Against 1, 2-Dimethyl Hydrazine-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Bhanu Priya; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Penchalaneni, Josthna

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a very prevalent diagnosed cancer. The current study was performed in order to examine the role of BRAE (Basella rubra aqueous extract) in regulating aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in a colon carcinogenesis model in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly allocated into six groups. Group I served as control, and group II acted as a drug control administered BRAE (250mg/kg b.w.) orally for 30 weeks. Rats in group III-VI were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (25mg/kg b.w. weekly) for 15 weeks to initiate colon carcinogenesis. Those in group IV and VI were administered BRAE along with DMH injections. Rats in group V were administered with BRAE after cessation of DMH injection. After 30 weeks of experimental period colons were obtained from experimental groups and analyzed for ACF incidence, argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region- associated proteins (AgNOR) count, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. Only in DMH exposed groups were ACF and AgNOR numbers increased. Administration of BRAE appreciably decreased the numbers of ACF and AgNOR in BRAE treated groups. Histopathological findings revealed a high level of dysplastic changes with decreased number of goblet cells found only in only DMH injected rats. Administration of BRAE in treated group rats reversed these changes. Expression markers for cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) were elevated in DMH treated rats, but reduced with BRAE treatement. This expression was reversed with apoptosis markers (p53 and Caspase-3). Thus the results results of the present study were found to be significant and confirmed the potential efficacy of BRAE against colon carcinogenesis. PMID:26838257

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia seriolae Strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), Isolated as the Causal Agent of Nocardiosis of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Fukumoto, Yoichi; Yamane, Jin; Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), isolated from cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. RAST annotation of the genome revealed 117 genes involved in the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem. Eleven of these genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25767227

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia seriolae Strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), Isolated as the Causal Agent of Nocardiosis of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) in Kochi Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yoichi; Yamane, Jin; Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), isolated from cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. RAST annotation of the genome revealed 117 genes involved in the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem. Eleven of these genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25767227

  18. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27491980

  19. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27491980

  20. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH <0.01 mIU/l. Serum anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were absent. Computed tomography scan showed a large abscess in the anterior neck involving the left lobe and isthmus, as well as inhomogeneous changes in the right lobe of the thyroid. The radioisotopic scan showed absent uptake of tracer in keeping with thyroiditis. Although the initial presentation was that of hyperthyroidism, destruction of the gland later resulted in sustained hypothyroidism, necessitating thyroid hormone supplementation. The hyperthyroidism can be explained by the release of presynthesized and stored thyroid hormone into the circulation as a result of inflammation and disruption of the thyroid follicles, and the subsequent hypothyroidism by the fact that much of the gland was destroyed by the abscess and the extensive inflammatory process. This is the first documented case of hyperthyroidism in a patient with acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia. PMID:24847469

  1. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed. PMID:22897414

  2. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  3. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  4. Hybridization and introgression patterns between native red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and exotic, invasive Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) examined using species-specific microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been decimated by DED. In order to study ...

  5. Medicinal foodstuffs. XXIII. Structures of new oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, basellasaponins A, B, C, and D, from the fresh aerial parts of Basella rubra L.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Hirano, K; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-06-01

    Basellasaponins A, B, C, and D, oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides having the dioxolane-type substituent, were isolated from the fresh aerial parts of Basella rubra L. together with betavulgaroside I, spinacoside C, and momordins IIb and IIc. The chemical structures of basellasaponins A, B, C, and D were determined from chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:11411538

  6. Multicenter Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Study for Identification of Clinically Relevant Nocardia spp.

    PubMed

    Blosser, Sara J; Drake, Steven K; Andrasko, Jennifer L; Henderson, Christina M; Kamboj, Kamal; Antonara, Stella; Mijares, Lilia; Conville, Patricia; Frank, Karen M; Harrington, Susan M; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2016-05-01

    This multicenter study analyzed Nocardia spp., including extraction, spectral acquisition, Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, and score interpretation, using three Nocardia libraries, the Bruker, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and The Ohio State University (OSU) libraries, and compared the results obtained by each center. A standardized study protocol, 150 Nocardia isolates, and NIH and OSU Nocardia MALDI-TOF MS libraries were distributed to three centers. Following standardized culture, extraction, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, isolates were identified using score cutoffs of ≥2.0 for species/species complex-level identification and ≥1.8 for genus-level identification. Isolates yielding a score of <2.0 underwent a single repeat extraction and analysis. The overall score range for all centers was 1.3 to 2.7 (average, 2.2 ± 0.3), with common species generally producing higher average scores than less common ones. Score categorization and isolate identification demonstrated 86% agreement between centers; 118 of 150 isolates were correctly identified to the species/species complex level by all centers. Nine strains (6.0%) were not identified by any center, and six (4.0%) of these were uncommon species with limited library representation. A categorical score discrepancy among centers occurred for 21 isolates (14.0%). There was an overall benefit of 21.2% from repeat extraction of low-scoring isolates and a center-dependent benefit for duplicate spotting (range, 2 to 8.7%). Finally, supplementation of the Bruker Nocardia MALDI-TOF MS library with both the OSU and NIH libraries increased the genus-level and species-level identification by 18.2% and 36.9%, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates the ability of diverse clinical microbiology laboratories to utilize MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of clinically relevant Nocardia spp. and to implement MALDI-TOF MS libraries

  7. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  8. Sensitivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) seedlings to sodium salts in solution culture.

    PubMed

    Thorton, F C; Schaedle, M; Raynal, D J

    1988-06-01

    Sodium salt sensitivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) was evaluated in solution culture. Both species showed symptoms of salt injury when grown in the presence of less than 10 mM Na. In red oak, leaf symptoms first appeared at a sodium concentration of 6.0 mM and leaf weight was significantly reduced at 7.5 mM Na. Leaf, stem and root dry weights of American beech were significantly reduced in the presence of 4.0 mM sodium. In both species, browning of leaf margins and necrosis were evident in the Na-treated plants. The observed symptoms were associated with high concentrations of sodium in the tissues. Neither species appears to have control over sodium uptake and translocation. PMID:14972826

  9. Functional analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruits during ripening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yong; Zhang, Ze-Huang; Zhong, Can-Yu; Song, Xiao-Min; Lin, Qi-Hua; Huang, Chun-Mei; Huang, Rong-Hui; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a proteome reference map of Myrica rubra fruits at the green, pink and red stages during ripening using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel, of which 43 were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and protein database searching. We found that malic enzyme related to the decrease of organic acid acidity was up-regulated. The high abundance of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase may contribute to fruit peculiar fragrant characteristics. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase 11, UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and anthocyanidin synthase, enzymes involved in the anthocyanin metabolic pathway, were all up-regulated. The physiological data agree with fruit proteome results. These findings provided insights into the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms during Chinese bayberry fruit ripening. PMID:26213036

  10. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Gold, Michael H; Kaur, Mandeep; Olayinka, Babajide; Grundy, Starr L; Pappert, Eric J; Hardas, Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an onion extract cream with Centella asiatica and hyaluronic acid in improving the appearance of striae rubra (SR). Women participants with bilateral, outer aspect of the thigh SR were randomized to apply a quarter-sized amount of the onion extract cream twice daily for 12 weeks to the randomized left or right, outer aspect of the thigh. No treatment was administered to the contralateral side. Participants were evaluated at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Primary efficacy endpoints included color, texture, softness, and overall appearance of SR by the participant and investigator at week 12. The treated thigh demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean change in participant and investigator evaluations in overall appearance, texture, color, and softness compared with the untreated thigh at week 12. No adverse events occurred during the study. The onion extract cream was well tolerated and significantly improved the appearance of SR in women. PMID:20527138

  11. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    In the present study activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against second and fourth larval instar of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNps (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.3125 ppm) and aqueous crude latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.50, 31.25 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. aegypti and A. Stephensi. The synthesized AgNps from P. rubra latex were highly toxic than crude latex extract in both mosquito species. The LC(50) values for second and fourth larval instars after 24 h of crude latex exposure were 1.49, 1.82 ppm against A. aegypti and 1.10, 1.74 ppm against A. stephensi respectively. These figures were 181.67, 287.49 ppm against A. aegypti and 143.69, 170.58 ppm against A. stephensi respectively for crude latex extract. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. The characterization studies of synthesized AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analysis (PSA) and zeta potential confirmed the spherical shape and size (32-200 nm) of silver nanoparticles along with stability. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of latex synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:22089086

  12. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E−) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

  13. Accurate Identification of Common Pathogenic Nocardia Species: Evaluation of a Multilocus Sequence Analysis Platform and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Pang, Lu; Chen, Sharon C-A; Fan, Xin; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Xia; Hou, Xin; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Species identification of Nocardia is not straightforward due to rapidly evolving taxonomy, insufficient discriminatory power of conventional phenotypic methods and also of single gene locus analysis including 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Here we evaluated the ability of a 5-locus (16S rRNA, gyrB, secA1, hsp65 and rpoB) multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach as well as that of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in comparison with sequencing of the 5'-end 606 bp partial 16S rRNA gene to provide identification of 25 clinical isolates of Nocardia. The 5'-end 606 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing successfully assigned 24 of 25 (96%) clinical isolates to species level, namely Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (n = 12, 48%), N. farcinica (n = 9, 36%), N. abscessus (n = 2, 8%) and N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 1, 4%). MLSA showed concordance with 16S rRNA gene sequencing results for the same 24 isolates. However, MLSA was able to identify the remaining isolate as N. wallacei, and clustered N. cyriacigeorgica into three subgroups. None of the clinical isolates were correctly identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS analysis using the manufacturer-provided database. A small "in-house" spectral database was established incorporating spectra of five clinical isolates representing the five species identified in this study. After complementation with the "in-house" database, of the remaining 20 isolates, 19 (95%) were correctly identified to species level (score ≥ 2.00) and one (an N. abscessus strain) to genus level (score ≥ 1.70 and < 2.00). In summary, MLSA showed superior discriminatory power compared with the 5'-end 606 bp partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identification of Nocardia. MALDI-TOF MS can provide rapid and accurate identification but is reliant on a robust mass spectra database. PMID:26808813

  14. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, S. P.; Olson, S. L.; Connelly, B. J.; Lucas, B. C.; Rodning, A. A.; Walchak, R. C.; Deml, S. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  15. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, S P; Olson, S L; Connelly, B J; Lucas, B C; Rodning, A A; Walchak, R C; Deml, S M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L

    2016-02-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  16. Phylogenetic utility, and variability in structure and content, of complete mitochondrial genomes among genetic lineages of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis 1963 (Atyidae:Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Justice, Joshua L; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott Ross

    2016-07-01

    The Atyidae are caridean shrimp possessing hair-like setae on their claws and are important contributors to ecological services in tropical and temperate fresh and brackish water ecosystems. Complete mitochondrial genomes have only been reported from five of the 449 species in the family, thus limiting understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution and the phylogenetic utility of complete mitochondrial sequences in the Atyidae. Here, comparative analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes from eight genetic lineages of Halocaridina rubra, an atyid endemic to the anchialine ecosystem of the Hawaiian Archipelago, are presented. Although gene number, order, and orientation were syntenic among genomes, three regions were identified and further quantified where conservation was substantially lower: (1) high length and sequence variability in the tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Asp intergenic region; (2) a 317-bp insertion between the NAD6 and CytB genes confined to a single lineage and representing a partial duplication of CytB; and (3) the putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences provided new insights into relationships among the H. rubra genetic lineages, with the topology of one clade correlating to the geologic sequence of the islands. However, deeper nodes in the phylogeny lacked bootstrap support. Overall, our results from H. rubra suggest intra-specific mitochondrial genomic diversity could be underestimated across the Metazoa since the vast majority of complete genomes are from just a single individual of a species. PMID:26061341

  17. Purification and characterization of a cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans CAS-52, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-03-01

    A highly enantioselective cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 184-fold with a yield of 18.8 %. The purified cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase had a monomeric molecular weight of 28 kDa, and its optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7-9. With sodium cis-epoxysuccinate as the substrate, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics analysis gave a Km value of 35.71 mM and a Vmax of 2.65 mM min(-1). The enzyme was activated by Ni(2+) and Al(3+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(+). The cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was cloned, and its open reading frame sequence predicted a protein composed of 253 amino acids. A pET11a expression plasmid carrying the gene under the control of the T7 promoter was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was successfully expressed in the recombinant strains. PMID:22552902

  18. Two different primary oxidation mechanisms during biotransformation of thymol by gram-positive bacteria of the genera Nocardia and Mycobacterium.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Veronika; Sünwoldt, Katharina; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2013-02-01

    Thymol has antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidative properties which are the basis for the wide use of this compound in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Although thymol is a ubiquitously occurring substance in the environment, data about its degradation and detoxification by bacteria are sparse. Here, we show the existence of two different pathways for the biotransformation of thymol by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and Mycobacterium neoaurum which were described for the first time for gram-positive bacteria. The first pathway starts with hydroxylation of thymol to thymohydroquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol) with subsequent oxidation to thymobenzoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone). The second pathway involves hydroxylation of the methyl group followed by oxidation to 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzoic acid, possibly via the aldehyde 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzaldehyde. It is noteworthy that the branched side chain of thymol was not oxidized. Similarities and differences of these oxidation processes with those of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida, fungi, and plants are discussed and, in addition, the toxicity of thymol towards N. cyriacigeorgica and M. neoaurum was tested. The experiments showed a temporary growth inhibition with 0.025 % thymol. This was explained by degradation of thymol and the formation of products which are less toxic than thymol itself. PMID:22828982

  19. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 Reveals a Saprobic Lifestyle and the Genes Needed for Human Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans. PMID:23755230

  20. Pulling peptides across nanochannels: resolving peptide binding and translocation through the hetero-oligomeric channel from Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratik Raj; Bárcena-Uribarri, Iván; Modi, Niraj; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Benz, Roland; Winterhalter, Mathias; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R

    2012-12-21

    We investigated translocation of cationic peptides through nanochannels derived from the Gram-positive bacterium Nocardia farcinica at the single-molecule level. The two subunits NfpA and NfpB form a hetero-oligomeric cation selective channel. On the basis of amino acid comparison we performed homology modeling and obtained a channel structurally related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The quantitative single-molecule measurements provide an insight into transport processes of solutes through nanochannels. High-resolution ion conductance measurements in the presence of peptides of different charge and length revealed the kinetics of peptide binding. The observed asymmetry in peptide binding kinetics indicated a unidirectional channel insertion in the lipid bilayer. In the case of cationic peptides, the external voltage acts as a driving force that promotes the interaction of the peptide with the channel surface. At low voltage, the peptide just binds to the channel, whereas at higher voltage, the force is strong enough to pull the peptide across the channel. This allows distinguishing quantitatively between peptide binding and translocation through the channel. PMID:23121560

  1. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization.

    PubMed

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E; Iiger, Sudhir R; Godbole, Ajeet M; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  2. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M.; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E.; Iiger, Sudhir R.; Godbole, Ajeet M.; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  3. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs. PMID:18432099

  4. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  5. Severe, Disfiguring, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a Woman in the Dominican Republic: Histopathologic Diagnosis and Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Parker, Douglas; Gosman, Amanda; Saavedra, Arturo; Engel, Kristy; Dean, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a poorly understood dermatologic condition usually accompanied by keratoderma and intense erythroderma with islands of unaffected skin. The PRP categories include HIV-associated PRP VI. A 23-year-old HIV-infected, dark-skinned woman in the Dominican Republic developed an extremely severe, disfiguring process characterized first by a dry scaly rash involving her face, trunk, and extremities with hyperpigmentation and islands of spared skin and minimal erythroderma, followed by alopecia and development of a thick horny layer on the scalp and face. The condition, histologically proven to be PRP, was accompanied by fever, wasting, and decline in CD4 count. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was followed by rapid and sustained resolution of PRP. Nine years after ART initiation, she remains well, with viral suppression and immune recovery, without PRP recurrence but with sparse hair regrowth and facial scarring. In some dark-skinned patients, severe PRP may not feature characteristic erythroderma but will respond to combination ART. PMID:26514629

  6. Biosynthesis of Trehangelin in Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510: Identification of Metabolic Pathway to Angelyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Shiraishi, Taro; Palm, Kaia; Takahashi, Yoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nakashima, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    Trehangelins are trehalose angelates discovered from endophytic actinomycete Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510. We identified the trehangelin biosynthetic gene cluster, including genes that encode a glycoside hydrolase-like protein (thgC), α-amylase (thgD), 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (thgI), 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (thgK), enoyl-CoA hydratase (thgH) and acyl transferase (thgJ). Heterologous expression of thgH, thgI, thgJ and thgK confirmed the importance of these genes in the biosynthesis of trehangelin A. Enzymatic activity studies showed that ThgI catalyses the condensation of acetyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA to 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA (MAA-CoA), ThgK catalyses NADPH-dependent reduction of MAA-CoA to 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA (HMB-CoA) and ThgH catalyses the dehydration of HMB-CoA to angelyl-CoA (AN-CoA). This is the first report on the elucidation of the enzymatic formation of AN-CoA. PMID:27311629

  7. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. PMID:26655380

  8. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  9. Spatial heterogeneity in the relative impacts of foliar quality and predation pressure on red oak, Quercus rubra, arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Stodola, Kirk W; Cooper, Robert J; Hunter, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Predation pressure and resource availability often interact in structuring herbivore communities, with their relative influence varying in space and time. The operation of multiple ecological pressures and guild-specific herbivore responses may combine to override simple predictions of how the roles of plant quality and predation pressure vary in space. For 2 years at the Coweeta LTER in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, we conducted a bird exclosure experiment on red oak (Quercus rubra) saplings to investigate the effects of bird predation on red oak arthropod communities. We established bird exclosures at six sites along an elevational gradient and estimated variation in foliar nitrogen and bird predation pressure along this gradient. Foliar nitrogen concentrations increased with elevation while our index of bird predation pressure was variable across sites. Greater arthropod densities were detected inside exclosures; however, this result was mainly driven by the response of phloem feeders which were much more prevalent inside exclosures than on control trees. There was little evidence for an effect of bird predation on the other arthropod guilds. Consequently, there was no evidence of a trophic cascade either in terms of leaf damage or tree growth. Finally, we found more variation in arthropod density among trees within sites than variation in arthropod density among sites, indicating the importance of micro-site variation in structuring arthropod communities. PMID:20711610

  10. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/K ATP Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine. PMID:26788111

  11. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/KATP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine. PMID:26788111

  12. Accurate Identification of Common Pathogenic Nocardia Species: Evaluation of a Multilocus Sequence Analysis Platform and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sharon C-A.; Fan, Xin; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Xia; Hou, Xin; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Species identification of Nocardia is not straightforward due to rapidly evolving taxonomy, insufficient discriminatory power of conventional phenotypic methods and also of single gene locus analysis including 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Here we evaluated the ability of a 5-locus (16S rRNA, gyrB, secA1, hsp65 and rpoB) multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach as well as that of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in comparison with sequencing of the 5’-end 606 bp partial 16S rRNA gene to provide identification of 25 clinical isolates of Nocardia. The 5’-end 606 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing successfully assigned 24 of 25 (96%) clinical isolates to species level, namely Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (n = 12, 48%), N. farcinica (n = 9, 36%), N. abscessus (n = 2, 8%) and N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 1, 4%). MLSA showed concordance with 16S rRNA gene sequencing results for the same 24 isolates. However, MLSA was able to identify the remaining isolate as N. wallacei, and clustered N. cyriacigeorgica into three subgroups. None of the clinical isolates were correctly identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS analysis using the manufacturer-provided database. A small “in-house” spectral database was established incorporating spectra of five clinical isolates representing the five species identified in this study. After complementation with the “in-house” database, of the remaining 20 isolates, 19 (95%) were correctly identified to species level (score ≥ 2.00) and one (an N. abscessus strain) to genus level (score ≥ 1.70 and < 2.00). In summary, MLSA showed superior discriminatory power compared with the 5’-end 606 bp partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identification of Nocardia. MALDI-TOF MS can provide rapid and accurate identification but is reliant on a robust mass spectra database. PMID:26808813

  13. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  14. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products. PMID:26243919

  15. CELLULAR LIPIDS OF A NOCARDIA GROWN ON PROPANE AND N-BUTANE.

    PubMed

    DAVIS, J B

    1964-07-01

    Lipid fractions of propane- and n-butane-grown nocardial cells each contain a chloroform-soluble, ether-insoluble polymer not observed previously in liquid n-alkane-grown cells. The polymer in propane-grown cells is poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. The polymer in n-butane-grown cells apparently contains unsaturation in the molecule, and is identified tentatively as a co-polymer of beta-hydroxybutyric and beta-hydroxybutenoic (specifically 3-hydroxy 2-butenoic) acids. The other major component of the lipid fraction consists of triglycerides containing principally palmitic and stearic acids. There seems to be little qualitative distinction in the glycerides of propane- or n-butane-grown cells. Oxidative assimilation of n-butane is described. PMID:14199017

  16. A new genus and species of fish leeches Dolichobdella rubra, gen. n., sp. n., (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from the northern Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utevsky, Serge Y.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2013-02-01

    A new species of fish leeches, Dolichobdella rubra gen. n., sp. n., was found in samples collected by RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern Sea of Japan from 470-528 m during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) in August 2010. The leech does not exceed 13 mm in length and has the following morphological characteristics: body elongated, smooth, lacking gills and pulsatile vesicles; eyes and ocelli absent; coloration reddish; female gonopore larger than male one; 6pairs of testisacs; accessory glands, conductive tissue and copulatory area present; ovisacs short; bursa long; coelomic system reduced.

  17. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae

    PubMed Central

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis. PMID:27529219

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae.

    PubMed

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis. PMID:27529219

  20. Evaluation and enhancement of heavy metals bioremediation in aqueous solutions by Nocardiopsis sp. MORSY1948, and Nocardia sp. MORSY2014.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of wastewater samples collected from different industrial regions of Egypt demonstrated dangerously high levels of nickel (0.27-31.50mgL(-1)), chromium (1.50-7.41mgL(-1)) and zinc (1.91-9.74mgL(-1)) in the effluents. Alarmingly, these heavy metals are among the most toxic knownones to humans and wildlife. Sixty-nine Actinomycete isolates derived from contaminated sites were evaluated under single, binary, and ternary systems for their biosorption capacity for Ni(2+), Cr(6+) and Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions. The results of the study identified isolates MORSY1948 and MORSY2014 as the most active biosorbents. Phenotypic and chemotypic characterization along with molecular phylogenetic evidence confirmed that the two strains are members of the Nocardiopsis and Nocardia genera, respectively. The results also proved that for both the strains, heavy metal reduction was more efficient with dead rather than live biomass. The affinity of the dead biomass of MORSY1948 strain for Ni(2+), Cr(6+) and Zn(2+) under the optimized pH conditions of 7, 8 and 7, respectively at 40°C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dosage was found to be as follows: Ni(2+) (87.90%)>Zn(2+) (84.15%)>Cr(6+) (63.75%). However, the dead biomass of MORSY2014 strain under conditions of pH 8 and 50°C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dose exhibited the highest affinity which was as follows: Cr(6+) (95.22%)>Ni(2+) (93.53%)>Zn(2+) (90.37%). All heavy metals under study were found to be removed from aqueous solutions in entirety when the sorbent dosage was increased to 0.4%. PMID:27245130

  1. Creation of an In-House Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Corynebacterineae Database Overcomes Difficulties in Identification of Nocardia farcinica Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dacko, Władysław; Sikora, Joanna; Gurlaga, Danuta; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Miękisiak, Grzegorz; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease that is caused by Gram-positive actinobacteria of the Nocardia genus and affects predominantly immunocompromised patients. In its disseminated form, it has a predilection for the central nervous system and is associated with high mortality rates. Therefore, prompt identification of the pathogen is critical. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a relatively novel technique used for identification of microorganisms. In this work, an upgraded MALDI-TOF Biotyper database containing Corynebacterineae representatives of strains deposited in the Polish Collection of Microorganisms was created and used for identification of the strain isolated from a nocardial brain abscess, mimicking a brain tumor, in an immunocompetent patient. Testing with the API Coryne system initially incorrectly identified Rhodococcus sp., while chemotaxonomic tests, especially mycolic acid analysis, enabled correct Nocardia identification only at the genus level. Subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and secA1 genes confirmed the identification. To improve the accuracy of the results, an in-house database was constructed using optimized parameters; with the use of the database, the strain was eventually identified as Nocardia farcinica. Clinical laboratories processing various clinical strains can upgrade a commercial database to improve and to accelerate the results obtained. This is especially important in the case of Nocardia, for which valid microbial diagnosis remains challenging; reference laboratories are often required to identify and to survey these rare actinobacteria. PMID:26041903

  2. Creation of an In-House Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Corynebacterineae Database Overcomes Difficulties in Identification of Nocardia farcinica Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Dacko, Władysław; Sikora, Joanna; Gurlaga, Danuta; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Miękisiak, Grzegorz; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease that is caused by Gram-positive actinobacteria of the Nocardia genus and affects predominantly immunocompromised patients. In its disseminated form, it has a predilection for the central nervous system and is associated with high mortality rates. Therefore, prompt identification of the pathogen is critical. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a relatively novel technique used for identification of microorganisms. In this work, an upgraded MALDI-TOF Biotyper database containing Corynebacterineae representatives of strains deposited in the Polish Collection of Microorganisms was created and used for identification of the strain isolated from a nocardial brain abscess, mimicking a brain tumor, in an immunocompetent patient. Testing with the API Coryne system initially incorrectly identified Rhodococcus sp., while chemotaxonomic tests, especially mycolic acid analysis, enabled correct Nocardia identification only at the genus level. Subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and secA1 genes confirmed the identification. To improve the accuracy of the results, an in-house database was constructed using optimized parameters; with the use of the database, the strain was eventually identified as Nocardia farcinica. Clinical laboratories processing various clinical strains can upgrade a commercial database to improve and to accelerate the results obtained. This is especially important in the case of Nocardia, for which valid microbial diagnosis remains challenging; reference laboratories are often required to identify and to survey these rare actinobacteria. PMID:26041903

  3. Fatal Nocardia farcinica Bacteremia Diagnosed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated with Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Amedeo; Guercini, Francesco; Cardaccia, Angela; Furbetta, Leone; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bistoni, Francesco; Mencacci, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a Gram-positive weakly acid-fast filamentous saprophytic bacterium, an uncommon cause of human infections, acquired usually through the respiratory tract, often life-threatening, and associated with different clinical presentations. Predisposing conditions for N. farcinica infections include hematologic malignancies, treatment with corticosteroids, and any other condition of immunosuppression. Clinical and microbiological diagnoses of N. farcinica infections are troublesome, and the isolation and identification of the etiologic agent are difficult and time-consuming processes. We describe a case of fatal disseminated infection in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, treated with corticosteroids, in which N. farcinica has been isolated from blood culture and identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. The patient died after 18 days of hospitalization in spite of triple antimicrobial therapy. Nocardia farcinica infection should be suspected in patients with history of malignancy, under corticosteroid therapy, suffering from subacute pulmonary infection,and who do not respond to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry can be a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:23690786

  4. A method for red-violet pigments extraction from fruits of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) with enhanced antioxidant potential under fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sravan Kumar, S; Manoj, P; Giridhar, P

    2015-05-01

    Basella rubra fruit juice with a total soluble solids content of 5 to 9 (0)Brix was fermented using the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An 87.5 % of conversion of fermentable sugar was achieved. The TSS ((0)Brix) reduced from 0.60 (0)Brix to 0.17 (0)Brix (71.67 % decrease in TSS) upon performing fermentation of fruit juice water extract with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2. There was 8 folds reduction in pigment quality as evidenced from fermentation. Besides, the potential increase of phenolics, thanks to a higher content of total betalains in general and betacyanins in particular when fermentation was carried out with S. cerevisiae strain 3. The DPPH (2, 2 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) free radical scavenging potential (IC50) of fermented juice (1.9 mg.ml(-1)) was significant over control (2.4 mg.ml(-1)) extracts of B. rubra. The reducing power of fermented extracts was significantly high compared to control samples. The multiple antioxidant activity of fermented extract was also evident by significant reducing power assay when compared to its control samples. PMID:25892806

  5. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Paeoniae Radix Rubra Formulae in Relieving Hyperbilirubinemia Induced by Viral Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Yun; Shan, Li-Mei; Wei, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Ji; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most devastating pathologies induced by various liver diseases. Formulae related to Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) at high doses have been applied to treat hyperbilirubinemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of formulae relevant to high-dose PRR in patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia induced by viral hepatitis. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of formulae that apply a high dose of PRR for hyperbilirubinemia. Seven databases were searched until April, 2015. All studies were included according to detailed criteria and assessed for methodological quality. The outcome measurements were recorded for further analysis using the RevMan 5.2.11 software. Results: Fifteen articles involving 1323 patients with hyperbilirubinemia were included. Formulae with high-dose PRR might promote the efficacy of either a combined application ([OR: 3.98, 95% CI (2.91, 5.43)]; P < 0.01) or a single application ([OR: 4.00, 95% CI (1.50, 10.68)]; P < 0.01) for hyperbilirubinemia. The indices of TBIL, ALT, and AST significantly decreased ([MD: –75.57, 95% CI (−94.88, −56.26)], [MD: −26.54, 95% CI (−36.19, −16.88)], and ([MD: −28.94, 95% CI (−46.26, −11.61)]; P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, formulae with high-dose PRR could enhance the treatment efficacy of hyperbilirubinemia triggered by hepatitis B ([OR: 2.98, 95% CI (1.75, 5.05)]; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the efficacy was enhanced with an increasing dosage of PRR. Two articles reported that no side effects occurred in clinical trials, and three studies noted that patients presented light digestive tract symptoms. Conclusion: Formulae relevant to high-dose PRR ameliorate hyperbilirubinemia and might constitute a promising therapeutic approach. For widespread acceptance by practitioners, more

  7. NOCARDIA BEIJINGENSIS PSOAS ABSCESS AND SUBCUTANEOUS PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS CAUSED BY PHAEOACREMONIUM PARASITICUM IN A RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT: THE FIRST CASE REPORT IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Palavutitotai, Nattawan; Chongtrakoo, Piriyaporn; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2015-11-01

    We describe the first case of a psoas muscle abscess caused by Nocardia beijingensis and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was treated for nocardiosis with percutaneous drainage and intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) combined with imipenem for 2 weeks, followed by a 4-week course of intravenous TMP/SMX and then oral TMP/SMX. During hospitalization for the psoas muscle abscess the patient developed cellulitis with subcutaneous nodules of his right leg. Skin biopsy and cultures revealed a dematiaceous mold, subsequently identified as P. parasiticum by DNA sequencing. The subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis was treated with surgical drainage and liposomal amphotericin B for 4 weeks followed by a combination of itraconazole and terbinafine. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home after 18 weeks of hospitalization. PMID:26867363

  8. [Steroid-transforming enzymes from microorganisms. XII. Induction characteristics of the 4-en-3-oxosteroid: (acceptor)-1-en-oxidoreductase in Nocardia opaca].

    PubMed

    Hörhold, C; Hüller, E; Rose, G

    1979-01-01

    17 alpha-Methyltestosterone and the corresponding 1(2)-dehydrocompound (Dianabol) are efficient inducers of the 4-en-3-oxosteroid: (acceptor)-1-en-oxidoreductase from Nocardia opaca. After a lag period of 4 hours the enzyme activity increases rapidly. During the induction the steroids are completely metabolized causing a drastical drop of specific enzyme activity. Using a fixed induction time the optimal steroid concentration and the temperature characteristic were found out. The influence of the concentration of the steroid water suspension on the induction effect is discussed to be dependent on the velocity of the dissolving of the steroid particles. Chloramphenicol and streptomycin are powerful inhibitors of the induction process. PMID:547499

  9. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Nocardia salmonicida, the causative agent of nocardiosis in fish.

    PubMed

    Xia, Liqun; Zhang, Honglian; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Jia; Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang

    2015-03-01

    Nocardia salmonicida is one of the main pathogens of fish nocardiosis. The purpose of this study was to build a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid and sensitive detection of N. salmonicida. A set of four primers were designed from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of N. salmonicida, and conditions for LAMP were optimized as incubating all the reagents for 60 min at 64°C. LAMP products were judged with agar gel electrophoresis as well as with the naked eye after the addition of SYBR Green I. Results showed the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1.68 × 10(3) CFU/ml (16.8 CFU per reaction) and 10-fold higher than that of PCR. The LAMP method was also effectively applied to detect N. salmonicida in diseased fish samples, and it may potentially facilitate the surveillance and early diagnosis of fish nocardiosis. PMID:25262681

  10. [Synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Sofilkanich, A P; Pokora, K A; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinskaia, G A

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste (food and oil-processing industry, production of biodiesel) was investigated. The possibility of replacing the expensive substrates (n-hexadecane and ethanol) by industrial waste (oil and fat industry, fried sunflower oil, glycerol, liquid paraffin) for the surfactant biosynthesis was established. The conditional concentration of surfactants was maximal on oil containing substrates and exceeded those on n-hexadecane and ethanol 2-3 times. The highest rates of surfactants synthesis were observed on fried sunflower oil with the use of inoculum grown on carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses). It was established that the addition of glucose (0.1%) was accompanied by 2-4-fold intensification of surfactants synthesis by R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 on fried sunflower oil (2%). PMID:25000725

  11. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Chinese Bayberry Fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) at Different Ripening Stages and Their Association with Fruit Quality Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Feng, Chao; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2000 EST sequences were produced from cDNA libraries generated from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc. cv. “Biqi”) at four different ripening stages. After cluster and assembly analysis of the datasets by UniProt, 395 unigenes were identified, and their presumed functions were assigned to 14 putative cellular roles. Furthermore, a sequence BLAST was done for the top ten highly expressed genes in the ESTs, and genes associated with disease/defense and anthocyanin accumulation were analyzed. Gene-encoding elements associated with ethylene biosynthesis and signal transductions, in addition to other senescence-regulating proteins, as well as those associated with quality formation during fruit ripening, were also identified. Their possible roles were subsequently discussed. PMID:23377019

  12. Chemical Composition of Cell-Wall Preparations from Strains of Various Form-Genera of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B.; Lechevalier, M. P.; Lechevalier, H. A.

    1965-01-01

    Cell-wall preparations were made from more than 140 strains of aerobic actinomycetes representing most of the form-genera that have been proposed. All cell-wall preparations contained as major constituents glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, and glutamic acid. In addition, cell-wall preparations from various types of streptomycetes and strains of Microëllobosporia contained glycine and ll-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid; those from strains of most Actinoplanaceae and micromonosporae contained glycine and meso-α-ε-diaminopimelic acid; those from strains of Thermoactinomyces, Microbispora, Dermatophilus, and nocardiae of the madurae-pelletieri group contained meso-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid; and those from strains of Thermomonospora, Micropolyspora, and most nocardiae contained meso-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose. All the strains used were also studied morphologically. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14325886

  13. [Destruction of oil in the presence of Cu2+ and surfactants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Sofilkanich, A P; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of copper cations (0.01-1.0 mM) and surface-active agents (surfactants) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Alc-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 in the form of culture liquid on the destruction of oil in water (3.0-6.0 g/L) and soil (20 g/kg), including in the presence of Cd2+ and Pb2+ (0.01-0.5 mM), was investigated. It was shown that the degree of oil degradation in water and soil after 20 days in the presence of low concentrations of Cu2+ (0.01-0.05 mM) and culture liquid of strains IMV B-7241, IMV Ac-5017, and IMV B-7405 was 15 - 25% higher than without copper cations. The activating effect of Cu2+ on the decomposition of complex oil and Cd2+ and Pb2+ pollution was established: after treatment with surfactant of A. calcoacelicus IMV B-7241 and R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 destruction of oil in water and soil was 85-95%, and after removal of the copper cations decreased to 45-70%. Intensification of oil destruction in the presence of copper cations may be due to their stimulating effect on the activity of alkane hydroxylases as in surfactant-producing strains, and natural (autochthonous) oxidizing microbiota. PMID:26036026

  14. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA) from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride ( K m 4153 μM, k cat 0.073 min -1) and SAM ( K m 416 μM, k cat 0.139 min -1) have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold) slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity. PMID:24795808

  15. Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Ene-Ojo; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2007-11-28

    Varieties of kola nuts (Cola nitida alba, Cola nitida rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl), a group of popular Nigerian and West African stimulants, were analyzed for their content of secondary plant metabolites. The three varieties of the kola nuts contained appreciable levels of (+)-catechin (27-37 g/kg), caffeine (18-24 g/kg), (-)-epicatechin (20-21 g/kg), procyanidin B 1 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin] (15-19 g/kg), and procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin] (7-10 g/kg). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts and purified metabolites was assessed by two HPLC-based and two colorimetric in vitro assays. Extracts of all varieties exhibited antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values in the range 1.70-2.83 and 2.74-4.08 mg/mL in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine HPLC-based assays, respectively. Utilization of HPLC-based assays designed to reflect in situ generation of free radicals (e.g., HO(*)), as opposed to general assays (DPPH, FRAP) in common use which do not, indicate that, of the major secondary plant metabolites present in kola nut extracts, caffeine is potentially the more effective cancer chemopreventive metabolite in terms of its antioxidant capacity. PMID:17979235

  16. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries. PMID:27322873

  17. Effects of temperature and light on photosynthesis of dominant species of a northern hardwood forest. [Populus grandidentata, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera

    SciTech Connect

    Jurik, T.W. ); Weber, J.A. ); Gates, D.M. )

    1988-06-01

    The response of CO{sub 2} exchange rate (CER) to temperature and light was determined for 14 dominant plant species of a northern deciduous hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Leaves at the top of the canopy had temperature optima near 25 C for CER, whereas leaves in the understory had optima near 20 C. There was no change in optimum temperature over the growing season, and overall shapes of response curves were similar among species. The lack of change in temperature optima may be a result of little change in growing conditions rather than a lack of ability to acclimatize. Nine of 11 species in the understory had no significant differences in light-saturated, maximum CERs, whereas at the top of the canopy Populus grandidentata had a higher maximum CER than Quercus rubra and Betula papyrifera. The species in the understory also differed little in light-saturation points for CER. Species at the top of the canopy had higher values for maximum CER, light-saturation point for CER, and maximum conductance than did species in the understory.

  18. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  19. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions. PMID:23094336

  20. Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuxia; Zhang, Xianan; Wen, Xin; Lv, Qiang; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak(®) cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4-69.5 μg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL). Four purified compounds 1-4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved. PMID:27589714

  1. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Harries, Marcuslene D; Page, Phaedra N

    2015-05-01

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocard ia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributed as the cause of "earthy-musty" off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 °C) on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production and cellular activity. Cultures of these isolates were monitored over 7 days by measuring culture dry weight, geosmin, and MIB production using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), and ATP production via a luminometer. Compared to the other isolates, S. luridiscabiei had significantly (P < 0.05) higher biomass (8.17 ± 0.35 mg/mL) at 15 °C (water temperature in the RAS) after 7 days incubation. In addition, S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (69,976 ± 15,733 ng/L) at 15 °C. At 25 °C and 30 °C, S. albidoflavus produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (182,074 ± 60,272 ng/L and 399,991 ± 102,262 ng/L, respectively). All isolates produced MIB at 15 °C, but S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher MIB (97,143 ± 28,972 ng/L) and ATP after 7 days. Therefore, S. luridiscabiei appears to be a likely contributor of geosmin and MIB in the RAS. PMID:25724337

  2. Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress arising from peroxidation of membrane biomolecules and high levels of Fe have been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and other brain disorder. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and the production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. The present study compares the protective properties of two varieties of ginger [red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)] on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Incubation of the brain tissue homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain. However, the aqueous extract from both varieties of ginger caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the aqueous extract of red ginger had a significantly higher inhibitory effect on both Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain homogenates than that of white ginger. This higher inhibitory effect of red ginger could be attributed to its significantly higher phytochemical content, Fe(2+) chelating ability, OH scavenging ability and reducing power. However, part of the mechanisms through which the extractable phytochemicals in ginger (red and white) protect the brain may be through their antioxidant activity, Fe(2+) chelating and OH scavenging ability. Therefore, oxidative stress in the brain could be potentially managed/prevented by dietary intake of ginger varieties (red ginger and white ginger rhizomes). PMID:20598871

  3. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  4. The properties given at the time of publication for the designated type strain of Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003, CMS 76r, do not correspond with those of MTCC 4210, DSM 15304, CIP 107783 and JCM 12471 that are deposited as representing the type strain: Opinion 96. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that, according to information presented to it, the type strain of Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003 designated in the original publication as strain CMS 76r and deposited as MTCC 4210, DSM 15304, CIP 107783 and JCM 12471 does not have properties corresponding with those of the strains held in those collections under those accession numbers. The species Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003 was not represented by an authentic deposit of a type strain at the time of effective publication in the pages of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. PMID:25288665

  5. Characterization of the Genome of the Polyvalent Lytic Bacteriophage GTE2, Which Has Potential for Biocontrol of Gordonia-, Rhodococcus-, and Nocardia-Stabilized Foams in Activated Sludge Plants ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J.; Tillett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic Actinobacteria are commonly associated with the stabilization of foams in activated sludge systems. One possible attractive approach to control these foam-stabilizing organisms is the use of specific bacteriophages. We describe the genome characterization of a novel polyvalent DNA phage, GTE2, isolated from activated sludge. This phage is lytic for Gordonia terrae, Rhodococcus globerulus, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia brasiliensis. Phage GTE2 belongs to the family Siphoviridae, possessing a characteristic icosahedral head encapsulating a double-stranded DNA linear genome (45,530 bp) having 10-bp 3′-protruding cohesive ends. The genome sequence is 98% unique at the DNA level and contains 57 putative genes. The genome can be divided into two components, where the first is modular and encodes phage structural proteins and lysis genes. The second is not modular, and the genes harbored there are involved in DNA replication, repair, and metabolism. Some have no known function. GTE2 shows promising results in controlling stable foam production by its host bacteria under laboratory conditions, suggesting that it may prove useful in the field as a biocontrol agent. PMID:21498753

  6. Predominant Catalase-negative Soil Bacteria. III. Agromyces, gen. n., Microorganisms Intermediary to Actinomyces and Nocardia1

    PubMed Central

    Gledhill, William E.; Casida, L. E.

    1969-01-01

    The occurrence of filamentous, branching, catalase-negative bacteria as a numerically predominant microflora of various soils was demonstrated by using a dilution frequency isolation procedure. The major characteristics of these organisms were those of the order Actinomycetales. However, they could not be placed in any of the present genera of this order and, therefore, a new genus, Agromyces, was proposed for these organisms. This genus includes catalase-negative, nutritionally-fastidious microorganisms whose cells produce a true branching mycelium that fragments into coccoid and diphtheroid forms. Also, they have an oxidative metabolism, are microaerophilic to aerobic, and contain neither diaminopimelic acid nor lysine as major constituents of the cell wall glycopeptide. The type species would be Agromyces ramosus, gen. n., sp. n. The possible importance of these organisms in clarifying certain phylogenetic relationships of the Actinomycetales is discussed. Images PMID:16349860

  7. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Results Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14T, were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14T, which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14T was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192T, Haliea rubra DSM 19751T and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T. All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. Conclusions Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant

  8. Comparison of the lipase activity in hydrolysis and acyl transfer reactions of two latex plant extracts from babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii Cv.) and Plumeria rubra: Effect of the Aqueous microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Cambon, Emmanuelle; Gouzou, Fanny; Pina, Michel; Barea, Bruno; Barouh, Nathalie; Lago, Regina; Ruales, Jenny; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2006-04-01

    The enzymatic properties of Plumeria rubra latex have been evaluated for the first time, showing a high activity in both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, and compared to the biocatalytic behavior of babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii cv.) latex. Both biocatalysts have been optimized by studying the various parameters that influence reaction kinetics. The optimum temperatures for hydrolysis reactions were 50 and 55 degrees C for babaco and Plumeria, respectively. The optimum pH for babaco latex was 7, whereas for Plumeria latex, two optimal pH values (4 and 7) were observed. With regard to esterification and acyl transfer reactions such as alcoholysis and interesterification, the influence of thermodynamic water activity on reaction yields was determined and correlated with water sorption and desorption isotherms. When babaco latex is used as a biocatalyst, optimal synthesis reaction yields are obtained when the enzymatic extract is stabilized at a water activity value of 0.38, which corresponds to a water content of 5.7%. This optimal level of hydration is located on the linear portion of the biocatalyst's sorption isotherm, where the water molecules exhibit high-energy interactions with the protein network. In synthesis reactions (esterification, alcoholysis, and interesterification) biocatalyzed by Plumeria latex, correlation between best reaction yields and water activity cannot be done. Indeed, the sorption isotherm plot has an atypical shape, indicating that water might be trapped in the latex matrix and, consequently, that the water content of the biocatalyst is highly dependent on the hydration history of the latex. PMID:16569067

  9. Purification and characterization of a cytoplasmic enzyme component of the Na+-activated malonate decarboxylase system of Malonomonas rubra: acetyl-S-acyl carrier protein: malonate acyl carrier protein-SH transferase.

    PubMed

    Hilbi, H; Dimroth, P

    1994-01-01

    Malonate decarboxylation by crude extracts of Malonomonas rubra was specifically activated by Na+ and less efficiently by Li+ ions. The extracts contained an enzyme catalyzing CoA transfer from malonyl-CoA to acetate, yielding acetyl-CoA and malonate. After about a 26-fold purification of the malonyl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, an almost pure enzyme was obtained, indicating that about 4% of the cellular protein consisted of the CoA transferase. This abundance of the transferase is in accord with its proposed role as an enzyme component of the malonate decarboxylase system, the key enzyme of energy metabolism in this organism. The apparent molecular weight of the polypeptide was 67,000 as revealed from SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A similar molecular weight was estimated for the native transferase by gel chromatography, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. Kinetic analyses of the CoA transferase yielded the following: pH-optimum at pH 5.5, an apparent Km for malonyl-CoA of 1.9mM, for acetate of 54mM, for acetyl-CoA of 6.9mM, and for malonate of 0.5mM. Malonate or citrate inhibited the enzyme with an apparent Ki of 0.4mM and 3.0mM, respectively. The isolated CoA transferase increased the activity of malonate decarboxylase of a crude enzyme system, in which part of the endogenous CoA transferase was inactivated by borohydride, about three-fold. These results indicate that the CoA transferase functions physiologically as a component of the malonate decarboxylase system, in which it catalyzes the transfer of acyl carrier protein from acetyl acyl carrier protein and malonate to yield malonyl acyl carrier protein and acetate. Malonate is thus activated on the enzyme by exchange for the catalytically important enzymebound acetyl thioester residues noted previously. This type of substrate activation resembles the catalytic mechanism of citrate lyase and citramalate lyase. PMID:18251085

  10. Effects of flavonoid-rich Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit extract on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Lv, Qiang; Jia, Sheng; Chen, Yanhong; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-07-13

    In the present study, male diabetic KK-A(y) mice were used to investigate the antidiabetic effect of bayberry fruit extract (BFE, 200 mg kg(-1)) by gavage for 5 weeks. BFE significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in KK-A(y) mice. It significantly reduced serum concentrations of glucose, lipids, inflammation, and liver function markers, including insulin, glucagon, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, interleukin-1β, and alanine transferase in KK-A(y) mice. Liver weight and liver lipid accumulation were also markedly reduced by BFE in mice. The hypoglycemic effect of BFE appeared to be partially mediated through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was supported by the reduced PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expressions in the liver of KK-A(y) mice and by the decreased glucose production, increased glycolysis as well as the reduced gene expression levels of PGC-1α, PEPCK, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells. Gene expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers were also down-regulated by BFE in the liver of KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, BFE promoted hepatic phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172) both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the activation of the AMPK pathway may play an important role in the antidiabetic effects of BFE, and red Chinese bayberry fruits may be an effective dietary food for the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. PMID:27295301

  11. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness; and "pilaris" suggests the involvement of hair follicles in this disorder. Affected individuals have a salmon- ... bumps called follicular keratoses that occur around hair follicles. The skin on the palms of the hands ...

  13. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can be a causative agent in the development of the rash. Remove any occlusive clothing, limit activity, and seek air conditioning or any cooler environment. Cool compresses can also help with the discomfort. ...

  14. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat rash consist of controlling heat and humidity. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help to reduce fever. Remove ... without any sweat. Your child may complain of dizziness, nausea, weakness, headache, confusion, or difficulty breathing. This ...

  15. Microbial Aromatization of Steroids into Equilin

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S. N.; Vézina, Claude

    1970-01-01

    This report describes the bioconversion of 19-hydroxy-androsta-4, 7-diene-3, 17-dione into equilin with Nocardia rubra. Through mutation and improvement of medium and of conditions, the bioconversion could be improved to yield 40% equilin for a substrate concentration of 1 g/liter. Aromatization of several other 19-hydroxy and 19-nor substrates of the androstene series is reported, and the influence of various substitutions of the substrate molecule on aromatization is discussed. PMID:5492438

  16. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell disease: case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Neofytos, Dionissios; Horn, David; De Simone, Joseph A

    2007-02-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly Rhodotorula rubra) is a ubiquitous, environmental, urease-positive yeast that does not ferment sugars and can assimilate various carbohydrates. Characterized by the salmon-pink to coral-red color of its colonies, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can disseminate and cause significant disease. We present a case of sustained Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell anemia who refused removal of the implanted port. The patient remained clinically stable, with blood cultures persistently growing Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, despite appropriate antifungal therapy. An extensive literature review revealed a wide range of clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. Susceptibility patterns to different antifungal agents and therapeutic considerations are thoroughly discussed. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can be a significant, recalcitrant pathogen in immunocompromised patients and prompt treatment should be instituted. PMID:17330692

  17. Inactivation of Nocardiophages φC and φEC by Extracts of Bacteriophage-Attachable Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, George H.; Crockett, Jennifer K.

    1971-01-01

    Cultures of several species of Nocardia, including N. erythropolis Mat-Ce and Mat-cE mating strains, were extracted with solvents in an attempt to isolate an inactivating complex for nocardiophages φC and φEC. Ethanol was the only solvent found effective in solubilizing an inhibitory substance. Inactivating extracts were obtained from the cells of all species to which the phage were able to attach. After extraction of whole cells or cell wall preparations, the phage could not effectively attach to them. Both phages φC and φEC were inactivated by the same complex. However, phage φEC inactivation was 10-fold greater than φC inactivation. The velocity of inactivation was about 4.1 × 102 plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for φC and 1.1 × 103 plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for phage φEC. The cell extracts required divalent cations for phage inactivation. The inhibitory capacity of the cell extracts was reduced or lost by the activity of proteolytic enzymes, Tween 80, 2-mercaptoethanol, thymol, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Boiling the extract for 10 min did not alter its activity. The inactivating substance was postulated to be a lipoprotein of considerable complexity, unique in the ease with which it is solubilized from host cells by ethanol. PMID:5006039

  18. Quantitative lipid composition of cell envelopes of Corynebacterium glutamicum elucidated through reverse micelle extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Mutalik, Ritu; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cells of the Corynebacterium-Nocardia-Mycobacterium group of bacteria are surrounded by an outer membrane (OM) containing mycolic acids that are covalently linked to the underlying arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex. This OM presumably acts as a permeability barrier that imparts high levels of intrinsic drug resistance to some members of this group, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its component lipids have been studied intensively in a qualitative manner over the years. However, the quantitative lipid composition of this membrane has remained obscure, mainly because of difficulties in isolating it without contamination from the inner cytoplasmic membrane. Here we use the extraction, with reverse surfactant micelles, of intact cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum and show that this method extracts the free OM lipids quantitatively with no contamination from lipids of the cytoplasmic membrane, such as phosphatidylglycerol. Although only small amounts of corynomycolate were esterified to arabinogalactan, a large amount of cardiolipin was present in a nonextractable form, tightly associated, possibly covalently, with the peptidoglycan-arabinogalactan complex. Furthermore, we show that the OM contains just enough lipid hydrocarbons to produce a bilayer covering the cell surface, with its inner leaflet composed mainly of the aforementioned nonextractable cardiolipin and its outer leaflet composed of trehalose dimycolates, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, and highly apolar lipids, similar to the Minnikin model of 1982. The reverse micelle extraction method is also useful for extracting proteins associated with the OM, such as porins. PMID:21876124

  19. Myricetin suppresses p21-activated kinase 1 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through downstream signaling of the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, De; Zhang, Xue Dong

    2016-07-01

    As a main active compound in the bark of waxberry (Myrica rubra), myricetin is a macrocyclic diarylheptanoid, and can trigger the apoptosis of HeLa and PC3 cells. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anticancer effect of myricetin on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and to explore the possible mechanisms of action. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of myricetin (0-80 µM) for 12, 24 and 48 h. In the present study, we found that myricetin suppressed the cell viability of the MCF-7 cells at least partly through the induction of apoptosis as determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis revealed that myricetin effectively suppressed the protein expression of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), MEK and phosphorylated extracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2). In addition, treatment of myricetin activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and Bax protein expression, and inhibited β-catenin/cyclin D1/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/survivin and promoted caspase-3 activity in the MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrated that myricetin suppressed the cell viability of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through PAK1/MEK/ERK/GSK3β/β-catenin/cyclin D1/PCNA/survivin/Bax-caspase-3 signaling. PMID:27122002

  20. Phenotypes of infiltrating cells in trehalose dimycolate-induced interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Y; Goren, M B; Kirkpatrick, C H

    1989-01-01

    Trehalose dimycolate is a glycolipid component of the cell walls of mycobacteria, nocardia, and corynebacteria. When trehalose dimycolate is injected into certain strains of mice, they develop interstitial pneumonitis that is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of the alveolar walls, intra-alveolar hemorrhages, and in some animals, granuloma formation. The disorder is seldom fatal, and in approximately 4 weeks, the lungs are normal. There is strong evidence that T lymphocytes are essential for production of interstitial pneumonitis by trehalose dimycolate, but little is known about the mechanisms of lung injury in this model. The experiments described in this report were conducted to identify the roles of the various cells that accumulate in the lungs of mice with this form of interstitial pneumonitis. We found that Mac3+ macrophages were the first cells to appear in the alveolar walls. Increases in the number of L3T4+ T lymphocytes, Lyt2+ T lymphocytes, and surface-immunoglobulin-positive lymphocytes followed, but significant increases in the number of lymphoid cells were not observed until day 7, when the pulmonary lesions were well developed. Treatment of the mice with cyclophosphamide or anti-T-cell sera significantly reduced the number of lymphoid cells in the alveolar walls but did not affect the number of Mac3+ cells and did not affect development of intra-alveolar hemorrhages. Treatment with poly(I.C) significantly decreased the number of Mac3+ cells in the lungs, and these mice did not develop pulmonary hemorrhages. We conclude that although development of pulmonary lesions in trehalose dimycolate-treated mice is a T-cell-dependent process, macrophages are also essential and are more directly involved in production of the lung injury. We postulate that the lung lesions are the direct effect of macrophage-produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor. Images PMID:2731985

  1. Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Elo; Maunuksela; Salkinoja-Salonen; Smolander; Haahtela

    2000-02-01

    We studied the potential of the humus layer of the Norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus incana) and fescue grass (Festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. Axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, pH 3.7-5.3. Actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed plots, whereas plots with nitrogen fertilization contained almost none (Nocardia, Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas, independently of prior liming or fertilization of the plots. The taxa found in the seedling roots differed from that in humus by the prevalence of the Gram-negative genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes and Comamonas. Enrichment cultures of the roots on nitrogen-free media yielded Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus species. Nitrogen-fixing R. erythropolis and a novel Paenibacillus, closest by full sequence of 16S rDNA to P. durus, represented new classes of nitrogen-fixing rhizosphere bacteria. In addition, nitrogen-fixing R. fascians was found in the humus. The rhizoflora and humus contained high proportions of bacteria antagonistic towards plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia sp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum. The antagonistic isolates also commonly produced siderophores and/or cell wall degrading enzymes. PMID:10640667

  2. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity. PMID:27117102

  3. Radiologically guided fine needle lung biopsies in the evaluation of focal pulmonary lesions in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, E; Piilonen, A; Volin, L; Ruutu, P; Parkkali, T; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Ruutu, T

    2002-02-01

    Lung problems are common in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic yield of radiologically guided fine needle lung biopsy (FNLB) in allogeneic SCT recipients with focal pulmonary lesions, a retrospective analysis was carried out. Between 1989 and 1998, radiologists performed a total of 30 FNLBs in 21 allogeneic SCT recipients, guided either by ultrasound (n = 17) or computed tomography (n = 13). The median time from SCT to the first FNLB was 131 days (20-343 days). Prophylactic platelet transfusions were given in 19 procedures (66%). The complications of FNLB included clinically insignificant pneumothorax in four procedures (13%) and self-limiting haemoptysis in one case (3%). The first FNLB was suggestive of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in five patients (24%). Additional clinically useful findings of FNLB included Pseudomonas (two patients) and Nocardia (one patient). The final diagnosis of pulmonary lesions was IPA in 14 patients, immunological lung problems in four patients and other in three patients. Radiologically guided FNLB is feasible in allogeneic SCT recipients and has a low complication rate. The diagnostic yield is high especially for IPA. PMID:11896433

  4. Synthesis of chiral 2-alkanols from n-alkanes by a P. putida whole-cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tieves, Florian; Erenburg, Isabelle N; Mahmoud, Osama; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2016-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP154A8 from Nocardia farcinica was previously found to catalyze hydroxylation of linear alkanes (C7 -C9 ) with a high regio- and stereoselectivity. The objective of this study was to integrate CYP154A8 along with suitable redox partners into a whole-cell system for the production of chiral 2-alkanols starting from alkanes. Both recombinant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida whole-cell biocatalysts tested for this purpose showed the ability to produce chiral alkanols, but a solvent tolerant P. putida strain demonstrated several advantages in the applied biphasic reaction system. The optimized P. putida whole-cell system produced ∼16 mM (S)-2-octanol with 87% ee from octane, which is more than sevenfold higher than the previously described system with isolated enzymes. The achieved enantiopurity of the product could further be increased up to 99% ee by adding an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to the alkane-oxidizing P. putida whole-cell systems. By using this setup for the individual conversions of heptane, octane or nonane, 2.6 mM (S)-2-heptanol with 91% ee, 5.4 mM (S)-2-octanol with 97% ee, or 5.5 mM (S)-2-nonanol with 97% ee were produced, respectively. The achieved concentrations of chiral 2-alkanols are the highest reported for a P450-based whole-cell system so far. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1845-1852. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26887569

  5. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy.

    PubMed

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Diefenbach, Russell J; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G; Cunningham, Anthony L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  6. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  7. Nocardiosis: Updates and Clinical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia, a gram-positive bacillus with the microscopic appearance of branching hyphae, can produce considerable disease in the appropriate host. The taxonomy of Nocardia continues to evolve; more than 50 species have been described. Early recognition and effective therapy are imperative to achieve successful outcomes. Although nocardiosis typically occurs in patients with cell-mediated immunosuppressive conditions, infection may occasionally develop in immunocompetent patients as well. This review addresses the microbiology of Nocardia, risk factors for infection, clinical presentations, and management strategies. PMID:22469352

  8. In vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to estimate cadmium and lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in two vegetables: the influence of cooking and additives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Cui, Yanshan

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of heavy metal bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. Using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in raw/cooked pakchoi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis Group) and Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.) were studied. The effect of the addition of iron, calcium and acetic acid to the samples was also determined. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase. Cadmium and Pb bioavailability were 11.2% and 9.4% in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be higher significantly than the cooked vegetables with 6.1% for Cd and 3.2% for Pb. The results showed that it will be overestimating the risk of Pb and Cd based on the data of raw vegetables ingestion. Using bioavailability values, average Cd and Pb daily intake by adult were 23% and 28% respectively, of the base bioaccessibility values. Our study will be better understanding the possible health risks of some vegetables base on the bioaccessibility or bioavailability. PMID:23791752

  9. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  10. Cell Structure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... apparatus , and lysosomes . « Previous (Cell Structure & Function) Next (Cell Function) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  11. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  12. T Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... or turn off the immune response. Cytotoxic or “killer” T cells directly attack and destroy cells bearing ... involve selective activation of helper T cells and killer T cells, with a corresponding decrease in regulatory ...

  13. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... hours after conception, the fertilized egg cell remains a single cell. After approximately 30 hours, it divides ... 3 days, the fertilized egg cell has become a berry-like structure made up of 16 cells. ...

  14. Acid rain and ozone influence mycorrhizal infection in tree seedlings. [Pinus strobus; Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Stroo, H.F.; Schoettle, A.W.; Amundson, R.G.

    1986-06-01

    Atmospheric pollution may be causing reduced growth and increased mortality of trees in forests in Europe and North America. Acid rain and ozone are the two pollutants most frequently mentioned as causal agents in the forest decline problem. One plant-environment interface where atmospheric pollution may be having an impact is the symbiotic association between roots and soil fungi known as mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae are essential for the survival and growth of most forest tree species in the natural environment. Mycorrhizal fungi can affect the nutrient uptake and translocation, water uptake, root morphology, carbon metabolism and disease resistance of the host plant. In specific instances, mycorrhizal infection has been observed to enhance tree growth increase seedling survival or protect plants from root disease. Therefore, sensitivity of the mycorrhizal association to atmospheric pollution could be harmful to forest trees and might influence the decline of forests.

  15. Codon usage patterns in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) based on RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Codon usage analysis has been a classical topic for decades and has significances for studies of evolution, mRNA translation, and new gene discovery, etc. While the codon usage varies among different members of the plant kingdom, indicating the necessity for species-specific study, this work has mostly been limited to model organisms. Recently, the development of deep sequencing, especial RNA-Seq, has made it possible to carry out studies in non-model species. Result RNA-Seq data of Chinese bayberry was analyzed to investigate the bias of codon usage and codon pairs. High frequency codons (AGG, GCU, AAG and GAU), as well as low frequency ones (NCG and NUA codons) were identified, and 397 high frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 26 preferred and 141 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, which showed more significant bias than the same pairs with one or more intervening codons. Codon patterns were also analyzed at the plant kingdom, organism and gene levels. Changes during plant evolution were evident using RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage), which was even more significant than GC3s (GC content of 3rd synonymous codons). Nine GO categories were differentially and independently influenced by CAI (codon adaptation index) or GC3s, especially in 'Molecular function’ category. Within a gene, the average CAI increased from 0.720 to 0.785 in the first 50 codons, and then more slowly thereafter. Furthermore, the preferred as well as avoided codons at the position just following the start codon AUG were identified and discussed in relation to the key positions in Kozak sequences. Conclusion A comprehensive codon usage Table and number of high-frequency codon pairs were established. Bias in codon usage as well as in neighboring codon pairs was observed, and the significance of this in avoiding DNA mutation, increasing protein production and regulating protein synthesis rate was proposed. Codon usage patterns at three levels were revealed and the significance in plant evolution analysis, gene function classification, and protein translation start site predication were discussed. This work promotes the study of codon biology, and provides some reference for analysis and comprehensive application of RNA-Seq data from other non-model species. PMID:24160180

  16. Red Alder (Alnus rubra) Distribution Influences Nitrate Discharge to Coastal Estuaries: Comparison of Two Oregon Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We determined nutrient export from the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers as part of a larger program for evaluating nutrient sources to coastal waters. The Yaquina and Alsea data indicated that one river typically contained twice the amount of dissolved nitrate-N, although temperature, co...

  17. Impacts of ozone on photosynthesis and conductance of tree versus seeling Quercus Rubra L. Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Wullschleger, S.D. ); Samuelson, L.J.; Edwards, G.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Extrapolation of ozone impacts on seedlings to large trees and forest stands is a common objective of recent assessment activities. This study utilized a replicated open-top chamber facility to test the effect of subambient, ambient, and twice ambient ozone on light-saturated net photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf conductance (gs) of leaves from mature trees and genetically-related seedlings. Intensive gas exchange measurements were collected four times during the 1992 growing season. At leaf maturity (mid-June) Pn and gs of the mature tree foliage were 60-80% greater than for seedling leaves, but there were no differences in leaf water status. At the end of the growing season, the mature tree foliage showed reduced Pn and gs with increasing levels of ozone exposure, but the seedling leaves remained unaffected. Calculated internal ozone uptake by seedling foliage was less than for mature tree leaves because the seedling foliage had lower gs throughout the growing season. Plots of normalized Pn data over time (relative to the subambient treatment) revealed a threshold for ozone effect for the mature tree leaves at a cumulative internal uptake of [approx]20 mmol O[sub 3] M[sup [minus]2] of leaf area. Ozone uptake by seedling foliage was below this threshold. These data suggest that seedling exposure studies may underestimate responses of mature trees in the field.

  18. Structural Elucidation and Antioxidant Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu; Qiao, Liping; Cao, Yuming; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xingqian

    2014-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins in Chinese bayberry leaves (PCBLs) were qualitatively analyzed. NMR data suggest that PCBLs are mostly composed of (epi)gallocatechin gallate units. Matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight MS data indicate 95 possible prodelphinidin structures, ranging from dimers to tridecamers. Preparative normal-phase HPLC and further analysis by reverse-phase HPLC together with electrospray ionization MS enabled detection of 20 compounds, including seven newly identified compounds in Chinese bayberry leaves. The antioxidant capacity of PCBLs was evaluated by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorption capacity assays. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities (as 50% decrease in the initial DPPH concentration) were 7.60 µg. The FRAP and ORAC values were 8859.33±978.39 and 12991.61±1553.34 µmol Trolox equivalents per gram, respectively. The results indicate the high antioxidant potency of PCBLs. PMID:24805126

  19. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus Rubra L.) seed orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score between 304 and 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and place clones into early, middle, and late phenology groups. While the absolute number of clones in ea...

  20. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  1. Galvanic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  2. Cell Biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  3. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... structure made up of 16 cells. This structure is called a morula, which is Latin for mulberry. The cells continue to divide ... days following conception into a blastocyst. Although it is only the size of a pinhead, the blastocyst ...

  4. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquel, A.; Roussel, M.

    The physical and electronic characteristics of solar cells are discussed in terms of space applications. The principles underlying the photovoltaic effect are reviewed, including an analytic model for predicting the performance of individual cells and arrays of cells. Attention is given to the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, micrometeors, thermal and mechanical stresses, pollution and degassing encountered in space. The responses of different types of solar cells to the various performance-degrading agents are examined, with emphasis on techniques for quality assurance in the manufacture and mounting of Si cells.

  5. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  6. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  7. Cell Chauvinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dolores Elaine

    1972-01-01

    Indicates that biological terminology, such as mother cell'' and labels of sex factors in bacteria, reflect discrimination against females by reinforcing perpetuation of stereotyped gender roles. (AL)

  8. Cell migration.

    PubMed

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  9. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  10. Cell Trivision of Hyperploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Kiraly, Gabor; Turani, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation is likely to render cells hyperploid, primarily tetraploid. We have measured the frequency of division into three rather than two daughter cells as a function of ploidy. Such trivisions were followed in near-tetraploid uveal melanoma (UM), hypotetraploid HaCaT (<4 N), hypertriploid HeLa (>3 N), and in near-diploid (∼2 N) lung epithelial cell lines by time-lapse image analyses. A stepwise analysis of cytokinesis revealed higher frequency of cell trivisions relative to divisions in hyperploid HeLa (1:24, 4%), HaCaT (1:126, 8%), and UM (1:186, 0.5%) cells. The occurrence of trivision was significantly lower in near-diploid endothelial cells (1:1400, 0.07%). We have previously observed the phenomenon of trivision in HaCaT cells treated with heavy metal lead, and here we describe that trivision is a spontaneous process taking place without genotoxic treatment. Beside re-diploidization by trivision, the hyperploid state decreases the cell size of the daughter cells and is likely to increase the time of cytokinesis. On the basis of the results, it is hypothesized that among other cancer-related causes, hyperploidy could be related to cell trivision, could cause random aneuploidy, and could generate new cancer-specific karyotypes. PMID:24093497

  11. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  12. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  13. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  14. Host cells and cell banking.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of viral vectors is entirely dependent on the use of animal cell lines, mainly of mammalian origin, but also of insect origin. As for any biotechnology product for clinical use, viral -vectors have to be produced with cells derived from an extensively characterized cell bank to maintain the appropriate standard for assuring the lowest risk for the patients to be treated. Although many different cell types and lines have been used for the production of viral vectors, HEK293 cells or their derivatives have been extensively used for production of different vector types: adenovirus, oncorectrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors, because of their easy handling and the possibility to grow them adherently in serum-containing medium as well as in suspension in serum-free culture medium. Despite this, these cells are not necessarily the best for the production of a given viral vector, and there are many other cell lines with significant advantages including superior growth and/or production characteristics, which have been tested and also used for the production of clinical vector batches. This chapter presents basic -considerations concerning the characterization of cell banks, in the first part, and, in the second part, practically all cell lines (at least when public information was available) established and developed for the production of the most important viral vectors (adenoviral, oncoretroviral, lentiviral, AAV, baculovirus). PMID:21590393

  15. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  17. 9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS 2 AND 4, BASEMENT LEVEL. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  19. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  20. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  3. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  4. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  5. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  6. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  8. Cell sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, C.; Book, R.J.; James, D.A.

    1988-04-26

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte disposed within an open ended cylindrical metallic cell container, with an insulative cell top member being positioned within the open end of a sealant at the interface between the cell top member and the metallic cell container. The sealant is a mixture of a Type 2 BUR asphalt and an elastomeric material selected from the group consisting of (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), neoprene (poly-chloprene), acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPR), butyl rubber (copolymers of isobutylene), urethane, nitrile (polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polysulfide, polyacrylate, silicone, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and EPDM (terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and diene monomers), and mixtures thereof, and wherein the elastomeric material is substantially inert to the electrolyte and is present in an amount between 0.5% to 10% by weight of the asphalt.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  10. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  11. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  13. Cell Phones

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. PMID:23439568

  14. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  17. Cell Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  19. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... stem cells? What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before ... two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells . ...

  20. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... based therapies Cell culture Cell division Chromosome Clone Cloning Cord blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed ... Pluripotent Polar body Preimplantation Proliferation Regenerative medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) ...

  1. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  2. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  3. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  4. Nonaqueous cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnoki-kis, T.

    1981-07-07

    A nonaqueous cell is disclosed that utlizes an active metal anode, such as lithium, a cathode collector and an ionically conductive cathode electrolyte comprising a solute dissolved in a liquid cathode, such as an oxyhalide, and wherein a vinyl polymer is dissolved in the cathode-electrolyte.

  5. Potent Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  6. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  7. Reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Do, Jeong Tae

    2011-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into all cell types. So, these cells can be a biological resource for regenerative medicine. However, ES cells known as standard pluripotent cells have problem to be used for cell therapy because of ethical issue of the origin and immune response on the graft. Hence, recently reprogrammed pluripotent cells have been suggested as an alternative source for regenerative medicine. Somatic cells can acquire the ES cell-like pluripotency by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by cell fusion with pluripotent cells. Retroviral-mediated introduction of four factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can successfully reprogram somatic cells into ES cell-like pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These cells closely resemble ES cells in gene expression pattern, cell biologic and phenotypic characteristics. However, to reach the eventual goal of clinical application, it is necessary to overcome the major drawbacks such as low reprogramming efficiency and genomic alterations due to viral integration. In this review, we discuss the current reprogramming techniques and mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming induced by transcription factor transduction. PMID:24298328

  8. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  9. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Overview * Silicon cell development * Substrate production * Cell processing * Cell costs * Opportunities for improvement * Silicon-supported thin films * Summary * Acknowledgement * References

  10. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  11. Red blood cells, sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. These abnormally shaped cells may become entangled and ...

  12. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  13. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  14. Robotic adherent cell injection for characterizing cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Fridman, Michael D; Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Ru, Changhai; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Hamilton, Robert M; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Compared to robotic injection of suspended cells (e.g., embryos and oocytes), fewer attempts were made to automate the injection of adherent cells (e.g., cancer cells and cardiomyocytes) due to their smaller size, highly irregular morphology, small thickness (a few micrometers thick), and large variations in thickness across cells. This paper presents a robotic system for automated microinjection of adherent cells. The system is embedded with several new capabilities: automatically locating micropipette tips; robustly detecting the contact of micropipette tip with cell culturing surface and directly with cell membrane; and precisely compensating for accumulative positioning errors. These new capabilities make it practical to perform adherent cell microinjection truly via computer mouse clicking in front of a computer monitor, on hundreds and thousands of cells per experiment (versus a few to tens of cells as state of the art). System operation speed, success rate, and cell viability rate were quantitatively evaluated based on robotic microinjection of over 4000 cells. This paper also reports the use of the new robotic system to perform cell-cell communication studies using large sample sizes. The gap junction function in a cardiac muscle cell line (HL-1 cells), for the first time, was quantified with the system. PMID:25073160

  15. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra).

    PubMed

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted. PMID:24533313

  16. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  17. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  18. Sickle cell test

    MedlinePlus

    The sickle cell test looks for the abnormal hemoglobin in the blood that causes the disease sickle cell anemia . ... if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin is a ...

  19. Sickle cell anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells ...

  20. Stem cell glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  1. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Morsczeck, Christian

    2008-09-19

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

  2. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L.

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Leydig cells: From stem cells to aging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haolin; Ge, Ren-Shan; Zirkin, Barry R

    2009-07-10

    Leydig cells are the testosterone-producing cells of the testis. The adult Leydig cell population ultimately develops from undifferentiated mesenchymal-like stem cells present in the interstitial compartment of the neonatal testis. Four distinct stages of adult Leydig cell development have been identified and characterized: stem Leydig cells, progenitor Leydig cells, immature Leydig cells and adult Leydig cells. The stem Leydig cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of indefinite self-renewal, differentiation, and replenishment of the Leydig cell niche. Progenitor Leydig cells are derived from the stem Leydig cells. These spindle-shaped cells are luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor positive, have high mitotic activity, and produce little testosterone but rather testosterone metabolites. The progenitor Leydig cells give rise to immature Leydig cells which are round, contain large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and produce some testosterone but also very high levels of testosterone metabolites. A single division of these cells produces adult Leydig cells, which are terminally differentiated cells that produce high levels of testosterone. As men age, serum testosterone levels decline, and this is associated with alterations in body composition, energy level, muscle strength, physical, sexual and cognitive functions, and mood. In the Brown Norway rat, used extensively as a model for male reproductive aging, age-related reductions in serum testosterone result from significant decline in the ability of aged Leydig cells to produce testosterone in response to LH stimulation. This review describes Leydig cell development and aging. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms by which testosterone synthesis declines with aging are discussed. PMID:19481681

  4. Fuel cells: A handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.; McLarnon, F. R.; Cairns, E. J.

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information describing fuel cells that is helpful to scientists, engineers, and technical managers who are not experienced in this technology, as well as to provide an update on the current technical status of the various types of fuel cells. Following the introduction, contents of this handbook are: fuel cell performance variables; phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell; solid oxide fuel cell; alternative fuel cell technologies; fuel cell systems; and concluding remarks.

  5. CORONAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-04-10

    We have recently noticed cellular features in Fe XII 193 A images of the 1.2 MK corona. They occur in regions bounded by a coronal hole and a filament channel, and are centered on flux elements of the photospheric magnetic network. Like their neighboring coronal holes, these regions have minority-polarity flux that is {approx}0.1-0.3 times their flux of majority polarity. Consequently, the minority-polarity flux is 'grabbed' by the majority-polarity flux to form low-lying loops, and the remainder of the network flux escapes to connect with its opposite-polarity counterpart in distant active regions of the Sun. As these regions are carried toward the limb by solar rotation, the cells disappear and are replaced by linear plumes projecting toward the limb. In simultaneous views from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, these plumes project in opposite directions, extending away from the coronal hole in one view and toward the hole in the other view, suggesting that they are sky-plane projections of the same radial structures. We conclude that these regions are composed of closely spaced radial plumes, extending upward like candles on a birthday cake and visible as cells when seen from above. We suppose that a coronal hole has this same discrete, cellular magnetic structure, but that it is not seen until the encroachment of opposite-polarity flux closes part or all of the hole.

  6. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  7. Indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The direction for InP solar cell research; reduction of cell cost; increase of cell efficiency; measurements needed to better understand cell performance; n/p versus p/n; radiation effects; major problems in cell contacting; and whether the present level of InP solar cell research in the USA should be maintained, decreased, or increased were considered.

  8. Endothelial cell Ca2+ increases upon tumor cell contact and modulates cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Pili, R; Corda, S; Passaniti, A; Ziegelstein, R C; Heldman, A W; Capogrossi, M C

    1993-01-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms involved in tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells are still largely undefined. The effect of metastatic murine melanoma cell and human prostate carcinoma cell contact on cytosolic [Ca2+] of bovine artery endothelial cells was examined in indo-1-loaded endothelial cell monolayers. A rapid increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] occurred on contact with tumor cells, but not on contact with 8-microns inert beads. A similar increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was observed with human neutrophils or monocyte-like lymphoma cells, but not with endothelial cells, red blood cells, and melanoma cell-conditioned medium. The increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was not inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ removal. In contrast, endothelial cell pretreatment with thapsigargin, which releases endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ into the cytosol and depletes this Ca2+ store site, abolished the cytosolic [Ca2+] rise upon melanoma cell contact. Endothelial cell pretreatment with the membrane-permeant form of the Ca2+ chelator bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocked the increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Under static and dynamic flow conditions (0.46 dyn/cm2) bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid pretreatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers inhibited melanoma cell adhesion to the endothelial cells. Thus, tumor cell contact with endothelial cells induces a rapid Ca2+ release from endothelial intracellular stores, which has a functional role in enhancing cell-cell adhesion. Images PMID:8254056

  9. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  10. Cell-cell interactions on solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Louis, Nancy A; Daniels, Dionne; Colgan, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    Models to study molecular, biochemical, and functional responses in vitro generally incorporate an individual cell type or group of cells organized in a random fashion. Normal physiological responses in vivo require that individual cell types be oriented in an organized fashion with three-dimensional architecture and appropriately positioned cellular interfaces. Much recent progress has been made in the development and implementation of models to study cell-cell contact using substrate grown cells. Here, we summarize the use of membrane permeable supports to study functional responses in appropriately positioned cell types. These models incorporate two or more different cells cultured in physiologically positioned locales on solid substrates. Models incorporating nonadherent cells (e.g., leukocytes) in co-culture with such models also are discussed. Such models have been used extensively to discovery both cell-bound as well as soluble mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:16799188

  11. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1981-12-08

    A photovoltaic cell has: an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amporphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  12. Photoelectrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Boudreau, Robert A.

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  13. Integrated circuit cell library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  14. Monitoring cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strober, W

    2001-05-01

    This appendix provides two protocols for monitoring cell growth. Counting cells using a hemacytometer is tedious but it allows one to effectively distinguish live cells from dead cells (using Trypan Blue exclusion). In addition, this procedure is less subject to errors due to cell clumping or heterogeneity of cell size. The use of an electronic cell counter is quicker and easier than counting cells using a hemacytometer. However, an electronic cell counter as currently constructed does not distinguish live from dead cells in a reliable fashion and is subject to error due to the presence of cell clumps. Overall, the electronic cell counter is best reserved for repetitive and rapid counting of fresh peripheral blood cells and should be used with caution when counting cell populations derived from tissues. PMID:18432653

  15. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  16. Eukaryotic Cells and their Cell Bodies: Cell Theory Revised

    PubMed Central

    BALUŠKA, FRANTIŠEK; VOLKMANN, DIETER; BARLOW, PETER W.

    2004-01-01

    • Background Cell Theory, also known as cell doctrine, states that all eukaryotic organisms are composed of cells, and that cells are the smallest independent units of life. This Cell Theory has been influential in shaping the biological sciences ever since, in 1838/1839, the botanist Matthias Schleiden and the zoologist Theodore Schwann stated the principle that cells represent the elements from which all plant and animal tissues are constructed. Some 20 years later, in a famous aphorism Omnis cellula e cellula, Rudolf Virchow annunciated that all cells arise only from pre‐existing cells. General acceptance of Cell Theory was finally possible only when the cellular nature of brain tissues was confirmed at the end of the 20th century. Cell Theory then rapidly turned into a more dogmatic cell doctrine, and in this form survives up to the present day. In its current version, however, the generalized Cell Theory developed for both animals and plants is unable to accommodate the supracellular nature of higher plants, which is founded upon a super‐symplasm of interconnected cells into which is woven apoplasm, symplasm and super‐apoplasm. Furthermore, there are numerous examples of multinucleate coenocytes and syncytia found throughout the eukaryote superkingdom posing serious problems for the current version of Cell Theory. • Scope To cope with these problems, we here review data which conform to the original proposal of Daniel Mazia that the eukaryotic cell is composed of an elemental Cell Body whose structure is smaller than the cell and which is endowed with all the basic attributes of a living entity. A complement to the Cell Body is the Cell Periphery Apparatus, which consists of the plasma membrane associated with other periphery structures. Importantly, boundary stuctures of the Cell Periphery Apparatus, although capable of some self‐assembly, are largely produced and maintained by Cell Body activities and can be produced from it de novo. These

  17. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. F.; Lampkin, C. M.

    1981-02-03

    A photovoltaic cell is disclosed having an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide. A first layer contains a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure a second layer forms a heterojunction with the first layer suitable electrodes are provided where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, and the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amorphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  18. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

  19. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Sickle Cell Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don' ... problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one ...

  2. Sickle Cell Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  3. Virus Cell-to-Cell Transmission▿

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, Walther; Sherer, Nathan M.; Jin, Jing; Zhong, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Viral infections spread based on the ability of viruses to overcome multiple barriers and move from cell to cell, tissue to tissue, and person to person and even across species. While there are fundamental differences between these types of transmissions, it has emerged that the ability of viruses to utilize and manipulate cell-cell contact contributes to the success of viral infections. Central to the excitement in the field of virus cell-to-cell transmission is the idea that cell-to-cell spread is more than the sum of the processes of virus release and entry. This implies that virus release and entry are efficiently coordinated to sites of cell-cell contact, resulting in a process that is distinct from its individual components. In this review, we will present support for this model, illustrate the ability of viruses to utilize and manipulate cell adhesion molecules, and discuss the mechanism and driving forces of directional spreading. An understanding of viral cell-to-cell spreading will enhance our ability to intervene in the efficient spreading of viral infections. PMID:20375157

  4. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  5. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T; Hecht, Vivian C; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O; Manalis, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  6. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  7. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  8. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  9. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  10. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  11. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  12. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  13. Sickle Cell Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... change Sickle Cell News from Around the Web Google Custom Search – sickle cell Our healthcare system abandons ... professor of ... NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Sickle Cell Anemia News -- ScienceDaily January ...

  14. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  15. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  16. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  17. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  18. Reprogramming of somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasingh, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells may provide an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. It has emerged as an invaluable method for generating patient-specific stem cells of any cell lineage without the use of embryonic stem cells. A revolutionary study in 2006 showed that it is possible to convert adult somatic cells directly into pluripotent stem cells by using a limited number of pluripotent transcription factors and is called as iPS cells. Currently, both genomic integrating viral and nonintegrating nonviral methods are used to generate iPS cells. However, the viral-based technology poses increased risk of safety, and more studies are now focused on nonviral-based technology to obtain autologous stem cells for clinical therapy. In this review, the pros and cons of the present iPS cell technology and the future direction for the successful translation of this technology into the clinic are discussed. PMID:22917226

  19. Inside the Cell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Business Basics Describes functions shared by virtually all cells: making fuel and proteins, transporting materials and disposing of wastes. » more Chapter 3: On the Job: Cellular Specialties Explains how cells specialize. Features a number of cell types: nerves, ...

  20. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  1. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  2. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. A True B False 4. True or False: ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. False People with sickle cell disease can get ...

  3. Glial cells: Old cells with new twists

    PubMed Central

    Ndubaku, Ugo; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Summary Based on their characteristics and function – migration, neural protection, proliferation, axonal guidance and trophic effects – glial cells may be regarded as probably the most versatile cells in our body. For many years, these cells were considered as simply support cells for neurons. Recently, it has been shown that they are more versatile than previously believed – as true stem cells in the nervous system – and are important players in neural function and development. There are several glial cell types in the nervous system: the two most abundant are oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Although both of these cells are responsible for myelination, their developmental origins are quite different. Oligodendrocytes originate from small niche populations from different regions of the central nervous system, while Schwann cells develop from a stem cell population (the neural crest) that gives rise to many cell derivatives besides glia and which is a highly migratory group of cells. PMID:18068219

  4. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    PubMed Central

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder’s data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder’s web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians. PMID:24304896

  5. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  6. Sertoli cells as biochambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Don F. (Inventor); Sanberg, Paul R. (Inventor); Saporta, Samuel (Inventor); Hushen, Joelle J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the present invention, there is provided a biological chamber system having a biochamber defined by outer walls of Sertoli cells. Also provided is a transplantation facilitator including a biochamber. A method of making biochambers by co-culturing facilitator cells and therapeutic cells and then aggregating the facilitator celes is also provided. Also provided is a method of transplanting cells by incorporating transplant cells into a biochamber and transplanting the biochamber containing the transplant cells.

  7. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  8. Heterostructure solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. I.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Iles, P. A.; Morris, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of gallium arsenide solar cells grown on Ge substrates is discussed. In some cases the substrate was thinned to reduce overall cell weight with good ruggedness. The conversion efficiency of 2 by 2 cm cells under AMO reached 17.1 percent with a cell thickness of 6 mils. The work described forms the basis for future cascade cell structures, where similar interconnecting problems between the top cell and the bottom cell must be solved. Applications of the GaAs/Ge solar cell in space and the expected payoffs are discussed.

  9. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2002-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  10. Gaucher cell, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gaucher's disease is called a "lipid storage disease" where abnormal amounts of lipids called "glycosphingolipids" are stored in special cells called reticuloendothelial cells. Classically, the nucleus is ...

  11. Cell heterogeneity during the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Crissman, H.; Traganos, F.; Steinkamp, J.

    1982-12-01

    Using flow cytometry, populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells, asynchronous and synchronized in the cycle, were measured with respect to cellular RNA- and protein-content, as well as cell light scatter properties. Heterogeneities of cell populations were expressed as coefficients of variation (c.v.) in percent of the respective mean values. Populations of cells immediately after mitosis have about 15% higher c.v. than mitotic cell populations, regardless of whether RNA, proteins, or light scatter are measured. These data indicate that cytoplasmic constituents are unequally distributed into the daughter cells during cytokinesis and that unequal cytokinesis generates intercellular metabolic variability during the cycle. An additional increase in heterogeneity, although of smaller degree, occurs during G/sub 2/ phase. Populations of S-phase cells are the most uniform, having 20-30% lower c.v. than the postmitotic cells. Cell progression through S does not involve any significant increase in intercellular variability with respect to RNA or protein content. In unperturbed exponentially growing cultures a critical RNA content is required for G/sub 1/ cells prior to their entrance into S. The cell residence times in the equalization compartments are exponentially distributed, which may reflect the randomness generated by the uneven division of metabolic constituents to daughter cells during cytokinesis. The cell heterogeneities were presently estimated at two metabolic levels, transcription (RNA content) and translation (proteins). The most uniform were populations stained for RNA and the highest variability was observed after staining of proteins. This suggests that the regulatory mechanisms equalizing cells in the cell cycle may operate primarily at the level of DNA transcription.

  12. Stem cells supporting other stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Leatherman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

  13. Cell and tissue mechanics in cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Janina R.; Fabry, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Migrating cells generate traction forces to counteract the movement-resisting forces arising from cell-internal stresses and matrix adhesions. In the case of collective migration in a cell colony, or in the case of 3-dimensional migration through connective tissue, movement-resisting forces arise also from external stresses. Although the deformation of a stiffer cell or matrix causes larger movement-resisting forces, at the same time a larger stiffness can also promote cell migration due to a feedback between forces, deformations, and deformation speed that is mediated by the acto-myosin contractile machinery of cells. This mechanical feedback is also important for stiffness sensing, durotaxis, plithotaxis, and collective migration in cell colonies. PMID:23664834

  14. Cell and tissue mechanics in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lange, Janina R; Fabry, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Migrating cells generate traction forces to counteract the movement-resisting forces arising from cell-internal stresses and matrix adhesions. In the case of collective migration in a cell colony, or in the case of 3-dimensional migration through connective tissue, movement-resisting forces arise also from external stresses. Although the deformation of a stiffer cell or matrix causes larger movement-resisting forces, at the same time a larger stiffness can also promote cell migration due to a feedback between forces, deformations, and deformation speed that is mediated by the acto-myosin contractile machinery of cells. This mechanical feedback is also important for stiffness sensing, durotaxis, plithotaxis, and collective migration in cell colonies. PMID:23664834

  15. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  16. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  17. Stem cell therapy without the cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  18. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  20. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  1. Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Kindler, Andrew; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    Improved, solid-state photoelectrochemical cells for converting solar radiation to electricity have been proposed. (In general, photoelectrochemical cells convert incident light to electricity through electrochemical reactions.) It is predicted that in comparison with state-of-the-art photoelectrochemical cells, these cells will be found to operate with greater solar-to-electric energy-conversion efficiencies.

  2. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Jameson cell coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Manlapig, E.V.; Jackson, B.R.; Harbort, G.J.; Cheng, C.Y.

    1993-12-31

    Jameson cells have been applied to coal flotation recent years. Some coal mines have Jameson cells in operation, some are having Jameson cells installed and others are considering to use Jameson cells in their flotation circuits. As an example, the application of Jameson cells in Newlands Coal Mine is described and the performance of the Jameson Cell is summarized. It has been demonstrated that the Jameson Cell performs well with minimum supervision and maintenance. The test work conducted at the University of Queensland and Blackwater Coal Mine has showed that the Jameson Cell performed consistently well at all testing conditions. The parallel tests have demonstrated that the Jameson Cell is superior over the conventional cells.

  6. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  7. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  8. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  9. Stem cell biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment. PMID:20560026

  10. Technology Status: Fuel Cells and Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the baselined shuttle fuel cell as well as the acid membrane fuel cell and space-oriented water electrolysis technologies are presented. The more recent advances in the alkaline fuel cell technology area are the subject of a companion paper. A preliminary plan for the focusing of these technologies towards regenerative energy storage applications in the multi-hundred kilowatt range is also discussed.

  11. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  12. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548

  13. Screening of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  14. Analytical pyrolysis of cells and cell fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Faix, O.; Bertelt, E.

    1995-12-01

    Wood of spruce, beech and birch was disintegrated without chemical pretreatment after 10 minutes of steaming at 110{degrees}C in a laboratory defibrator. Fibers, vessels, and fragments of secondary wall were separated by wet screening. A hydrocylon was used for separation of middle lamellae. By using analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS, parenchymatic cells were found to be richer in lignin than the other cells. The lignin content of middle lamellae was 35% (beech, spruce) and 39% (birch). In agreement with the literature, the S/G ratios of the vessels and middle lamellae was lower than those of the other cells and cell fragments.

  15. The cell biology of planar cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated alignment of cell polarity across the tissue plane. Key to the establishment of PCP is asymmetric partitioning of cortical PCP components and intercellular communication to coordinate polarity between neighboring cells. Recent progress has been made toward understanding how protein transport, endocytosis, and intercellular interactions contribute to asymmetric PCP protein localization. Additionally, the functions of gradients and mechanical forces as global cues that bias PCP orientation are beginning to be elucidated. Together, these findings are shedding light on how global cues integrate with local cell interactions to organize cellular polarity at the tissue level. PMID:25349257

  16. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  17. AB241. Cancer stem cell-like side population cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line 769P

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Dao-Hu; Chen, Jun-Xing; Qiu, Shao-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cancers are widely considered to be maintained by stem cells, the existence of stem cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has seldom been reported, in part due to the lack of unique surface markers. We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Methods We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Results Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 769P, a human clear cell RCC cell line, contained the largest amount of SP cells among five cell lines. These 769P SP cells possessed characteristics of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as strong resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that were possibly related to the ABCB1 transporter. In vivo experiments with serial tumor transplantation in mice also showed that 769P SP cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that 769P SP cells have the properties of cancer stem cells, which may play important roles in tumorigenesis and therapy-resistance of RCC.

  18. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis. PMID:20728993

  19. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  20. Microscale Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

    2005-11-03

    Perhaprs some of the most innovative work on fuel cells has been the research dedicated to applying silicon fabrication techniques to fuel cells technology creating low power microscale fuel cells applicable to microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS), microsensors, cell phones, PDA’s, and other low power (0.001 to 5 We) applications. In this small power range, fuel cells offer the decoupling of the energy converter from the energy storage which may enable longer operating times and instant or near instant charging. To date, most of the microscale fuel cells being developed have been based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology (PEMFC) or direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. This section will discuss requirements and considerations that need to be addressed in the development of microscale fuel cells, as well as some proposed designs and fabrication strategies.

  1. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  2. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  3. Aquaporins and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, M C; Saadoun, S; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration. PMID:17968585

  4. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanwen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jiarong; Ding, Jie; Tang, Zihua; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jianling; Li, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment. PMID:27057177

  5. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  6. Cell adhesion force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G.; Giaever, I.; Pettersen, E. O.; Feder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion forces of cervical carcinoma cells in tissue culture were measured by using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope. The forces were studied as a function of time and temperature for cells cultured on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene substrates with preadsorbed proteins. The cells attached faster and stronger at 37°C than at 23°C and better on hydrophilic than on hydrophobic substrates, even though proteins adsorb much better to the hydrophobic substrates. Because cell adhesion serves to control several stages in the cell cycle, we anticipate that the manipulation force microscope can help clarify some cell-adhesion related issues. PMID:9892657

  7. Hydrogen/bromine cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hohne, K.; Starbeck, G.

    1985-05-28

    Described herein is an energy storage device which utilizes a hydrogen/bromine cell. The cell includes a bromine electrode and a hydrogen electrode. The cell is light weight, resists corrosion caused by bromine or hydrobromic acid and uses both an electrolysis and a fuel cell reaction to store or discharge electrical energy. The cell frame is made of graphite and has a pyrographite coating on at least the portion facing the bromine electrode. This cell is therefore very useful in matching varying energy supplies with varying energy demands and allows for decentralization of energy storage.

  8. On cells and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki

    2002-03-01

    The growth of isolated cells is studied. They are modeled as growing elastic shells submitted to an internal pressure. A scaling law for a preferred radius of curvature is derived. It is in agreement with compiled experimental data over more than orders of magnitude in cell radia (for elongated cells from bacteria to giant algae cells). The physical picture is that a cell grow spherically until the preferred radius and then elongate into a cylindrical tube to keep the preferred curvature, except if a cell division occurs. A simplification of the model is investigated more quantitavely.

  9. Solar cell activation system

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, L.

    1983-07-05

    A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

  10. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  11. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    PubMed

    Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-clinical models have shown beneficial effects of MSCs in multiple immunological diseases and a number of phase 1/2 clinical trials carried out so far have reported signs of immune modulation after MSC infusion. These data indicate that MSCs play a central role in the immune response. This raises the academic question whether MSCs are immune cells or whether they are tissue precursor cells with immunoregulatory capacity. Correct understanding of the immunological properties and origin of MSCs will aid in the appropriate and safe use of the cells for clinical therapy. In this review the whole spectrum of immunological properties of MSCs is discussed with the aim of determining the position of MSCs in the immune system. PMID:25880839

  12. Germ cell binding to rat Sertoli cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    DePhilip, R.M.; Danahey, D.G.

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between male germ cells and Sertoli cells was studied in vitro by co-incubation experiments using isolated rat germ cells and primary cultures of Sertoli cells made germ cell-free by the differential sensitivity of germ cells to hypotonic shock. The germ cell/Sertoli cell interaction was examined morphologically with phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy and then quantified by measuring radioactivity bound to Sertoli cell cultures after co-incubation with added (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled germ cells. Germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was the result of specific adhesion between these two cell types, and several features of this specific adhesion were observed. First, germ cells adhered to Sertoli cell cultures under conditions during which spleen cells and red blood cells did not. Second, germ cells had a greater affinity for Sertoli cell cultures than they had for cultures of testicular peritubular cells or cerebellar astrocytes. Third, germ cells fixed with paraformaldehyde adhered to live Sertoli cultures while similarly fixed spleen cells adhered less tightly. Neither live nor paraformaldehyde-fixed germ cells adhered to fixed Sertoli cell cultures. Fourth, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was not immediate but increased steadily and approached a maximum at 4 h of co-incubation. Saturation of germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures occurred when more than 4200 germ cells were added per mm2 of Sertoli cell culture surface. Finally, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was eliminated when co-incubation was performed on ice. Based on these observations, we concluded that germ cell adhesion to Sertoli cells was specific, temperature-dependent, and required a viable Sertoli cell but not necessarily a viable germ cell.

  13. Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Parent, S L

    1998-01-01

    Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

  14. Single-cell growth analysis in a mixed cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Jun; Bato, Mary Grace P.; Daria, Vincent Ricardo

    2008-06-01

    We perform single cell analysis of cell growth in a mixed cell culture. Two species of yeast cells: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, are optically trapped using focused continuous-wave near infrared laser. Cell growth for both cells is inhibited only when the two species of cells are in contact with each other. This indicates cell-cell interaction mediated cell growth inhibition mechanism. Single cell level analysis of cell growth studied here contributes to the further understanding of yeast growth arrest in a mixed yeast culture.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Kurtz, Andreas; Stamm, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Despite refinements of medical and surgical therapies, heart failure remains a fatal disease. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of heart failure, and only palliative measures are available to relieve symptoms and prolong the patient's life span. Because mammalian cardiomyocytes irreversibly exit the cell cycle at about the time of birth, the heart has traditionally been considered to lack any regenerative capacity. This paradigm, however, is currently shifting, and the cellular composition of the myocardium is being targeted by various regeneration strategies. Adult progenitor and stem cell treatment of diseased human myocardium has been carried out for more than 10 years (Menasche et al., 2001; Stamm et al., 2003), and it has become clear that, in humans, the regenerative capacity of hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells, despite potent proangiogenic effects, is limited (Stamm et al., 2009). More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and related cell types are being evaluated in preclinical models of heart disease as well as in clinical trials (see Published Clinical Trials, below). MSCs have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into lineages that normally originate from the embryonic mesenchyme (connective tissues, blood vessels, blood-related organs) (Caplan, 1991; Prockop, 1997; Pittenger et al., 1999). The current definition of MSCs includes plastic adherence in cell culture, specific surface antigen expression (CD105(+)/CD90(+)/CD73(+), CD34(-)/CD45(-)/CD11b(-) or CD14(-)/CD19(-) or CD79α(-)/HLA-DR1(-)), and multilineage in vitro differentiation potential (osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic) (Dominici et al., 2006 ). If those criteria are not met completely, the term "mesenchymal stromal cells" should be used for marrow-derived adherent cells, or other terms for MSC-like cells of different origin. For the purpose of this review, MSCs and related cells are discussed in general, and cell type

  16. What Are Islet Cells?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Derived Stem Cells MichCanSka 2010 Benefits DRI Wounded Soldier Gets Standing Ovation Video New Website Launches Journal ... Derived Stem Cells MichCanSka 2010 Benefits DRI Wounded Soldier Gets Standing Ovation Video New Website Launches Journal ...

  17. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  18. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  19. Toward 'SMART' stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically acceptable stem cells? In this editorial review, I will briefly discuss these superficially simple but actually rather complex issues that surround this fascinating cell type. The goal of this special issue on stem cells in Gene Therapy is to review some fundamental and critical aspects of current stem cell research that have translational potential. PMID:18046429

  20. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ... may use this test to help diagnose pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood ...

  1. Cell-SELEX Technology.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    Aptamers are molecules identified from large combinatorial nucleic acid libraries by their high affinity to target molecules. Due to a variety of desired properties, aptamers are attractive alternatives to antibodies in molecular biology and medical applications. Aptamers are identified through an iterative selection-amplification process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Although SELEX is typically carried out using purified target molecules, whole live cells are also employable as selection targets. This technology, Cell-SELEX, has several advantages. For example, generated aptamers are functional with a native conformation of the target molecule on live cells, and thus, cell surface transmembrane proteins would be targets even when their purifications in native conformations are difficult. In addition, cell-specific aptamers can be obtained without any knowledge about cell surface molecules on the target cells. Here, I review the progress of Cell-SELEX technology and discuss advantages of the technology. PMID:23515081

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  3. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  4. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  6. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  7. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Small Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Closed cell clouds are formed under conditions of widespread sinking of the air above. ...

  8. Distribution and Substrate Specificity of Benzylpenicillin Acylase1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. T.; Seto, T. A.; Shull, G. M.

    1963-01-01

    Benzylpenicillin acylase, which hydrolyzes benzylpenicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid, was found to be widely distributed among members of the Schizomycetes, particularly in gram-negative bacteria, and in the genus Nocardia. The hydrolysis of a series of biosynthetic and semisynthetic penicillins by freeze-dried cells of a strain of Nocardia and of Proteus was studied. Benzylpenicillin was the preferred substrate; all departures from the benzylpenicillin side-chain structure led to reduction of substrate activity (the greater the departure, the greater the reduction in activity). Penicillin amides and methyl esters were also hydrolyzed, as were suitable N-acyl derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Occurrence of an enzyme activity which hydrolyzes benzylpenicillinamide to benzylpenicillin was detected in certain strains of yeasts. PMID:13955341

  9. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  10. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  11. [Hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, S; Andrulis, M; Zenz, T

    2015-04-01

    Hairy cell leukemia was initially described as a distinct entity in 1958. It is rare B-cell malignancy characterized by an indolent course. Advances in the treatment and understanding of the biology of hairy cell leukemia have made the disease exquisitely amenable to treatment. This review summarizes the present understanding of hairy cell leukemia with a particular focus on the development of novel and targeted approaches to treatment. PMID:25787322

  12. Regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Kackley, Nancy D.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for moderate-temperature, single-unit, regenerative fuel cells using either alkaline or solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolytes. Attention is given to the results thus far obtained for Pt, Ir, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts. Alkaline electrolyte tests have been performed on a half-cell basis with a floating-electrode cell; PEM testing has been with complete fuel cells, using Nafion 117.

  13. Fuel cells feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

  14. Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Trounson, Alan; Kolaja, Kyle; Petersen, Thomas; Weber, Klaus; McVean, Maralee; Funk, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have great potential in basic research and are being slowly integrated into toxicological research. This symposium provided an overview of the state of the field, stem cell models, described allogenic stem cell treatments and issues of immunogenicity associated with protein therapeutics, and tehn concentrated on stem cell uses in regenerative medicine focusing on lung and testing strategies on engineered tissues from a pathologist's perspective. PMID:25899720

  15. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  16. Endothelial cells enhance migration of meniscus cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Eng, George M.; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the interactions between vascular endothelial cells and meniscal fibrochondrocytes from the inner avascular and outer vascular regions of the meniscus, and identify angiogenic factors that enhance cell migration and integrative repair. Methods Bovine meniscal fibrochondrocytes (bMFCs) from the inner and outer regions of meniscus were cultured for seven days with and without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a micropatterned three-dimensional hydrogel system for cell migration. Angiogenic factors secreted by HUVECs were probed for their role in paracrine mechanisms governing bMFC migration, and applied to a full-thickness defect model of meniscal repair in explants from the inner and outer regions over four weeks. Results Endothelial cells enhanced migration of inner and outer bMFCs in the micropatterned system via endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Supplementation of ET-1 significantly enhanced integration strength of full-thickness defects in inner and outer explants, and cell migration at the macro-scale, compared to controls without ET-1 treatment. Conclusion We report for the first time that bMFCs from both the avascular and vascular regions respond to the presence of endothelial cells with increased migration. Paracrine signaling by endothelial cells regulates the bMFCs differentially by region, but we identify ET-1 as an angiogenic factor that stimulates migration of inner and outer cells at the micro-scale, and integrative repair of inner and outer explants at the macro-scale. These findings reveal the regional interactions between vasculature and MFCs, and suggest ET-1 as a potential new treatment modality for avascular meniscal injuries, in order to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:25307081

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation. PMID:27005656

  18. Cell phones and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  19. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  20. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.